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1. Gogo-Abite M, Seleye-Fubara D, Jamabo RS: Fibroadenoma coexisting with infiltrating ductal carcinoma--a case report. Niger J Med; 2005 Apr-Jun;14(2):221-3
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  • BACKGROUND: Fibroadenomas are benign breast tumours that are commonly diagnosed in young women in their 20's and early 30's.
  • Occurrence of malignancy in the breasts of these women is very rare.
  • METHOD AND RESULT: We report a case of an infiltrating ductal carcinoma within an otherwise benign fibroadenoma in a 23-year-old woman.
  • She presented with a lump, approximately 7cm in diameter, in her right breast.
  • CONCLUSION: Fibroadenomas are commonly diagnosed in patients in their 20's when the risk of developing breast cancer is extremely rare.
  • Despite this rarity all excised breast lumps should be subjected to histopathological evaluation in order to avoid a diagnostic pitfall.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16083250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1115-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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2. Sisci D, Morelli C, Garofalo C, Romeo F, Morabito L, Casaburi F, Middea E, Cascio S, Brunelli E, Andò S, Surmacz E: Expression of nuclear insulin receptor substrate 1 in breast cancer. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jun;60(6):633-41
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  • [Title] Expression of nuclear insulin receptor substrate 1 in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), a cytoplasmic protein transmitting signals from the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors, has been implicated in breast cancer.
  • However, the expression of nuclear IRS-1 in breast cancer biopsy specimens has never been examined.
  • AIMS: To assess whether nuclear IRS-1 is present in breast cancer and non-cancer mammary epithelium, and whether it correlates with other markers, especially ERalpha.
  • RESULTS: Median nuclear IRS-1 expression was found to be low in normal mammary epithelial cells (1.6%) and high in benign tumours (20.5%), ductal grade 2 carcinoma (11.0%) and lobular carcinoma (approximately 30%).
  • Median ERalpha expression in normal epithelium, benign tumours, ductal cancer grade 2 and 3, and lobular cancer grade 2 and 3 were 10.5, 20.5, 65.0, 0.0, 80 and 15%, respectively.
  • Nuclear IRS-1 and ERalpha positively correlated in ductal cancer (p<0.001) and benign tumours (p<0.01), but were not associated in lobular cancer and normal mammary epithelium.
  • In ductal carcinoma, both nuclear IRS-1 and ERalpha negatively correlated with tumour grade, size, mitotic index and lymph node involvement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between nuclear IRS-1 and ERalpha is a characteristic for ductal breast cancer and marks a more differentiated, non-metastatic phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Microscopy, Confocal. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16882697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / IRS1 protein, human; 0 / Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955087
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3. Davoren PA, McNeill RE, Lowery AJ, Kerin MJ, Miller N: Identification of suitable endogenous control genes for microRNA gene expression analysis in human breast cancer. BMC Mol Biol; 2008;9:76
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  • [Title] Identification of suitable endogenous control genes for microRNA gene expression analysis in human breast cancer.
  • While ECs have been validated for quantification of mRNA expression in various experimental settings, to date there is no report of the validation of miRNA ECs for expression profiling in breast tissue.
  • In this study, the expression of five miRNA genes (let-7a, miR-10b, miR-16, miR-21 and miR-26b) and three small nucleolar RNA genes (RNU19, RNU48 and Z30) was examined across malignant, benign and normal breast tissues to determine the most appropriate normalisation strategy.
  • This is the first study to identify reliable ECs for analysis of miRNA by RQ-PCR in human breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / standards. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MicroRNAs / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Silencing. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction / standards. RNA, Small Nuclear / genetics. Reference Standards

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  • (PMID = 18718003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2199
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Small Nuclear
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2533012
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4. Buch A, Rout P, Makhija P: Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):259-61
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  • [Title] Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump.
  • An unusual combination of two benign breast neoplasms adenomyoepithelioma and phyllodes tumor presenting as a solitary breast lump have been described.
  • Both these tumors have tendencies to recur and have malignant potential.
  • This patient also presented with a recurrent breast neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;49(3):476
  • (PMID = 16933731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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5. Giorgi Rossi P, Federici A, Farchi S, Chini F, Barca A, Guasticchi G, Borgia P: The effect of screening programmes on the treatment of benign breast neoplasms: observations from current practice in Italy. J Med Screen; 2006;13(3):123-8
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  • [Title] The effect of screening programmes on the treatment of benign breast neoplasms: observations from current practice in Italy.
  • In this study, we compare the incidences of treatments for benign and malignant neoplasms in the two groups.
  • We linked all incident cases of surgery for benign and malignant breast neoplasms, from the Hospital Information System (1999-2003) to the Mammographic Screening Information System (1999-2001).
  • We calculated incidence, adjusted for age and standardized breast cancer mortality ratio in each area of residence, for benign and malignant neoplasms surgery in non-yet-contacted and contacted woman.
  • RESULTS: The target population in Lazio is 681,000; 116,000 women were contacted during the study period and 3252 malignant and 1566 benign neoplasms were surgically treated.
  • Annual incidence was, respectively, 2.0/1000 and 1.1/1000 for malignant and benign neoplasms in women not contacted, and, respectively, 2.9/1000 and 1.1/1000 in the contacted population.
  • About one-half of the surgeries for benign neoplasms in compliant women were treated against the recommendation of the screening programme.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the screening programme did not increase the incidence of treatment for benign neoplasms, and detected 50% more malignant neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Mammography. Mass Screening. Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 17007652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-1413
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical screening
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Screen
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Yang J, Hu A, Wang L, Li B, Chen Y, Zhao W, Xu W, Li T: NOEY2 mutations in primary breast cancers and breast hyperplasia. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):197-203
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  • [Title] NOEY2 mutations in primary breast cancers and breast hyperplasia.
  • PURPOSE: The NOEY2 gene mutations and protein expression in human breast cancers, adjacent breast tissues and breast benign lesions were analysed to explore the potential correlation between the mutation spectrum and breast cancer development and progression.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The promoter, exon and intron regions of NOEY2 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA extracted from 50 human breast cancer and corresponding adjacent breast tissues as well as 50 breast benign lesions, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-one of 50 (42%) breast cancer mutations were identified in promoter (11 cases) and exon 2 (seven cases on untranslation region and three on coding region) and 17 of 50 (34%) adjacent breast tissues (all were atypical hyperplasia lesions) occurred mutations, including six promoter mutations and 11 exon 2 changes (10 cases on untranslation region and one on coding region).
  • Interestingly, the mutations were identified in both breast cancers and the corresponding adjacent breast tissues collected from the same patient in seven of them.
  • No mutation was identified in all benign breast tissues.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that two of 17 mutational adjacent breast tissue samples were NOEY2 immunoreaction negative, and in all 21 mutations of breast cancers five cases were of loss of NOEY2 expression.
  • NOEY2 gene mutations were not correlated with patient ages, histological types, tumour sizes, histological grades, clinical stages, axillary lymph node metastases or with the condition of hormone receptor (ER, PR) expression and HER2 amplification.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mutations of human NOEY2 were identified in human breast cancers and the corresponding adjacent breast tissues.
  • The presence of NOEY2 mutations in human breast cancer and early-stage lesions indicates that NOEY2 mutations may be partly associated with breast tumourigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 19482475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
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7. Tafuri LS, Rocha GF, Gobbi H: Cell cycle related proteins in hyperplasia of usual type in breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer. BMC Cell Biol; 2006;7:29
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  • [Title] Cell cycle related proteins in hyperplasia of usual type in breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyperplasia of usual type (HUT) is a common proliferative lesion associated with a slight elevated risk for subsequent development of breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of cell cycle related proteins in HUT of breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer, and compare this expression with areas of invasive carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against cell cycle related proteins ER, PR, p53, p21, p63, and Ki-67 in hyperplasia of usual type (HUT) in specimens of aesthetic reduction mammaplasty (ARM), in specimens of mammaplasty contralateral to breast cancer (MCC), and in specimens of invasive mammary carcinomas (IMC) presenting HUT in the adjacent parenchyma.
  • We also found cytoplasmic expression of p21 in benign hyperplastic lesions and in neoplastic cells of IMC.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data failed to demonstrate different expression of cell cycle related proteins in HUT from patients with and without breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology. Hyperplasia / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Menopause / physiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16869981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2121
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1563460
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8. Nadelman CM, Leslie KO, Fishbein MC: "Benign," metastasizing adenomyoepithelioma of the breast: a report of 2 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Sep;130(9):1349-53
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  • [Title] "Benign," metastasizing adenomyoepithelioma of the breast: a report of 2 cases.
  • Adenomyoepitheliomas of the breast are rare tumors composed of a proliferation of 2 cell populations.
  • For the most part, they are considered to be benign, but they locally recur.
  • Those neoplasms that metastasize are deemed to have come from a histologically malignant primary tumor.
  • Herein, we describe 2 cases of metastases of histologically "benign" adenomyoepitheliomas of the breast to the lung.
  • In both cases, the primary neoplasms and the metastases did not show histologic features of malignancy.
  • These unique cases represent another example of neoplasms that can metastasize in the absence of histologic features that would suggest malignant behavior.
  • Establishing the diagnosis, determining optimal therapy, and predicting outcome are problematic because of the rarity of this entity.
  • Perhaps, classification of adenomyoepitheliomas should be changed to recognize those neoplasms with malignant behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16948523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Turnbull LW: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer. NMR Biomed; 2009 Jan;22(1):28-39
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  • [Title] Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer.
  • Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is an evolving tool for determining breast disease, which benefits from the move to imaging at 3 T.
  • It has major capabilities for the diagnosis, detection and monitoring of malignancy.
  • However, there are also a number of limitations, including the overlap in enhancement patterns between malignant and benign disease, the failure to resolve microscopic disease particularly in the neoadjuvant setting, and the inconsistent predictive value of the enhancement pattern for clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Contrast Media. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Mass Screening. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18654999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-3480
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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10. Durai R, Ruhomauly SN, Wilson E, Hoque H: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as a breast lump in a treated breast cancer patient. Singapore Med J; 2009 Aug;50(8):e277-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as a breast lump in a treated breast cancer patient.
  • Metastatic malignancy in the breast is uncommon.
  • A 68-year-old woman with a past medical history of breast cancer presented with a lump in the opposite breast.
  • A mammogram suggested a possible benign lump.
  • The histology on the breast core biopsy showed it to be a metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • Subsequent computed tomography of the abdomen confirmed a renal primary tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Mammography / methods. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Ultrasonography / methods


11. De Vries J, Van der Steeg AF, Roukema JA: Determinants of fatigue 6 and 12 months after surgery in women with early-stage breast cancer: a comparison with women with benign breast problems. J Psychosom Res; 2009 Jun;66(6):495-502
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  • [Title] Determinants of fatigue 6 and 12 months after surgery in women with early-stage breast cancer: a comparison with women with benign breast problems.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the predictors of fatigue 6 and 12 months after surgical treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer (BC group) and in women with benign breast problems (BBP group) in a prospective follow-up study.
  • METHODS: Women entered the study prior to diagnosis and completed questionnaires on personality factors, psychological factors, and social support.
  • Fatigue was assessed 6 and 12 months after diagnosis (BBP group) or surgical treatment (BC group).
  • CONCLUSION: Many patients who are already fatigued before diagnosis remain tired regardless of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms. Fatigue / diagnosis. Fatigue / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anxiety Disorders / diagnosis. Anxiety Disorders / epidemiology. Anxiety Disorders / psychology. Cognition. Demography. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Personality Disorders / diagnosis. Personality Disorders / epidemiology. Postoperative Period. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Social Support. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors


12. Tse GM, Tan PH, Lui PC, Gilks CB, Poon CS, Ma TK, Law BK, Lam WW: The role of immunohistochemistry for smooth-muscle actin, p63, CD10 and cytokeratin 14 in the differential diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;60(3):315-20
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry for smooth-muscle actin, p63, CD10 and cytokeratin 14 in the differential diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast.
  • The evaluation of myoepithelial cells can be helpful, with benign papilloma showing a continuous myoepithelial cell layer, which becomes attenuated or absent in malignant papillary lesions.
  • METHODS: A large series of 100 papillomas (28 papillomas with florid epithelial hyperplasia) and 68 papillary carcinomas (9 invasive, 44 in situ, and 15 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) involving papillomas) of the breast were stained for myoepithelial cells by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to smooth-muscle actin (SMA), p63, CD10 and cytokeratin (CK) 14.
  • CK14 and p63 may be used as an adjunct in assessing difficult papillary lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratin-14 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Papilloma / metabolism. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16698948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860581
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13. Soares Leite D, Lima de Lima PD, Ferreira Leal M, Suchi Chen E, Casartelli C, de Arruda Cardoso Smith M, Rodríguez Burbano R: Investigation of chromosome 21 aneuploidies in breast fibroadenomas by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Clin Exp Med; 2006 Dec;6(4):166-70
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  • [Title] Investigation of chromosome 21 aneuploidies in breast fibroadenomas by fluorescence in situ hybridisation.
  • Fibroadenoma (FA) is a benign breast tumour that occurs in about 25% of women.
  • Cytogenetic studies suggest that numerical chromosomal aberrations may contribute to tumorigenesis, but chromosomal instability is still poorly characterised in breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate numerical alterations of chromosome 21 in 15 breast FAs.
  • Classical cytogenetics analysis showed that all cells were diploidies with modal number varying between 43 and 47 chromosomes, and clonal chromosome alterations in 46.7% of tumours.
  • The study of benign proliferations and comparison with chromosome alterations in their malignant counterparts should result in an understanding of the genes acting in cell proliferation alone and those that cause these cells to both undergo malignant transformation and become invasive.
  • [MeSH-major] Aneuploidy. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 / genetics. Fibroadenoma / genetics. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence

