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56. Brown EM, Lian JB: New insights in bone biology: unmasking skeletal effects of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor. Sci Signal; 2008;1(35):pe40
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  • Experiments performed in mice in which expression of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) was completely nullified specifically in parathyroid cells, chondrocytes, or cells of the osteoblast lineage have identified phenotypes that indicate a key role for the CaSR in embryonic development of the skeleton, postnatal bone formation, and osteoblast differentiation that are independent of the calcitropic hormone axis.
  • These long-awaited studies further clarify the signaling relationships between the parathyroid gland, kidney, and metabolic bone disease in patients with mutations in the gene encoding the CaSR, and they provide new insights into understanding the signaling pathways involving the CaSR in skeletal cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Remodeling / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Chondrocytes / cytology. Chondrocytes / physiology. Humans. Mice. Osteoblasts / cytology. Osteoblasts / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • [CommentOn] Sci Signal. 2008;1(35):ra1 [18765830.001]
  • (PMID = 18765829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-9145
  • [Journal-full-title] Science signaling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci Signal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
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57. Yadav S, Srivastav AK: Influence of calcitonin administration on ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of pigeon, Columba livia. Microsc Res Tech; 2009 May;72(5):380-4
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  • [Title] Influence of calcitonin administration on ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of pigeon, Columba livia.
  • After collection of blood samples, ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands were fixed for histological studies.
  • The ultimobranchial gland of C. livia exhibits no change up to day 5 following calcitonin treatment.
  • The parathyroid gland of calcitonin-treated C. livia exhibits no histological alteration up to day 3.
  • Moreover, the gland exhibits more compactness on day 10 and day 15.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / administration & dosage. Calcium / metabolism. Columbidae / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Ultimobranchial Body / drug effects

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .
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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19115331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0029
  • [Journal-full-title] Microscopy research and technique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microsc. Res. Tech.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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58. Balasanthiran A, Sandler B, Amonoo-Kuofi K, Swamy R, Kaniyur S, Kaplan F: Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):603-7
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  • [Title] Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland.
  • Parathyroid imaging was then requested and an adenoma was identified.
  • Surprisingly, surgery revealed the coexistence of a parathyroid adenoma with the unexpected finding of sarcoid granulomas within the parathyroid and thyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Granuloma / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Sarcoidosis / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Gland / pathology


59. Dhande RR, Suryawanshi SA, Pandey AK: Seasonal changes in plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in relation to parathyroid structure of the grey quail, Coturnix coturnix coturnix Linnaeus. J Environ Biol; 2006 Jan;27(1):123-8
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  • [Title] Seasonal changes in plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in relation to parathyroid structure of the grey quail, Coturnix coturnix coturnix Linnaeus.
  • Parathyroid gland of the grey quail exhibited hyperactivity (hypertrophy and hyperplasia) during breeding season, however, the activity was more conspicuous among females than in males.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Coturnix / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrastructure. Phosphates / blood. Seasons


60. Carrillo-López N, Fernández-Martín JL, Cannata-Andía JB: [The role of calcium, calcitriol and their receptors in parathyroid regulation]. Nefrologia; 2009;29(2):103-8
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  • [Title] [The role of calcium, calcitriol and their receptors in parathyroid regulation].
  • [Transliterated title] Papel de calcio, calcitriol y sus receptores en la regulación de la paratiroides.
  • The mechanism of regulation of Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is complex, and diverse factors are involved: the fundamental ones are calcium, calcitriol and phosphorus.
  • Along with calcium and calcitriol, drugs used in the treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral Bone Disorders (CKD-MBD) also act directly or indirectly on CaR and VDR and therefore are also responsible for the regulation of the parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitriol / physiology. Calcium / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / physiology. Receptors, Calcitriol / physiology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aluminum / pharmacology. Aluminum / physiology. Animals. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Homeostasis. Humans. Hypercalcemia / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism / physiopathology. Hypocalcemia / physiopathology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology. Organ Culture Techniques. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Phosphorus / pharmacology. Phosphorus / physiology. Rats. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19396314.001).
  • [ISSN] 0211-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Nefrología : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nefrologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; CPD4NFA903 / Aluminum; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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61. Kuriloff DB, Kizhner V: Parathyroid gland preservation and selective autotransplantation utilizing topical lidocaine in total thyroidectomy. Laryngoscope; 2010 Jul;120(7):1342-4
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  • [Title] Parathyroid gland preservation and selective autotransplantation utilizing topical lidocaine in total thyroidectomy.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To review a new technique during total thyroidectomy that facilitates parathyroid gland preservation and selective autotransplantation utilizing topical 2% plain lidocaine as a spasmolytic/vasodilator agent.
  • Interventions were: parathyroid glands (PGs) with signs of devascularization treated with a topical solution of 2% plain lidocaine in an attempt to restore blood flow before committing to autotransplantation.
  • A total of 40 parathyroid glands were autotransplanted.
  • [MeSH-major] Lidocaine / administration & dosage. Parasympatholytics / administration & dosage. Parathyroid Glands / transplantation. Thyroidectomy / methods. Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20583232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parasympatholytics; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine
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62. Nagano N, Miyata S, Abe M, Wakita S, Kobayashi N, Wada M: Sevelamer hydrochloride reverses parathyroid gland enlargement via regression of cell hypertrophy but not apoptosis in rats with chronic renal insufficiency. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2006 Mar;21(3):634-43
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  • [Title] Sevelamer hydrochloride reverses parathyroid gland enlargement via regression of cell hypertrophy but not apoptosis in rats with chronic renal insufficiency.
  • BACKGROUND: Dietary phosphate restriction suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, synthesis, and parathyroid cell proliferation in experimental animals with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), independently of serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels.
  • This study was conducted to examine whether sevelamer hydrochloride (sevelamer), a metal-free phosphate binder, could regress an advanced parathyroid gland (PTG) hyperplasia and enlargement in rats with CRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Polyamines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Calcium / blood. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hypertrophy / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Sevelamer

