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1. Gasparri G, Camandona M, Bertoldo U, Sargiotto A, Papotti M, Raggio E, Nati L, Martino P, Felletti G, Mengozzi G: The usefulness of preoperative dual-phase 99mTc MIBI-scintigraphy and IO-PTH assay in the treatment of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Ann Surg; 2009 Dec;250(6):868-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Persistent secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) results from failure to remove enough hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue.
  • Ectopically situated parathyroid glands and supernumerary glands make failure more likely.
  • Recurrent HPT after subtotal Ptx is usually due to regrowth of the remaining parathyroid tissue.
  • Recurrence may also develop from a hyperplastic supernumerary gland or rarely from parathyromatosis.
  • We compared the preoperative MIBI scan results with intraoperative findings, parathyroid gland weight and histology.
  • We questioned whether MIBI uptake corresponded to parathyroid gland size and weight.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid weight correlated directly with MIBI uptake.
  • No correlation, however, occurred between MIBI uptake and parathyroid histology or between Ki67 staining and MIBI scanning.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / radionuclide imaging. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 19855263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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2. Galitzer H, Lavi-Moshayoff V, Nechama M, Meir T, Silver J, Naveh-Many T: The calcium-sensing receptor regulates parathyroid hormone gene expression in transfected HEK293 cells. BMC Biol; 2009;7:17
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  • [Title] The calcium-sensing receptor regulates parathyroid hormone gene expression in transfected HEK293 cells.
  • BACKGROUND: The parathyroid calcium receptor determines parathyroid hormone secretion and the response of parathyroid hormone gene expression to serum Ca2+ in the parathyroid gland.
  • Serum Ca2+ regulates parathyroid hormone gene expression in vivo post-transcriptionally affecting parathyroid hormone mRNA stability through the interaction of trans-acting proteins to a defined cis element in the parathyroid hormone mRNA 3'-untranslated region.
  • These parathyroid hormone mRNA binding proteins include AUF1 which stabilizes and KSRP which destabilizes the parathyroid hormone mRNA.
  • There is no parathyroid cell line; therefore, we developed a parathyroid engineered cell using expression vectors for the full-length human parathyroid hormone gene and the human calcium receptor.
  • RESULTS: Co-transfection of the human calcium receptor and the human parathyroid hormone plasmid into HEK293 cells decreased parathyroid hormone mRNA levels and secreted parathyroid hormone compared with cells that do not express the calcium receptor.
  • The decreased parathyroid hormone mRNA correlated with decreased parathyroid hormone mRNA stability in vitro, which was dependent upon the 3'-UTR cis element.
  • Moreover, parathyroid hormone gene expression was regulated by Ca2+ and the calcimimetic R568, in cells co-transfected with the calcium receptor but not in cells without the calcium receptor.
  • RNA immunoprecipitation analysis in calcium receptor-transfected cells showed increased KSRP-parathyroid hormone mRNA binding and decreased binding to AUF1.
  • The calcium receptor led to post-translational modifications in AUF1 as occurs in the parathyroid in vivo after activation of the calcium receptor.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of the calcium receptor is sufficient to confer the regulation of parathyroid hormone gene expression to these heterologous cells.
  • The calcium receptor decreases parathyroid hormone gene expression in these engineered cells through the parathyroid hormone mRNA 3'-UTR cis element and the balanced interactions of the trans-acting factors KSRP and AUF1 with parathyroid hormone mRNA, as in vivo in the parathyroid.
  • This is the first demonstration that the calcium receptor can regulate parathyroid hormone gene expression in heterologous cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19397786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7007
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / hnRNP D0; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2681451
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3. Souza ER, Scrignoli JA, Bezerra FC, Ribeiro SL, Passos LF: Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma. J Clin Rheumatol; 2008 Oct;14(5):281-4
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  • [Title] Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease caused by exaggerated secretion of the parathyroid gland hormone, produced by an adenoma in 80% of cases.
  • Herein, the authors report a 72-year-old woman with a delayed diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, produced by an intrathoracic adenoma, with a longstanding course, presenting with severe osteoporosis, multiple fractures, bone deformities, and neurologic impairments.
  • Persistent hypercalcemia, high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were documented and a paratracheal mass was found on a helicoidal tomography of the thorax.
  • After surgical removal, the histopathological examination confirmed an ectopic adenoma of the parathyroid gland and the patient achieved some improvement in her clinical picture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Bone Diseases, Endocrine / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Choristoma. Female. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Nephrocalcinosis / etiology. Nephrolithiasis / etiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Tracheal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18824925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-7355
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Kuzdak K, Rybińska A, Białas M: [Percutaneous ethanol injections in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):891-6
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  • We managed to visualize one parathyroid gland in 34 patients, 2 in 12, 3 in 5 patients.
  • The mean volume of a single gland was 0,8 cm3.
  • The best results can be obtained if PTH level is less than 800 pg/ml, one parathyroid gland dominating over the rest is visualised in USG, and if patient responds after 1 or at least 2 injections.
  • [MeSH-major] Ethanol / administration & dosage. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnostic imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / diagnostic imaging. Renal Dialysis. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16821207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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5. Dusso AS, Sato T, Arcidiacono MV, Alvarez-Hernandez D, Yang J, Gonzalez-Suarez I, Tominaga Y, Slatopolsky E: Pathogenic mechanisms for parathyroid hyperplasia. Kidney Int Suppl; 2006 Jul;(102):S8-11
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  • [Title] Pathogenic mechanisms for parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • Parathyroid hyperplasia is the cause of parathyroid gland enlargement in kidney disease (KD).
  • Hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and vitamin D deficiency are critical contributors to the worsening of the hyperplastic parathyroid growth induced by KD.
  • Reproduction of the features of human KD in the 5/6 nephrectomized rat model has shown that 80% of the mitogenic signals induced by KD in parathyroid cells that are aggravated by either high phosphate (P) or low calcium (Ca) diets occurred within 5 days after the onset of KD.
  • Enhanced parathyroid expression of the potent growth promoter transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) and its receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), was identified as the main cause of parathyroid hyperplasia in experimental KD.
  • Indeed, administration of highly specific EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), which block downstream signaling from TGFalpha-activated EGFR, completely prevented high P- and low Ca-induced parathyroid hyperplasia in early KD, as well as the severe progression of high P-induced parathyroid growth in established secondary hyperparathyroidism, the latter characterized by marked TGFalpha and EGFR overexpression in the parathyroid glands.
  • More importantly, the suppression of signals downstream from TGFalpha binding to EGFR with EGFR-TKI treatment also revealed that TGFalpha self-upregulation in the parathyroid glands is the main determinant of the severity of the hyperplastic growth, and that enhanced TGFalpha activation of EGFR mediates the reduction in parathyroid vitamin D receptor levels thereby causing resistance to both the antiproliferative and parathyroid hormone-suppressive properties of calcitriol therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 16810310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-6577
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK062713
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium, Dietary; 0 / Phosphorus, Dietary; 0 / Vitamins; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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6. Pinheiro PL, Cardoso JC, Gomes AS, Fuentes J, Power DM, Canário AV: Gene structure, transcripts and calciotropic effects of the PTH family of peptides in Xenopus and chicken. BMC Evol Biol; 2010;10:373
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  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) belong to a family of endocrine factors that share a highly conserved N-terminal region (amino acids 1-34) and play key roles in calcium homeostasis, bone formation and skeletal development.
  • PTH is widely expressed in fish tissue but from Xenopus to mammals becomes largely restricted to the parathyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The parathyroid hormone family contains 3 principal members, PTH, PTHrP and the recently identified PTH-L.
  • PTH-L was lost from the genome of eutherian mammals and PTH, which has a paracrine distribution in lower vertebrates, became the product of a specific endocrine tissue in Amphibia, the parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Chickens / genetics. Evolution, Molecular. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / genetics. Phylogeny. Xenopus / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21122104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2148
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC evolutionary biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Evol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Protein Isoforms; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3009671
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7. Yamaguchi T, Sugimoto T: [Calcium homeostasis and diabetes mellitus]. Clin Calcium; 2006 Aug;16(8):1270-75
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  • Diabetes mellitus is associated with various organ dysfunctions through hyperglycemia, insulin deficiency, or advanced glycation end products, which can also cause impaired calcium homeostasis such as the reductions of parathyroid hormone secretion, vitamin D receptor (VDR) number, and 25- (OH) vitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the parathyroid gland, intestine, and kidney, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16883034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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8. Lomonte C, Cazzato F, Casucci F, Chimienti D, Bruno A, Cocola S, Verrelli EA, Basile C: Female hemodialysis patients have an increased risk of nodular hyperplasia of parathyroid glands. J Nephrol; 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):92-5
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  • [Title] Female hemodialysis patients have an increased risk of nodular hyperplasia of parathyroid glands.
  • METHODS: This study aimed to verify the existence of such an association and secondly to evaluate the impact of female gen-der on parathyroid gland histology.
  • Out of these patients, we selected 55 (28 males, 27 females, mean age 50.8 +/- 14.7 SD yrs, dialysis duration 109.2 +/- 62.4 months) in whom all four parathyroid glands were identified and removed.
  • Serum levels of immunoreactive intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphate were determined at the PTx time point.
  • The same pathologist performed the histological studies of the parathyroid glands on seven serial sections of the glands.
  • Gland hyperplasia was classified as (1) exclusively diffuse (EDH) when only diffuse hyperplasia was found in the four glands;.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Female gender is associated with more aggressive histological sHPTH patterns; this association seems to suggest that female gender predisposes to monoclonal proliferation of parathyroid glands in chronic uremia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroidectomy. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15772929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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9. Ypsilantis E, Charfare H, Wassif WS: Intraoperative PTH Assay during Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy May Be Helpful in the Detection of Double Adenomas and May Minimise the Risk of Recurrent Surgery. Int J Endocrinol; 2010;2010:178671
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  • Intraoperative PTH (IOPTH) measurement has recently been introduced as a useful adjunct in confirming successful excision of abnormal parathyroid gland. Aims.
  • Results. All patients had successful removal of the abnormal parathyroid gland.
  • The concordance rate between ultrasound and sestamibi scan in localising the parathyroid adenoma was 82%.

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  • (PMID = 21197437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8345
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3010640
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10. Koh YW, Park JH, Kim JW, Lee SW, Choi EC: Endoscopic hemithyroidectomy with prophylactic ipsilateral central neck dissection via an unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral micropapillary thyroid carcinoma: preliminary report. Surg Endosc; 2010 Jan;24(1):188-97
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  • In terms of parathyroid gland (PTG) preservation, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups.