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  • (PMID = 17191108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1591-8890
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Huang ZH, Li LH, Hua D: Quantitative analysis of plasma circulating DNA at diagnosis and during follow-up of breast cancer patients. Cancer Lett; 2006 Nov 8;243(1):64-70
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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of plasma circulating DNA at diagnosis and during follow-up of breast cancer patients.
  • The aim of the present project was to quantify the level of plasma DNA in patients with malignant or non-malignant breast diseases and in healthy controls, then investigate whether such measurements have diagnostic or prognostic value.
  • Plasma DNA from 121 women (61 patients with breast cancer, 33 control patients with benign breast diseases and 27 healthy control individuals) was quantified by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
  • Plasma DNA concentration in the breast cancer patients (median 65 ng/ml) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in the control patients (median 22 ng/ml) or healthy control (median 13 ng/ml).
  • The data suggest that quantification of plasma circulating DNA may be a valuable complementary diagnostic tool in discriminate breast cancer from unaffected individuals and may be proposed as an early detection test as well as a new, noninvasive assay to follow-up patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. DNA, Neoplasm / blood

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  • (PMID = 16412565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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15. Benarroch-Gampel J, Riall TS: Extrapancreatic malignancies and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas. World J Gastrointest Surg; 2010 Oct 27;2(10):363-7
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  • [Title] Extrapancreatic malignancies and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.
  • Over the last two decades multiple studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of additional malignancies in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs).
  • The majority of these additional cancers occur before or concurrent with the diagnosis of IPMN.
  • The gastrointestinal tract is most commonly involved in secondary malignancies, with benign colon polyps and colon cancer commonly seen in western countries and gastric cancer commonly seen in Asian countries.
  • Other extrapancreatic malignancies associated with IPMNs include benign and malignant esophageal neoplasms, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, carcinoid tumors, hepatobiliary cancers, breast cancers, prostate cancers, and lung cancers.
  • Routine screening studies (breast and prostate) should be carried out as currently recommended for patient's age both before and after the diagnosis of IPMN.

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  • (PMID = 21160845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-9366
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999205
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm / Invasive / Malignant potential / Non-invasive / Secondary malignancy
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16. Li KL, Partridge SC, Joe BN, Gibbs JE, Lu Y, Esserman LJ, Hylton NM: Invasive breast cancer: predicting disease recurrence by using high-spatial-resolution signal enhancement ratio imaging. Radiology; 2008 Jul;248(1):79-87
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  • [Title] Invasive breast cancer: predicting disease recurrence by using high-spatial-resolution signal enhancement ratio imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate high-spatial-resolution signal enhancement ratio (SER) imaging for the prediction of disease recurrence in patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
  • From 1995 to 2002, gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging data were acquired with a three time point high-resolution method in women undergoing neoadjuvant therapy for invasive breast cancers.
  • RESULTS: Breast tumor volume calculated from the number of voxels with SER values above a threshold corresponding to the upper limit of mean redistribution rate constant in benign tumors (0.88 minutes(-1)) and the volume of cancerous breast tissue infiltrating into the parenchyma were important predictors of disease recurrence.
  • All three prechemotherapy parameters (total tumor volume, tumor volumes with high and low SER) and the postchemotherapy tumor volume with high SER were significantly different between the two groups.
  • The multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression showed that, of the three prechemotherapy covariates, only the low SER and high SER tumor volumes (P = .017 and .049, respectively) were significant and independent predictors of tumor recurrence.
  • Tumor volume with high SER was the only significant postchemotherapy covariate predictor (P = .038).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2008.
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  • (PMID = 18566170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA069587; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116182
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Fajdić J, Gotovac N, Hrgović Z, Kristek J, Horvat V, Kaufmann M: Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):113-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • BACKGROUND: This article compares experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumors from 2 regional institutions with the relevant literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 2,848 breast cancer patients were treated in our institutions, 36 (1.44%) for phyllodes tumors.
  • The average tumor size was 5.1 cm (range 1.4-19.6).
  • Wide excision with tumor-free margins was carried out in 29 (80.5%) cases and mastectomy in 7 (19.4%) cases.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed the phyllodes tumors to be benign in 27 (75.0%), malignant in 6 (16.6%), and borderline in 3 (8.3%) cases.
  • In this period, recurrences of 3 (8.3%) malignant and 2 (5.6%) benign phyllodes tumors were diagnosed and treated.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study shows that tumor size, margin infiltration, mitotic activity and degree of cellular atypia are important prognostic factors.
  • Although wide local excision is usually the treatment of choice, tumor recurrence is common.
  • Axillary lymphadenectomy in malignant phyllodes tumors is, in our opinion, still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mammography. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17341897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Ye YB, Zhou ZF, Chen Q, Li JY, Chen X, Huang WW: [The roles of soluble MICA in immune escape of breast tumor]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;24(9):904-7
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  • [Title] [The roles of soluble MICA in immune escape of breast tumor].
  • AIM: To determine the expression of soluble MICA (sMICA) in serum of patients with breast tumor, and explore the roles of sMICA in immune escape.
  • The cytotoxicity of NK cells to breast cancer cells was observed with MTT assay.
  • RESULTS: sMICA was not detected in the serum of healthy person, but(76.8+/-22.3) ng/L in breast benign tumor patients and (205.4+/-71.3) ng/L in breast malignant tumor patients.
  • There was positive correlation between sMICA levels and breast cancer stage.
  • IL-15 up-regulated the expression of NKG2D on NK cells and increased NK cells cytotoxicity to breast cancer cells.
  • CONCLUSION: sMICA level is positive correlated with breast cancer TNM stage. sMICA reduced the expression of NKG2D, impaired NK-mediated immune surveillance and led to immune escape of breast tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Female. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Neoplasm Staging. Solubility

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  • (PMID = 18782524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-8738
  • [Journal-full-title] Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / MHC class I-related chain A
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19. Goicoechea SM, Bednarski B, García-Mata R, Prentice-Dunn H, Kim HJ, Otey CA: Palladin contributes to invasive motility in human breast cancer cells. Oncogene; 2009 Jan 29;28(4):587-98
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  • [Title] Palladin contributes to invasive motility in human breast cancer cells.
  • In this study, we found that the protein palladin, a molecular scaffold with an important function in actin organization, is expressed at higher overall levels in tumors compared with benign breast tissue, and also expressed significantly higher in four invasive breast cancer cell lines when compared with four non-invasive cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 18978809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009688; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM61743; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM061743; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM061743-04; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM061743-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098240; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA09688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA098240
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / palladin protein, human; 0 / palladin protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS72118; NLM/ PMC2633435
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20. Chen YW, Chuang YW, Lai YC, Hsieh JS, Liu GC, Hou MF: Is early dynamic lymphoscintigraphy for detection of sentinel lymph nodes always achievable in breast tumor? Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;20(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Is early dynamic lymphoscintigraphy for detection of sentinel lymph nodes always achievable in breast tumor?
  • OBJECTIVE: In this article, we will discuss the achievement of early dynamic lymphoscintigraphic protocol and compare detection of sentinel node between benign and malignant breast tumors, and whether pathologic factor is related or not.
  • The average age of patients was 47.6 +/- 9.8 years and all of them were clinically suspected of having breast cancer.
  • The average tumor was 2.1 +/- 1.1 cm in size.
  • All patients underwent surgery sixteen to twenty hours later and had a final pathological diagnosis.
  • From the summation image of dynamic study, identified axillary sentinel nodal activity was found as 80% in the group of benign breast tumor, but only 48% in the group of malignant breast tumor.
  • However, this short period of protocol is not always achievable to detect sentinel node, especially in the group with breast malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16485574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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21. Xu C, Jung M, Burkhardt M, Stephan C, Schnorr D, Loening S, Jung K, Dietel M, Kristiansen G: Increased CD59 protein expression predicts a PSA relapse in patients after radical prostatectomy. Prostate; 2005 Feb 15;62(3):224-32
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  • BACKGROUND: Human protectin (CD59) is a regulator of complement activation that inhibits complement-mediated cell lysis, and thus might confer immune resistance to tumor cells.
  • CD59 expression has been described in a variety of human malignancies, including breast cancer.
  • The immunoreactivity of the tumor was evaluated as low versus high for statistical analysis.
  • Additionally, CD59 mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR in matched (tumor/normal) microdissected tissues from 26 cases.
  • RESULTS: Cytoplasmic CD59 immunoreactivity was found in epithelia of prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign hyperplasia, atrophic, and normal glands.
  • High rates of CD59 expression were noted in 36% of prostate cancer cases and were significantly associated with tumor pT stage (P = 0.043), Gleason grade (P = 0.013) and earlier biochemical (PSA) relapse in Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.0013).
  • On RNA level, we found an upregulation in 19.2% (five cases), although the general rate of CD59 transcript was significantly lower in tumor tissue (P = 0.03).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Antigens, CD59 / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / immunology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / immunology


22. Engers R, Mueller M, Walter A, Collard JG, Willers R, Gabbert HE: Prognostic relevance of Tiam1 protein expression in prostate carcinomas. Br J Cancer; 2006 Oct 23;95(8):1081-6
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  • The Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Tiam1, plays a major role in oncogenicity, tumour invasion and metastasis but its usefulness as a prognostic marker in human cancer has not been tested yet.
  • In the present study, Tiam1 expression was analysed in benign secretory epithelium, pre-neoplastic high-grade prostatic intraepithelium neoplasia (HG-PIN) and prostate carcinomas of 60 R0-resected radical prostatectomy specimens by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry.
  • Tiam1 proved significantly overexpressed in both HG-PIN (P<0.001) and prostate carcinomas (P<0.001) when compared to benign secretory epithelium.
  • > or =3.5-fold) in prostate carcinomas relative to the respective benign prostatic epithelium was statistically significantly associated with disease recurrence (P=0.016), the presence of lymph vessel invasion (P=0.031) and high Gleason scores (GS) (i.e.
  • Together, our data suggest that strong Tiam1 overexpression relative to the corresponding benign epithelial cells is a new and independent predictor of decreased DFS for patients with prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / biosynthesis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Prostatectomy

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  • (PMID = 17003780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / TIAM1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360703
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23. Gozzi G, Martinoli C, Conti GM, Ganzetti A, Bodini M, Fiorentino C, Marini UP, Santini D, Bacigalupo L: Screening mammography interpretation test: more frequent mistakes. Radiol Med; 2005 Mar;109(3):268-79
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  • The mammograms had been taken in the four standard projections and placed on four multi-panel diaphanoscopes, each displaying a set of 40 cases comprising benign and malignant cases in equal proportions.
  • As regards the 23 most frequently misread cases, these were 10/32 (31.25%) mammograms positive for malignancy and 13/128 (10.15%) negative mammograms or mammograms showing benign disease.
  • The 13 cases of benign disease--as established by histology or long-term follow-up--mistaken for malignancies by the test participants were fibrocystic breast disease in 5 cases, surgical scar in 1 case, ABBI scar in 1 case, radial scar in 2 cases, microcalcifications that had remained stable for years in 2 cases, focal sclero-adenosis in 1 case and sclero-elastosis in 1 case.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The errors were due to microcalcifications, benign disease simulating a neoplasm, overlapping tissue, visibility of a lesion in one projection only, lesion site in relation to the corpus mammae, missed areas of asymmetry.
  • Attention must be paid to these signs of focal breast disease since, if correctly evaluated, they enable the early diagnosis of low-grade carcinomas that frequently carry a favourable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Diagnostic Errors. Mammography. Mass Screening. Radiology / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Breast Diseases / surgery. Calcinosis / radiography. Carcinoma in Situ / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Cicatrix / surgery. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / radiography. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Observer Variation