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  • (PMID = 16169864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Polyamines; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 9YCX42I8IU / Sevelamer; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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63. Ramon I, Kleynen P, Body JJ, Karmali R: Fibroblast growth factor 23 and its role in phosphate homeostasis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):1-10
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  • Currently, maintaining phosphate homeostasis is considered the result of a complex network of endocrine feedback loops between parathyroid gland, kidney, and bone.

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  • (PMID = 19776202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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6
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4. Frank-Raue K, Rondot S, Schulze E, Raue F: Change in the spectrum of RET mutations diagnosed between 1994 and 2006. Clin Lab; 2007;53(5-6):273-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare calcitonin producing tumor.
  • Hereditary MTC is divided into three clinical subtypes: multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A is characterized by MTC, pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The third clinical subtype of inherited MTC, familial MTC, is defined as the presence of MTC in families without evidence of adrenal or parathyroid gland involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17605401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-6510
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical laboratory
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Lab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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65. Yamashita H, Cantor T, Uchino S, Watanabe S, Ogawa T, Moriyama T, Takamatsu Y, Fukagawa M, Noguchi S: Sequential changes in plasma intact and whole parathyroid hormone levels during parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg; 2005 Feb;29(2):169-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sequential changes in plasma intact and whole parathyroid hormone levels during parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Most commercial assays for intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) cross-react with non-PTH1-84 fragments (likely to be PTH7-84).
  • Blood samples for postoperative assay were drawn after anesthesia; immediately prior to excision of the last parathyroid gland; and at 5, 10, and 15 minutes after excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 15650804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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66. Radek T, Piasecki T: Topography and arterial supply of the thyroid and the parathyroid glands in selected species of Falconiformes. Anat Histol Embryol; 2007 Aug;36(4):241-9
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  • [Title] Topography and arterial supply of the thyroid and the parathyroid glands in selected species of Falconiformes.
  • In Accipitridae the larger left gland was usually situated significantly more cranially than the right one.
  • The location of the parathyroid glands in common kestrel was relatively constant.
  • Seven topographical patterns of the location of the parathyroid gland were noted in Accipitridae.
  • The parathyroid glands were supplied by one to three parathyroid arteries.
  • The vessels for the cranial parathyroid gland mostly originated from the caudal thyroid artery, while for the caudal one - from the oesophagotracheobronchial artery.
  • The average number of thyroid and parathyroid arteries in common buzzard was significantly higher than those in common kestrel.
  • [MeSH-major] Falconiformes / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 17617099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2096
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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67. Stubbs JR, Quarles LD: Fibroblast growth factor 23: uremic toxin or innocent bystander in chronic kidney disease? Nephrol News Issues; 2009 May;23(6):33-4, 36-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Information regarding the onset of FGF23 elevations in relationship to changes in parathyroid gland function, renal production of 1,25(OH)2D, and phosphate excretion may provide clues to its role in the adaptive changes in mineral homeostasis that occur during progressive kidney diseases.
  • More knowledge of the regulation and function of FGF23 in CKD will likely improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of disordered mineral metabolism, lead to changes in the medical management of this disorder, and establish additional biological links between disorders of mineral metabolism and associated comorbidities in patients with progressive renal failure.