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  • (PMID = 19688395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Brown EM: The calcium-sensing receptor: physiology, pathophysiology and CaR-based therapeutics. Subcell Biochem; 2007;45:139-67
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  • The extracellular calcium (Ca(o)2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) enables the parathyroid glands and other CaR-expressing cells to sense alterations in the level of Ca(o)2+ and to respond with changes in function that are directed at normalizing the blood calcium concentration.
  • In addition to the parathyroid gland, the kidney is a key site for Ca(o)2(+)-sensing that enables it to make physiologically relevant alterations in divalent cation and water metabolism.
  • Inactivating mutations produce a benign form of hypercalcemia when present in the heterozygous state, termed Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (FHH), while homozygous mutations produce a much more severe hypercalcemic disorder resulting from marked hyperparathyroidism, called Neonatal Severe Hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT).
  • The calcimimetics are currently in use for controlling severe hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving dialysis treatment for end stage renal disease or with parathyroid cancer.
  • Calcilytics are being evaluated as a means of inducing a "pulse" in the circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration, which would mimic that resulting from injection of PTH, an established anabolic form of treatment for osteoporosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Autoimmune Diseases / physiopathology. Calcium / agonists. Calcium / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Hypercalcemia / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / physiopathology. Hypoparathyroidism / genetics. Hypoparathyroidism / physiopathology. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Molecular Sequence Data. Parathyroid Glands / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18193637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-0225
  • [Journal-full-title] Sub-cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Subcell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 121
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12. Kettle AG, O'Doherty MJ: Parathyroid imaging: how good is it and how should it be done? Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;36(3):206-11
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  • [Title] Parathyroid imaging: how good is it and how should it be done?
  • This has been suggested from the literature to be primarily the result of a parathyroid adenoma (80-85% of cases), hyperplasia involving more than 1 gland, usually with all 4 glands being involved (10-15% of cases), or the result, albeit rarely, of parathyroid carcinoma (0.5-1% of cases).
  • Surgical removal of the hypersecreting gland is the primary treatment; this procedure is best performed by a skilled surgeon who would normally find the abnormality in 95% of cases.
  • Functional imaging of parathyroid tissue using thallium was introduced in the 1980s but has largely been superceded by the use of (99m)Tc-labeled isonitriles.
  • The subtraction technique using (99m)Tc-sestamibi and (123)I is the optimal technique enabling the site to be related to the thyroid tissue when the parathyroid gland is in the neck in a normal position.
  • In patients who have had surgical exploration by an experienced parathyroid surgeon in a unit with an experienced nuclear medicine team and negative sestamibi imaging, it is reasonable to image the patient with (11)C methionine.
  • There is no substitute for an experienced surgeon and an experienced imaging unit to provide a parathyroid service.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16762611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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13. Blanchard C, Mirallié E, Mathonnet M: Sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. J Visc Surg; 2010 Oct;147(5):e285-95
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  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT1) is a common endocrine disorder, which is asymptomatic in 80% of cases.
  • The diagnosis is ordinarily easily made, based on an inappropriately elevated parathormone level (PTH) in the face of hypercalcemia.
  • In 85% of cases, HPT1 is due to hormone secretion from a single parathyroid gland (uniglandular disease) and the remaining patients have multiglandular disease.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20888315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-7886
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of visceral surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Visc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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14. Sato N, Nakagawa T, Kanno M, Nakamura Y, Kishimoto K, Imai T: [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Aug;63(9):781-5
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  • [Title] [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma].
  • We experienced 3 surgical cases with ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • All patients checked elevated serum calcium levels and parathyroid hormone levels above normal range so we diagnosed their illness as primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • To determine the location of abnormal parathyroid glands, 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy, chest computed tomography (CT) scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were done, then posterior and anterior mediastinal tumors were revealed.
  • Especially MIBI scintigraphy was very useful as diagnostic procedure for small ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • It's considered that large tumor in the posterior mediastinum like case 1 is originated from upper parathyroid gland, and small tumor in the anterior mediastinum like case 2, 3 is originated from lower parathyroid gland.
  • Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were normalized immediately.
  • If we can detect the accurate location of small ectopic parathyroid adenoma using some intraoperative method, the tumor is resected by less invasive procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20715458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Goodman WG, Quarles LD: Development and progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease: lessons from molecular genetics. Kidney Int; 2008 Aug;74(3):276-88
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  • The identification of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and the clarification of its role as the major regulator of parathyroid gland function have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis and evolution of secondary hyperthyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD).
  • Signaling through the CaSR has direct effects on three discrete components of parathyroid gland function, which include parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, PTH synthesis, and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • Disturbances in calcium and vitamin D metabolism that arise owing to CKD diminish the level of activation of the CaSR, leading to increases in PTH secretion, PTH synthesis, and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • Each represents a physiological adaptive response by the parathyroid glands to maintain plasma calcium homeostasis.
  • Studies of genetically modified mice indicate that signal transduction via the CaSR is a key determinant of parathyroid cell proliferation and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • Because enlargement of the parathyroid glands has important implications for disease progression and disease severity, it is possible that clinical management strategies that maintain adequate calcium-dependent signaling through the CaSR will ultimately prove useful in diminishing parathyroid gland hyperplasia and in modifying disease progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Progression. Humans. Mice. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 17568787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-60107
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
  • [Number-of-references] 151
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16. Saint Marc O, Cogliandolo A, Piquard A, Famà F, Pidoto RR: LigaSure vs clamp-and-tie technique to achieve hemostasis in total thyroidectomy for benign multinodular goiter: a prospective randomized study. Arch Surg; 2007 Feb;142(2):150-6; discussion 157
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  • [Title] LigaSure vs clamp-and-tie technique to achieve hemostasis in total thyroidectomy for benign multinodular goiter: a prospective randomized study.
  • We tested the hypothesis that use of LigaSure compared with the clamp-and-tie technique can significantly and conveniently reduce operative time without increasing postoperative complications in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for benign multinodular goiter.
  • PATIENTS: Two hundred consecutive patients with benign multinodular goiter undergoing total thyroidectomy performed by 1 of 3 surgeons.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: End points of the study included the comparative evaluation of postoperative complications, need for parathyroid gland autotransplantation, operative time, and time to hospital discharge.
  • Similarly, no difference was found in mean hospitalization time and need for parathyroid gland autotransplantation.
  • Preoperative, postoperative, and 6-week follow-up mean serum Ca(++) levels were not statistically different in the 2 study groups and in the subset of patients undergoing parathyroid gland autotransplantation.

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  • (PMID = 17309966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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17. Brandi ML: Parathyroid gland: Hyperparathyroidism in MEN1 syndrome: time to operate? Nat Rev Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;6(11):604-5
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  • [Title] Parathyroid gland: Hyperparathyroidism in MEN1 syndrome: time to operate?
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Diseases / diagnosis. Bone Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Kidney Diseases / diagnosis. Kidney Diseases / etiology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20962866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Kazama JJ: Japanese Society of Dialysis Therapy treatment guidelines for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ther Apher Dial; 2007 Oct;11 Suppl 1:S44-7
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  • When the 3 items cannot be controlled by treatment with an active vitamin D preparation, treatment is considered to be a failure, and intervention treatment of the parathyroid gland is recommended.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood. Societies, Medical. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vitamin D / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17976085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9979
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Apher Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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19. Möckel G, Buttgereit F, Labs K, Perka C: Tumoral calcinosis revisited: pathophysiology and treatment. Rheumatol Int; 2005 Jan;25(1):55-9
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  • The second patient declined surgical intervention on the parathyroid gland.

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  • [ISSN] 0172-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] Rheumatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rheumatol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Terawaki H, Nakano H, Takeguchi F, Hasegawa T, Nakayama M, Okazaki M, Hosoya T: Regression of parathyroid gland swelling by treatment with cinacalcet. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2009 Feb;24(2):690-1; author reply 691-2
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  • [Title] Regression of parathyroid gland swelling by treatment with cinacalcet.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects

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  • [CommentOn] Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008 Jan;23(1):328-35 [17717030.001]
  • (PMID = 18987257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2385
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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21. Tcherveniakov P, Menon A, Milton R, Papagiannopoulos K, Lansdown M, Thorpe JA: Video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) for surgical resection of ectopic parathyroid adenoma. J Cardiothorac Surg; 2007;2:41
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  • [Title] Video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) for surgical resection of ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia account for up to 25% of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT).
  • We present our experience with the novel use of Video-Assisted Mediastinoscopy (VAM) for resection of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid glands.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: 4 patients underwent VAM for removal of an ectopic intramediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • All of them had at least one previous unsuccessful neck exploration.In all cases histology confirmed complete resection of ectopic parathyroid glands (3 parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid hyperplasia).
  • CONCLUSION: The cervical approach for resection of ectopic parathyroid adenomas is frequently unsuccessful.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Choristoma / surgery. Mediastinoscopy / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery

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  • (PMID = 17937802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-8090
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiothoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2146999
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22. Tanaka H: [Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism due to abnormalities in parathyroid organogenesis]. Clin Calcium; 2007 Aug;17(8):1206-13
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  • [Title] [Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism due to abnormalities in parathyroid organogenesis].
  • Recent advance in mouse genomics has provided us lots of information concerning genes playing critical roles during organogenesis of parathyroid gland.
  • Systematic survey of the anomalies in face and the other organ is important to confirm the diagnosis.
  • And people should keep in mind that PTH could not be produced only in parathyroid in parathyroid agenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypoparathyroidism / etiology. Organogenesis / genetics. Parathyroid Glands / embryology

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  • (PMID = 17660617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA3 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA3 protein, human; 0 / GCM2 protein, human; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SOX3 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Sox3 protein, mouse; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / TBX1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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23. Parisi E, Bozic M, Ibarz M, Panizo S, Valcheva P, Coll B, Fernández E, Valdivielso JM: Sustained activation of renal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors decreases vitamin D synthesis: a possible role for glutamate on the onset of secondary HPT. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;299(5):E825-31
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  • The presence of the receptor has been detected in the principal organs responsible for calcium homeostasis (kidney, bone, and parathyroid gland), pointing to a possible role in mineral metabolism.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / blood. Calcium / urine. Cell Line. Creatinine / blood. Creatinine / urine. Female. Humans. Male. Osteocalcin / blood. Osteocalcin / urine. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / blood. Phosphates / urine. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 20823451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1555
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 66772-14-3 / 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; EC 1.- / Mixed Function Oxygenases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2980358
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24. Vutskits L, Briner A, Klauser P, Gascon E, Dayer AG, Kiss JZ, Muller D, Licker MJ, Morel DR: Adverse effects of methylene blue on the central nervous system. Anesthesiology; 2008 Apr;108(4):684-92
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  • BACKGROUND: An increasing number of clinical observations suggest adverse neurologic outcome after methylene blue (MB) infusion in the setting of parathyroid surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MB exerts neurotoxic effects on the central nervous system and raise questions regarding the safety of using this drug at high doses during parathyroid gland surgery.