24. Zhong XY, Ladewig A, Schmid S, Wight E, Hahn S, Holzgreve W: Elevated level of cell-free plasma DNA is associated with breast cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2007 Oct;276(4):327-31
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  • [Title] Elevated level of cell-free plasma DNA is associated with breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: We analysed cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the plasma of patients with both malignant and benign breast lesions by real-time quantitative PCR to determine whether the finding may have diagnostic and prognostic implications.
  • METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from 33 patients with breast cancer, 32 patients with benign breast lesions and 50 healthy women as normal controls.
  • RESULTS: The mean concentrations of cfDNA in the plasma samples from patients with breast cancer, patients with benign breast lesions and normal controls were 2,285, 1,368 and 1,489 genome equivalents (GE) per millilitre, respectively.
  • The level of cfDNA in the breast cancer group was significantly higher than those in the benign lesion group and control group (P = 0.007 and 0.013, respectively).
  • These findings were associated with malignant tumour size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that levels of cfDNA in the plasma are elevated in malignant breast cancer and correlated with tumour size.
  • These findings could have diagnostic and prognostic value for malignant breast tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. DNA / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Diseases / blood. Cell-Free System. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Plasma / chemistry. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17431649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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25. Javid SH, Carlson JW, Garber JE, Birdwell RL, Lester S, Lipsitz S, Golshan M: Breast MRI wire-guided excisional biopsy: specimen size as compared to mammogram wire-guided excisional biopsy and implications for use. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;14(12):3352-8
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  • [Title] Breast MRI wire-guided excisional biopsy: specimen size as compared to mammogram wire-guided excisional biopsy and implications for use.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been implemented as a screening tool for early detection and as a diagnostic test in the management of breast cancer.
  • We also sought to evaluate factors that might predict the presence of breast cancer in patients undergoing MRIbx.
  • METHODS: We reviewed consecutive cases of breast MRIbx from 2004 to 2006 performed by seven surgeons.
  • MRI was performed in patients with either a synchronous breast cancer or significant risk factors.
  • Eleven (15.5%) invasive breast cancers and eight cases (11.3%) of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were identified.
  • DCIS-containing MRIbx specimens were significantly larger than benign or invasive cancer-containing specimens.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing breast MRIbx, 27% were found to have DCIS or invasive breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17849165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Dhingra KK, Mandal S, Roy S, Khurana N: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the breast: case report. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:142
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  • [Title] Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the breast: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of ectomesenchymal origin.
  • It is the malignant counterpart of benign soft tissue tumors like neurofibromas and schwannomas and may often follow them.
  • Breast is an extremely rare location of this lesion and presentation as a breast lump in the absence of pain or previous benign neural tumor is even rarer.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old female presented with complaints of painless, hard breast lump for three months which was clinically suspected to be a ductal carcinoma with inconclusive fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • Histopathology revealed a malignant spindle cell tumor which was confirmed to be malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor on the basis of immunopositivity for vimentin, neurone specific enolase and S-100.
  • The differential diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor should be considered by the clinician as well as the pathologists in the work-up of a breast neoplasm as treatment and prognosis of this rare malignancy is different.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • [Cites] Orv Hetil. 1998 Jan 18;139(3):137-9 [9467297.001]
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  • (PMID = 18154670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vimentin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2246134
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27. Suga K, Kawakami Y, Hiyama A, Matsunaga N: Differentiation of FDG-avid loco-regional recurrent and compromised benign lesions after surgery for breast cancer with dual-time point F-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose PET/CT scan. Ann Nucl Med; 2009 Jun;23(4):399-407
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  • [Title] Differentiation of FDG-avid loco-regional recurrent and compromised benign lesions after surgery for breast cancer with dual-time point F-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose PET/CT scan.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of dual-time point F-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) PET/CT scans to differentiate FDG-avid loco-regional recurrent and compromised benign lesions after surgery for breast cancer.
  • METHODS: A total of 64 FDG-avid recurrent lesions (local tumor recurrence or lymph node metastases) in 52 patients and 38 FDG-avid compromised benign lesions after surgery in 37 patients were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: The average early SUVmax, delayed SUVmax and DeltaSUVmax% were 4.9 +/- 2.6, 6.0 +/- 3.6 and 18.2% +/- 18.8 in FDG-avid recurrent lesions, and 2.1 +/- 0.8, 1.8 +/- 1.0 and -17.8% +/- 21.3 in FDG-avid benign lesions, respectively.
  • Delayed SUVmax was significantly increased compared with early SUVmax in recurrent lesions (P < 0.0001), while it was decreased in benign lesions (P < 0.0001).
  • All the three parameters in recurrent lesions were significantly higher than those in benign lesions (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This approach with SUVmax estimation appears to improve the differentiation between FDG-avid loco-regional recurrent of breast cancer and compromised benign lesions after surgery, since delayed scanning significantly enhances the difference in FDG uptake between these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. ROC Curve. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19452249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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28. Milot L, Guindi M, Gallinger S, Moulton CA, Brock KK, Dawson LA, Haider MA: MR imaging correlates of intratumoral tissue types within colorectal liver metastases: a high-spatial-resolution fresh ex vivo radiologic-pathologic correlation study. Radiology; 2010 Mar;254(3):747-54
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  • In seven consecutive patients undergoing hepatic resection for liver metastases (primary colorectal in six, breast mistaken for colorectal in one), the resected fresh ex vivo liver specimen was examined with T1-weighted (repetition time msec/echo time msec, 9/4.4-4.8) and T2-weighted (2500/90) MR imaging by using a voxel size of 0.47 x 0.7 x 2 mm.
  • This SI pattern is unusual for common benign liver lesions and may be helpful in the MR imaging diagnosis of colorectal liver metastases. (c) RSNA, 2010.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Linear Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies


29. Lee JM, Georgian-Smith D, Gazelle GS, Halpern EF, Rafferty EA, Moore RH, Yeh ED, D'Alessandro HA, Hitt RA, Kopans DB: Detecting nonpalpable recurrent breast cancer: the role of routine mammographic screening of transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstructions. Radiology; 2008 Aug;248(2):398-405
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  • [Title] Detecting nonpalpable recurrent breast cancer: the role of routine mammographic screening of transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstructions.
  • RESULTS: Of 554 mammograms (265 TRAM flap reconstructions), 546 (98.6%) had negative results (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 1 or 2).
  • Eight (1.4%) had positive test results (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 0, 3, 4, or 5).
  • All suspicious lesions underwent biopsy and had benign pathologic results.
  • No interval breast cancers were identified.
  • The detection rate for nonpalpable recurrent breast cancer was 0% (exact 95% confidence interval: 0.0%, 1.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: Routine screening mammography of TRAM flap reconstructions has a very low detection rate for nonpalpable recurrent breast cancer.
  • Decision analysis indicates that screening such women is less effective than screening asymptomatic women in their 40s for primary breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Rectus Abdominis / transplantation. Surgical Flaps


30. Schiffhauer LM, Boger JN, Bonfiglio TA, Zavislan JM, Zuley M, Fox CA: Confocal microscopy of unfixed breast needle core biopsies: a comparison to fixed and stained sections. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:265
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  • [Title] Confocal microscopy of unfixed breast needle core biopsies: a comparison to fixed and stained sections.
  • BACKGROUND: Needle core biopsy, often in conjunction with ultrasonic or stereotactic guided techniques, is frequently used to diagnose breast carcinoma in women.
  • This paper reports the progress in developing techniques to rapidly screen needle core breast biopsy and surgical specimens at the point of care.
  • CSLM requires minimal tissue processing and has the potential to reduce the time from excision to diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Needle core breast specimens from 49 patients were imaged at the time of biopsy.
  • These lesions had been characterized under the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS) as category 3, 4 or 5.
  • Immediately following imaging, the specimens were fixed in buffered formalin and submitted for histological processing and pathological diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: The pathologic diagnoses by standard histology were 7 invasive ductal carcinomas, 2 invasive lobular carcinomas, 3 ductal carcinomas in-situ (CIS), 21 fibrocystic changes/proliferative conditions, 9 fibroadenomas, and 5 other/benign; two were excluded due to imaging difficulties.
  • Morphologic and cellular features of benign and cancerous lesions were identified in the confocal images and were comparable to standard histologic sections of the same tissue.
  • Morphologic and cellular features of benign and cancerous lesions were identified in the confocal images.
  • Additional studies are needed to 1.) establish correlation of the confocal and traditional histologic images for the various diseases of the breast; 2.) validate diagnostic use of CSLM and; 3.) further define features of borderline lesions such as well-differentiated ductal CIS vs. atypical hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Proliferation. Contrast Media / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Medical Oncology / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19650910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3087331
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31. Iyengar P, Ali SZ, Brogi E: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of mammary adenomyoepithelioma: a study of 12 patients. Cancer; 2006 Aug 25;108(4):250-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Adenomyoepithelioma (AME) of the breast is a rare neoplasm that is characterized by a biphasic proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells.
  • METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective evaluation of cytologic findings in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) material from 12 patients with histologically proven benign AMEs of the breast.
  • None of the patients were diagnosed originally with AME: Two tumors were classified as benign and consistent with fibroadenoma, 6 tumors were atypical, 2 tumors were suspicious for carcinoma, and 2 tumors were positive for malignant cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of the varied histology of AME, cytologic diagnosis of this neoplasm can be very challenging.
  • Conservative diagnosis and further histologic evaluation is recommended for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Clinical Trials as Topic. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16544319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Liu HM, Wu FL, Chen X, Ye CS, Deng YJ: [Value of ultrasonographic grading with high-frequency probes in distinguishing breast tumors]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 Oct;29(10):2115-7
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  • [Title] [Value of ultrasonographic grading with high-frequency probes in distinguishing breast tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of ultrasonographic grading with high-frequency probes in differentiating benign and malignant breast tumors.
  • METHODS: Sixty-four women (mean age 44.5-/+13.7 years) with 79 breast tumors underwent high-frequency ultrasonography to examine the tumor number, size, aspect ratio, shape, boundaries, encapsulation, pseudopod, internal and rear echoes, calcifications, blood perfusion, abnormality lymph nodes in the axilla.
  • The tumors were graded based on these findings using a 10-point grading system.
  • RESULTS: Between the 46 women with benign tumors and 18 with malignant tumors, no significant differences were found in the mean tumor number (1.5-/+1.3 vs 1.1-/+0.3, P>0.05) or size (55.0-/+19.2 mm vs 19.8-/+8.3 mm, P>0.05), but the mean age (41.4-/+12.4 years vs 52.4-/+14.1 years) and ultrasonographic grade (2.8-/+2.2 vs 7.3-/+1.7, P<0.05) differed significantly.
  • The ultrasonographic grade of the breast tumors showed an obvious correlation to the nature of the tumors (r=0.695, P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Grading of breast tumors with high-frequency ultrasonography helps evaluate the nature of the tumors, and a higher score suggests increased probability of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Grading. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19861280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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33. Jing F, Zhang J, Tao J, Zhou Y, Jun L, Tang X, Wang Y, Hai H: Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes BRCA1, p16 and 14-3-3sigma in serum of sporadic breast cancer patients. Onkologie; 2007 Feb;30(1-2):14-9
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  • [Title] Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes BRCA1, p16 and 14-3-3sigma in serum of sporadic breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: We investigated the hypermethylation status in serum of sporadic breast cancer patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hypermethylation status of BRCA1, p16 and 14-3-3sigma in cancerous tissues and the paired serum of 38 sporadic breast cancer patients was examined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay.
  • Normal and benign tissue and serum control DNA were also examined to determine the specificity of hypermethylation.
  • RESULTS: Hypermethylation of 1 or more genes was found in 36/38 (95%) of sporadic breast cancers.
  • No methylated products of BRCA1, p16 and 14-3-3sigma were observed in serum DNA from healthy women and patients with benign tissue specimens.
  • A gene unmethylated in the tumor DNA was always found to be unmethylated in matched serum DNA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylation of BRCA1, p16 and 14-3-3sigma is present in all histologic types, stages and grades in sporadic breast cancer and can be detected in serum DNA.
  • It signifies that serum-based hypermethylation screening may enhance early detection of sporadic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Genes, Tumor Suppressor
  • [MeSH-minor] 14-3-3 Proteins. Adult. Aged. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / blood. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Exonucleases / blood. Exonucleases / genetics. Exoribonucleases. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / blood. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17264521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 3.1.- / Exonucleases; EC 3.1.- / Exoribonucleases; EC 3.1.- / SFN protein, human; EC 6.3.2.- / BRAP protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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34. Mainiero MB, Cinelli CM, Koelliker SL, Graves TA, Chung MA: Axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in the preoperative evaluation of the breast cancer patient: an algorithm based on tumor size and lymph node appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Nov;195(5):1261-7
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  • [Title] Axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in the preoperative evaluation of the breast cancer patient: an algorithm based on tumor size and lymph node appearance.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients depending on the size of the primary tumor and the appearance of the lymph nodes.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were collected about tumor size, lymph node appearance, and the results of ultrasound-guided FNA and axillary surgery of 224 patients with breast cancer undergoing 226 ultrasound-guided FNA.
  • Lymph nodes were classified as benign if the cortex was even and measured < 3 mm, indeterminate if the cortex was even but measured ≥ 3 mm or measured < 3 mm but was focally thickened, and suspicious if the cortex was focally thickened and measured ≥ 3 mm or the fatty hilum was absent.
  • The results of ultrasound-guided FNAs were analyzed by the sonographic appearance of the axillary lymph nodes and by the size of the primary tumor.
  • The sensitivity of ultrasound-guided FNA was 29% in patients with primary tumors ≤ 1 cm, 50% in patients with tumors > 1 to ≤ 2 cm, 69% in patients with tumors > 2 to ≤ 5 cm, and 100% in patients with tumors > 5 cm.
  • CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided FNA of the axillary lymph nodes is most useful in the preoperative assessment of patients with large tumors (> 2 cm) or lymph nodes that appear abnormal.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Breast Neoplasms, Male / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [CommentIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jul;197(1):W194; author reply W195 [21700988.001]
  • (PMID = 20966338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Bisdas S, Baghi M, Huebner F, Mueller C, Knecht R, Vorbuchner M, Ruff J, Gstoettner W, Vogl TJ: In vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary tumours, nodal and recurrent disease of the extracranial head and neck. Eur Radiol; 2007 Jan;17(1):251-7
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  • [Title] In vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary tumours, nodal and recurrent disease of the extracranial head and neck.
  • Benign and malignant neoplasms as well as metastatic lymph nodes of 39 patients were examined using localized single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) [repetition time (TR) 1500, echo time (TE) 135) at 1.5 T.
  • The Cho/Cr ratios in all malignant neoplasms (mean: 5.2, range: 1.7-17.8) were significantly elevated relative to those in the normal muscle structures (mean: 0.9, range: 0.2-1.4), while those in the benign neoplasms were elevated (mean: 24.4, range: 1.4-59.7) with respect to those in the malignant ones.
  • The average Cho/Cr ratio in the metastatic lymph nodes was significantly higher (mean: 4.8, range: 3.3-5.6) than that for benign lymphoid hyperplasia (mean: 2.2, range: 1.0-3.0).
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16703309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Chalas E, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Lewis GC, Bergman C, Runowicz CD: Benign gynecologic conditions among participants in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Apr;192(4):1230-7; discussion 1237-9
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  • [Title] Benign gynecologic conditions among participants in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to report on the benign gynecologic conditions occurring among women with an intact uterus at enrollment in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The incidence rates of several benign gynecologic conditions were determined and risks were compared among women receiving tamoxifen and those receiving placebo, based on risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Genital Diseases, Female / chemically induced. Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Confidence Intervals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Reference Values. Risk Assessment