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  • (PMID = 19534362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0896-1263
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology news & issues
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol News Issues
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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68. Thongtang N, Plengvidhaya N, Lertwattnarak R, Peepatdit T: Primary hyperparathyroidism due to cystic parathyroid adenoma: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai; 2007 Nov;90 Suppl 2:79-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism due to cystic parathyroid adenoma: a case report.
  • Raw Cystic parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The authors report one case of cystic parathyroid adenoma, who presented with progressive right hip pain for one year.
  • An iliac bone biopsy was performed and showed a giant cell tumor.
  • Parathyroid hormone level was evaluated later and was found to be high, 1,555 pg/ml (15-65 pg/ml).
  • An MRI study of the neck was done and revealed a cystic mass 38 x 36 x 40 mm in diameter just below the left lower pole of the thyroid gland.
  • Hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland was considered.
  • Parathyroidectomy was done and histopathology revealed cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19230428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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69. Komaba H, Fukagawa M: FGF23: a key player in mineral and bone disorder in CKD. Nefrologia; 2009;29(5):392-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FGF23: a key player in mineral and bone disorder in CKD.
  • In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), circulating FGF23 levels are progressively elevated to compensate for persistent phosphate retention, which result in reduced renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and thereby stimulate secretion of parathyroid hormone, suggesting its critical role in the pathogenesis of altered mineral homeostasis in CKD.
  • Furthermore, it has recently been shown that FGF23 directly acts on parathyroid gland and mediate secretion of parathyroid hormone in the presence of Klotho as a cofactor, although such effects are not yet confirmed in patients with CKD.

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  • (PMID = 19820750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0211-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Nefrología : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nefrologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Minerals; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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70. Paker I, Yilmazer D, Yandakci K, Arikok AT, Alper M: Intrathyroidal oncocytic parathyroid adenoma: a diagnostic pitfall on fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Nov;38(11):833-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroidal oncocytic parathyroid adenoma: a diagnostic pitfall on fine-needle aspiration.
  • Oncocytic parathyroid adenoma is a rarely seen benign neoplasm of the parathyroid and intrathyroidal location of this lesion is also uncommon.
  • It can be easily misdiagnosed as Hürthle cell thyroid neoplasm on fine-needle aspiration (FNA).
  • Here, an intrathyroidal oncocytic parathyroid adenoma in a 32-year-old male is reported.
  • The case was reported as "suspicious for Hürthle cell thyroid neoplasm" on FNA.
  • Frozen section examination showed intrathyroidal oncocytic parathyroid adenoma with a rim of normal parathyroid tissue.
  • The diagnosis was also confirmed with immunohistochemical stains (TTF-1, PTH, thyroglobulin) performed on permanent sections.
  • Cytopathologic features of oncocytic parathyroid adenoma and Hürthle cell thyroid neoplasm are similar.
  • It is important to keep oncocytic parathyroid adenoma in mind in the differential diagnosis of Hürthle cell thyroid neoplasm.
  • Prior knowledge of clinical, radiological and laboratory data will avoid wrong cytopathologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20301208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Ayoub S, Hachem K, Smayra T, Ghorra C, Abadjian G: Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively? World J Surg; 2007 Apr;31(4):817-23
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  • [Title] Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively?
  • INTRODUCTION: The role of cervical ultrasonography (US)-guided surgery for intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely reported.
  • RESULTS: Cervical US identified abnormal parathyroid glands in 163 of 178 patients, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%.
  • Six patients (3.4%) were found to have intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas (two in the superior parathyroid and four in the inferior parathyroid).
  • Cervical US predicted this anomaly in four of six patients (67%) in whom the thyroid gland was not nodular and allowed total enucleation of the adenoma to be performed in three and subtotal thyroid loboisthmectomy in three; these operations were performed uneventfully and rapidly.
  • On multivariable analysis, no factor predicted intrathyroid localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PPV of high-resolution cervical US for identifying an abnormal parathyroid gland was 100% in this series.
  • This method allows us to shorten the operating time by guiding the exploration immediately toward the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17354026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Svec A, Bury Y: Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist? Pathol Oncol Res; 2010 Sep;16(3):443-6
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  • [Title] Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist?
  • We are reporting a case of a capillary haemangioma-like proliferation arising within a parathyroid gland adenoma, associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The observation expands the spectrum of tumour-associated vascular proliferations by adding an exuberant haemangioma-like pattern to its extreme end.
  • The only two other published cases of haemangioma of the parathyroid gland were reported in patients diagnosed with primary parathyroid hyperplasia with hyperparathyroidism, a pathophysiologic condition similar to our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20063187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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73. Knezević-Obad A, Tomić-Brzac H, Zarković K, Dodig D, Stromar IK: Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):25-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to establish possibilities of using cytology in the diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • 475 patients, all suspected to have parathyroid gland disease, were examined over a three-year period (from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2008) in the Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protection, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia.
  • The parathyroid hormone (PTH) analysis was made for all punctates.
  • All patients with cytology-based diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma were sent to surgery, and the cytological diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistology.
  • In three cases, the parathyroid gland adenoma was established by pathohistology, although in these cases the cytological diagnosis was negative.
  • The cytological diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma can be considered reliable in 96% of cases, provided that the echosonographic structure and localisation of the punctured node is noted, and assuming that material adequate for cytological analysis is obtained by FNAB.
  • Possible pitfalls are oncocytic types of parathyroid adenoma, intranuclear inclusions and papillary formation of epithelial cells, and cystic degeneration of nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Epithelial Cells / pathology. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Methylene Blue. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Reproducibility of Results. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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74. Tokumoto M, Taniguchi M, Matsuo D, Tsuruya K, Hirakata H, Iida M: [Cell proliferation of parathyroid gland in patients with progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism: Vitamin D receptor, calcium sensing receptor, and cell cycle regulation factor]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Sep;15 Suppl 1:206-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cell proliferation of parathyroid gland in patients with progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism: Vitamin D receptor, calcium sensing receptor, and cell cycle regulation factor].
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Vitamin D / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16279026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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75. McCann LM, Beto J: Roles of calcium-sensing receptor and vitamin d receptor in the pathophysiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism. J Ren Nutr; 2010 May;20(3):141-50
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  • The CaR regulates the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to changes in extracellular calcium, whereas the VDR mediates the effects of calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D.
  • Secondary HPT is characterized by disturbances in mineral metabolism, elevated serum PTH, and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcitriol / physiology. Calcium / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Homeostasis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Minerals / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Signal Transduction. Vitamin D / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20303786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8503
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ren Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Minerals; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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76. Whyte S, Cannon M: In search of stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychic moans: putting the pieces together--a case of parathyroid adenoma. Perspectives; 2009;33(2):5-7
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  • [Title] In search of stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychic moans: putting the pieces together--a case of parathyroid adenoma.
  • An often neglected and frequently forgotten gland in the body is the parathyroid.
  • The parathyroid glands (there are four) play a vital role in maintaining body function by regulating calcium levels through the secretion of parathyroid hormone.
  • When function of the parathyroid gland becomes abnormal and calcium regulation is altered, there can be serious consequences to the patient in the form of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Due to the variable symptoms, making an accurate diagnosis can be a challenge for the clinician.
  • This paper will provide an overview of the parathyroid glands, identification of the signs and symptoms of a parathyroid adenoma, a discussion about the tests that facilitate a definitive diagnosis and a review of treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19813385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0831-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Perspectives (Gerontological Nursing Association (Canada))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Perspectives
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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77. Iovino F, Armano G, Auriemma PP, Sergio R, De Sena G, Capuozzo V, Rosso F, Marino G, Papale F, Grimaldi A, Barbarisi A: [Tissue engineering of parathyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):312-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Tissue engineering of parathyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] L'ingegnerizzazione tissutale delle cellule paratiroidee.
  • Attempts to transplant parathyroid tissue began in 1975 with the work of Wells, but still today results are disappointing.
  • However, with the development of tissue engineering techniques, some experimental approaches to build artificial parathyroid are been made.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Parathyroid cells were obtained from three chronic uremic patients in hemodialysis, operated for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Culture media, with a low calcium concentration, were optimised to physiologically stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion.
  • Besides, concentration of parathyroid hormone in the culture medium has been measured for several weeks.
  • RESULTS: After 24 hours of culture in RPMI, cells extracted from human parathyroid glands were nearly all adherent and organised in clusters to resemble the glandular organization.
  • The cellular population consisted predominantly of parathyroid cells (90-95%).
  • On collagen scaffolds, cells maintains an epithelial-like morphology also after 10 weeks, colonizing the scaffold surface and keeping a good proliferative rate with a discrete production of parathyroid hormone.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of parathyroid cells extracted from patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was certainly an appropriate choice that enabled us to achieve these results, that albeit partial bode well for the experimental in vivo animal model.
  • The bioengineered scaffolds when implanted in the subcutaneous can avoid the dispersion of parathyroid cells, assuring also the possibility to easily remove the implant in case of complications.
  • Our research was aimed primarily to the optimisation of PTH secreting human parathyroid cells cultures and then to the in vitro engineering of human parathyroid glands in three-dimensional collagen scaffolds.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen. Parathyroid Glands / cytology. Tissue Engineering / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion. Cells, Cultured. Extracellular Matrix. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 20646380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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78. Jiang RS, Xie Z, Chen XY, Geng ZY: A single nucleotide polymorphism in the parathyroid hormone gene and effects on eggshell quality in chickens. Poult Sci; 2010 Oct;89(10):2101-5
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  • [Title] A single nucleotide polymorphism in the parathyroid hormone gene and effects on eggshell quality in chickens.
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH), released by the parathyroid gland of animals, plays an important role in regulating the metabolism of calcium and phosphate.
  • [MeSH-major] Chickens / genetics. Chickens / physiology. Eggs / standards. Parathyroid Hormone / genetics. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

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  • (PMID = 20852100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-5791
  • [Journal-full-title] Poultry science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Poult. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] RefSeq/ NC/ 006092
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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79. Bergero N, De Pompa R, Sacerdote C, Gasparri G, Volante M, Bussolati G, Papotti M: Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Hum Pathol; 2005 Aug;36(8):908-14
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
  • The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is difficult and based on morphological features that are not totally reliable.
  • With the aim of identifying a marker of malignancy in parathyroid tumors, we tested the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a lectin expressed in several malignant tumors, including follicular carcinomas (but not adenomas) of the thyroid.
  • Twenty-six PCs and 30 control parathyroid adenomas (PAs) were collected.
  • All cases were immunohistochemically tested for Gal-3 and for other markers claimed to be useful in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasms, namely, Ki67, p27, and bcl2.
  • We conclude that Gal-3 immunostaining is a valuable tool to support a diagnosis of PC in highly proliferating (Ki67 >6%) tumors affecting a single parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16112008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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80. Yamada S, Taniguchi M, Tokumoto M, Tsuruya K, Hirakata H, Iida M: Early intervention with intravenous or pulse oral vitamin D therapy is more effective in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ther Apher Dial; 2010 Aug 1;14(4):424-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines recommend vitamin D therapy should be started when the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) exceeds 300 pg/mL in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • To examine whether the effect of vitamin D therapy on mineral metabolism and parathyroid gland growth varies according to the stage of secondary hyperparathyroidism and iPTH level, 47 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism received either intravenous or pulse oral vitamin D therapy.
  • We examined serial changes in several serum mineral parameters and parathyroid gland volume and the cumulative incidence of parathyroidectomy in the first two years.
  • In contrast, the serum levels of phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, and iPTH were maintained within the target ranges and the parathyroid gland did not enlarge in the P(<300) group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Minerals / blood. Organ Size. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Pulse Therapy, Drug. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20649764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9987
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Apher Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Minerals; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Vitamins; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
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81. Koenig K, Kleerekoper M: How common are functional incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;2(6):316-7
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  • [Title] How common are functional incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland?

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  • (PMID = 16932308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Raval MV, Browne M, Chin AC, Zimmerman D, Angelos P, Reynolds M: Total thyroidectomy for benign disease in the pediatric patient--feasible and safe. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;44(8):1529-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Total thyroidectomy for benign disease in the pediatric patient--feasible and safe.
  • The role of TT in benign thyroid disease is less well-defined.
  • The goal of this study was to compare the safety of TT performed for benign and malignant disease.
  • The benign cohort totaled 15 patients consisting of 12 with Graves' disease, 2 with hyperthyroidism, and 1 with large and symptomatic multinodular goiter.
  • RESULTS: The most common complication was transient hypocalcemia observed in 7 (46%) of 15 patients with benign disease and 9 (56%) of 16 patients with malignancy (P = .72).
  • Permanent hypocalcemia, defined as need for calcium supplement 6 months postprocedure, was observed in 1 patient with benign disease (6.67%) and 1 patient with malignancy (6.25%; P = 1.0).
  • A single parathyroid gland was reimplanted in 2 patients with malignancy and 2 patients with benign disease (P = 1.0).
  • There were no cases of relapse hyperthyroidism in the benign cohort.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Similar rates of postoperative complications can be expected with TT for benign thyroid disease as compared to TT for malignant disease.
  • Total thyroidectomy is a safe treatment option for benign thyroid disease in children.

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  • (PMID = 19635300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Nelson M, Dan O, Strome M: Direct revascularization is superior for rat parathyroid allotransplantation with FK506. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2005 Mar;114(3):207-13
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  • [Title] Direct revascularization is superior for rat parathyroid allotransplantation with FK506.
  • Parathyroid gland allotransplantation has been a challenging goal for decades.
  • Our objective was to optimize a parathyroid allotransplantation model for analysis of short-term or low-dose immunosuppressive regimens.
  • Rats that had undergone parathyroidectomy received parathyroid allografts either by direct microvascular anastomoses as part of a composite laryngotracheal graft or by direct implantation into hind limb muscle.
  • Intact serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels for both groups were recorded over a period of at least 45 days and compared with a repeated-measures mixed model.
  • We found that microvascular anastomosis was superior to implantation for parathyroid gland survival, as all revascularized grafts immediately produced normal levels of PTH, whereas implanted grafts had a significantly slower recovery of function (p < .001).
  • Using this model, we are developing innovative strategies that will lead to successful parathyroid allotransplantation without the need for chronic immunosuppression.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Models, Animal. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Parathyroid Glands / transplantation. Tacrolimus / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Anastomosis, Surgical. Animals. Hindlimb / blood supply. Larynx / transplantation. Male. Microsurgery. Muscle, Skeletal / blood supply. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Rats. Transplantation, Homologous / methods

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  • (PMID = 15825570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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84. Pi M, Chen L, Huang M, Luo Q, Quarles LD: Parathyroid-specific interaction of the calcium-sensing receptor and G alpha q. Kidney Int; 2008 Dec;74(12):1548-56
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  • [Title] Parathyroid-specific interaction of the calcium-sensing receptor and G alpha q.
  • The calcium-sensing receptor regulates various parathyroid gland functions, including hormone secretion, gene transcription, and chief cell hyperplasia through G alpha q- and G alpha i-dependent signaling pathways.
  • To determine the specific function of G alpha q in these processes, we generated transgenic mice using the human parathyroid hormone promoter to drive overexpression of a dominant negative G alpha q loop minigene to selectively disrupt G alpha q function in the parathyroid gland.
  • The G alpha q loop mRNA was highly expressed in the parathyroid gland but not in other tissues of these transgenic mice.
  • Adult transgenic mice, however, exhibited an increase in parathyroid hormone mRNA and in its basal serum level as well as in gland size.
  • The response of the parathyroid gland to hypocalcemia was found to be reduced in sensitivity in the transgenic mice when compared to their wild-type controls.
  • Abnormalities of the parathyroid gland function in these transgenic mice were similar to those of heterozygous G alpha q(+/-) and calcium sensing receptor(+/-) mice.
  • These studies demonstrate the feasibility of selectively targeting the parathyroid gland to investigate signaling mechanisms downstream of the calcium receptor.

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  • (PMID = 18813283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR017686; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR037308-21; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR037308; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01-AR37308; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR037308-21
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS133175; NLM/ PMC2760404
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85. Shiizaki K, Hatamura I, Nakazawa E, Ogura M, Masuda T, Akizawa T, Kusano E: Molecular and morphological approach of uremia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland following direct maxacalcitol injection. Med Mol Morphol; 2008 Jun;41(2):76-82
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  • [Title] Molecular and morphological approach of uremia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland following direct maxacalcitol injection.
  • The mechanisms explaining the clinical effects of direct maxacalcitol (OCT) injection into the hyperplastic parathyroid gland (PTG) in uremic patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) were investigated by molecular and morphological examination.
  • The changes in serum intact parathyroid hormone (intact-PTH) level, vitamin D and Ca-sensing receptor (VDR and CaSR, respectively) expression levels in PTG, and the calcium (Ca)-PTH response curve were examined; the induction of apoptosis in parathyroid cells (PTC) was also analyzed by the TUNEL method, DNA electrophoresis, and electron microscopic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Uremia / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bone and Bones / abnormalities. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Bone and Bones / pathology. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Death / drug effects. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / complications. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Injections. Models, Animal. Organ Size / drug effects. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Rats

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  • (PMID = 18592161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; N2UJM5NBF6 / maxacalcitol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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86. Kameda Y, Ito M, Nishimaki T, Gotoh N: FRS2alpha is required for the separation, migration, and survival of pharyngeal-endoderm derived organs including thyroid, ultimobranchial body, parathyroid, and thymus. Dev Dyn; 2009 Mar;238(3):503-13
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  • [Title] FRS2alpha is required for the separation, migration, and survival of pharyngeal-endoderm derived organs including thyroid, ultimobranchial body, parathyroid, and thymus.
  • Parathyroid glands were mostly connected to thymus tissues.
  • At E11.5 to E12.5, the thyroid primordium of wild-type embryos was located close to the aortic sac, and the epithelial buds of pharyngeal-derived organs, including the parathyroid gland, thymus and ultimobranchial body, were separated from the epithelium and began to migrate to their final destinations.
  • At these stages, organ-specific differentiation markers (i.e., Nkx2-1/TTF1 for the thyroid lobe and ultimobranchial body; Pax8 for the thyroid lobe; parathormone (PTH), chromogranin A, P75(NTR), and S100 protein for the parathyroid gland; and p63 for the thymus) were normally expressed in the mutant tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement. Endoderm / embryology. Endoderm / metabolism. Extremities. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Thymus Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19235715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8388
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Dyn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FRS2alpha protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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87. Shroff P, McGrath GA, Pezzi CM: Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):363-9
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  • [Title] Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a series of cases of parathyroid incidentalomas and review the related medical literature.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all patients of one surgeon who underwent unplanned removal of enlarged parathyroid glands found either during a surgical procedure performed for indications other than hyperparathyroidism or by ultrasonography of the thyroid gland between September 1989 and December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Clinical and laboratory data-- especially serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels--as well as information on postoperative parathyroid function are reported.
  • RESULTS: Among 421 patients (355 who underwent thyroidectomy and 66 who underwent transhiatal esophagectomy), 5 cases of parathyroid incidentalomas (1.2%) were identified.
  • These incidental parathyroid adenomas were found during thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer in two patients, during esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in one patient (the first such reported case), and during ultrasonography of the neck for evaluation of thyroid nodules in two patients.
  • In one patient in whom intraoperative PTH level was determined both before and after resection of a large parathyroid adenoma, the initially high PTH value (180 pg/mL) declined to the normal range (48.2 pg/mL).
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental identification of enlarged parathyroid glands during a neck surgical procedure is not common but does occur.
  • Intraoperative and postoperative measurements of serum calcium and PTH along with postoperative bone density testing can help determine whether such parathyroid incidentalomas are functional.
  • These enlarged parathyroid glands should be removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16638722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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88. Power C, Kavanagh D, Hill AD, O'Higgins N, McDermott E: Unusual presentation of a giant parathyroid adenoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(3):235-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual presentation of a giant parathyroid adenoma: report of a case.
  • Parathyroid adenomas account for most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (1 degrees HPT).
  • Certain symptoms and biochemical abnormalities alert the surgeon to their presence, since these benign tumors are rarely evident on physical examination.
  • Parathyroid adenomas rarely attain huge proportions.
  • We report a case of a parathyroid adenoma measuring 8 x 5 x 3.5 cm and weighing 110 g; to our knowledge the greatest mass reported in the literature.
  • Interestingly, despite its huge size it did not cause many of the hypercalcemic symptoms usually associated with larger adenomas, but rather it manifested with symptoms of local pressure, another unusual property of this atypical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Immunohistochemistry. Ireland. Neoplasm Staging. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15772795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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89. Stubbs J, Liu S, Quarles LD: Role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in phosphate homeostasis and pathogenesis of disordered mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease. Semin Dial; 2007 Jul-Aug;20(4):302-8
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  • The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a novel bone-derived hormone that inhibits phosphate reabsorption and calcitriol production by the kidney, has uncovered primary regulatory pathways and new systems biology governing bone mineralization, vitamin D metabolism, parathyroid gland function and renal phosphate handling.
  • Pathologically, high circulating levels of FGF23 result in hypophosphatemia, decreased production of 1,25(OH)(2)D, elevated parathyroid hormone and rickets/osteomalacia in patients with functioning kidneys, whereas low levels are associated with tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemia and elevated 1,25(OH)(2)D.
  • While the significance of increased FGF23 levels in CKD remains to be defined, it might contribute to phosphate excretion and suppression of 1,25(OH)(2)D levels in CKD stages 3 and 4, as well as potentially contribute to secondary hyperparathyroidism through direct actions on the parathyroid gland in more advanced renal failure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / physiology. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / physiology. Vitamin D / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17635819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in dialysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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90. Ogata H, Mizobuchi M, Koiwa F, Kinugasa E, Akizawa T: Clinical significance of parathyroid intervention on CKD-MBD management. NDT Plus; 2008 Aug;1(Suppl 3):iii9-iii13
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of parathyroid intervention on CKD-MBD management.
  • Recently published 'Guidelines for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic dialysis patients' by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy advocate that percutaneous ethanol injection into enlarged glands, which has been considered as the only alternative to parathyroidectomy (PTx), should be indicated in patients with a single enlarged parathyroid gland (estimated volume >500 mm(3), or estimated major axis >10 mm), and that PTx should be recommended in patients with multiple enlarged glands.
  • Cinacalcet cannot achieve optimal control of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder in all patients, and parathyroid intervention will be required in a considerable number of patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 25983977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4421131
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91. Stillion JR, Ritt MG: Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs. Compend Contin Educ Vet; 2009 Jun;31(6):E8
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  • The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is important for maintaining calcium homeostasis.
  • Parathyroid gland hyperplasia and subsequent hyperparathyroidism can occur secondary to chronic renal failure in dogs, resulting in significant alterations in calcium metabolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / metabolism. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / veterinary. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / veterinary. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19746344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-8315
  • [Journal-full-title] Compendium (Yardley, PA)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Compend Contin Educ Vet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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92. Mun HC, Brennan SC, Delbridge L, Wilkinson M, Brown EM, Conigrave AD: Adenomatous human parathyroid cells exhibit impaired sensitivity to L-amino acids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Sep;94(9):3567-74
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  • [Title] Adenomatous human parathyroid cells exhibit impaired sensitivity to L-amino acids.
  • CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism, which occurs most commonly in patients with adenomatous disease of a single parathyroid gland, arises as a result of impaired extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(o))-dependent feedback on PTH secretion, a process mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR).
  • OBJECTIVE: Because the Ca(2+)(o) sensitivity of the CaR is positively modulated by L-amino acids, we decided to investigate whether the impaired feedback of PTH secretion in adenomatous parathyroid cells might arise from decreased sensitivity to L-amino acids.
  • DESIGN: Samples of normal and adenomatous human parathyroid cells were prepared by collagenase treatment and then exposed in vitro to various concentrations of Ca(2+)(o) or the CaR-active amino acid, L-phenylalanine (L-Phe).
  • SETTING AND PATIENTS: Excess normal parathyroid tissue was obtained from parathyroid autotransplants at the time of thyroid surgery.
  • Samples of adenomatous tissue were obtained from histologically confirmed parathyroid adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid adenomas exhibited reduced sensitivity to the CaR-active amino acid L-Phe, which affected both Ca(2+)(o)-dependent PTH secretion and Ca(2+)(o)-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization as a measure of CaR-dependent signaling in parathyroid cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Impaired L-amino acid sensing by calcium-sensing receptors in adenomatous parathyroid cells contributes to the loss of feedback control of PTH secretion in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Amino Acids / pharmacology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Feedback, Physiological. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Phenylalanine / pharmacology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19567535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 47E5O17Y3R / Phenylalanine; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2741716
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93. Solorzano CC, Carneiro-Pla DM, Irvin GL 3rd: Surgeon-performed ultrasonography as the initial and only localizing study in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Jan;202(1):18-24
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  • BACKGROUND: With a secure diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism, preoperative localization of abnormal glands is the initial step toward limited parathyroidectomy.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred twenty-six patients underwent preoperative SUS and Sestamibi scans before limited parathyroidectomy guided by quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay.
  • In 53 patients, SUS showed no parathyroid gland (n = 32), did not recognize multiglandular disease (n = 5), and showed an incorrect location of the abnormal gland (n = 16).
  • With use of quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay, successful parathyroidectomy was accomplished in 223 of 226 (99%), unilateral exploration in 88%, and overnight stay avoided in 78% of patients.

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  • (PMID = 16377493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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94. Bonczynski J: Primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2007 May;22(2):70-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats is a solitary adenoma involving an extracapsular parathyroid gland.
  • The prognosis is excellent if the affected parathyroid gland is removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / surgery. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17591292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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95. Tanaka M, Tominaga Y, Itoh K, Matsushita K, Matsushita K, Matsuoka S, Ueki T, Goto N, Sato T, Katayama A, Haba T, Uchida K: Autoinfarction of the parathyroid gland diagnosed by power Doppler ultrasonography in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2006 Apr;21(4):1092-5
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  • [Title] Autoinfarction of the parathyroid gland diagnosed by power Doppler ultrasonography in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / ultrasonography. Infarction / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • (PMID = 16364993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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96. Imachi H, Murao K, Kontani K, Yokomise H, Miyai Y, Yamamoto Y, Kushida Y, Haba R, Ishida T: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis. Endocrine; 2009 Oct;36(2):194-7
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  • [Title] Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis.
  • After the episode of acute pancreatitis subsided, laboratory investigation revealed increased serum calcium (12.0 mg/dl), decreased serum phosphorus (2.7 mg/dl), and increased serum parathyroid hormone (intact) levels (131 pg/ml).
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck did not reveal any mass lesions in the parathyroid gland.
  • However, (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy revealed that there was one functioning parathyroid gland in the upper mediastinum.
  • Combined (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in the mediastinum.
  • Microscopic examination revealed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma (1.3 x 0.4 cm(2)) adjacent to the atrophic parathyroid gland in right thymus gland.
  • We report the case of a patient diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • An ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma may manifest as an episode of acute pancreatitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Pancreatitis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 19598003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Khan MK, Taous A, Sultana SZ, Sharif A, Hossain MM, Mostafa G, Hussain MA, Azim MA, Siddique MA: Neck swelling with renal stone. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Oct;19(4):622-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Number of parathyroid glands and their ectopic locations in individuals are the problem of its management.
  • Parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia may be a part of Multiple Endocrine neoplasia type II.
  • After search, hypercalcaemia, bilateral renal stone, raised parathormone level and enlarged one parathyroid gland in lower pole of left thyroid lobe was identified.
  • Clinically it was diagnosed as parathyroid adenoma which was proved histologically after surgical excision.
  • Many controversies still exist regarding the treatment policy of parathyroid adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20956910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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98. Gómez Marqués G, Obrador Mulet A, Vilar Gimeno A, Pascual Felip MJ, Alarcón Zurita A, Molina Guasch M, Uriol Rivera M, Munar Vila MA, Losada González P: Treatment with cinacalcet of secondary hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2009 Jul-Aug;41(6):2139-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Calcimimetics inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion by modulating the calcium-sensing receptor in the parathyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 19715856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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99. Marcheix B, Brouchet L, Berjaud J, Dahan M: Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Nov;30(5):808-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • She underwent first a subtotal resection of the parathyroid glands associated with subtotal thyroidectomy in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism and multi nodular thyroid.
  • Pathologic findings were consistent with hyperplasia and demonstrated a fifth parathyroid gland in the thyroid.
  • Two years later, the patient presented recurrent hyperparathyroidism associated with terminal renal insufficiency, fusion of Sesta Mibi scintigraphy and CT scan demonstrated a sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland in the aorto pulmonary window.
  • Pathologic findings demonstrated a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16979898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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100. Masatsugu T, Yamashita H, Noguchi S, Nishii R, Watanabe S, Uchino S, Kuroki S, Tanaka M: Significant clinical differences in primary hyperparathyroidism between patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease. Surg Today; 2005;35(5):351-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the differences in diagnosis and treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease.
  • METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with pHPT underwent parathyroid localization and thyroid examination by ultrasonography (US) and sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI).
  • The clinical and biochemical findings, parathyroid localization, and operations performed were compared in 49 patients without thyroid disease and 61 patients with thyroid disease.
  • The pathologic parathyroid gland was identified significantly more often in patients without concomitant thyroid disease than in those with concomitant thyroid disease both by US and MIBI (P < 0.05).
  • Thyroid disease concomitant with pHPT influenced parathyroid localization as well as the indication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / complications

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  • (PMID = 15864415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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