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  • (PMID = 18362601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1175
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesthesiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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25. Obregón LM, Taylor MF, Mir G, Pereyra CA, Pianzola H, Petrone H, Baran M, Menna ME: Parathyroidectomy for parathyroid carcinoma in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2005 Mar;37(2):973-6
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  • [Title] Parathyroidectomy for parathyroid carcinoma in renal transplantation.
  • Carcinoma is an unusual cause of primary parathyroid hyperfunction (0.5% to 4% according to data); in renal transplanted patients it is exceptional.
  • We sought to analyze parathyroid gland histology from renal transplant patients in comparison with nontransplanted patients and to report a parathyroid carcinoma case in a renal transplant patient.
  • Among the total number of surgeries, seven were performed in six renal transplant patients, including five diffuse hyperplasia cases; one, nodular hyperplasia with an adenoma focus; and one, parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Kidney Transplantation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery


26. Coban D, Akin MA, Kurtoglu S, Oktem S, Yikilmaz A: Dandy-Walker malformation: a rare association with hypoparathyroidism. Pediatr Neurol; 2010 Dec;43(6):439-41
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  • The parathyroid gland also forms in the 3rd and 4th gestational weeks.

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21093738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5150
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Kebig A, Mohr K: [Cinacalcet - an allosteric enhancer at the Ca2+-receptor]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Aug;133(33):1681-3
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  • Cinacalcet (trade name: Mimpara) enhances allosterically the action of Ca (2+)-ions at the parathyroid gland Ca (2+)-receptor which belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors.
  • As a consequence blood levels of Ca (2+) and parathyroid hormone decline.
  • Cinacalcet is orally administered and approved for a) the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis and b) to lower hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Therapeutic monitoring includes measurement of blood levels of Ca (2+) and parathyroid hormone.
  • The stable suppression of parathyroid hormone levels under chronic treatment was shown in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Drug Monitoring / methods. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 18661462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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28. Chen H, Shoumura S, Emura S: Nerve fibres in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations. Anat Histol Embryol; 2005 Feb;34(1):34-7
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  • [Title] Nerve fibres in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations.
  • We investigated the morphology and the distribution of the nerve fibres in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) parathyroid glands using antibodies to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P, and electron microscopy.
  • CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were densely distributed in the interstitial tissues and the capsules of the hamster parathyroid glands.
  • Some nerve fibres were detected in close proximity of the parathyroid chief cells.
  • Some axons were in close vicinity to the parathyroid chief cells.
  • These findings indicate that the hamster parathyroid gland contain CGRP and substance P, which may regulate the blood flow and the secretory activity of the gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide / analysis. Mesocricetus / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / innervation. Substance P / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15649224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2096
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 33507-63-0 / Substance P; 83652-28-2 / Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
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29. Yamauchi M, Sugimoto T: [Hypoparathyroidism associated with autoimmune disorder]. Clin Calcium; 2007 Aug;17(8):1193-9
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  • [Title] [Hypoparathyroidism associated with autoimmune disorder].
  • Isolated and acquired hypoparathyroidism occurs as an autoimmune disorder either alone or in association with other autoimmune diseases.
  • Reduced PTH (parathyroid hormone) secretion due to disorder of Ca-sensing regulation in parathyroid gland is most commonly caused by activating mutations of the CaSR (Ca-sensing receptor) gene.
  • It remains unclear how autoimmunity against CaSR occurs and how much patients caused by this disorder exist.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholecalciferol / therapeutic use. Humans. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17660615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1C6V77QF41 / Cholecalciferol
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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30. Shiizaki K, Negi S, Hatamura I, Tatsuta K, Shibata M, Shimada S, Sakaguchi T, Akizawa T: Direct injection of calcitriol or its analog into hyperplastic parathyroid glands induces apoptosis of parathyroid cells. Kidney Int Suppl; 2006 Jul;(102):S12-5
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  • [Title] Direct injection of calcitriol or its analog into hyperplastic parathyroid glands induces apoptosis of parathyroid cells.
  • Hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland (PTG) is associated not only with excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) but also with changes in the parathyroid cell (PTC) characteristics (i.e. hyperproliferative activity, and low contents of vitamin D and calcium-sensing receptors).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Calcitriol / administration & dosage. Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. DNA Fragmentation / drug effects. Kidney Failure, Chronic / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Vitamins / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16810304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-6577
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / Vitamins; 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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31. Perrier ND, Edeiken B, Nunez R, Gayed I, Jimenez C, Busaidy N, Potylchansky E, Kee S, Vu T: A novel nomenclature to classify parathyroid adenomas. World J Surg; 2009 Mar;33(3):412-6
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  • [Title] A novel nomenclature to classify parathyroid adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: A uniform and reliable description of the exact locations of adenomatous parathyroid glands is necessary for accurate communications between surgeons and other specialists.
  • We developed a nomenclature that provides a precise means of communicating the most frequently encountered parathyroid adenoma locations.
  • The system uses the letters A-G to describe exact gland locations.
  • RESULTS: A type A parathyroid gland is a gland that originates from a superior pedicle, lateral to the recurrent laryngeal nerve compressed within the capsule of the thyroid parenchyma.
  • A type B gland is a superior gland that has fallen posteriorly into the tracheoesophageal groove and is in the same cross-sectional plane as the superior portion of the thyroid parenchyma.
  • A type C gland is a gland that has fallen posteriorly into the tracheoesophageal groove and on a cross-sectional view lies at the level of or below the inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • A type D gland lies in the midregion of the posterior surface of the thyroid parenchyma, near the junction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery or middle thyroidal vein; because of this location, dissection is difficult.
  • A type E gland is an inferior gland close to the inferior pole of the thyroid parenchyma, lying in the lateral plane with the thyroid parenchyma and anterior half of the trachea.
  • A type F gland is an inferior gland that has descended (fallen) into the thyrothymic ligament or superior thymus; it may appear to be "ectopic" or within the superior mediastinum.
  • An anterior-posterior view shows the type F gland to be anterior to the trachea.
  • A type G gland is a rare, truly intrathyroidal parathyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A reproducible nomenclature can provide a means of consistent communication about parathyroid adenoma location.
  • If uniformly adopted, it has the potential to reliably communicate exact gland location without lengthy descriptions.
  • [MeSH-major] Interdisciplinary Communication. Parathyroid Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 19148701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Weber K, Bergow C, Hirmer S, Schüler C, Erben RG: Vitamin D-independent therapeutic effects of extracellular calcium in a mouse model of adult-onset secondary hyperparathyroidism. J Bone Miner Res; 2009 Jan;24(1):22-32
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  • Cell proliferation and PTH secretion in the parathyroid gland are known to be regulated by vitamin D and extracellular calcium.
  • Feeding the RD protected VDR mutants against sHPT over 1 yr, showing that vitamin D is not essential for long-term control of the function and proliferation of parathyroid cells.
  • When 4-mo-old VDR mutants were switched from the RD to the CD for 2 mo, they developed severe sHPT associated with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of parathyroid glands and profound bone loss.
  • Subsequent feeding of the RD during a 3-mo therapy phase fully corrected sHPT, reduced chief cell proliferation, and reduced maximum parathyroid gland area by 25% by cell atrophy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Hypertrophy. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Models, Biological. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18767932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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33. Sakals SA, Gillick MS, Kerr ME, Boston SE: Diagnosing the etiology of hypercalcemia in a dog: a case of primary hyperparathyroidism. Vet Pathol; 2010 May;47(3):579-81
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  • Serum total calcium, free calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone concentrations were elevated.
  • Surgical exploration of the ventral neck revealed a grossly enlarged right external parathyroid gland.
  • The histopathological diagnosis for the excised right parathyroid gland was an incompletely resected parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma in the dog is an infrequent cause of hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / veterinary. Hyperparathyroidism / veterinary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20472810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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34. Gołkowski F, Jabrocka-Hybel A, Trofimiuk M, Huszno B: [Diagnostic problems with recognition of primary hyperparathyroidism]. Przegl Lek; 2005;62(7):685-9
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  • The aim of our study was to compare the results of biochemical and imaging investigations with histopathological diagnosis in operated patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • 46 subjects were included into the study, pathologically demonstrated as parathyroid adenoma--23 subjects, parathyroid hypertrophy--16, parathyroid carcinoma--2 and in 5 patients parathyroid gland was not found in resected tissue.
  • 99mTc-MIBI imaging described as a parathyroid adenoma or parathyroid hypertrophy were confirmed pathologically in 52 and 57.1%, respectively.
  • Three typical symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism assessed in our study (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and increased concentration of parathormone) were observed only in about 50% patients with histopathological diagnosis of adenoma and hypertrophy.
  • The lowest average calcium serum level (2.87 mmol/l), urinary calcium level (7.8 mmol/24h) and parathyroid hormone concentration (209.4 pg/ml) were observed in patients with parathyroid adenoma, the highest levels of these parameters were noticed in patients with parathyroid carcinoma (3.41 mmol/l; 14.6 mmol/24h; 687.8 pg/ml, respectively), patients with parathyroid adenoma were characterized by intermediate values (2.98 mmol/l; 9.7 mmol/24h; 285.5 pg/ml, respectively).
  • After parathyroidectomy lowering in average calcium serum level (2.94 vs. 2.16 mmol/l), parathyroid hormone concentration (244.45 vs. 54.15 pg/ml) and increasing in average phosphate serum level (0.81 vs. 1.04 mmol/24h) were observed in our group.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / urine. Kidney Calculi / etiology. Male. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16463702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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35. Hanba Y, Ooura M, Negi S, Shigematsu T: [Basic and clinical aspects of calcimimetics. The clinical effect and usefulness of Cinacalcet as a calcimimetics on three CKD-5D patients undergoing hemodialysis with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism]. Clin Calcium; 2008 Jan;18(1):81-8
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  • We were able to experience the marked suppressive effect on parathyroid gland by cinacalcet as calcimimetics in Japanese patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing hemodialysis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 18175876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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36. Charous DD, Charous MT, Cunnane MF, Spiegel JR: A third branchial pouch cyst presenting as a lateral neck mass in an adult. Ear Nose Throat J; 2006 Nov;85(11):754-7
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  • The mass was excised uneventfully, and the final pathology revealed a normocellular parathyroid gland and thymic tissue.