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;194(4):1204-5; author reply 1205 [16580343.001]
  • (PMID = 15846210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-69974
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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37. Kallel R, Bahri Zouari I, Gouiaa N, Charfi S, Daoud E, Ayadi L, Makni S, Daoud J, Sellami Boudawara T: [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Jul;13(4):323-8
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  • [Title] [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome adénoïde kystique du sein.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm, accounting for only 0.1% of all malignant breast tumours.
  • The clinical criteria is not specific and the radiographic examination showed a benign-appearing tumour.
  • The preoperative diagnosis is possible with fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • The diagnosis is made by histological examination, presented a difficult differential diagnosis with cribriform carcinoma; so it is necessary to use histochemical or immunohistochemical techniques.
  • Compared to other locations, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast has a favorable prognosis.
  • The aim of our study is to describe the epidemiological, clinicopathological characteristics, the treatment and the prognosis of this rare type of breast tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19464219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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38. Cornelis A, Verjans M, Van den Bosch T, Wouters K, Van Robaeys J, Janssens JP, Working Group on Hormone Dependent Cancers (European Cancer Prevention Organization): Efficacy and safety of direct and frontal macrobiopsies in breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2009 Aug;18(4):280-4
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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of direct and frontal macrobiopsies in breast cancer.
  • Recent innovations in tissue acquisition from the human breast have led to the development of unique direct frontal systems.
  • Efficacy was considered optimal if the diagnosis by transcutaneous biopsy was identical to the surgical specimen in case of malignancy or in line with clinical follow-up when benign.
  • One hundred and seventy-three women (aged 22-95 years) with a suspect lesion in the breast were eligible for transdermal biopsy.
  • Sample quality was evaluated by comparing the pathology results of the samples with definitive pathology at subsequent surgery or follow-up in case of benign lesions.
  • All patients had sufficient sample size (up to 5 mm diameter/20 mm length) to make a reliable diagnosis.
  • There were three false-negative diagnoses, leaving a correct diagnosis in 170 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19352188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5709
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. Rozenchan PB, Carraro DM, Brentani H, de Carvalho Mota LD, Bastos EP, e Ferreira EN, Torres CH, Katayama ML, Roela RA, Lyra EC, Soares FA, Folgueira MA, Góes JC, Brentani MM: Reciprocal changes in gene expression profiles of cocultured breast epithelial cells and primary fibroblasts. Int J Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;125(12):2767-77
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  • [Title] Reciprocal changes in gene expression profiles of cocultured breast epithelial cells and primary fibroblasts.
  • The importance of epithelial-stroma interaction in normal breast development and tumor progression has been recognized.
  • To identify genes that were regulated by these reciprocal interactions, we cocultured a nonmalignant (MCF10A) and a breast cancer derived (MDA-MB231) basal cell lines, with fibroblasts isolated from breast benign-disease adjacent tissues (NAF) or with carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF), in a transwell system.
  • Our data indicate that interactions between breast fibroblasts and basal epithelial cells resulted in alterations in the genomic profiles of both cell types which may help to clarify some aspects of this heterotypic signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Breast / cytology. Cell Proliferation. Coculture Techniques. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 UICC.
  • (PMID = 19530251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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40. Wright TG, Singh VK, Li JJ, Foley JH, Miller F, Jia Z, Elliott BE: Increased production and secretion of HGF alpha-chain and an antagonistic HGF fragment in a human breast cancer progression model. Int J Cancer; 2009 Sep 1;125(5):1004-15
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  • [Title] Increased production and secretion of HGF alpha-chain and an antagonistic HGF fragment in a human breast cancer progression model.
  • Invasive human breast carcinomas frequently coexpress increased hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor Met, suggesting that establishment of an autocrine HGF loop is important in malignant disease.
  • This study examines the expression patterns of HGF and Met activation during tumorigenesis and metastasis using a MCF10A-based model of Ha-Ras-induced human breast cancer progression.
  • Compared to the benign parent cell line, premalignant and malignant cell lines exhibit increased secretion of full length HGF alpha-chain and elevated Met tyrosine phosphorylation in complete medium.
  • These results are the first demonstration of an antagonistic approximately 55 kDa HGF fragment secreted during breast carcinoma progression, which may have a negative regulatory effect on HGF signaling in premalignant breast epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Hepatocyte Growth Factor / metabolism. Peptide Fragments / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Culture Media, Conditioned / pharmacology. Disease Progression. Genes, ras. Humans. Mesoderm / cytology. Mesoderm / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phosphorylation. Tyrosine / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2009 UICC.
  • (PMID = 19415747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Conditioned; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met
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41. Ławicki S, Szmitkowski M, Wojtukiewicz M: The pretreatment plasma level and diagnostic utility of M-CSF in benign breast tumor and breast cancer patients. Clin Chim Acta; 2006 Sep;371(1-2):112-6
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  • [Title] The pretreatment plasma level and diagnostic utility of M-CSF in benign breast tumor and breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the plasma levels of M-CSF and commonly accepted tumor marker (antigen CA 15-3) in breast cancer patients in relation to the group with benign breast tumor and to the healthy controls.
  • Additionally, we compared the plasma level of M-CSF with the tumor stage of breast cancer and defined the diagnostic criteria: sensitivity, specificity, the positive and the negative predictive values.
  • METHODS: M-CSF and CA 15-3 were measured in 80 patients with breast cancer, 17 patients with benign breast tumor and in 30 healthy subjects.
  • RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the levels of circulating M-CSF and CA 15-3 in the breast cancer patients comparing to the group with benign breast tumor and to the control group.
  • The levels of M-CSF and CA 15-3 were also significantly higher in patients with more advanced tumor stage.
  • We observed a higher range of the diagnostic sensitivity of M-CSF in more advanced breast tumor stage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that M-CSF is the good candidate for a breast cancer tumor marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Mucin-1 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. ROC Curve. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16631152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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42. Bogorad RL, Courtillot C, Mestayer C, Bernichtein S, Harutyunyan L, Jomain JB, Bachelot A, Kuttenn F, Kelly PA, Goffin V, Touraine P, Benign Breast Diseases Study Group: Identification of a gain-of-function mutation of the prolactin receptor in women with benign breast tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Sep 23;105(38):14533-8
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  • [Title] Identification of a gain-of-function mutation of the prolactin receptor in women with benign breast tumors.
  • Given the essential role of this hormonal system in breast physiology, we reasoned that genetic anomalies of Prl/PrlR genes may be related to the occurrence of breast diseases with high proliferative potential.
  • Multiple fibroadenomas (MFA) are benign breast tumors which appear most frequently in young women, including at puberty, when Prl has well-recognized proliferative actions on the breast.
  • Constitutive activity of PrlR(I146L) in the breast sample from a patient was supported by increased STAT5 signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Mutation, Missense. Receptors, Prolactin / genetics. Receptors, Prolactin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18779591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Prolactin; 0 / STAT5 Transcription Factor; 0 / Tyrphostins; 0 / alpha-cyano-(3,4-dihydroxy)-N-benzylcinnamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2567233
  • [Investigator] Bachelot A; Belaroussi B; Bensimhon J; Berdah J; Blin MJ; Boudinet A; Brethon B; Bricaire C; Caby J; Caillaud G; Carel JC; Chabbert-Buffet N; Charitanski H; Chretien C; Clough K; Courtillot C; Delattre G; Denys I; Desthieux-Ngo K; Detoeuf M; Dhainault C; Duflos C; Fiori O; Genestie C; Gibaud G; Gompel A; Gracia C; Grimard A; Hofman C; Hofman H; Kuttenn F; Laki F; Lanty C; Lefranc JP; Le Frere-Belda MA; Leger D; Martinez F; May A; Meng L; Nos C; Pelletier D; Perrin A; Plu-Bureau G; Raccah-Tebbeca B; Saiovici JC; Salmon R; Sibout M; Sigal-Zafrani B; Thalabard JC; Thibaud E; Thoury A; Touraine P; Triana-Rabi KB; Uzan S; Viriot J; Yacoub S
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43. Kargozaran H, Yuan SY, Breslin JW, Watson KD, Gaudreault N, Breen A, Wu MH: A role for endothelial-derived matrix metalloproteinase-2 in breast cancer cell transmigration across the endothelial-basement membrane barrier. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2007;24(7):495-502
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  • [Title] A role for endothelial-derived matrix metalloproteinase-2 in breast cancer cell transmigration across the endothelial-basement membrane barrier.
  • The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that active MMP-2 derived from endothelial cells facilitated the transmigration of breast cancer cells across the microvascular barrier.
  • Gelatin zymography was used to assess latent and active MMP-2 production in conditioned media from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) and co-culture of these two cells.
  • We suggest that the interaction between malignant cells and peritumoral benign tissues including the vascular endothelium may serve as an important mechanism in the regulation of tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Basement Membrane / physiology. Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Cell Movement. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / physiology. Neoplasm Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Coculture Techniques. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17653824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0262-0898
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL061507; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL073324; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL084542
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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44. Jesneck JL, Mukherjee S, Yurkovetsky Z, Clyde M, Marks JR, Lokshin AE, Lo JY: Do serum biomarkers really measure breast cancer? BMC Cancer; 2009 May 28;9:164
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  • [Title] Do serum biomarkers really measure breast cancer?
  • BACKGROUND: Because screening mammography for breast cancer is less effective for premenopausal women, we investigated the feasibility of a diagnostic blood test using serum proteins.
  • RESULTS: The classifiers were able to distinguish normal tissue from breast cancer with a classification performance of AUC = 0.82 +/- 0.04 with the proteins MIF, MMP-9, and MPO.
  • The classifiers distinguished normal tissue from benign lesions similarly at AUC = 0.80 +/- 0.05.
  • However, the serum proteins of benign and malignant lesions were indistinguishable (AUC = 0.55 +/- 0.06).
  • The classification tasks of normal vs. cancer and normal vs. benign selected the same top feature: MIF, which suggests that the biomarkers indicated inflammatory response rather than cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19476629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 84955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-112437-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2696469
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45. Huang YD, Zhang S: [Focal adhesion kinase expression and angiogenesis in breast carcinoma]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2007 Sep;27(9):1370-3
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  • [Title] [Focal adhesion kinase expression and angiogenesis in breast carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in breast carcinoma tissues and its association with microvessel density (MVD), and explore the relationship between FAK-mediated cell signaling and angiogenesis in breast carcinoma.
  • METHODS: FAK and CD34 expressions were examined by immunohistochemistry with SP method in 88 breast carcinoma tissues and 30 tissues of benign breast disease.
  • The correlations of FAK protein expression with MVD marked with CD34 and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed in breast carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: In the 88 breast carcinomas, the positivity rate of FAK was 68.2% (60/88) with MVD of (34.52-/+13.11) /HPE, showing significant differences from those of the benign disease group (P<0.01).
  • FAK expression and MVD in breast carcinoma tissues were positively related to tumor size, axillary lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (P<0.05), but not to the patients' age or histopathological grade of the tumors (P>0.05).
  • In breast carcinoma, the expression of FAK was positively related to MVD (P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: FAK protein expression and MVD are closely correlated with the invasion and metastasis of breast carcinoma.
  • FAK expression can promote angiogenesis of breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17884781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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46. Weaver J, Billings SD: Postradiation cutaneous vascular tumors of the breast: a review. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2009 Aug;26(3):141-9
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  • [Title] Postradiation cutaneous vascular tumors of the breast: a review.
  • Postradiation vascular tumors fall into two categories:.
  • (1) postradiation cutaneous angiosarcoma, malignant vascular neoplasms with significant morbidity and mortality; and (2) atypical vascular lesions (AVL), vascular tumors that reportedly behave in a benign manner.
  • Postradiation vascular tumors not only present a therapeutic problem for clinicians, but they present an increasingly common diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.
  • This latter view point is supported by the significant clinical and histologic overlap found between both tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20043513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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47. Eloubeidi MA, Cerfolio RJ, Chen VK, Desmond R, Syed S, Ojha B: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph node in patients with suspected lung cancer after positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jan;79(1):263-8
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  • The reference standard included thoracotomy with complete lymphadenectomy in patients with lung cancer or if EUS-FNA was benign, repeat clinical imaging, or long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Esophagoscopy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiography. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Granuloma / diagnosis. Histiocytosis / complications. Histiocytosis / diagnosis. Histoplasmosis / complications. Histoplasmosis / diagnosis. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Diseases / complications. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / radiography. Lymphoma / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sarcoidosis / complications. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis. Silicosis / complications. Silicosis / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


48. Maxwell AJ: Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision of breast papillomas: review of 6-years experience. Clin Radiol; 2009 Aug;64(8):801-6
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  • [Title] Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision of breast papillomas: review of 6-years experience.
  • AIM: To review the outcome of vacuum-assisted removal of breast papillomas performed in the Bolton Breast Unit.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six benign breast papillomas were excised using an ultrasound-guided, vacuum-assisted technique under local anaesthetic over a 6-year period.
  • Subsequent breast imaging (mostly routine screening mammography) was reviewed and evidence of recurrence recorded.
  • All three recurrent lesions were surgically excised and confirmed to be benign papillomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma, Intraductal / surgery. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy / methods. Breast / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Mammary. Vacuum

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  • (PMID = 19589419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Hirshoren N, Weinberger JM, Neuman T, Ilan O, Ben-Yaakov A: Recurrent vascular leiomyoma of the larynx: clinical and histopathologic characteristics and treatment. Ear Nose Throat J; 2010 Aug;89(8):382-6
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  • Laryngeal vascular leiomyomas are uncommon benign tumors that seldom recur following complete excision.
  • The choice of excision procedure-via direct laryngoscopy or an open approach-is dictated by tumor size, the expected amount of blood loss, and any comorbidities the patient may have.
  • We report an unusual case of a recurrent laryngeal vascular leiomyoma in a 64-year-old woman who also had a concurrent parathyroid adenoma and a history of breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Laryngoscopy. Larynx / pathology. Laser Therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Reoperation. Respiration Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20737377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Tozaki M, Yamashiro N, Suzuki T, Kawano N, Ozaki S, Sakamoto N, Abe S, Ogawa T, Katayama N, Tsunoda Y, Fukuma E: MR-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: is it an essential technique? Breast Cancer; 2009;16(2):121-5
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  • [Title] MR-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: is it an essential technique?
  • Histopathological findings were invasive ductal carcinoma in one (3%); ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in seven (23%); and benign in 22 (73%).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle / instrumentation. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Female. Humans. Mammography / instrumentation. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18807122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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51. Tse GM, Niu Y, Shi HJ: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update.
  • Phyllodes tumor is an uncommon biphasic breast tumor, with the ability to recur and metastasize, and it behaves biologically like a stromal neoplasm.
  • Traditionally, phyllodes tumors are graded by the use of a set of histologic data into benign, borderline, and malignant.
  • In most series, all phyllodes tumors may recur, but only the borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors metastasize.
  • The expression of many biological markers, including p53, hormone receptors, proliferation markers, angiogenesis group of markers, c-kit, CD10 and epidermal growth factor receptor have been explored, and many have been shown to be variably expressed, depending on the grade of the tumor.
  • These markers are, however, of limited value in predicting the behavior of the tumor.
  • Recently investigators have reported a plethora of genetic changes in phyllodes tumors, the most consistent of which seems to be 1q gain by comparative genomic hybridization.
  • It is foreseeable that more exciting data will be generated to help us to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis


52. Esposito NN, Mohan D, Brufsky A, Lin Y, Kapali M, Dabbs DJ: Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1516-21
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases.
  • CONTEXT: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are biphasic neoplasms composed of epithelium and a spindle-cell stroma.
  • Currently, PTs are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant based on histopathologic features.
  • DESIGN: Sixteen benign, 8 borderline, and 6 malignant PTs with follow-up were examined for reactivity across a panel of immunohistochemical stains, including c-Kit, endothelin 1, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67.
  • Tumor variables were compared among tumor subgroups and between tumors that did and did not recur.
  • RESULTS: Of the 30 PTs, 4 recurred (1 benign, 2 borderline, 1 malignant).
  • One patient with a malignant tumor died of metastatic disease 34 months after initial diagnosis.
  • The overall positive rate of c-Kit immunoreactivity was 13% in benign, 63% in borderline, and 67% in malignant PTs.
  • Endothelin 1 epithelial cytoplasmic staining was seen in 100% of benign, 50% of borderline, and 17% of malignant PTs.
  • Additionally, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67 were differentially expressed among benign, borderline, and malignant tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stromal c-Kit positivity and epithelial endothelin 1 negativity are more often associated with malignant PTs; however, only positive margin status is significantly associated with tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease Progression. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Staining and Labeling. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17090194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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53. Oo KZ, Xiao PQ: Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple: clinical presentation and literature review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Sep;133(9):1487-9
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  • Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is a rare neoplasm of the breast.
  • Despite its benign behavior, syringomatous adenoma of the nipple usually shows infiltrative expansile proliferation into adjacent tissue and underlying breast tissue.
  • Histologically and clinically, syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is often confused with tubular carcinoma as well as low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast.
  • Special attention given to this tumor by pathologists and clinicians can avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Nipples / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19722761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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54. Maruya S, Shirasaki T, Nagaki T, Kakehata S, Kurotaki H, Mizukami H, Shinkawa H: Differential expression of topoisomerase IIalpha protein in salivary gland carcinomas: histogenetic and prognostic implications. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:72
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  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of topoIIalpha in various types of salivary gland tumors and its biological significance.
  • METHODS: The protein expression of topoIIalpha was evaluated immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 54 salivary gland carcinomas and 20 benign tumors (10 pleomorphic adenomas and 10 Warthin's tumors).
  • RESULTS: Of the 54 primary salivary gland carcinomas, 38 (70%) showed positive expression (> or = 10%) of topoIIalpha protein, and 16 carcinomas (30%) and all benign tumors were negative (p < 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19250538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2654461
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55. Chan E, Nimnual AS: Deregulation of the cell cycle by breast tumor kinase (Brk). Int J Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;127(11):2723-31
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  • [Title] Deregulation of the cell cycle by breast tumor kinase (Brk).
  • Brk is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in breast tumors but undetectable in normal or benign mammary tissues.
  • Brk promotes proliferation of human mammary epithelial cells and tumor growth in a mouse model, but the role of Brk in cell cycle regulation is not known.
  • Deregulation of the cell cycle is a key event in neoplasia, and thus, the mechanism presented here likely contributes to breast cancer development.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle / physiology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / biosynthesis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Female. Forkhead Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. G1 Phase / physiology. Humans. RNA, Small Interfering / administration & dosage. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. S Phase / physiology. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 20162673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / PTK6 protein, human
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56. Pierce A, Saldova R, Abd Hamid UM, Abrahams JL, McDermott EW, Evoy D, Duffy MJ, Rudd PM: Levels of specific glycans significantly distinguish lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative breast cancer patients. Glycobiology; 2010 Oct;20(10):1283-8
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  • [Title] Levels of specific glycans significantly distinguish lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative breast cancer patients.
  • One of the most urgent requirements in breast cancer is the development of a blood-based test for early detection and prognosis.
  • Previously published results found a significant difference between specific glycan levels in patients with advanced breast cancer and healthy controls.
  • Agalactosyl biantennary glycans (FA2) and glycans containing the sialyl Lewis x epitope (A3F1G1 and A2F1G1) were measured using high throughput normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with exoglycosidase digestions in sera from 52 patients with early breast cancer (21 with lymph node-negative and 20 with lymph node-positive disease) and 134 women with benign breast disease.
  • Lymph node status is the single most important determinant of survival in early stage breast cancer.
  • As high levels of these glycans were associated with nodal metastases, their measurement may provide a new non-invasive approach to determining prognosis in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / blood. Carcinoma, Lobular / blood. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Polysaccharides / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD15 / blood. Axilla. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20581008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] Glycobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glycobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Polysaccharides; 0 / sialyl Lewis X antigen
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57. Anderson KS, Wong J, Vitonis A, Crum CP, Sluss PM, Labaer J, Cramer D: p53 autoantibodies as potential detection and prognostic biomarkers in serous ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2010 Mar;19(3):859-68
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  • This group included women subsequently diagnosed with invasive serous ovarian cancer (n = 60), nonserous ovarian cancers (n = 30), and women with benign disease (n = 30).
  • RESULTS: p53-AAb were detected in 25 of 60 (41.7%) of serous cases, 4 of 30 (13.3%) nonserous cases, 3 of 30 (10%) benign disease cases, and 10 of 120 (8.3%) controls (combined P = 0.0002).
  • p53-AAb did not significantly improve the detection of cases [area under the curve (AUC), 0.69] or the discrimination of benign versus malignant disease (AUC, 0.64) compared with CA 125 (AUC, 0.99) or HE4 (AUC, 0.98).
  • In multivariate analysis among cases, p53-AAb correlated only with a family history of breast cancer (P = 0.01).

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  • (PMID = 20200435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117374-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117374; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA086381-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA086381; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA086381; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117374-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA086381-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / DEFB126 protein, human; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta-Defensins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS174572; NLM/ PMC2838192
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58. Stolnicu S, Rădulescu D, Pleşea IE, Dobru D, Podoleanu C, Pintilei DR: The value of intraoperative diagnosis in breast lesions. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2006;47(2):119-23
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  • [Title] The value of intraoperative diagnosis in breast lesions.
  • Frozen section examination is aimed at making a preoperative diagnosis, determining the benign or malignant nature of a breast lesion, but also the most suitable surgical procedure.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of this method and the causes of discrepancies were analyzed in a retrospective study of 2 177 breast lesions.
  • METHOD: 1,150 frozen sections from 2,177 breast lesions were performed in the interval 1999-2005.
  • The following terms were used for describing the intraoperative diagnosis: negative, positive, and await paraffin section.
  • After the frozen section diagnosis was made, the frozen tissue was thawed to room temperature and fixed in formalin overnight for further paraffin processing.
  • In 7% of the cases the diagnosis could not be made on frozen section.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the raging popularity of aspiration cytology, frozen section still stands out as the method of choice for rapid diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17106518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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59. Zakaria S, Pantvaidya G, Ghosh K, Degnim AC: Paget's disease of the breast: accuracy of preoperative assessment. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Apr;102(2):137-42
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  • [Title] Paget's disease of the breast: accuracy of preoperative assessment.
  • BACKGROUND: Routine preoperative assessment may not accurately assess the extent of underlying cancer in patients with Paget's disease (PD) of the breast.
  • In the subgroup of 40 women with a benign mammogram and no palpable mass, invasive cancer occurred in 5% and the majority (68%) had ductal carcinoma in situ which extended beyond the nipple.
  • Women with a palpable mass and a suspicious mammogram had significantly worse survival compared to those with a benign mammogram and no palpable mass (P = 0.008).
  • Underlying cancer is common even in women with a benign mammogram and no palpable mass.
  • Although breast conservation is an attractive option in patients with PD, mammography and physical exam may significantly underestimate the presence and extent of underlying disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 17028984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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60. Reis-Filho JS, Steele D, Di Palma S, Jones RL, Savage K, James M, Milanezi F, Schmitt FC, Ashworth A: Distribution and significance of nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR/p75NTR) in normal, benign and malignant breast tissue. Mod Pathol; 2006 Feb;19(2):307-19
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  • [Title] Distribution and significance of nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR/p75NTR) in normal, benign and malignant breast tissue.
  • NGFR is reported to act as a tumour suppressor, negatively regulating cell growth and proliferation.
  • NGFR expression was immunohistochemically analysed in normal breast tissue and in 140 benign, biphasic and preinvasive breast lesions, in 22 tumours with myoepithelial differentiation and in two cohorts of breast cancer patients: a series of 245 invasive breast carcinomas studied with tissue microarrays and 37 high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas with basal-like immunophenotype.
  • Myoepithelial cells of benign proliferations and pre-invasive lesions were consistently positive for NGFR.
  • Positivity for NGFR was observed in 11 out of 245 (4.5%) breast carcinomas, nine out of 20 (45%) metaplastic breast carcinomas and 14 out of 37 (38%) basal-like breast carcinomas.
  • NGFR expression in invasive tumours significantly correlated with that of cytokeratins 5/6 (P<0.05), 14 (P<0.0001) and 17 (P<0.0005) and EGFR (P<0.0001) and displayed an inverse correlation with oestrogen and progesterone receptors (both, P<0.0001).
  • This study demonstrates the usefulness of NGFR as a new adjunct marker to identify myoepithelial cells in preinvasive lesions and myoepithelial differentiation in breast carcinomas.
  • Furthermore, provisional data in a small number of basal-like breast carcinomas suggest that NGFR may identify a subgroup of basal-like breast carcinomas with good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Growth Factor / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-14. Keratin-5. Keratin-6. Keratins / analysis. Myoepithelioma / metabolism. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16424897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT14 protein, human; 0 / KRT5 protein, human; 0 / KRT6A protein, human; 0 / KRT6B protein, human; 0 / KRT6C protein, human; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / NGFR protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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61. Fon LJ, Lioe TF, Mulligan KA, Johnston PG, McCormick D, Spence RA: Prognostic significance of glycoprotein pMQ1 in breast cancer. Br J Surg; 2006 Mar;93(3):309-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic significance of glycoprotein pMQ1 in breast cancer.
  • Cerebral metastases from breast cancer have also been found to contain pMQ1-positive cells.
  • This study aimed to determine the role of pMQ1 in primary breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Breast cancer specimens were analysed for pMQ1 by immunohistochemistry.
  • Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to compare clinical outcome between pMQ1-positive and pMQ1-negative tumours.
  • RESULTS: pMQ1 was expressed in most of the breast cancer specimens.
  • The surrounding normal tissue margins and benign breast tissues always lacked pMQ1 expression.
  • CONCLUSION: pMQ1 appears to be a tumour-associated protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Glycoproteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast / chemistry. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16392102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / pMQ1 glycoprotein, human
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62. Sandhya B, Babu V, Parthasarathy G, Kate V, Ananthakrishnan N, Krishnan R: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast: A case report and review of literature. Indian J Surg; 2010 Jul;72(Suppl 1):286-8
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  • [Title] Primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast: A case report and review of literature.
  • Leiomyosarcomas of the breast are rare tumours.
  • We describe herein a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast in a 54-year-old woman whose preoperative clinical and cytological findings indicated a benign breast tumour.
  • Histopathological examination of the mastectomy specimen suggested a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma, which was subsequently confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis.
  • Primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast is very rare and is difficult to diagnose preoperatively as it needs immuno-histochemical staining.
  • It is necessary to excise the tumour with sufficient margins to prevent local recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 23133273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3451846
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast / Phyllodes Sandhya / Stromal tumours
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63. Giorgi Rossi P, Chini F, Barca A, Baiocchi D, Federici A, Farchi S, Borgia P: Efficacy of disease management profiles. The mammographic screening program of Lazio. Tumori; 2008 May-Jun;94(3):297-303
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  • METHOD: In the study period (1/7/99-30/6/01), six breast cancer screening programs were active in 12 health districts in the Lazio region of Italy.
  • Screening histories of all the incident cases of women surgically treated for a breast neoplasm were reconstructed (not contacted, contacted, non-participants, participants).
  • RESULTS: We identified 3251 women who were treated for malignant neoplasms of the breast and 1562 treated for benign neoplasms.
  • The incidence of malignant neoplasms was higher in the women contacted for screening (incidence rate ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.32-1.60), and the incidence of treatment for non-malignancies was similar in the two populations (incidence rate ratio, 1.00: 95% CI, 0.86-1.16).
  • Women contacted for screening showed a higher incidence of localized and in situ tumors, whereas the incidence of non-localized and metastatic tumors was basically the same in the two groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The first round of screening programs led to more surgical interventions, a similar incidence of mastectomy and of interventions for benign neoplasm, but a lower incidence of unnecessary treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammography. Mass Screening. Mastectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio. Program Evaluation. Research Design