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  • (PMID = 17168156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Callender GG, Grubbs EG, Vu T, Hofstetter WL, Fleming JB, Woodburn KL, Lee JE, Evans DB, Perrier ND: The fallen one: the inferior parathyroid gland that descends into the mediastinum. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 May;208(5):887-93; discussion 893-5
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  • [Title] The fallen one: the inferior parathyroid gland that descends into the mediastinum.
  • BACKGROUND: Inferior parathyroid glands are located along the embryologic migration path of the thymus and can rest in the thyrothymic ligament or anterior mediastinum.
  • This study reviews our experience with type F parathyroid glands to determine which can be retrieved successfully through a cervical incision.
  • Distance from the superior aspect of the clavicle to the target parathyroid gland was measured.
  • RESULTS: Sixty (9.2%) patients had a type F parathyroid gland.
  • Preoperative imaging identified parathyroid glands located >or=6 cm below the superior aspect of the clavicle in eight patients.
  • Parathyroidectomy was successfully performed through a cervical incision in all 52 (100%) patients in whom the target parathyroid gland was <6 cm below the superior aspect of the clavicle (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A cervical approach allows successful retrieval of type F parathyroid glands located <6 cm below the superior aspect of the head of the clavicle in the anterior mediastinum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19476855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Fanari Z, Kadikoy H, Haque W, Pacha O, Abdellatif A: Medical management of primary hyperparathyroidism with concomitant multiple myeloma. Intern Med; 2010;49(6):581-4
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  • The patient was deemed at increased risk for surgical removal of the parathyroid gland and refused surgical intervention, so we chronically managed her PHPT and hypercalcemia with Cinacalcet and bisphosphonates.

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  • (PMID = 20228595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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39. Hendy GN, Goltzman D: Does calcitriol have actions independent from the vitamin D receptor in maintaining skeletal and mineral homeostasis? Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens; 2005 Jul;14(4):350-4
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  • However, with respect to parathyroid gland function and development of the cartilaginous growth plate, calcium and 1,25(OH)2D acted cooperatively and there was evidence that 1,25(OH)2D could act independently of the vitamin D receptor.

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  • (PMID = 15931003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1062-4821
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Minerals; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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40. Tomida K, Hamano T, Mikami S, Fujii N, Okada N, Matsui I, Nagasawa Y, Moriyama T, Ito T, Imai E, Isaka Y, Rakugi H: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D as an independent determinant of 1-84 PTH and bone mineral density in non-diabetic predialysis CKD patients. Bone; 2009 Apr;44(4):678-83
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  • The role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) remains elusive in predialysis CKD patients.
  • From the fact that FGF-23 suppresses bone mineralization in vitro and that 1alpha-hydroxylase is present in parathyroid cells and osteoblasts, they may be associated with bone mass or serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level.
  • Since the significant associations for 25(OH)D with 1-84 PTH and BMD were independent of serum calcitriol and bone ALP, this might imply that 25(OH)D has a direct effect on the parathyroid gland and bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density / physiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives


41. de Francisco AL, Carrera F: A new paradigm for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. NDT Plus; 2008 Jan;1(Suppl 1):i24-i28
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  • Conventional therapies for treating SHPT are limited and include calcium-based and calcium-free phosphate binders for reducing serum phosphorus and vitamin D or its analogues for simultaneous stimulation of calcium absorption and suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene expression.
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that use of calcimimetics that reduce PTH secretion by increasing the sensitivity of the parathyroid gland calcium-sensing receptor to circulating calcium allow improved control of serum PTH, calcium, phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus product.

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  • (PMID = 25983953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4421151
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; calcium-sensing receptor / chronic kidney disease / cinacalcet / parathyroid hormone / secondary hyperparathyroidism
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42. Saito A, Matsumoto Y, Oyama Y, Asaka M, Yokoyama H: Effectiveness of weekly percutaneous maxacalcitol injection therapy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ther Apher Dial; 2010 Feb;14(1):98-103
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  • Intact parathyroid hormone decreased from 797 +/- 178 pg/mL to 253 +/- 25 pg/mL, and the parathyroid gland volume initially increased during the first week, but thereafter, it gradually decreased with weekly PMIT (wPMIT).
  • Finally, the parathyroid gland volume decreased from 1.27 +/- 1.06 cm(3) to 0.24 +/- 0.15 cm(3) after wPMIT.
  • The benefits of our method were confirmed on weekly ultrasonographic examinations, which detailed the gradual reduction in gland size following an initial increase after the first injection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Alkaline Phosphatase / drug effects. Biomarkers / blood. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Osteocalcin / blood. Osteocalcin / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood. Renal Dialysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20438525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9987
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Apher Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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43. de Francisco AL, Piñera C: Parathyroid gland: cinacalcet-can it control hypercalcemia? Nat Rev Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;6(1):15-7
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  • [Title] Parathyroid gland: cinacalcet-can it control hypercalcemia?

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  • (PMID = 20010966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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44. Gear RN, Neiger R, Skelly BJ, Herrtage ME: Primary hyperparathyroidism in 29 dogs: diagnosis, treatment, outcome and associated renal failure. J Small Anim Pract; 2005 Jan;46(1):10-6
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism in 29 dogs: diagnosis, treatment, outcome and associated renal failure.
  • Ultrasonography of the parathyroid gland revealed nodular enlargement which was found to correlate well with surgical findings.
  • Five cases were treated by ultrasound-guided chemical ablation of the parathyroid gland, of which only two cases showed a partial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / veterinary. Parathyroidectomy / veterinary. Renal Insufficiency / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15682734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4510
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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45. Pidasheva S, Canaff L, Simonds WF, Marx SJ, Hendy GN: Impaired cotranslational processing of the calcium-sensing receptor due to signal peptide missense mutations in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Hum Mol Genet; 2005 Jun 15;14(12):1679-90
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  • The CASR, a cell surface glycoprotein expressed in parathyroid gland and kidney, is critical for maintaining extracellular calcium homeostasis.
  • This is the first study examining the function of the CASR signal sequence and reveals that both L11S and L13P mutants are markedly impaired with respect to cotranslational processing, accounting for the observed parathyroid dysfunction.

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  • (PMID = 15879434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0964-6906
  • [Journal-full-title] Human molecular genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Sorting Signals; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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46. Munk RS, Payne RJ, Luria BJ, Hier MP, Black MJ: Preoperative localization in primary hyperparathyroidism. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Jun;37(3):347-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the most effective preoperative localization techniques for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism to facilitate the surgical procedure, decrease patient morbidity, and decrease the number of repeat surgeries owing to inability to locate the abnormal parathyroid gland.
  • If the two tests failed to agree on the precise location of the abnormal gland, a third imaging technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was used to confirm the precise location of the gland.
  • A successful surgery was defined as parathyroid hormone and corrected calcium values in the normal range following the operative procedure.
  • When both agreed, the identified location of the abnormal parathyroid gland was correct 97% (36 of 37) of the time.
  • When the MRI agreed with either of the two previous imaging techniques, the abnormal gland was accurately localized 100% of the time.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of preoperative ultrasonography and sestamibi scanning is effective in predicting the location of parathyroid adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • This study describes an algorithm for the preoperative localization of parathyroid gland abnormalities, in particular parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19128638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1916-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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47. Inaba M, Okuno S, Chou H, Imanishi Y, Ueda M, Yamakawa T, Ishimura E, Nishizawa Y: Positive correlation of serum bio-intact PTH(1-84) but not intact PTH with parathyroid gland size in hemodialysis patients. Biomed Pharmacother; 2006 Feb;60(2):62-5
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  • [Title] Positive correlation of serum bio-intact PTH(1-84) but not intact PTH with parathyroid gland size in hemodialysis patients.
  • To evaluate the usefulness of newly-developed bio-intact parathyroid hormone (Bio-PTH) assay, which measures exclusively intact PTH(1-84) molecule, serum PTH level determined by Bio-PTH assay, in comparison with second-generation intact PTH (I-PTH) assay, was examined for its correlation with parathyroid gland size.
  • Maximal diameter of parathyroid gland was determined with ultrasonography as the parathyroid gland size.
  • Serum Ca and Pi correlated significantly with parathyroid gland size rationalizing our method to define parathyroid gland size.
  • Serum Bio-PTH was correlated significantly in a positive manner with parathyroid gland size (R = 0.308, P = 0.0474), whereas serum I-PTH did not.
  • Furthermore, parathyroid gland size did not exhibit a significant correlation with any of bone formation markers or bone resorption markers.
  • The lack of correlation between bone markers and parathyroid gland size in HD patients may be explained by the occurrence of refractoriness of bone to PTH.
  • In conclusion, serum Bio-PTH assay could provide a better assay than I-PTH assay to estimate parathyroid function in HD patients, due mainly to its exclusive correlation with parathyroid gland size.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 16460905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0753-3322
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Pharmacother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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48. Cavicchi O, Piccin O, Caliceti U, De Cataldis A, Pasquali R, Ceroni AR: Transient hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy: a prospective study and multivariate analysis of 604 consecutive patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Oct;137(4):654-8
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  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Gender, final diagnosis, extent of resection, biology of pathology, intrathoracic involvement, surgery for recurrent multinodular goiter, and presence and number of parathyroid glands in a surgical specimen were analyzed as risk factors for postoperative transient hypoparathyroidism.
  • CONCLUSION: The extent of surgery to central and/or lateral neck lymph nodes is responsible for a high rate of transient hypoparathyroidism owing to a high probability of unplanned parathyroidectomy or parathyroid gland devascularization.

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  • (PMID = 17903586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Norman J, Politz D: 5,000 parathyroid operations without frozen section or PTH assays: measuring individual parathyroid gland hormone production in real time. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;16(3):656-66
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  • [Title] 5,000 parathyroid operations without frozen section or PTH assays: measuring individual parathyroid gland hormone production in real time.
  • BACKGROUND: Determining the physiologic activity (hormone production) of individual parathyroid glands can provide tremendous guidance during parathyroidectomy.
  • METHODS: A 6.5-year prospective study of 5,000 patients with sporadic, non-multiple endocrime neoplasia (MEN) primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent surgery without frozen section or parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays was conducted.
  • Patients who had a frozen section were not included; the removal of parathyroid glands was determined solely by the physiologic activity of each gland as determined by contained radioactivity.
  • Ex vivo measurements of parathyroid glands, thyroid nodules, lymph nodes, thymus, and fat were obtained from all patients, constituting >32,000 specimens.
  • All patients had at least two parathyroid glands evaluated; 59% had four glands evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid glands occur in three distinct groups according to their hormone production, indicating the type of pathology present.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Measures of sequestered radioactivity is an extremely accurate estimate of individual parathyroid gland hormone production allowing near 100% distinction between normal, hyperplasic, and adenomatous glands as well as distinguishing parathyroids from other neck tissues (fat, lymph nodes, thyroid).
  • This instantaneous measurement is sufficient to determine which glands should be removed and which should remain in situ, while eliminating frozen sections and PTH assays in nearly all patients undergoing parathyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Frozen Sections. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19130135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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50. Munhoz EA, Cardoso CL, Capelozza AL, Oliveira PR, Damante JH: Panoramic radiography and its role in the diagnosis of systemic disorders. Gen Dent; 2010 Jan-Feb;58(1):46-9
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  • [Title] Panoramic radiography and its role in the diagnosis of systemic disorders.
  • During palpation of the neck, a fixed nodule was detected on the superior portion of the left thyroid gland.
  • Biochemical tests showed elevated levels of serum alkaline osphatase, serum calcium, and parathyroid hormone.
  • As the serum phosphate was low, the final diagnosis was primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • A high radiopharmaceutical capitation was present in the left parathyroid gland.
  • The patient was referred to a head and neck surgeon, who removed the left thyroid lobule and the parathyroid gland.
  • The microscopic diagnosis was parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Mandibular Diseases / radiography. Osteolysis / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Radiography, Panoramic
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biopsy. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20129892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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51. Sharan K, Siddiqui JA, Swarnkar G, Chattopadhyay N: Role of calcium-sensing receptor in bone biology. Indian J Med Res; 2008 Mar;127(3):274-86
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  • These processes are highly regulated by the actions of hormones, most prominently parathyroid hormone (PTH), the release of which is a function of the Ca2+ o, and is regulated by the action of the Ca2+ -sensing receptor (CaR) in the parathyroid gland.
  • Although the CaR plays a key role in the defense against hypercalcaemia, its function can be aberrant in humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy in which CaR activation stimulates secretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) secretion.

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  • (PMID = 18497443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0971-5916
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR-02215
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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52. Jiang Y, Wang M: Overexpression of parathyroid pituitary-specific transcription factor (Pit)-1 in hyperphosphatemia-induced hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure rats. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Jun;123(12):1566-70
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  • [Title] Overexpression of parathyroid pituitary-specific transcription factor (Pit)-1 in hyperphosphatemia-induced hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure rats.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of parathyroid Pit-1 in hyperphosphatemia-induced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) of chronic renal failure (CRF) rats.
  • At the 4th week and 14th week, blood was taken for measurement of serum creatinine (SCr), serum calcium (SCa), serum phosphorus (SPi), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH).
  • At the 14th week, two parathroid glands (PTGs) of each rat were removed by microsurgery, one gland for immunohistochemistry analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the other one for detection of Pit-1 by Western blotting, and for the measurement of Pit-1 mRNA and PTH mRNA by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
  • RESULTS: In nephrectomy rats, high dierary phosphate induced a marked increase in serum phosphate, iPTH, PTH mRNA and PCNA parathyroid cells, accompanying Pit-1 and its mRNA in parathyroid gland increased significantly.
  • PFA decreased Pit-1 and its mRNA levels to reduce intact PTH, PTH mRNA and PCNA-positive parathyroid cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Expression of parathyroid Pit-1 in hyperphosphatemia-induced SHPT of CRF rats was upregulated.
  • Pit-1 may mediate the stimulation to parathyroid gland by hyperphosphatemia.


53. Tanaka M, Fukagawa M: Medical management after parathyroid intervention. NDT Plus; 2008 Aug;1(Suppl 3):iii18-iii20
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  • [Title] Medical management after parathyroid intervention.
  • Vitamin D or vitamin D analogues pulse therapy is seldom effective in patients with at least one parathyroid gland with nodular hyperplasia, and surgical parathyroidectomy or parathyroid intervention is indicated.
  • In parathyroid interventions, especially in selective percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT), the enlarged parathyroid gland(s) with nodular hyperplasia is selectively destroyed by ethanol injection, while other glands with diffuse hyperplasia are managed by medical therapy.

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  • (PMID = 25983966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4421127
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; haemodialysis / intravenous vitamin D therapy / percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) / secondary hyperparathyroidism
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54. Brown EM, Lian JB: New insights in bone biology: unmasking skeletal effects of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor. Sci Signal; 2008;1(35):pe40
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  • Experiments performed in mice in which expression of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) was completely nullified specifically in parathyroid cells, chondrocytes, or cells of the osteoblast lineage have identified phenotypes that indicate a key role for the CaSR in embryonic development of the skeleton, postnatal bone formation, and osteoblast differentiation that are independent of the calcitropic hormone axis.
  • These long-awaited studies further clarify the signaling relationships between the parathyroid gland, kidney, and metabolic bone disease in patients with mutations in the gene encoding the CaSR, and they provide new insights into understanding the signaling pathways involving the CaSR in skeletal cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Remodeling / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Chondrocytes / cytology. Chondrocytes / physiology. Humans. Mice. Osteoblasts / cytology. Osteoblasts / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • [CommentOn] Sci Signal. 2008;1(35):ra1 [18765830.001]
  • (PMID = 18765829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-9145
  • [Journal-full-title] Science signaling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci Signal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
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55. Yadav S, Srivastav AK: Influence of calcitonin administration on ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of pigeon, Columba livia. Microsc Res Tech; 2009 May;72(5):380-4
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  • [Title] Influence of calcitonin administration on ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of pigeon, Columba livia.
  • After collection of blood samples, ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands were fixed for histological studies.
  • The ultimobranchial gland of C. livia exhibits no change up to day 5 following calcitonin treatment.
  • The parathyroid gland of calcitonin-treated C. livia exhibits no histological alteration up to day 3.
  • Moreover, the gland exhibits more compactness on day 10 and day 15.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / administration & dosage. Calcium / metabolism. Columbidae / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Ultimobranchial Body / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19115331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0029
  • [Journal-full-title] Microscopy research and technique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microsc. Res. Tech.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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56. Balasanthiran A, Sandler B, Amonoo-Kuofi K, Swamy R, Kaniyur S, Kaplan F: Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):603-7
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  • [Title] Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland.
  • Parathyroid imaging was then requested and an adenoma was identified.
  • Surprisingly, surgery revealed the coexistence of a parathyroid adenoma with the unexpected finding of sarcoid granulomas within the parathyroid and thyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Granuloma / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Sarcoidosis / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Gland / pathology


57. Dhande RR, Suryawanshi SA, Pandey AK: Seasonal changes in plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in relation to parathyroid structure of the grey quail, Coturnix coturnix coturnix Linnaeus. J Environ Biol; 2006 Jan;27(1):123-8
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  • [Title] Seasonal changes in plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in relation to parathyroid structure of the grey quail, Coturnix coturnix coturnix Linnaeus.
  • Parathyroid gland of the grey quail exhibited hyperactivity (hypertrophy and hyperplasia) during breeding season, however, the activity was more conspicuous among females than in males.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Coturnix / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrastructure. Phosphates / blood. Seasons


58. Carrillo-López N, Fernández-Martín JL, Cannata-Andía JB: [The role of calcium, calcitriol and their receptors in parathyroid regulation]. Nefrologia; 2009;29(2):103-8
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  • [Title] [The role of calcium, calcitriol and their receptors in parathyroid regulation].
  • [Transliterated title] Papel de calcio, calcitriol y sus receptores en la regulación de la paratiroides.
  • The mechanism of regulation of Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is complex, and diverse factors are involved: the fundamental ones are calcium, calcitriol and phosphorus.
  • Along with calcium and calcitriol, drugs used in the treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral Bone Disorders (CKD-MBD) also act directly or indirectly on CaR and VDR and therefore are also responsible for the regulation of the parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitriol / physiology. Calcium / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / physiology. Receptors, Calcitriol / physiology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aluminum / pharmacology. Aluminum / physiology. Animals. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Homeostasis. Humans. Hypercalcemia / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism / physiopathology. Hypocalcemia / physiopathology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology. Organ Culture Techniques. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Phosphorus / pharmacology. Phosphorus / physiology. Rats. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19396314.001).
  • [ISSN] 0211-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Nefrología : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nefrologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; CPD4NFA903 / Aluminum; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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59. Kuriloff DB, Kizhner V: Parathyroid gland preservation and selective autotransplantation utilizing topical lidocaine in total thyroidectomy. Laryngoscope; 2010 Jul;120(7):1342-4
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  • [Title] Parathyroid gland preservation and selective autotransplantation utilizing topical lidocaine in total thyroidectomy.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To review a new technique during total thyroidectomy that facilitates parathyroid gland preservation and selective autotransplantation utilizing topical 2% plain lidocaine as a spasmolytic/vasodilator agent.
  • Interventions were: parathyroid glands (PGs) with signs of devascularization treated with a topical solution of 2% plain lidocaine in an attempt to restore blood flow before committing to autotransplantation.
  • A total of 40 parathyroid glands were autotransplanted.
  • [MeSH-major] Lidocaine / administration & dosage. Parasympatholytics / administration & dosage. Parathyroid Glands / transplantation. Thyroidectomy / methods. Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20583232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parasympatholytics; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine
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60. Nagano N, Miyata S, Abe M, Wakita S, Kobayashi N, Wada M: Sevelamer hydrochloride reverses parathyroid gland enlargement via regression of cell hypertrophy but not apoptosis in rats with chronic renal insufficiency. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2006 Mar;21(3):634-43
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  • [Title] Sevelamer hydrochloride reverses parathyroid gland enlargement via regression of cell hypertrophy but not apoptosis in rats with chronic renal insufficiency.
  • BACKGROUND: Dietary phosphate restriction suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, synthesis, and parathyroid cell proliferation in experimental animals with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), independently of serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels.
  • This study was conducted to examine whether sevelamer hydrochloride (sevelamer), a metal-free phosphate binder, could regress an advanced parathyroid gland (PTG) hyperplasia and enlargement in rats with CRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Polyamines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Calcium / blood. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hypertrophy / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Sevelamer

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  • (PMID = 16169864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Polyamines; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 9YCX42I8IU / Sevelamer; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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61. Ramon I, Kleynen P, Body JJ, Karmali R: Fibroblast growth factor 23 and its role in phosphate homeostasis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):1-10
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  • Currently, maintaining phosphate homeostasis is considered the result of a complex network of endocrine feedback loops between parathyroid gland, kidney, and bone.

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  • (PMID = 19776202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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62. Frank-Raue K, Rondot S, Schulze E, Raue F: Change in the spectrum of RET mutations diagnosed between 1994 and 2006. Clin Lab; 2007;53(5-6):273-82
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  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare calcitonin producing tumor.
  • Hereditary MTC is divided into three clinical subtypes: multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A is characterized by MTC, pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The third clinical subtype of inherited MTC, familial MTC, is defined as the presence of MTC in families without evidence of adrenal or parathyroid gland involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17605401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-6510
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical laboratory
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Lab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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63. Yamashita H, Cantor T, Uchino S, Watanabe S, Ogawa T, Moriyama T, Takamatsu Y, Fukagawa M, Noguchi S: Sequential changes in plasma intact and whole parathyroid hormone levels during parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg; 2005 Feb;29(2):169-73
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  • [Title] Sequential changes in plasma intact and whole parathyroid hormone levels during parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Most commercial assays for intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) cross-react with non-PTH1-84 fragments (likely to be PTH7-84).
  • Blood samples for postoperative assay were drawn after anesthesia; immediately prior to excision of the last parathyroid gland; and at 5, 10, and 15 minutes after excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 15650804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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64. Radek T, Piasecki T: Topography and arterial supply of the thyroid and the parathyroid glands in selected species of Falconiformes. Anat Histol Embryol; 2007 Aug;36(4):241-9
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  • [Title] Topography and arterial supply of the thyroid and the parathyroid glands in selected species of Falconiformes.
  • In Accipitridae the larger left gland was usually situated significantly more cranially than the right one.
  • The location of the parathyroid glands in common kestrel was relatively constant.
  • Seven topographical patterns of the location of the parathyroid gland were noted in Accipitridae.
  • The parathyroid glands were supplied by one to three parathyroid arteries.
  • The vessels for the cranial parathyroid gland mostly originated from the caudal thyroid artery, while for the caudal one - from the oesophagotracheobronchial artery.
  • The average number of thyroid and parathyroid arteries in common buzzard was significantly higher than those in common kestrel.
  • [MeSH-major] Falconiformes / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 17617099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2096
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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65. Stubbs JR, Quarles LD: Fibroblast growth factor 23: uremic toxin or innocent bystander in chronic kidney disease? Nephrol News Issues; 2009 May;23(6):33-4, 36-7
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  • Information regarding the onset of FGF23 elevations in relationship to changes in parathyroid gland function, renal production of 1,25(OH)2D, and phosphate excretion may provide clues to its role in the adaptive changes in mineral homeostasis that occur during progressive kidney diseases.
  • More knowledge of the regulation and function of FGF23 in CKD will likely improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of disordered mineral metabolism, lead to changes in the medical management of this disorder, and establish additional biological links between disorders of mineral metabolism and associated comorbidities in patients with progressive renal failure.

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  • (PMID = 19534362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0896-1263
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology news & issues
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol News Issues
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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66. Thongtang N, Plengvidhaya N, Lertwattnarak R, Peepatdit T: Primary hyperparathyroidism due to cystic parathyroid adenoma: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai; 2007 Nov;90 Suppl 2:79-84
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism due to cystic parathyroid adenoma: a case report.
  • Raw Cystic parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The authors report one case of cystic parathyroid adenoma, who presented with progressive right hip pain for one year.
  • An iliac bone biopsy was performed and showed a giant cell tumor.
  • Parathyroid hormone level was evaluated later and was found to be high, 1,555 pg/ml (15-65 pg/ml).
  • An MRI study of the neck was done and revealed a cystic mass 38 x 36 x 40 mm in diameter just below the left lower pole of the thyroid gland.
  • Hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland was considered.
  • Parathyroidectomy was done and histopathology revealed cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19230428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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67. Komaba H, Fukagawa M: FGF23: a key player in mineral and bone disorder in CKD. Nefrologia; 2009;29(5):392-6
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  • [Title] FGF23: a key player in mineral and bone disorder in CKD.
  • In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), circulating FGF23 levels are progressively elevated to compensate for persistent phosphate retention, which result in reduced renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and thereby stimulate secretion of parathyroid hormone, suggesting its critical role in the pathogenesis of altered mineral homeostasis in CKD.
  • Furthermore, it has recently been shown that FGF23 directly acts on parathyroid gland and mediate secretion of parathyroid hormone in the presence of Klotho as a cofactor, although such effects are not yet confirmed in patients with CKD.

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  • (PMID = 19820750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0211-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Nefrología : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nefrologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Minerals; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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68. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Ayoub S, Hachem K, Smayra T, Ghorra C, Abadjian G: Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively? World J Surg; 2007 Apr;31(4):817-23
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  • [Title] Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively?
  • INTRODUCTION: The role of cervical ultrasonography (US)-guided surgery for intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely reported.
  • RESULTS: Cervical US identified abnormal parathyroid glands in 163 of 178 patients, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%.
  • Six patients (3.4%) were found to have intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas (two in the superior parathyroid and four in the inferior parathyroid).
  • Cervical US predicted this anomaly in four of six patients (67%) in whom the thyroid gland was not nodular and allowed total enucleation of the adenoma to be performed in three and subtotal thyroid loboisthmectomy in three; these operations were performed uneventfully and rapidly.
  • On multivariable analysis, no factor predicted intrathyroid localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PPV of high-resolution cervical US for identifying an abnormal parathyroid gland was 100% in this series.
  • This method allows us to shorten the operating time by guiding the exploration immediately toward the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17354026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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69. Svec A, Bury Y: Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist? Pathol Oncol Res; 2010 Sep;16(3):443-6
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  • [Title] Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist?
  • We are reporting a case of a capillary haemangioma-like proliferation arising within a parathyroid gland adenoma, associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The observation expands the spectrum of tumour-associated vascular proliferations by adding an exuberant haemangioma-like pattern to its extreme end.
  • The only two other published cases of haemangioma of the parathyroid gland were reported in patients diagnosed with primary parathyroid hyperplasia with hyperparathyroidism, a pathophysiologic condition similar to our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20063187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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70. Knezević-Obad A, Tomić-Brzac H, Zarković K, Dodig D, Stromar IK: Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):25-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to establish possibilities of using cytology in the diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • 475 patients, all suspected to have parathyroid gland disease, were examined over a three-year period (from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2008) in the Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protection, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia.
  • The parathyroid hormone (PTH) analysis was made for all punctates.
  • All patients with cytology-based diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma were sent to surgery, and the cytological diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistology.
  • In three cases, the parathyroid gland adenoma was established by pathohistology, although in these cases the cytological diagnosis was negative.
  • The cytological diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma can be considered reliable in 96% of cases, provided that the echosonographic structure and localisation of the punctured node is noted, and assuming that material adequate for cytological analysis is obtained by FNAB.
  • Possible pitfalls are oncocytic types of parathyroid adenoma, intranuclear inclusions and papillary formation of epithelial cells, and cystic degeneration of nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Epithelial Cells / pathology. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Methylene Blue. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Reproducibility of Results. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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71. Tokumoto M, Taniguchi M, Matsuo D, Tsuruya K, Hirakata H, Iida M: [Cell proliferation of parathyroid gland in patients with progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism: Vitamin D receptor, calcium sensing receptor, and cell cycle regulation factor]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Sep;15 Suppl 1:206-16
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  • [Title] [Cell proliferation of parathyroid gland in patients with progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism: Vitamin D receptor, calcium sensing receptor, and cell cycle regulation factor].
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Vitamin D / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16279026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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72. McCann LM, Beto J: Roles of calcium-sensing receptor and vitamin d receptor in the pathophysiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism. J Ren Nutr; 2010 May;20(3):141-50
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  • The CaR regulates the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to changes in extracellular calcium, whereas the VDR mediates the effects of calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D.
  • Secondary HPT is characterized by disturbances in mineral metabolism, elevated serum PTH, and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcitriol / physiology. Calcium / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Homeostasis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Minerals / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Signal Transduction. Vitamin D / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20303786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8503
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ren Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Minerals; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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73. Whyte S, Cannon M: In search of stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychic moans: putting the pieces together--a case of parathyroid adenoma. Perspectives; 2009;33(2):5-7
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  • [Title] In search of stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychic moans: putting the pieces together--a case of parathyroid adenoma.
  • An often neglected and frequently forgotten gland in the body is the parathyroid.
  • The parathyroid glands (there are four) play a vital role in maintaining body function by regulating calcium levels through the secretion of parathyroid hormone.
  • When function of the parathyroid gland becomes abnormal and calcium regulation is altered, there can be serious consequences to the patient in the form of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Due to the variable symptoms, making an accurate diagnosis can be a challenge for the clinician.
  • This paper will provide an overview of the parathyroid glands, identification of the signs and symptoms of a parathyroid adenoma, a discussion about the tests that facilitate a definitive diagnosis and a review of treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19813385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0831-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Perspectives (Gerontological Nursing Association (Canada))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Perspectives
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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74. Iovino F, Armano G, Auriemma PP, Sergio R, De Sena G, Capuozzo V, Rosso F, Marino G, Papale F, Grimaldi A, Barbarisi A: [Tissue engineering of parathyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):312-5
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  • [Title] [Tissue engineering of parathyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] L'ingegnerizzazione tissutale delle cellule paratiroidee.
  • Attempts to transplant parathyroid tissue began in 1975 with the work of Wells, but still today results are disappointing.
  • However, with the development of tissue engineering techniques, some experimental approaches to build artificial parathyroid are been made.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Parathyroid cells were obtained from three chronic uremic patients in hemodialysis, operated for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Culture media, with a low calcium concentration, were optimised to physiologically stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion.
  • Besides, concentration of parathyroid hormone in the culture medium has been measured for several weeks.
  • RESULTS: After 24 hours of culture in RPMI, cells extracted from human parathyroid glands were nearly all adherent and organised in clusters to resemble the glandular organization.
  • The cellular population consisted predominantly of parathyroid cells (90-95%).
  • On collagen scaffolds, cells maintains an epithelial-like morphology also after 10 weeks, colonizing the scaffold surface and keeping a good proliferative rate with a discrete production of parathyroid hormone.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of parathyroid cells extracted from patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was certainly an appropriate choice that enabled us to achieve these results, that albeit partial bode well for the experimental in vivo animal model.
  • The bioengineered scaffolds when implanted in the subcutaneous can avoid the dispersion of parathyroid cells, assuring also the possibility to easily remove the implant in case of complications.
  • Our research was aimed primarily to the optimisation of PTH secreting human parathyroid cells cultures and then to the in vitro engineering of human parathyroid glands in three-dimensional collagen scaffolds.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen. Parathyroid Glands / cytology. Tissue Engineering / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion. Cells, Cultured. Extracellular Matrix. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 20646380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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75. Jiang RS, Xie Z, Chen XY, Geng ZY: A single nucleotide polymorphism in the parathyroid hormone gene and effects on eggshell quality in chickens. Poult Sci; 2010 Oct;89(10):2101-5
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  • [Title] A single nucleotide polymorphism in the parathyroid hormone gene and effects on eggshell quality in chickens.
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH), released by the parathyroid gland of animals, plays an important role in regulating the metabolism of calcium and phosphate.
  • [MeSH-major] Chickens / genetics. Chickens / physiology. Eggs / standards. Parathyroid Hormone / genetics. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

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  • (PMID = 20852100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-5791
  • [Journal-full-title] Poultry science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Poult. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] RefSeq/ NC/ 006092
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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76. Bergero N, De Pompa R, Sacerdote C, Gasparri G, Volante M, Bussolati G, Papotti M: Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Hum Pathol; 2005 Aug;36(8):908-14
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
  • The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is difficult and based on morphological features that are not totally reliable.
  • With the aim of identifying a marker of malignancy in parathyroid tumors, we tested the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a lectin expressed in several malignant tumors, including follicular carcinomas (but not adenomas) of the thyroid.
  • Twenty-six PCs and 30 control parathyroid adenomas (PAs) were collected.
  • All cases were immunohistochemically tested for Gal-3 and for other markers claimed to be useful in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasms, namely, Ki67, p27, and bcl2.
  • We conclude that Gal-3 immunostaining is a valuable tool to support a diagnosis of PC in highly proliferating (Ki67 >6%) tumors affecting a single parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16112008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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77. Yamada S, Taniguchi M, Tokumoto M, Tsuruya K, Hirakata H, Iida M: Early intervention with intravenous or pulse oral vitamin D therapy is more effective in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ther Apher Dial; 2010 Aug 1;14(4):424-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines recommend vitamin D therapy should be started when the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) exceeds 300 pg/mL in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • To examine whether the effect of vitamin D therapy on mineral metabolism and parathyroid gland growth varies according to the stage of secondary hyperparathyroidism and iPTH level, 47 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism received either intravenous or pulse oral vitamin D therapy.
  • We examined serial changes in several serum mineral parameters and parathyroid gland volume and the cumulative incidence of parathyroidectomy in the first two years.
  • In contrast, the serum levels of phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, and iPTH were maintained within the target ranges and the parathyroid gland did not enlarge in the P(<300) group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Minerals / blood. Organ Size. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Pulse Therapy, Drug. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20649764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9987
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Apher Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Minerals; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Vitamins; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
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78. Koenig K, Kleerekoper M: How common are functional incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;2(6):316-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] How common are functional incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland?

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  • (PMID = 16932308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Raval MV, Browne M, Chin AC, Zimmerman D, Angelos P, Reynolds M: Total thyroidectomy for benign disease in the pediatric patient--feasible and safe. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;44(8):1529-33
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  • [Title] Total thyroidectomy for benign disease in the pediatric patient--feasible and safe.
  • The role of TT in benign thyroid disease is less well-defined.
  • The goal of this study was to compare the safety of TT performed for benign and malignant disease.
  • The benign cohort totaled 15 patients consisting of 12 with Graves' disease, 2 with hyperthyroidism, and 1 with large and symptomatic multinodular goiter.
  • RESULTS: The most common complication was transient hypocalcemia observed in 7 (46%) of 15 patients with benign disease and 9 (56%) of 16 patients with malignancy (P = .72).
  • Permanent hypocalcemia, defined as need for calcium supplement 6 months postprocedure, was observed in 1 patient with benign disease (6.67%) and 1 patient with malignancy (6.25%; P = 1.0).
  • A single parathyroid gland was reimplanted in 2 patients with malignancy and 2 patients with benign disease (P = 1.0).
  • There were no cases of relapse hyperthyroidism in the benign cohort.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Similar rates of postoperative complications can be expected with TT for benign thyroid disease as compared to TT for malignant disease.
  • Total thyroidectomy is a safe treatment option for benign thyroid disease in children.

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  • (PMID = 19635300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Nelson M, Dan O, Strome M: Direct revascularization is superior for rat parathyroid allotransplantation with FK506. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2005 Mar;114(3):207-13
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  • [Title] Direct revascularization is superior for rat parathyroid allotransplantation with FK506.
  • Parathyroid gland allotransplantation has been a challenging goal for decades.
  • Our objective was to optimize a parathyroid allotransplantation model for analysis of short-term or low-dose immunosuppressive regimens.
  • Rats that had undergone parathyroidectomy received parathyroid allografts either by direct microvascular anastomoses as part of a composite laryngotracheal graft or by direct implantation into hind limb muscle.
  • Intact serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels for both groups were recorded over a period of at least 45 days and compared with a repeated-measures mixed model.
  • We found that microvascular anastomosis was superior to implantation for parathyroid gland survival, as all revascularized grafts immediately produced normal levels of PTH, whereas implanted grafts had a significantly slower recovery of function (p < .001).
  • Using this model, we are developing innovative strategies that will lead to successful parathyroid allotransplantation without the need for chronic immunosuppression.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Models, Animal. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Parathyroid Glands / transplantation. Tacrolimus / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Anastomosis, Surgical. Animals. Hindlimb / blood supply. Larynx / transplantation. Male. Microsurgery. Muscle, Skeletal / blood supply. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Rats. Transplantation, Homologous / methods

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  • (PMID = 15825570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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81. Pi M, Chen L, Huang M, Luo Q, Quarles LD: Parathyroid-specific interaction of the calcium-sensing receptor and G alpha q. Kidney Int; 2008 Dec;74(12):1548-56
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  • [Title] Parathyroid-specific interaction of the calcium-sensing receptor and G alpha q.
  • The calcium-sensing receptor regulates various parathyroid gland functions, including hormone secretion, gene transcription, and chief cell hyperplasia through G alpha q- and G alpha i-dependent signaling pathways.
  • To determine the specific function of G alpha q in these processes, we generated transgenic mice using the human parathyroid hormone promoter to drive overexpression of a dominant negative G alpha q loop minigene to selectively disrupt G alpha q function in the parathyroid gland.
  • The G alpha q loop mRNA was highly expressed in the parathyroid gland but not in other tissues of these transgenic mice.
  • Adult transgenic mice, however, exhibited an increase in parathyroid hormone mRNA and in its basal serum level as well as in gland size.
  • The response of the parathyroid gland to hypocalcemia was found to be reduced in sensitivity in the transgenic mice when compared to their wild-type controls.
  • Abnormalities of the parathyroid gland function in these transgenic mice were similar to those of heterozygous G alpha q(+/-) and calcium sensing receptor(+/-) mice.
  • These studies demonstrate the feasibility of selectively targeting the parathyroid gland to investigate signaling mechanisms downstream of the calcium receptor.

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  • (PMID = 18813283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR017686; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR037308-21; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR037308; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01-AR37308; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR037308-21
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS133175; NLM/ PMC2760404
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82. Shiizaki K, Hatamura I, Nakazawa E, Ogura M, Masuda T, Akizawa T, Kusano E: Molecular and morphological approach of uremia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland following direct maxacalcitol injection. Med Mol Morphol; 2008 Jun;41(2):76-82
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  • [Title] Molecular and morphological approach of uremia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland following direct maxacalcitol injection.
  • The mechanisms explaining the clinical effects of direct maxacalcitol (OCT) injection into the hyperplastic parathyroid gland (PTG) in uremic patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) were investigated by molecular and morphological examination.
  • The changes in serum intact parathyroid hormone (intact-PTH) level, vitamin D and Ca-sensing receptor (VDR and CaSR, respectively) expression levels in PTG, and the calcium (Ca)-PTH response curve were examined; the induction of apoptosis in parathyroid cells (PTC) was also analyzed by the TUNEL method, DNA electrophoresis, and electron microscopic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Uremia / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bone and Bones / abnormalities. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Bone and Bones / pathology. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Death / drug effects. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / complications. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Injections. Models, Animal. Organ Size / drug effects. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Rats

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  • (PMID = 18592161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; N2UJM5NBF6 / maxacalcitol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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83. Kameda Y, Ito M, Nishimaki T, Gotoh N: FRS2alpha is required for the separation, migration, and survival of pharyngeal-endoderm derived organs including thyroid, ultimobranchial body, parathyroid, and thymus. Dev Dyn; 2009 Mar;238(3):503-13
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  • [Title] FRS2alpha is required for the separation, migration, and survival of pharyngeal-endoderm derived organs including thyroid, ultimobranchial body, parathyroid, and thymus.
  • Parathyroid glands were mostly connected to thymus tissues.
  • At E11.5 to E12.5, the thyroid primordium of wild-type embryos was located close to the aortic sac, and the epithelial buds of pharyngeal-derived organs, including the parathyroid gland, thymus and ultimobranchial body, were separated from the epithelium and began to migrate to their final destinations.
  • At these stages, organ-specific differentiation markers (i.e., Nkx2-1/TTF1 for the thyroid lobe and ultimobranchial body; Pax8 for the thyroid lobe; parathormone (PTH), chromogranin A, P75(NTR), and S100 protein for the parathyroid gland; and p63 for the thymus) were normally expressed in the mutant tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement. Endoderm / embryology. Endoderm / metabolism. Extremities. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Thymus Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19235715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8388
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Dyn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FRS2alpha protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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84. Shroff P, McGrath GA, Pezzi CM: Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):363-9
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  • [Title] Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a series of cases of parathyroid incidentalomas and review the related medical literature.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all patients of one surgeon who underwent unplanned removal of enlarged parathyroid glands found either during a surgical procedure performed for indications other than hyperparathyroidism or by ultrasonography of the thyroid gland between September 1989 and December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Clinical and laboratory data-- especially serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels--as well as information on postoperative parathyroid function are reported.
  • RESULTS: Among 421 patients (355 who underwent thyroidectomy and 66 who underwent transhiatal esophagectomy), 5 cases of parathyroid incidentalomas (1.2%) were identified.
  • These incidental parathyroid adenomas were found during thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer in two patients, during esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in one patient (the first such reported case), and during ultrasonography of the neck for evaluation of thyroid nodules in two patients.
  • In one patient in whom intraoperative PTH level was determined both before and after resection of a large parathyroid adenoma, the initially high PTH value (180 pg/mL) declined to the normal range (48.2 pg/mL).
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental identification of enlarged parathyroid glands during a neck surgical procedure is not common but does occur.
  • Intraoperative and postoperative measurements of serum calcium and PTH along with postoperative bone density testing can help determine whether such parathyroid incidentalomas are functional.
  • These enlarged parathyroid glands should be removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16638722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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85. Rahbari R, Sansano IG, Elaraj DM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Prior head and neck radiation exposure is not a contraindication to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. J Am Coll Surg; 2010 Jun;210(6):942-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism can have a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy based on localization studies showing single-gland disease.
  • There was no significant difference in concurrent benign thyroid neoplasm, thyroid cancer, and type of parathyroid disease (single vs multigland) in the 2 groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck irradiation should not be a contraindication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in the setting of preoperative localization studies showing single-gland disease and no concurrent thyroid neoplasm.

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20510803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Stubbs J, Liu S, Quarles LD: Role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in phosphate homeostasis and pathogenesis of disordered mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease. Semin Dial; 2007 Jul-Aug;20(4):302-8
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  • The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a novel bone-derived hormone that inhibits phosphate reabsorption and calcitriol production by the kidney, has uncovered primary regulatory pathways and new systems biology governing bone mineralization, vitamin D metabolism, parathyroid gland function and renal phosphate handling.
  • Pathologically, high circulating levels of FGF23 result in hypophosphatemia, decreased production of 1,25(OH)(2)D, elevated parathyroid hormone and rickets/osteomalacia in patients with functioning kidneys, whereas low levels are associated with tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemia and elevated 1,25(OH)(2)D.
  • While the significance of increased FGF23 levels in CKD remains to be defined, it might contribute to phosphate excretion and suppression of 1,25(OH)(2)D levels in CKD stages 3 and 4, as well as potentially contribute to secondary hyperparathyroidism through direct actions on the parathyroid gland in more advanced renal failure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / physiology. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / physiology. Vitamin D / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17635819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in dialysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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87. Ogata H, Mizobuchi M, Koiwa F, Kinugasa E, Akizawa T: Clinical significance of parathyroid intervention on CKD-MBD management. NDT Plus; 2008 Aug;1(Suppl 3):iii9-iii13
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of parathyroid intervention on CKD-MBD management.
  • Recently published 'Guidelines for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic dialysis patients' by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy advocate that percutaneous ethanol injection into enlarged glands, which has been considered as the only alternative to parathyroidectomy (PTx), should be indicated in patients with a single enlarged parathyroid gland (estimated volume >500 mm(3), or estimated major axis >10 mm), and that PTx should be recommended in patients with multiple enlarged glands.
  • Cinacalcet cannot achieve optimal control of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder in all patients, and parathyroid intervention will be required in a considerable number of patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 25983977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4421131
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88. Stillion JR, Ritt MG: Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs. Compend Contin Educ Vet; 2009 Jun;31(6):E8
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  • The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is important for maintaining calcium homeostasis.
  • Parathyroid gland hyperplasia and subsequent hyperparathyroidism can occur secondary to chronic renal failure in dogs, resulting in significant alterations in calcium metabolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / metabolism. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / veterinary. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / veterinary. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19746344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-8315
  • [Journal-full-title] Compendium (Yardley, PA)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Compend Contin Educ Vet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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89. Mun HC, Brennan SC, Delbridge L, Wilkinson M, Brown EM, Conigrave AD: Adenomatous human parathyroid cells exhibit impaired sensitivity to L-amino acids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Sep;94(9):3567-74
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  • [Title] Adenomatous human parathyroid cells exhibit impaired sensitivity to L-amino acids.
  • CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism, which occurs most commonly in patients with adenomatous disease of a single parathyroid gland, arises as a result of impaired extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(o))-dependent feedback on PTH secretion, a process mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR).
  • OBJECTIVE: Because the Ca(2+)(o) sensitivity of the CaR is positively modulated by L-amino acids, we decided to investigate whether the impaired feedback of PTH secretion in adenomatous parathyroid cells might arise from decreased sensitivity to L-amino acids.
  • DESIGN: Samples of normal and adenomatous human parathyroid cells were prepared by collagenase treatment and then exposed in vitro to various concentrations of Ca(2+)(o) or the CaR-active amino acid, L-phenylalanine (L-Phe).
  • SETTING AND PATIENTS: Excess normal parathyroid tissue was obtained from parathyroid autotransplants at the time of thyroid surgery.
  • Samples of adenomatous tissue were obtained from histologically confirmed parathyroid adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid adenomas exhibited reduced sensitivity to the CaR-active amino acid L-Phe, which affected both Ca(2+)(o)-dependent PTH secretion and Ca(2+)(o)-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization as a measure of CaR-dependent signaling in parathyroid cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Impaired L-amino acid sensing by calcium-sensing receptors in adenomatous parathyroid cells contributes to the loss of feedback control of PTH secretion in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Amino Acids / pharmacology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Feedback, Physiological. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Phenylalanine / pharmacology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19567535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2741716
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90. Solorzano CC, Carneiro-Pla DM, Irvin GL 3rd: Surgeon-performed ultrasonography as the initial and only localizing study in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Jan;202(1):18-24
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  • BACKGROUND: With a secure diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism, preoperative localization of abnormal glands is the initial step toward limited parathyroidectomy.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred twenty-six patients underwent preoperative SUS and Sestamibi scans before limited parathyroidectomy guided by quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay.
  • In 53 patients, SUS showed no parathyroid gland (n = 32), did not recognize multiglandular disease (n = 5), and showed an incorrect location of the abnormal gland (n = 16).
  • With use of quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay, successful parathyroidectomy was accomplished in 223 of 226 (99%), unilateral exploration in 88%, and overnight stay avoided in 78% of patients.

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  • (PMID = 16377493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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91. Bonczynski J: Primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2007 May;22(2):70-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats is a solitary adenoma involving an extracapsular parathyroid gland.
  • The prognosis is excellent if the affected parathyroid gland is removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / surgery. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17591292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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92. Tanaka M, Tominaga Y, Itoh K, Matsushita K, Matsushita K, Matsuoka S, Ueki T, Goto N, Sato T, Katayama A, Haba T, Uchida K: Autoinfarction of the parathyroid gland diagnosed by power Doppler ultrasonography in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2006 Apr;21(4):1092-5
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  • [Title] Autoinfarction of the parathyroid gland diagnosed by power Doppler ultrasonography in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / ultrasonography. Infarction / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • (PMID = 16364993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Imachi H, Murao K, Kontani K, Yokomise H, Miyai Y, Yamamoto Y, Kushida Y, Haba R, Ishida T: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis. Endocrine; 2009 Oct;36(2):194-7
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  • [Title] Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis.
  • After the episode of acute pancreatitis subsided, laboratory investigation revealed increased serum calcium (12.0 mg/dl), decreased serum phosphorus (2.7 mg/dl), and increased serum parathyroid hormone (intact) levels (131 pg/ml).
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck did not reveal any mass lesions in the parathyroid gland.
  • However, (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy revealed that there was one functioning parathyroid gland in the upper mediastinum.
  • Combined (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in the mediastinum.
  • Microscopic examination revealed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma (1.3 x 0.4 cm(2)) adjacent to the atrophic parathyroid gland in right thymus gland.
  • We report the case of a patient diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • An ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma may manifest as an episode of acute pancreatitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Pancreatitis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 19598003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Khan MK, Taous A, Sultana SZ, Sharif A, Hossain MM, Mostafa G, Hussain MA, Azim MA, Siddique MA: Neck swelling with renal stone. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Oct;19(4):622-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Number of parathyroid glands and their ectopic locations in individuals are the problem of its management.
  • Parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia may be a part of Multiple Endocrine neoplasia type II.
  • After search, hypercalcaemia, bilateral renal stone, raised parathormone level and enlarged one parathyroid gland in lower pole of left thyroid lobe was identified.
  • Clinically it was diagnosed as parathyroid adenoma which was proved histologically after surgical excision.
  • Many controversies still exist regarding the treatment policy of parathyroid adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20956910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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95. Gómez Marqués G, Obrador Mulet A, Vilar Gimeno A, Pascual Felip MJ, Alarcón Zurita A, Molina Guasch M, Uriol Rivera M, Munar Vila MA, Losada González P: Treatment with cinacalcet of secondary hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2009 Jul-Aug;41(6):2139-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Calcimimetics inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion by modulating the calcium-sensing receptor in the parathyroid gland.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 1,25-DIHYDROXYCHOLECALCIFEROL .
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  • (PMID = 19715856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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96. Marcheix B, Brouchet L, Berjaud J, Dahan M: Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Nov;30(5):808-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • She underwent first a subtotal resection of the parathyroid glands associated with subtotal thyroidectomy in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism and multi nodular thyroid.
  • Pathologic findings were consistent with hyperplasia and demonstrated a fifth parathyroid gland in the thyroid.
  • Two years later, the patient presented recurrent hyperparathyroidism associated with terminal renal insufficiency, fusion of Sesta Mibi scintigraphy and CT scan demonstrated a sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland in the aorto pulmonary window.
  • Pathologic findings demonstrated a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16979898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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97. Masatsugu T, Yamashita H, Noguchi S, Nishii R, Watanabe S, Uchino S, Kuroki S, Tanaka M: Significant clinical differences in primary hyperparathyroidism between patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease. Surg Today; 2005;35(5):351-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the differences in diagnosis and treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease.
  • METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with pHPT underwent parathyroid localization and thyroid examination by ultrasonography (US) and sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI).
  • The clinical and biochemical findings, parathyroid localization, and operations performed were compared in 49 patients without thyroid disease and 61 patients with thyroid disease.
  • The pathologic parathyroid gland was identified significantly more often in patients without concomitant thyroid disease than in those with concomitant thyroid disease both by US and MIBI (P < 0.05).
  • Thyroid disease concomitant with pHPT influenced parathyroid localization as well as the indication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / complications

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  • (PMID = 15864415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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98. Venkatraman L, Kalangutkar A, Russell CF: Primary hyperparathyroidism and metastatic carcinoma within parathyroid gland. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Sep;60(9):1058-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism and metastatic carcinoma within parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Lung Neoplasms. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secondary


99. Su DH, Liao KM, Chang YC, Tsai KS: Secondary hyperparathyroidism as a palpable intrathyroid parathyroid gland in a patient with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. J Bone Miner Metab; 2006;24(2):114-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Secondary hyperparathyroidism as a palpable intrathyroid parathyroid gland in a patient with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia.
  • An intrathyroid parathyroid gland was confirmed through partial thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy.
  • Renal phosphate wasting decreased strongly, and serum parathyroid hormone was in the normal range after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Osteomalacia / complications. Parathyroid Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hypophosphatemia / pathology. Kidney Tubules / pathology. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / chemistry. Phosphates / therapeutic use. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16502117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-8779
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates
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100. Tanaka M, Ito K, Matsushita K, Matsushita K, Tominaga Y, Matsuoka S, Ueki T, Goto N, Sato T, Katayama A, Haba T, Uchida K: [Usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography for the diagnosis of autoinfarction of parathyroid gland in secondary hyperparathyroidism]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Sep;15 Suppl 1:46-9; discussion 49-50
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography for the diagnosis of autoinfarction of parathyroid gland in secondary hyperparathyroidism].
  • Spontaneous remission due to parathyroid infarction of secondary hyperparathyroidism is rare compared with that of primary hyperparathyroidism, probably because several glands are enlarged in secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Lately, neck ultrasound examination has become a more beneficial and specific method for the diagnosis of enlarged parathyroid glands in contrast to classic diagnostic techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy.
  • However, the diagnosis of parathyroid infarction reported in previous studies was often based on CT, MRI and scintigraphy findings and there are few studies that reported such diagnosis by urgent power Doppler ultrasonography of the neck.
  • Here we present a hemodialysis patient with autoinfarction of the left parathyroid gland diagnosed by urgent power Doppler ultrasonography of the neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / ultrasonography. Infarction / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Calcium. 2006 Feb;16(2):149-52
  • (PMID = 16272629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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