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  • (PMID = 18705394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Da Silva L, Buck L, Simpson PT, Reid L, McCallum N, Madigan BJ, Lakhani SR: Molecular and morphological analysis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast with synchronous tubular adenosis. Virchows Arch; 2009 Jan;454(1):107-14
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  • [Title] Molecular and morphological analysis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast with synchronous tubular adenosis.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare tumour.
  • Its recognition as a special type of breast carcinoma is very important because its prognosis is better than the not-otherwise-specified invasive ductal carcinoma and its treatment may not include axillary dissection.
  • Tubular adenosis (TA) is a very rare condition of the breast that is histologically benign; however, it has been described in association with invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • There are scant data regarding the molecular genomic alterations in ACC of the breast and no data has been presented on TA.
  • Herein, we provide a morphological characterisation of TA arising synchronically with ACC in the breast.
  • These molecular data highlight the genomic instability of TA, a benign florid proliferation intermingled with ACC, and do not provide evidence of molecular evolution from TA to ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / complications. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / complications. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Cell Proliferation. DNA, Neoplasm. Female. Genomic Instability / genetics. Humans. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19031084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / S100 Proteins
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65. Chowdary MV, Kalyan Kumar K, Mathew S, Rao L, Krishna CM, Kurien J: Biochemical correlation of Raman spectra of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues: a spectral deconvolution study. Biopolymers; 2009 Jul;91(7):539-46
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  • [Title] Biochemical correlation of Raman spectra of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues: a spectral deconvolution study.
  • The aim of this study was to understand and correlate spectral features and biochemical changes in normal, fibroadenoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast tissues using Raman spectra that were part of the spectroscopic models developed and evaluated by us earlier.
  • This study has revealed that fat (1301 and 1440 cm(-1)), collagen (1246, 1271, and 1671 cm(-1)) and DNA (1340 and 1480 cm(-1)) bands have strong presence in normal, benign and malignant breast tissues, respectively.
  • Thus the finding of this study further demonstrates the efficacy Raman spectroscopic approaches in diagnostic applications as well as in understanding molecular phenomenon in breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Spectrum Analysis, Raman
  • [MeSH-minor] Collagen / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. Female. Humans. Lipids / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / chemistry. Vibration

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19226625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3525
  • [Journal-full-title] Biopolymers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biopolymers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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66. Yurkovetsky Z, Skates S, Lomakin A, Nolen B, Pulsipher T, Modugno F, Marks J, Godwin A, Gorelik E, Jacobs I, Menon U, Lu K, Badgwell D, Bast RC Jr, Lokshin AE: Development of a multimarker assay for early detection of ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2010 May 01;28(13):2159-66
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-six serum biomarkers were analyzed in sera from healthy women and from patients with ovarian cancer, benign pelvic tumors, and breast, colorectal, and lung cancers, using multiplex xMAP bead-based immunoassays.
  • This panel was selective for ovarian cancer showing SN of 33% for benign pelvic disease, SN of 6% for breast cancer, SN of 0% for colorectal cancer, and SN of 36% for lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Immunoassay. Mass Screening / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Early Detection of Cancer. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Monte Carlo Method. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood. beta-Defensins

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  • (PMID = 20368574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105009; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9901012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0801228; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA086381; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA086381
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / DEFB126 protein, human; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1; 0 / beta-Defensins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2860434
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67. Czecior E, Namysłowski G, Misiołek M, Scierski W, Polok A, Lisowska G, Mrówka-Kata K, Orecka B, Pawlas P: [Strategy of the sinonasal tumors treatment]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2007;61(4):559-61
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  • [Title] [Strategy of the sinonasal tumors treatment].
  • INTRODUCTION: The sinonasal tumors belong to rare diseases.
  • They state 0.2-0.8% of all the malignant neoplasms and about 3% of head and neck tumors.
  • These tumors are two times frequent observed in men than in women, mainly between 50 and 70 years old.
  • In the sinonasal complex besides the primary are seen also the metastatic tumors.
  • They state about 1% of all tumors (kidney, testum, breast, pulmonary).
  • AIM: The aim of our study was to retrospective analysis of the sinonasal tumors, treated in the ENT Department Silesian Medical University in Zabrze.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 26 patients treated in the ENT Department Silesian Medical University in Zabrze between 2000 and 2006 suffered from the sinonasal tumors were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: In the histological examination in 4 patients the benign neoplasm and in 22 patients malignant tumors were diagnosed.
  • On the basis of the CT and MRI examination as well as the description of the surgical procedure we stated that in 13 cases the primary localization of neoplasm was the maxillary sinus, in 5 cases ethmoidal cells, in 3 nasal cavity.
  • In one patient the estimation of primary tumor localization was not possible, because of the very large extension of the neoplasm.
  • The choice of the surgical procedure was depend on the tumor extension and localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18260251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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68. Rotstein AH, Neerhut PK: Ultrasound characteristics of histologically proven grade 3 invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Australas Radiol; 2005 Dec;49(6):476-9
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  • [Title] Ultrasound characteristics of histologically proven grade 3 invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
  • High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) may paradoxically display features similar to benign breast masses.
  • For each tumour, four features were assessed: margin, attenuation characteristics, echotexture and depth versus width ratio.
  • Eighty-seven per cent of tumours had an aggressive margin with an echogenic rind, microlobulation or angular margins.
  • Six per cent of the tumours were isoechoic and difficult to appreciate on ultrasound.
  • To ensure that malignant lesions are correctly categorized, it is important that interfaces between the tumour and adjacent breast parenchyma are meticulously evaluated in a real-time fashion rather than viewed as a single still image.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16351611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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69. Riddle ND, Yamauchi H, Caracciolo JT, Cheong D, Khakpour N, Bui MM: Giant cell tumor of the anterior rib masquerading as a breast mass: a case report and review of current literature. Cases J; 2010;3:51
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the anterior rib masquerading as a breast mass: a case report and review of current literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is an aggressive, but usually benign bone neoplasm most commonly arising in the metaphysis/epiphyses of long bones.
  • While they are categorized as benign tumors, they can be locally aggressive and clinically have metastatic potential.
  • The most common locations of this tumor include the distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal radius.
  • We report a GCT arising in an atypical location and mimicking a breast mass.
  • Radiologically, the initial impression included a deep-seated breast cancer with local chest wall invasion.
  • CONCLUSION: The histological features of bland mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells along with the lack of any additional mesenchymal elements led to the diagnosis of giant cell tumor.
  • Resection of tumor was performed.
  • This case is important as it shows where the physician must keep this diagnosis in mind whenever a deeply located breast mast is present.

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  • [Cites] Skeletal Radiol. 1992;21(7):482-8 [1439904.001]
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  • (PMID = 20205847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2825505
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70. Watermann DO, Tempfer CB, Hefler LA, Parat C, Stickeler E: Ultrasound criteria for ductal invasive breast cancer are modified by age, tumor size, and axillary lymph node status. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Jan;89(2):127-33
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  • [Title] Ultrasound criteria for ductal invasive breast cancer are modified by age, tumor size, and axillary lymph node status.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of distinct clinicopathological parameters on ultrasound criteria for ductal invasive breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The hardcopy prints of 337 ductal invasive breast cancers were analyzed.
  • Ten ultrasound criteria (shape, orientation, echogenicity, echo pattern, calcifications, margin, margin contour, lesion boundary, surrounding tissue, and posterior acoustic features) were defined and correlated to age, tumor size, axillary lymph node status, and histological grading in a multivariate analysis.
  • RESULTS: Tumors in women < or = 50 years displayed more often an indistinct margin (p = 0.003) and an enhanced/indifferent posterior ultrasound transmission (p = 0.008).
  • Tumors in an advanced T-stage showed more frequently an irregular shape ( p = 0.006), an orientation parallel to the skin ( p = 0.01), hypoechogenicity ( p < 0.0001), and less often calcifications ( p = 0.002).
  • CONCLUSION: Breast ultrasound criteria, which are used to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesions, are influenced by age, size and lymph node status.
  • These clinical conditions should be considered in the ultrasound diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Reference Values. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15692754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):165-70
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution.
  • The aim of this study was to document the clinical and pathological features of a large single institutional series of ethnically diverse patients with phyllodes tumours (PTs), and to determine which characteristics were predictive of outcome.
  • Sixty five PTs were analysed; 34 were benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant (34 low grade and 31 high grade PTs on a two tiered grading system).
  • A greater percentage of higher grade tumours recurred and women of Asian origin had a higher recurrence rate compared to the non-Asian patients.
  • The mean age at diagnosis significantly increased with tumour grade.
  • The mean tumour volume also significantly increased with grade.
  • Tumour grade was the only parameter related significantly to outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Mastectomy / statistics & numerical data. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / statistics & numerical data. New South Wales / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 19329316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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72. Navas Cañete A, Olcoz Monreal FJ, García Laborda E, Pérez Aznar JM: [Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: magnetic resonance findings in two cases]. Radiologia; 2007 Jul-Aug;49(4):275-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Hiperplasia pseudoangiomatosa estromal: hallazgos en resonancia magnética de dos casos.
  • Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign breast tumor of uncertain etiology, although marked hormonal influence clearly plays a role in this disease.
  • The differential diagnosis is important because this is an uncommon lesion that can simulate malignant lesions both at clinical and radiological examination, and even the histological results can be confusing.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


73. Yilmaz MH, Ozguroglu M, Mert D, Turna H, Demir G, Adaletli I, Ulus S, Halac M, Kanberoğlu K: Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy in patients with metastatic breast cancer of the axial skeleton: a comparative study. Med Oncol; 2008;25(3):257-63
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy in patients with metastatic breast cancer of the axial skeleton: a comparative study.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 59 patients (58 women and 1 man, age range 28-83 years, mean age 53.0 years) with histopathologically proven breast cancer during a 15-month period (between April 2003 and January 2004) were included in the study.
  • Four lesions detected by MRI were classified as of uncertain origin (grade 2) and 36 lesions were regarded as definitely benign (grade 1).
  • A total of 29 lesions were considered as of uncertain origin (grade 2), and 26 lesions were regarded as definitely benign (grade 1).
  • About five lesions were graded as grade 2 in scintigraphy, while MRI graded them as degeneration or benign compression (Grade 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diphosphonates. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Organotechnetium Compounds. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiography. Radionuclide Imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18040900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Zhou M, Johnson N, Blanchard D, Bryn S, Nelson J: Real-world application of breast-specific gamma imaging, initial experience at a community breast center and its potential impact on clinical care. Am J Surg; 2008 May;195(5):631-5; discussion 635
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  • [Title] Real-world application of breast-specific gamma imaging, initial experience at a community breast center and its potential impact on clinical care.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) has brought scintimammography back to the forefront by using a dedicated small field-of-view system designed to detect and localize lesions down to 2 mm.
  • We reviewed our initial experience to evaluate the impact of this technology at our community breast center.
  • RESULTS: A total of 128 patients underwent BSGI because of suspicious imaging, abnormal physical examination, or high risk with dense breasts.
  • BSGI was positive in 12 of 107 patients with breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) 1, 2, or 3.
  • Of the 21 patients with BI-RADS 4, 18 were BSGI negative (11 with benign biopsy, 7 observed), and 3 were BSGI positive with 2 being cancer.
  • Forty-eight patients with a new diagnosis of cancer obtained BSGI for further work-up.
  • It was positive at a new location in 6 cases: 2 cases were new cancers in the contralateral breast, 1 was in the ipsilateral breast, and the remaining 3 had benign pathology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BSGI has played an important role in our clinical management of breast patients with complex breast tissue.
  • BSGI is also a good adjunctive imaging tool in the work-up of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Mass Screening. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Benchmarking. Community Health Centers. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Adjustment. Survival Analysis. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. United States


75. Destounis SV, Vogt C, Arieno AL, Morgan RC: Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Jul;29(7):1125-31
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  • [Title] Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20587436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Ismail MF, Aly MS, Khaled HM, Mohamed HM: Detection of HER-2/neu, c-myc amplification and p53 inactivation by FISH in Egyptian patients with breast cancer. Ger Med Sci; 2009;7:Doc03
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  • [Title] Detection of HER-2/neu, c-myc amplification and p53 inactivation by FISH in Egyptian patients with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide.
  • Amplification of the two oncogenes HER-2/neu and c-myc and inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 are frequently encountered in breast carcinomas.
  • The study was conducted on 34 tissue samples obtained from 33 females and 1 male with breast carcinomas and 17 samples obtained from 16 females and 1 male with benign breast lesions.
  • Results revealed that the level of HER-2/neu, c-myc and p53 in the malignant group was significantly increased as compared to the benign group.
  • The sensitivity of the investigated markers significantly increased with larger tumor size.
  • Concerning tumor grade, HER-2/neu and p53 showed a significant increase in low-grade tumors whereas c-myc showed a highly significant increase in high-grade tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / genetics. Egypt / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques / methods. Prevalence. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19675743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1612-3174
  • [Journal-full-title] German medical science : GMS e-journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ger Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716551
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; HER-2/neu / breast cancer / c-myc / fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) / genetic alterations / p53
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77. Yuan Y, Liu H, Sahin A, Dai JL: Reactivation of SYK expression by inhibition of DNA methylation suppresses breast cancer cell invasiveness. Int J Cancer; 2005 Feb 10;113(4):654-9
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  • [Title] Reactivation of SYK expression by inhibition of DNA methylation suppresses breast cancer cell invasiveness.
  • The gene product of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) has been implicated in the suppression of breast cancer invasion.
  • We previously reported that SYK expression is lost in a subset of breast cancer; primarily by methylation-mediated gene silencing.
  • In our study, we explored the possibility of using a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA), to suppress breast cancer cell invasion by restoring SYK expression.
  • SYK promoter hypermethylation was found infrequent in pathologically normal mammary tissues or benign lesions (<5%).
  • All these results suggested a potential use of SYK methylation as a valuable biomarker to detect early cancerous lesions and support the use of AZA as a new reagent to the management of advanced breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. DNA Methylation. Enzyme Precursors / antagonists & inhibitors. Enzyme Precursors / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Invasiveness / prevention & control. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / prevention & control. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. Female. Gene Silencing. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Phenotype. Stilbenes / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15455373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA100278
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Enzyme Precursors; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Stilbenes; 4339-71-3 / 3,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxystilbene; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Syk kinase; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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78. Königsberg R, Rögelsperger O, Jäger W, Thalhammer T, Klimpfinger M, De Santis M, Hudec M, Dittrich C: Cell cycle dysregulation influences survival in high risk breast cancer patients. Cancer Invest; 2008 Aug;26(7):734-40
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  • [Title] Cell cycle dysregulation influences survival in high risk breast cancer patients.
  • Recent immunohistological studies suggested that dysregulation of cyclin A, cyclin D, cyclin E, p16(ink4), p21(waf1/cip1), and p27(kip1) are of prognostic value in patients with breast cancer.
  • Our study represents the first comprehensive immunohistochemical cell cycle marker analysis for cdc25A, cyclin A, cyclin D, cyclin E, p16(ink4), p21(waf1/cip1), p27(kip1), and pRb in tumor tissue and adjacent benign breast tissue from 69 primarily untreated breast cancer patients.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients with untreated, invasive breast cancer (n = 69) were divided into a low/ intermediate and a high risk group according to the St. Gallen 2005 consensus conference.
  • A subgroup of high risk breast cancer patients characterized in addition by overexpression of cdc25A, cyclin A, cyclin E, p16(ink4a), and p27(kip1) experienced a shortened mean survival of 222.03, 235.71, 257.25, 239.18, and 261.94 weeks, respectively.
  • Regarding benign breast tissue adjacent to breast cancer tissue, 59.4% of the patients investigated overexpressed cdc25A, 23.2% overexpressed pRb, and 63.2% exerted dysregulation of p27(kip1) while they proved to be negative for immunohistochemical staining regarding all other markers tested.
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistological analyses of cdc25A, cyclin A, cyclin E, p16(ink4a), and p27(kip1) have the potential for further refining the risk assessment in patients with untreated breast cancer who belong to the high risk category defined according to the St. Gallen 2005 consensus conference.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Cell Cycle. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Cell Proliferation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclin A / analysis. Cyclin D. Cyclin E / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Cyclins / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proportional Hazards Models. Retinoblastoma Protein / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome. cdc25 Phosphatases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18665474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-4192
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 3.1.3.48 / CDC25A protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / cdc25 Phosphatases
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79. Sotheran W, Domjan J, Jeffrey M, Wise MH, Perry PM: Phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study from 1982-2000 of 50 cases in Portsmouth. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2005 Sep;87(5):339-44
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study from 1982-2000 of 50 cases in Portsmouth.
  • INTRODUCTION: This study is a retrospective analysis of 50 phyllodes tumours to determine the optimal surgical procedure for these types of tumours.
  • Fifty patients with phyllodes tumours were identified.
  • These comprised 29 benign, 12 borderline and 9 malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • RESULTS: All benign phyllodes tumours were treated with breast-conserving surgery, these included 16 tumours over 40 mm.
  • Borderline and malignant lesions were treated by breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy.
  • The recurrence rate for all tumours was 14%.
  • Malignant and borderline phyllodes tumours had a recurrence rate of 28%.
  • Tumours excised with a wide margin did not seem to recur.
  • Breast-conserving surgery appeared to be as effective as mastectomy.
  • Recurrence occurred in 1/29 benign tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast-conserving surgery is the treatment of choice for all benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16176692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1963973
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80. Ke F, Wu JM, Yao JE, Bai YJ, Guo AL: [Application of suspension array assay to detect marker genes expression of circulating tumor cells for early prediction of breast cancer metastasis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Aug 28;87(32):2257-61
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  • [Title] [Application of suspension array assay to detect marker genes expression of circulating tumor cells for early prediction of breast cancer metastasis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To develop a suspension array assay to detect the expression of multiple genes in the circulating breast cancer cells simultaneously so as to identify the marker genes for human breast cancer metastasis.
  • METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 73 breast cancer patients, including 31 breast cancer metastasis patients, 30 patients with benign breast diseases, and 40 healthy women, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated.
  • PCR was used to amplify 8 breast cancer-related genes: hMAM, HER2, CK19, SBEM, EPG2, hTERT, beta-HGG, and B305D.
  • COX proportional hazard model was used to find the independent prognostic predictors of breast cancer metastasis.
  • The expression of SBEM-mRNA in the peripheral blood was correlated with the stage of breast cancer (P < 0.05); and hMAM, SBEM, HER2, and ER could be considered as the independent prognostic predictors of breast cancer metastasis (all P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The suspension array assay thus developed is practical in diagnosis of the prognosis of breast cancer.
  • The expression of hMAM, SBEM, and HER2 in peripheral blood can be considered as the independent prognostic predictors of breast cancer metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Globins / genetics. Globins / metabolism. Humans. Keratin-19 / genetics. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Period. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18001545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-19; 9004-22-2 / Globins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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81. Braendle W, Kuhl H, Mueck A, Birkhäuser M, Thaler C, Kiesel L, Neulen J: [Does hormonal contraception increase the risk for tumors?]. Ther Umsch; 2009 Feb;66(2):129-35
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  • [Title] [Does hormonal contraception increase the risk for tumors?].
  • A non-contraceptive benefit of oral hormonal contraceptives (OC) is a diminished risk for certain benign as well as malignant tumours, such as benign breast tumours, uterine fibroids and ovarian cysts.
  • Modern data do not suggest an increased risk for breast carcinoma in OC users.
  • [MeSH-major] Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal / adverse effects. Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Case-Control Studies. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / chemically induced. Genital Neoplasms, Female / genetics. Humans. Long-Term Care. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19180433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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82. Varazashvili Varazi LM, Osmanova VR, Barkadze KI: [Study of serum levels of magnesium in the patients with malignant tumors]. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jul;(136):35-9
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  • [Title] [Study of serum levels of magnesium in the patients with malignant tumors].
  • The main goal of the study was the evaluation of serum levels of magnesium in the practically healthy persons (control group), the patients with different malignant tumors (abdominal, pulmonary, uterus, breast, esophagus, rectum), as well as benign tumors of the breast/the uterus and the inflammatory pulmonary diseases.
  • It has been found that, in comparison with norm (23.9 mkg/ml), there is statistically significant increase in serum mean levels of Mg in the patients with malignant tumors of almost all sites investigated.
  • Abdominal/breast and lung malignant tumors are exclusive from this point of view: we have found that Mg content is near the normal mean levels in the former cases (24.7 mkg/ml and 25.3 mkg/ml, respectively) and below the average normal value in lung malignant tumors (20.5 mkg/ml).
  • It has been ascertained that there is no significant difference between the serum average levels of Mg in the control group and in the patients with pulmonary inflammatory diseases, as well as between the Mg-content in practically health persons and in those with breast benign tumors.
  • Thus, assessment of serum Mg levels seems to be useful in differential diagnosis in oncopulmonary and oncomammology clinics.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Magnesium / blood. Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16905841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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83. Ciatto S, Houssami N, Ambrogetti D, Bianchi S, Bonardi R, Brancato B, Catarzi S, Risso GG: Accuracy and underestimation of malignancy of breast core needle biopsy: the Florence experience of over 4000 consecutive biopsies. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Mar;101(3):291-7
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  • [Title] Accuracy and underestimation of malignancy of breast core needle biopsy: the Florence experience of over 4000 consecutive biopsies.
  • Breast core needle biopsy (CNB) is used for sampling breast lesions in both the screening and diagnostic context.
  • We present the accuracy of breast CNB from a consecutive series of 4035 core biopsies, using methods that minimise selection and verification bias.
  • False negatives occurred in 4.4% (3.4-5.4%) of cases, and where core histology was benign but discordant with (suspicious) imaging and/or clinical findings the likelihood of malignancy was 33.1% (18.5-47.7%), emphasising the importance of correlating all test information in breast diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Stereotaxic Techniques. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16823506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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84. Leinung S, Möbius C, Udelnow A, Hauss J, Würl P: Histopathological outcome of 597 isolated soft tissue tumors suspected of soft tissue sarcoma: a single-center 12-year experience. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 May;33(4):508-11
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  • [Title] Histopathological outcome of 597 isolated soft tissue tumors suspected of soft tissue sarcoma: a single-center 12-year experience.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present report was to analyze the patients referred to us with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
  • RESULTS: We treated 597 patients with soft tissue tumors.
  • Open biopsy revealed soft tissue sarcoma in 318 cases, benign mesenchymal tumor in 124 cases and isolated metastases (ISTM) from carcinomas in 98 patients; other pathologies were found in 57 patients.
  • The primary carcinomas were lung cancer in 26 patients, breast cancer in 19 patients, renal carcinoma in 16 patients, carcinoma of the esophagus in 12 patients, colonic carcinoma in 5 patients, thyroid gland cancer in 6 patients, and in 14 patients carcinoma of unknown primary was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our collective with soft tissue tumor, 50% of the patients had the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 20% presented with a metastasis of carcinoma and 20% had a benign tumor.
  • Referring to our results, in patients with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas, soft tissue metastasis of a primary carcinoma was unexpectedly common, indicating that greater consideration should be given to this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17081724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Wu KJ, Weng ZY, Lin GF, Wu XR, Li FM, Zhang YC: [The effect of breast cancer specific gene 1 in the prognosis of breast cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Mar 1;43(5):294-7
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  • [Title] [The effect of breast cancer specific gene 1 in the prognosis of breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect breast cancer specific gene 1 (BCSG1) expression in different breast tissue, analysis its correlation with clinical parameters and evaluate the prognosis of breast cancer.
  • METHODS: The expression of BCSG1 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in surgical specimens from 84 cases of breast disease patients selected randomly at XinHua Hospital affiliated with Shanghai Second Medical University from September 1999 to December 2002.
  • Of 84 cases, 72 case were breast cancer.
  • Statistic analysis BCSG1 gene expression correlation with clinical parameters of breast cancer.
  • 72 breast cancers were followed up (4 - 43 months) to set up independent prognosis factor by survival analysis.
  • RESULTS: BCSG1 was undetectable in all benign breast lesions, while was detectable in 36.1% of all breast cancer samples (26/72), in which 79.2% of stage III/IV cases were positive (19/24).
  • The expression of BCSG1 was tightly correlated with the stage (P = 0.000) and the size of tumor (P = 0.007).
  • Both ER (P = 0.027) and BCSG1 (P = 0.001) were the independent prognosis factor of breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: BCSG1 is one of independent tumor marker of breast cancer, the expression of BCSG1 is closely correlated to the stage of breast cancer and the tumor size.
  • Maybe, BCSG1 is a new prognosis factor of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. gamma-Synuclein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15842935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SNCG protein, human; 0 / gamma-Synuclein
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86. Pieta B, Opala T, Wilczak M, Grodecka-Gazdecka S, Kramer L, Samulak D, Wieznowska-Maczyńska K: Past obstetric history and risk of malignant breast neoplasms. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(4):374-7
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  • [Title] Past obstetric history and risk of malignant breast neoplasms.
  • Many studies indicate hormonal disorders as a crucial reason for breast pathology.
  • They are also probably responsible for the development of benign neoplasms and play a role in the origin and development of breast carcinoma.
  • Although the mammary gland is under the influence of many steroid and peptide hormones such as thyroid hormones, prolactin, growth hormone, glucocorticosteroids, it is estrogen that plays an important role in the development of breast cancer.
  • The purpose of the study was to analyze the obstetrical past of patients and the potential influence on the risk of developing malignant breast neoplasms.
  • The participants in the study were healthy women with no changes in mammary glands (control group) and women with diagnosed malignant or benign breast neoplasms (study group).
  • Hormonal disorders in childhood and puberty symptoms of early menarche play a crucial role in increasing the risk of malignant breast neoplasms.
  • In women who experienced one or more miscarriages the risk of malignant breast neoplasms is significantly increased.
  • On the basis of our study we calculated the odds ratio (OR) of malignant breast neoplasms among women who during lactation experienced problems needing medical intervention (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.20-4.19) in comparison to women who experienced no problems).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Reproductive History
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Diseases. Case-Control Studies. Confidence Intervals. Estrogens. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Poland / epidemiology. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18714573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
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87. Bratthauer GL, Saenger JS, Strauss BL: Antibodies targeting p63 react specifically in the cytoplasm of breast epithelial cells exhibiting secretory differentiation. Histopathology; 2005 Dec;47(6):611-6
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  • [Title] Antibodies targeting p63 react specifically in the cytoplasm of breast epithelial cells exhibiting secretory differentiation.
  • AIMS: The nuclear detection of p63 in myoepithelial cells of the breast has been useful in identifying possibly invasive carcinomas.
  • The aim was to determine whether this reaction is specific for p63 and indicative of all breast secretory cells.
  • METHODS: Thirty breast specimens were tested immunohistochemically for p63 protein.
  • These included seven with benign secretory changes, 10 secretory carcinomas (nine invasive), one microglandular adenosis, three lobular neoplasias, four invasive ductal carcinomas, three clear cell carcinomas, one squamous cell carcinoma and one mucinous carcinoma.
  • The detection of p63 protein continues to have considerable value for the identification of myoepithelial cells and thus the determination of invasion, but will also have value in the determination of secretory carcinomas of the breast and in understanding their development.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / metabolism. Breast / cytology. Breast / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Phosphoproteins. Trans-Activators
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16324199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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88. Goyal S, Puri T, Gupta R, Julka PK, Rath GK: Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence. J Cancer Res Ther; 2008 Apr-Jun;4(2):95-6
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  • [Title] Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence.
  • Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line.
  • Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue.
  • These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential.
  • We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Axilla. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Neoplasm Staging. Parity. Pregnancy. Premenopause. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18688128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Taxoids; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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89. Kooistra B, Wauters C, Strobbe L: Indeterminate breast fine-needle aspiration: repeat aspiration or core needle biopsy? Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Feb;16(2):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Indeterminate breast fine-needle aspiration: repeat aspiration or core needle biopsy?
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of breast lesions provides indeterminate (C1, C3, and C4) diagnoses in a high proportion of cases.
  • The aim of the present study was to retrospectively determine whether repeat FNA or core needle biopsy (CNB) most frequently provides a correct and more conclusive diagnosis.
  • Improvement in preoperative diagnosis by repeat FNA or CNB was defined as C2/B2 in benign lesions, C3/B3 in premalignant lesions, C4/B4 or C5/B5 in malignant lesions where primary FNA was C1, and C5/B5 in malignant lesions where primary FNA was C3 or C4.
  • Among 255 eligible cases, CNB improved the preoperative diagnosis more often than did repeat FNA (78.0% vs. 54.8%, odds ratio = 2.9, P < .001).
  • When corrected for patient age, appearance on mammogram (mass or not), clinical findings (palpable or not), tumor size, and aspiration mode (freehand vs. image guided), this difference slightly increased (odds ratio = 3.0, P = .001).
  • CNB should be performed after an indeterminate FNA of a breast lesion to obtain a reliable and clear preoperative diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19050965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Stojadinovic A, Hooke JA, Shriver CD, Nissan A, Kovatich AJ, Kao TC, Ponniah S, Peoples GE, Moroni M: HYOU1/Orp150 expression in breast cancer. Med Sci Monit; 2007 Nov;13(11):BR231-239
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HYOU1/Orp150 expression in breast cancer.
  • Preliminary studies demonstrated increased HYOU1/Orp150 expression in prostate, bladder and invasive breast cancer.
  • This study further evaluates HYOU1/Orp150 expression in different stages of breast cancer such as benign, pre-malignant and malignant lesions, and correlates it with clinical and pathological data.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: Sixty-six paraffin-embedded breast tissue sections were stained by immunohistochemistry using HYOU1/Orp150 antibody.
  • RESULTS: There was a small but significant increase (P<0.01) in HYOU1/Orp150 expression as the tumor transformed from benign (mean 1.52+/-0.12) to ductal carcinoma in situ (mean 2.05+/-0.14) and invasive carcinoma (mean 2.1+/-0.17).
  • HYOU1/Orp150 was partially lost in the benign tissue adjacent to purely invasive cancer (0.88+/-0.22) and it was less (P=0.046) than what was found in benign only lesions (1.52+/-0.12) or in benign components adjacent to DCIS (1.47+/-0.16).
  • Overexpression of HYOU1/Orp150 was associated with tumor lymph node involvement, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and absence of estrogen receptor expression (P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HYOU1/Orp150 is overexpressed in some invasive breast cancers and its overexpression appears to be associated with indicators of poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Female. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies


91. El-Attar NI, Gaefar HA: Plasma mammaglobin messenger RNA in breast cancer patients as an addition to serum tumor. Egypt J Immunol; 2007;14(2):111-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Plasma mammaglobin messenger RNA in breast cancer patients as an addition to serum tumor.
  • Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide; its recurrence is a result of undetected metastasis present at the time of primary patient treatment.
  • The detection of cell-free RNA in plasma and serum of human subjects has found increasing applications in the field of medical diagnostics.This study aimed at evaluating plasma mammaglobin mRNA as a useful tumor marker for the diagnosis and the detection of metastasis in breast cancer at the time of diagnosis either alone or in combination with conventional serum tumor markers CA15.3 and/or CEA.
  • This study included 40 Egyptian females with primary breast cancer and 25 with different benign breast diseases.
  • There was a significance increase in plasma mammaglobin mRNA expression, CA15.3 and CEA levels in BC group as compared to benign group (p < 0.001).
  • No significant difference was observed between levels of plasma mammaglobin mRNA expression in patients with tumor's size or grade.
  • No correlation was observed with plasma mammaglobulin mRNA levels and tumor size or grading, CEA and CA15.3.
  • There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) and a positive correlation between CA 15.3 and CEA levels in patients with tumor size and grading.
  • In conclusion, plasma mammaglobin mRNA alone or in combination with CA15.3 may be used as a valuable noninvasive approach for the diagnosis and the detection of metastasis in breast cancer at the time of diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 20306663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-4902
  • [Journal-full-title] The Egyptian journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Egypt J Immunol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Myelin Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 0 / Secretoglobins; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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92. Passebosc-Faure K, Li G, Lambert C, Cottier M, Gentil-Perret A, Fournel P, Pérol M, Genin C: Evaluation of a panel of molecular markers for the diagnosis of malignant serous effusions. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Oct 1;11(19 Pt 1):6862-7
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  • [Title] Evaluation of a panel of molecular markers for the diagnosis of malignant serous effusions.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: One hundred fourteen serous effusions from 71 patients with tumors and 43 patients with benign diseases were subjected to RT-PCR for expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM), E-cadherin, mammaglobin, mucin 1 (MUC1) isoforms MUC1/REP, MUC1/Y, and MUC1/Z, calretinin, and Wilms' tumor 1 susceptibility gene.
  • Moreover, CEA and mammaglobin were specifically expressed in epithelial malignancies, and mammaglobin was mainly expressed in effusions from breast carcinoma (97.3% of specificity).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A combination of cytology and RT-PCR analysis of CEA and Ep-CAM significantly improved the detection sensitivity of tumor cells in serous effusions.
  • RT-PCR analysis of CEA, Ep-CAM, and mammaglobin in serous effusions could be a beneficial adjunct to cytology for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / genetics. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens / biosynthesis. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Ascites / metabolism. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Calbindin 2. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / biosynthesis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers / chemistry. Female. Genes, Wilms Tumor. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Humans. Male. Mammaglobin A. Middle Aged. Mucin-1. Mucins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / chemistry. Pleural Effusion. RNA / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / biosynthesis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16203775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / EPCAM protein, human; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 0 / WT1 Proteins; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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93. Chung LW, Baseman A, Assikis V, Zhau HE: Molecular insights into prostate cancer progression: the missing link of tumor microenvironment. J Urol; 2005 Jan;173(1):10-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular insights into prostate cancer progression: the missing link of tumor microenvironment.
  • PURPOSE: Tumor cell genotype and phenotype have been considered the only determinants supporting cancer growth and metastasis.
  • This review focuses on the published literature that suggests that tumor-microenvironment interaction has a decisive role in controlling local cancer growth, invasion and distant metastasis.
  • As this review shows, genetic alterations in prostate cancer cells alone are not enough to confer metastatic status without a supporting tumor microenvironment.
  • Effective therapeutic targeting requires a deeper understanding of the interplay between tumor and stroma.
  • Approaches co-targeting tumor and stroma already show promise over the conventional targeting of tumor cells alone in preventing prostate cancer progression and eradicating preexisting or newly developed prostate cancers in bone and visceral organs.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature survey using the MEDLINE database was performed in basic and clinical publications relevant to tumor-host microenvironment interaction.
  • RESULTS: Tumor associated stroma actively fuel the progression of prostate cancer from localized growth to the invasion of surrounding tissues, and the development of distant bone and visceral organ metastasis.
  • In concert with this progression tumor cells recovered from metastatic sites could represent a subpopulation of preexisting tumor cells or could be a newly acquired variant subsequent to tumor-stromal interaction.
  • This presents a new opportunity for therapeutic targeting for the treatment of benign and malignant growth of the prostate glands.
  • This review summarizes specific research implicating tumor-microenvironment interaction as the molecular basis of cancer progression, providing a rationale for targeting tumor and the tumor associated microenvironment in the management of androgen independent and bone metastatic prostate cancer progression in patients.
  • Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor-stromal interaction may yield improved medical treatments for prostate cancer growth and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / physiopathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Disease Progression. Extracellular Matrix / physiology. Fibroblasts / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Male. Molecular Mimicry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Signal Transduction / physiology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15592017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 098912; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 76620
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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94. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours. Histopathology; 2010 Jun;56(7):868-75
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  • [Title] p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: Control of cell cycling and proliferation is critical to the development of neoplasia and may play a role in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumours (PTs).
  • This study aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of certain proteins from the G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle in a cohort of PTs, to determine their role in tumour pathogenesis and to identify any associations with patient outcome.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-five PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • Expression of the following markers increased significantly with tumour grade: stromal nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 (P = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively), stromal and epithelial pRb (P = 0.000,000,06 and 0.004, respectively), and stromal and epithelial Ki67 (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis


95. Tse GM, Tan PH, Ma TK, Gilks CB, Poon CS, Law BK: CD44s is useful in the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Nov;58(11):1185-8
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  • [Title] CD44s is useful in the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: CD44s, the standard form of CD44, has been shown to be downregulated during malignant transformation of breast cancers.
  • It has also been reported recently to be a useful marker in differentiating between benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast, with high expression in the former.
  • CD44s expression in benign and malignant papillary lesions was evaluated.
  • METHODS: CD44s expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 101 benign papillomas and 59 papillary carcinomas (seven invasive papillary carcinomas, 41 papillary ductal carcinomas in situ, and 11 ductal carcinomas involving papillomas).
  • RESULTS: Patients' age and tumour size were significantly different between the papilloma and papillary carcinoma groups (p < 0.0001).
  • Using CD44s positive staining to differentiate between benign and malignant papillary lesions gives a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 45%, 92%, and 62%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD44s may be useful as an adjunct in the evaluation of morphologically problematic cases of papillary lesion of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity