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1. Hiéronimus S, Bec-Roche M, Pedeutour F, Lambert JC, Wagner-Malher K, Mas JC, Sadoul JL, Fénichel P: The spectrum of parathyroid gland dysfunction associated with the microdeletion 22q11. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Jul;155(1):47-52
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Parathyroid Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The spectrum of parathyroid gland dysfunction associated with the microdeletion 22q11.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the phenotype of patients with del(22)(q11), focusing on parathyroid gland dysfunction.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid dysfunction was present in 8 out of 16 patients (50%).
  • The connection between hypoparathyroidism and diagnosis of del(22)(q11) was belated at the median age of 18 years.
  • Within the kindred family, the phenotype variability including that of parathyroid dysfunction was as marked as between unrelated individuals.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal parathyroid function in the del(22)(q11) ranges from severe neonatal hypocalcemia to latent hypoparathyroidism.
  • When suspected, the diagnosis requires investigation by FISH.

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  • (PMID = 16793949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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2. Ito Y, Kakudo K, Hirokawa M, Fukushima M, Tomoda C, Inoue H, Kihara M, Higashiyama T, Uruno T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A: Clinical significance of extrathyroid extension to the parathyroid gland of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr J; 2009;56(2):251-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical significance of extrathyroid extension to the parathyroid gland of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, there have been few studies on the clinical significance of extension to the parathyroid gland in a large case series.
  • In this study, we investigated the prognosis of PTC with extension to the parathyroid gland in a series of 3208 patients who underwent initial surgery between 1997 and 2004.
  • Of these patients, 51 (1.6%) showed extension to the parathyroid gland on pathological examination.
  • The disease-free survival (DFS) of these 30 patients was significantly better (p<0.0001) than that of pT4 patients and did not differ from that of patients showing minimal extrathyroid extension without extension to the parathyroid gland (p = 0.6264).
  • Taken together, it is appropriate that extension to the parathyroid gland of PTC is graded as minimal extrathyroid extension (pT3), but not massive extension (pT4).
  • Since minimal extension did not affect patient prognosis in our series, it is suggested that extension to the parathyroid gland has little clinical significance in PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Parathyroid carcinoma.
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  • (PMID = 19122348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Szende B, Arvai K, Peták I, Nagy K, Végsô G, Perner F: [Changes in gene expression in the course of proliferative processes in the parathyroid gland]. Magy Onkol; 2006;50(2):137-40
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Changes in gene expression in the course of proliferative processes in the parathyroid gland].
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in expression pattern of the most important genes connected with apoptosis in proliferative apoptotic lesions (hyperplasia, adenoma), applying cDNA microarray technique, in order to promote the possible diagnostic or therapeutic utilisation of any difference in gene expression compared to the healthy (normal) parathyroid gland.
  • Samples were taken from surgically removed 2 hyperplasias, 2 adenomas and 2 normal parathyroid glands.
  • The samples deriving from hyperplasia or adenoma were compared to samples from normal parathyroid glands.
  • As a result of this study, both pro-apoptotic and antiapoptotic genes were identified in hyperplasia and adenoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • It seems that increased proliferation is connected also with increased apoptotic activity, but tumor cell candidates are able to survive, by activation of signal pathways resulting in overexpresion of anti-apoptotic genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Apoptosis / genetics. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics


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4. Dimashkieh H, Krishnamurthy S: Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions. Cytojournal; 2006;3:6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US) guided fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions.
  • METHOD: All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases.
  • Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH) was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections.
  • RESULTS: Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied.
  • There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland.
  • Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin.
  • Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology.
  • Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

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  • (PMID = 16569241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1435923
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5. Matsushima S, Tsuchiya N, Fujisawa-Imura K, Fujisawa-Imura K, Hoshimoto M, Takasu N, Torii M, Ozaki K, Narana I, Kotani T: Ultrastructural and morphometrical evaluation of the parathyroid gland in iron-lactate-overloaded rats. Toxicol Pathol; 2005;33(5):533-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrastructural and morphometrical evaluation of the parathyroid gland in iron-lactate-overloaded rats.
  • Iron lactate was given to Sprague-Dawley rats intravenously at the dosage of 10 mg/kg/day and the early effects on the parathyroid gland were examined ultrastructurally along with the blood level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) after single, 3-day or 6-day administration.
  • The plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was elevated in the single and 3-day dosing group but was reduced in the 6-day dosing group.
  • Image analysis of the parathyroid gland revealed that the average area of the storage granule decreased during a experimental period, with the number of storage granules decreasing in the 3- and 6-day dosing group.
  • The chief cells of the parathyroid gland were moderately atrophied in the 6-day dosing group.
  • [MeSH-major] Ferrous Compounds / toxicity. Iron Overload / metabolism. Lactates / toxicity. Parathyroid Glands / ultrastructure. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16048848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ferrous Compounds; 0 / Lactates; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
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6. Johnson SJ, Sheffield EA, McNicol AM: Best practice no 183. Examination of parathyroid gland specimens. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Apr;58(4):338-42

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Best practice no 183. Examination of parathyroid gland specimens.
  • The pathological examination of parathyroid glands is an essential component of the evaluation of hyperparathyroidism.
  • Traditionally, this has involved intraoperative frozen sections during bilateral surgical exploration of the neck, to confirm removal of parathyroid tissue.
  • With recent developments in imaging, some diseased glands can be localised preoperatively, enabling removal by minimally invasive, targetted surgery, with or without additional non-histological intraoperative procedures to confirm the removal of all hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue.
  • This article reviews these developments and describes the ideal approach to reporting parathyroid specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Cryopreservation / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Intraoperative Care / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Preoperative Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 15790694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 52
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770637
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7. Knezević-Obad A, Tomić-Brzac H, Zarković K, Dodig D, Stromar IK: Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):25-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to establish possibilities of using cytology in the diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • 475 patients, all suspected to have parathyroid gland disease, were examined over a three-year period (from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2008) in the Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protection, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia.
  • The parathyroid hormone (PTH) analysis was made for all punctates.
  • All patients with cytology-based diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma were sent to surgery, and the cytological diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistology.
  • In three cases, the parathyroid gland adenoma was established by pathohistology, although in these cases the cytological diagnosis was negative.
  • The cytological diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma can be considered reliable in 96% of cases, provided that the echosonographic structure and localisation of the punctured node is noted, and assuming that material adequate for cytological analysis is obtained by FNAB.
  • Possible pitfalls are oncocytic types of parathyroid adenoma, intranuclear inclusions and papillary formation of epithelial cells, and cystic degeneration of nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Epithelial Cells / pathology. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Methylene Blue. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Reproducibility of Results. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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8. Shiizaki K, Negi S, Hatamura I, Sakaguchi T, Saji F, Kunimoto K, Mizobuchi M, Imazeki I, Ooshima A, Akizawa T: Biochemical and cellular effects of direct maxacalcitol injection into parathyroid gland in uremic rats. J Am Soc Nephrol; 2005 Jan;16(1):97-108
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biochemical and cellular effects of direct maxacalcitol injection into parathyroid gland in uremic rats.
  • The most important etiological factors of resistance to medical treatments for secondary hyperparathyroidism are the decreased contents of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR) in parathyroid cells and a severely swollen parathyroid gland (PTG) as a result of hyperplasia.
  • The changes in serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), Ca(2+), and phosphorus levels, in VDR and CaSR expression levels in parathyroid cells, and in Ca(2+)-PTH curves were examined.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. Calcitriol / pharmacology. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Uremia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Gene Expression / drug effects. Injections, Intralesional. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / genetics. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 1,25-DIHYDROXYCHOLECALCIFEROL .
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  • (PMID = 15574509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-6673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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9. Matsuoka S, Tominaga Y, Uno N, Goto N, Sato T, Katayama A, Uchida K, Nakao A: Surgical significance of undescended parathyroid gland in renal hyperparathyroidism. Surgery; 2006 Jun;139(6):815-20
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kidney Failure.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical significance of undescended parathyroid gland in renal hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: In renal hyperparathyroidism, in which basically all parathyroid glands are hyperplastic, overlooking one undescended parathyroid gland becomes important.
  • We evaluated the frequency and location of undescended parathyroid glands and the clinical findings and the prognosis of patients with such glands.
  • RESULTS: Undescended parathyroid glands in our series of renal hyperparathyroidism numbered 16 of 1750 cases (0.91%).
  • The mean weight of the undescended parathyroid glands that were removed at initial operations was 470 mg (30 to 1392 mg).
  • In 12 of a total of 16 patients with undescended glands, there appeared to be an inferior parathyroid gland, and the other 4 glands appeared to be a superior gland.
  • CONCLUSION: In operations for renal hyperparathyroidism, an undescended parathyroid gland can be readily overlooked, which leads to persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism.
  • Because an undescended parathyroid gland is not always an inferior gland, in surgery for persistent and/or recurrent renal hyperparathyroidism, it is very important to examine carefully the submandibular portion to detect such an undescended gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / surgery. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Parathyroid Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16782439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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10. Callender GG, Grubbs EG, Vu T, Hofstetter WL, Fleming JB, Woodburn KL, Lee JE, Evans DB, Perrier ND: The fallen one: the inferior parathyroid gland that descends into the mediastinum. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 May;208(5):887-93; discussion 893-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The fallen one: the inferior parathyroid gland that descends into the mediastinum.
  • BACKGROUND: Inferior parathyroid glands are located along the embryologic migration path of the thymus and can rest in the thyrothymic ligament or anterior mediastinum.
  • This study reviews our experience with type F parathyroid glands to determine which can be retrieved successfully through a cervical incision.
  • Distance from the superior aspect of the clavicle to the target parathyroid gland was measured.
  • RESULTS: Sixty (9.2%) patients had a type F parathyroid gland.
  • Preoperative imaging identified parathyroid glands located >or=6 cm below the superior aspect of the clavicle in eight patients.
  • Parathyroidectomy was successfully performed through a cervical incision in all 52 (100%) patients in whom the target parathyroid gland was <6 cm below the superior aspect of the clavicle (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A cervical approach allows successful retrieval of type F parathyroid glands located <6 cm below the superior aspect of the head of the clavicle in the anterior mediastinum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19476855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Svec A, Bury Y: Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist? Pathol Oncol Res; 2010 Sep;16(3):443-6
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  • [Title] Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist?
  • We are reporting a case of a capillary haemangioma-like proliferation arising within a parathyroid gland adenoma, associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The observation expands the spectrum of tumour-associated vascular proliferations by adding an exuberant haemangioma-like pattern to its extreme end.
  • The only two other published cases of haemangioma of the parathyroid gland were reported in patients diagnosed with primary parathyroid hyperplasia with hyperparathyroidism, a pathophysiologic condition similar to our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20063187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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12. Zajac JD, Danks JA: The development of the parathyroid gland: from fish to human. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens; 2008 Jul;17(4):353-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The development of the parathyroid gland: from fish to human.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the development and function of the parathyroid gland from fish to mammals.
  • We describe the molecular mechanisms regulating parathyroid gland embryogenesis and the clinical syndromes related to mutations in control genes.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that fish express parathyroid hormone.
  • This is contrary to the long held view that the earliest animals to possess parathyroid hormone were amphibians.
  • Two fish species have been demonstrated to express parathyroid hormone but the source and physiological function of this peptide in fish remains to be determined.
  • There is strong recent evidence that regulation and development of the parathyroid gland in mammals is controlled by a cascade of genes.
  • SUMMARY: The function of parathyroid hormone and the parathyroid gland in humans is to regulate serum calcium levels to maintain homeostasis.
  • Parathyroid hormone genes are present in fish but their function remains to be elucidated.
  • Parathyroid development is regulated by a cascade of genes, which are now being rapidly defined in mouse models and in human mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Fishes / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / growth & development. Parathyroid Glands / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18660669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1062-4821
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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13. Kucera T, Veselý D, Pácová H, Martínek J, Astl J: Expression of nitric oxide synthases in parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroid gland hyperplasia. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2005 Aug;26(4):373-6
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  • [Title] Expression of nitric oxide synthases in parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented study was to perform the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the adenomatous and hyperplastic parathyroid gland in relation to the apoptotic process.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Tissue samples from 12 patients with parathyroid gland adenoma (PGA) and 10 patients with secondary parathyroid gland hyperplasia (PGH) were collected during surgery at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of The First Faculty of Medicine in Prague.
  • RESULTS: The immunoreactivity to eNOS antibody was observed in the endothelial lining of vessels in PGA, PGH and in the rim of normal parathyroid gland adjacent to PGA sample.
  • CONCLUSION: eNOS observed in the vasculature of the enlarged parathyroid glands can serve as a factor that contributes to the viability of hypertrophic pathologic tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / enzymology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16136006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS3 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
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14. Edwards PC, Bhuiya T, Kahn LB, Fantasia JE: Salivary heterotopia of the parathyroid gland: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2005 May;99(5):590-3
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  • [Title] Salivary heterotopia of the parathyroid gland: a report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • Two cases of periparathyroid salivary gland heterotopia are described.
  • A review of the records of the Department of Pathology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, over a 4-year period, identified 759 surgical specimens containing parathyroid gland tissue.
  • Of these, 2 (0.26%) contained foci of ectopic salivary gland tissue.
  • To date, 9 additional cases of heterotopic salivary gland tissue associated with the parathyroid gland have been described in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma. Parathyroid Glands. Salivary Gland Diseases

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  • (PMID = 15829882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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15. Inaba M, Okuno S, Chou H, Imanishi Y, Ueda M, Yamakawa T, Ishimura E, Nishizawa Y: Positive correlation of serum bio-intact PTH(1-84) but not intact PTH with parathyroid gland size in hemodialysis patients. Biomed Pharmacother; 2006 Feb;60(2):62-5
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  • [Title] Positive correlation of serum bio-intact PTH(1-84) but not intact PTH with parathyroid gland size in hemodialysis patients.
  • To evaluate the usefulness of newly-developed bio-intact parathyroid hormone (Bio-PTH) assay, which measures exclusively intact PTH(1-84) molecule, serum PTH level determined by Bio-PTH assay, in comparison with second-generation intact PTH (I-PTH) assay, was examined for its correlation with parathyroid gland size.
  • Maximal diameter of parathyroid gland was determined with ultrasonography as the parathyroid gland size.
  • Serum Ca and Pi correlated significantly with parathyroid gland size rationalizing our method to define parathyroid gland size.
  • Serum Bio-PTH was correlated significantly in a positive manner with parathyroid gland size (R = 0.308, P = 0.0474), whereas serum I-PTH did not.
  • Furthermore, parathyroid gland size did not exhibit a significant correlation with any of bone formation markers or bone resorption markers.
  • The lack of correlation between bone markers and parathyroid gland size in HD patients may be explained by the occurrence of refractoriness of bone to PTH.
  • In conclusion, serum Bio-PTH assay could provide a better assay than I-PTH assay to estimate parathyroid function in HD patients, due mainly to its exclusive correlation with parathyroid gland size.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 16460905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0753-3322
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Pharmacother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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16. Ichii M, Ishimura E, Okuno S, Chou H, Kato Y, Tsuboniwa N, Nagasue K, Maekawa K, Yamakawa T, Inaba M, Nishizawa Y: Decreases in parathyroid gland volume after cinacalcet treatment in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephron Clin Pract; 2010;115(3):c195-202
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  • [Title] Decreases in parathyroid gland volume after cinacalcet treatment in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Cinacalcet, an allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor, effectively reduces serum parathyroid hormone (PTH).
  • It was examined whether a regression of parathyroid glands in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was induced by cinacalcet treatment.
  • METHODS: Ultrasonography of the parathyroid glands was performed to examine the changes in the parathyroid gland volumes after cinacalcet treatment in 58 patients.
  • The total volumes of the parathyroid glands were significantly decreased 6 months after cinacalcet treatment (942 +/- 747 vs. 708 +/- 550 mm(3), p < 0.0005).
  • There was a significant positive correlation between the parathyroid gland volumes at the start of cinacalcet treatment and the volume reduction in parathyroid glands (r = 0.716, p < 0.0001).
  • Of the 58 patients, the total parathyroid gland volume was decreased in 42 patients and increased in 16 although the doses of cinacalcet, phosphate binders or vitamin D were not significantly different.
  • CONCLUSION: Cinacalcet treatment in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism significantly reduced the total parathyroid gland volume in a short 6-month period.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / pathology. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Renal Dialysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20413997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-2110
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephron. Clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephron Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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17. Karakas E, Osei-Agyemang T, Schlosser K, Hoffmann S, Zielke A, Rothmund M, Hassan I: The impact of parathyroid gland autotransplantation during bilateral thyroid surgery for Graves' disease on postoperative hypocalcaemia. Endocr Regul; 2008 Jun;42(2-3):39-44
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  • [Title] The impact of parathyroid gland autotransplantation during bilateral thyroid surgery for Graves' disease on postoperative hypocalcaemia.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of hypocalcaemia after bilateral thyroid resection for Graves' Disease in patients with and without parathyroid gland autotransplantation (PTAT).
  • Subgroup I comprised of 129 patients without PTAT, Subgroup II comprised of 19 patients with PTAT of one parathyroid gland and Subgroup III comprised of 6 patients with PTAT of two parathyroid glands.
  • Thus, the frequency of permanent postthyroidectomy hypocalcaemia (PH) was significantly higher in the Subgroup III with PTAT of two parathyroid glands when compared to the Subgroup I without PTAT (p=0.032) and Subgroup II with PTAT of only one parathyroid glands (p=0.012).
  • CONCLUSION: PTAT of one parathyroid gland is an effective procedure to reduce the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism after bilateral surgery for Graves disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Graves Disease / surgery. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / transplantation. Postoperative Complications / blood. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18624611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-0668
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine regulations
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Regul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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18. Inaba M, Imanishi Y, Ueda M, Cho H, Tahara H, Ishimura E, Nishizawa Y, Yamakawa T, Okuno S: [Correlation of serum Bio-intact PTH (1-84) and parathyroid gland size in hemodialysed patients]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Sep;15 Suppl 1:64-6; discussion 66-7
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  • [Title] [Correlation of serum Bio-intact PTH (1-84) and parathyroid gland size in hemodialysed patients].
  • Bio-intact parathyroid hormone (Bio-PTH) assay, which measures exclusively intact PTH (1-84) molecule, provides a better assay for estimating parathyroid function in hemodialysis (HD) patients, whereas intact PTH (I-PTH) assay cross-react with PTH (7-84) as well as PTH (1-84).
  • We have reported that parathyroid gland size is one of major predictor for vitamin D responsiveness in secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Therefore, we investigated whether serum Bio-PTH, in comparison with serum I-PTH, may provide a relevant assay to estimate parathyroid function as evidence by its correlation with parathyroid gland size on ultrasound examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Calcium. 2006 Feb;16(2):149-52
  • (PMID = 16272632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / parathyroid hormone (7-84); 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
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19. Jara A, von Höveling A, Jara X, Burgos ME, Valdivieso A, Mezzano S, Felsenfeld AJ: Effect of endothelin receptor antagonist on parathyroid gland growth, PTH values and cell proliferation in azotemic rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2006 Apr;21(4):917-23
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  • [Title] Effect of endothelin receptor antagonist on parathyroid gland growth, PTH values and cell proliferation in azotemic rats.
  • BACKGROUND: A variety of stimuli are involved in the pathogenesis of parathyroid gland hyperplasia in renal failure.
  • Recently, it was shown that blocking the signal from the endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor (ET(A)R/ET(B)R) by a non-selective receptor antagonist, bosentan, reduced parathyroid cell proliferation, parathyroid gland hyperplasia and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in normal rats on a calcium deficient diet.
  • Our goal was to determine whether in 5/6 nephrectomized (NPX) rats with developing or established hyperparathyroidism, the endothelin receptor blocker, bosentan, reduced the increase in parathyroid cell proliferation, parathyroid gland hyperplasia and PTH values.
  • Parathyroid cell proliferation was measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and ET-1 expression by immunohistochemical techniques.
  • RESULTS: In the study of developing hyperparathyroidism, bosentan reduced ET-1 expression in the parathyroid glands of rats on the NPD and HPD (P<0.05).
  • But only in rats on the NPD did bosentan result in a reduced increase in parathyroid gland weight (P<0.05).
  • On the VLPD, parathyroid gland weight was less (P<0.05) than that in rats on the HPD sacrificed at 15 or 30 days.
  • Bosentan did not reduce parathyroid cell proliferation or parathyroid gland weight in rats maintained on the HPD or further reduce these parameters beyond that obtained with dietary phosphorus restriction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In azotemic rats with developing hyperparathyroidism, bosentan resulted in a reduced increase in parathyroid gland weight when dietary phosphorus content was normal.
  • Despite a reduction in ET-1 expression in rats on a HPD with developing or established hyperparathyroidism, bosentan did not reduce the increase in parathyroid cell proliferation, parathyroid gland growth or PTH values.
  • Thus, ET-1 blockade with bosentan did not prevent parathyroid gland growth in the azotemic rat.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Endothelin Receptor Antagonists. Parathyroid Glands / growth & development. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Sulfonamides / pharmacology. Uremia / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16431896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Endothelin Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphorus, Dietary; 0 / Sulfonamides; Q326023R30 / bosentan
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20. Kirov G, Boneva Zh, Protich M, Koleva N, Paskalev V, Iovchevski P, Lozev I, Liutskanov V: [Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2007;(3):64-6

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  • [Title] [Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases].
  • Ectopic locations of parathyroid adenomas are a rare condition and can cause difficulty in their diagnosis and surgical treatment.
  • We report two cases of intrathyroid parathyroid lesions.
  • In the first patient, preoperative localization studies suggested the possibility of a parathyroid adenoma outside the thyroid gland.
  • When a pathological gland is not found during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, an ectopic parathyroid gland was found in the thyroid tissue.
  • In the second patient, in an existing thyroid nodule was found an ectopic normal parathyroid gland postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma. Goiter, Nodular. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18437114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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21. Fischer I, Wieczorek R, Sidhu GS, Pei Z, West B, Lee P: Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Oct;10(5):294-6
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  • [Title] Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review.
  • Myxoid lipoadenoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare variant of parathyroid adenoma.
  • We present the case of a 40-year-old man with asymptomatic hypercalcemia who underwent surgical removal of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Histologically, the tumor consisted of monomorphous round-to-oval chief cells arranged in several architectural patterns including solid sheet-like, trabecular, and follicular.
  • The tumor stroma was prominently myxoid with interspersed mature adipose tissue.
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of thyroid transcription factor and parathyroid hormone by all tumor cells and a low proliferation rate with a Ki-67 labeling index of at most 5%.
  • Although the lesion exhibited characteristics that have been previously associated with "atypical parathyroid adenoma," such as dense fibrous bands within the tumor and a trabecular growth pattern, there was no further evidence, neither histologically nor clinically, for malignant behavior of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Hypercalcemia / complications. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Male. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16979523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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22. Ing SW, Pelliteri PK: Diagnostic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of an intrathyroidal parathyroid gland and subsequent eucalcemia in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):80-6
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  • [Title] Diagnostic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of an intrathyroidal parathyroid gland and subsequent eucalcemia in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the clinical course of a patient with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) whose intrathyroidal parathyroid gland was diagnosed by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
  • METHODS: We describe the clinical course and laboratory, radiographic, and microscopic findings of a patient with persistent PHPT due to an intrathyroidal cystic parathyroid gland and review the relevant literature.
  • RESULTS: A 74-year-old man with PHPT (presenting serum calcium concentration, 16.2 mg/dL; intact parathyroid hormone [PTH] concentration, 341 pg/mL) had surgical excision of the right superior, right inferior, and left inferior parathyroid glands, but the left superior parathyroid gland remained unidentified.
  • Microscopic examination revealed parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • Reoperation with attention to the left neck failed to locate another parathyroid gland.
  • Results from FNAB of the solid component were consistent with parathyroid cells, and cystic fluid PTH concentration was greater than 1800 pg/mL.
  • CONCLUSION: Autoinfarction of the parathyroid gland and aspiration of cystic fluid may explain resolution of hypercalcemia.
  • Although PHPT due to functioning parathyroid cysts is rare, and PHPT due to cystic parathyroid hyperplasia has been described, this is the first case report of a patient with persistent PHPT due to a functional parathyroid cyst whose diagnosis by FNAB was followed by eucalcemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Choristoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18238745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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23. Su DH, Liao KM, Chang YC, Tsai KS: Secondary hyperparathyroidism as a palpable intrathyroid parathyroid gland in a patient with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. J Bone Miner Metab; 2006;24(2):114-7
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  • [Title] Secondary hyperparathyroidism as a palpable intrathyroid parathyroid gland in a patient with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia.
  • An intrathyroid parathyroid gland was confirmed through partial thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy.
  • Renal phosphate wasting decreased strongly, and serum parathyroid hormone was in the normal range after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Osteomalacia / complications. Parathyroid Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hypophosphatemia / pathology. Kidney Tubules / pathology. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / chemistry. Phosphates / therapeutic use. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16502117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-8779
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates
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24. Fiedler AG, Rossi C, Gingalewski CA: Parathyroid carcinoma in a child: an unusual case of an ectopically located malignant parathyroid gland with tumor invading the thymus. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;44(8):1649-52
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma in a child: an unusual case of an ectopically located malignant parathyroid gland with tumor invading the thymus.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is exceptionally rare in children.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma in the pediatric population most typically presents with significant hypercalcemia and a palpable neck mass.
  • The authors report the seventh case of parathyroid carcinoma diagnosed in a child younger than 16 years.
  • To our knowledge, this case is the first documented case, in the pediatric population, of parathyroid carcinoma in an ectopically located parathyroid gland with tumor invading the thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / surgery. Mediastinal Diseases / diagnosis. Mediastinal Diseases / surgery. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thymus Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19635322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Barai SR, Suryawanshi SA, Pandey AK: Responses of parathyroid gland, C cells, and plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in rat to sub-lethal heroin administration. J Environ Biol; 2009 Sep;30(5 Suppl):917-22
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  • [Title] Responses of parathyroid gland, C cells, and plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in rat to sub-lethal heroin administration.
  • In order to record the effects of heroin on plasma calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels as well as parathyroid gland and C cells, two sub-lethal doses (0.50 LD50 and 0.75 LD50) of the drug were administered intramuscularly in Rattus norvegicus for 30 days.
  • The treatment elicited degenerative changes in parathyroid gland as evident by cytoplamic vacuolization, presence of more pycnotic nuclei and occurrence of patchy areas among the chief cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Heroin / toxicity. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Phosphates / blood

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  • (PMID = 20143729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8704
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; 70D95007SX / Heroin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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26. Thalla R, Kim D, Venkat KK, Parasuraman R: Sequestration of active Cryptococcus neoformans infection in the parathyroid gland despite prolonged therapy in a renal transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis; 2009 Aug;11(4):349-52
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  • [Title] Sequestration of active Cryptococcus neoformans infection in the parathyroid gland despite prolonged therapy in a renal transplant recipient.
  • We present a case of persistence of cryptococcal infection in the parathyroid gland in a kidney transplant recipient.
  • One year after the diagnosis of cryptococcosis, and still on fluconazole, he underwent parathyroidectomy, for severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Surprisingly, active cryptococcal infection with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation was demonstrated in the parathyroid, despite being on therapy.
  • This patient illustrates that persistence of fungal infection despite prolonged therapy can occur in unusual sites such as the parathyroid and may be a source for future recurrence and dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptococcosis / microbiology. Cryptococcus neoformans / isolation & purification. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Parathyroid Glands / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 19422668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-3062
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole
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27. Martins P, Schmitt F, Almeida H, Frazão JM: Evaluation of parathyroid gland angiogenesis in chronic kidney disease associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2008 Sep;23(9):2889-94
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Chronic Kidney Disease.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of parathyroid gland angiogenesis in chronic kidney disease associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) synthesis and secretion is associated with parathyroid cell hyperplasia.
  • The exact mechanisms involved in parathyroid gland (PTG) hyperplasia are still poorly understood.
  • For control, eight normal human parathyroid glands (NPG) encountered in surgical specimens of total thyroidectomy were used.
  • Using the predefined subdivision into negative and positive only the b-FGF expression was significantly increased in the SHPT glands compared to NPG.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / physiopathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18398016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2385
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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28. Lacka K: [Molecular aspects of the etiopathogenesis of the parathyroid gland diseases]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):327-33
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  • [Title] [Molecular aspects of the etiopathogenesis of the parathyroid gland diseases].
  • Current views on the molecular aspects of familial parathyroid gland diseases have been presented (familial primary hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism and psuedohypoparathyroidism).
  • Localization, structure, expression and structural changes (mutations) found in patients with familial parathyroid gland diseases have been presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Hypoparathyroidism / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranins. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16350727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASR protein, human; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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29. Komaba H, Shin J, Fukagawa M: Restoration of reversed whole PTH/intact PTH ratio and reduction in parathyroid gland vascularity during cinacalcet therapy for severe hyperparathyroidism in a uraemic patient. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2010 Feb;25(2):638-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Restoration of reversed whole PTH/intact PTH ratio and reduction in parathyroid gland vascularity during cinacalcet therapy for severe hyperparathyroidism in a uraemic patient.
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels measured with the intact PTH assays are generally higher than those measured with the whole PTH assay; however, rare exceptions to this rule have been reported in patients with severe hyperparathyroidism associated with N-PTH overproduction.
  • Moreover, we observed a marked reduction in parathyroid gland vascularity during this treatment.
  • Our findings suggested that increased sensitivity of the parathyroid calcium sensing receptor by calcimimetics may modulate the secretion or truncation of N-PTH or other PTH molecules that can be detected by the whole PTH assay but not by the intact PTH assays.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / blood. Hyperparathyroidism / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19892751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2385
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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30. Tanaka M, Ito K, Matsushita K, Matsushita K, Tominaga Y, Matsuoka S, Ueki T, Goto N, Sato T, Katayama A, Haba T, Uchida K: [Usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography for the diagnosis of autoinfarction of parathyroid gland in secondary hyperparathyroidism]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Sep;15 Suppl 1:46-9; discussion 49-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography for the diagnosis of autoinfarction of parathyroid gland in secondary hyperparathyroidism].
  • Spontaneous remission due to parathyroid infarction of secondary hyperparathyroidism is rare compared with that of primary hyperparathyroidism, probably because several glands are enlarged in secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Lately, neck ultrasound examination has become a more beneficial and specific method for the diagnosis of enlarged parathyroid glands in contrast to classic diagnostic techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy.
  • However, the diagnosis of parathyroid infarction reported in previous studies was often based on CT, MRI and scintigraphy findings and there are few studies that reported such diagnosis by urgent power Doppler ultrasonography of the neck.
  • Here we present a hemodialysis patient with autoinfarction of the left parathyroid gland diagnosed by urgent power Doppler ultrasonography of the neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / ultrasonography. Infarction / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Calcium. 2006 Feb;16(2):149-52
  • (PMID = 16272629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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31. Chen H, Shoumura S, Emura S: Nerve fibres in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations. Anat Histol Embryol; 2005 Feb;34(1):34-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nerve fibres in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations.
  • We investigated the morphology and the distribution of the nerve fibres in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) parathyroid glands using antibodies to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P, and electron microscopy.
  • CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were densely distributed in the interstitial tissues and the capsules of the hamster parathyroid glands.
  • Some nerve fibres were detected in close proximity of the parathyroid chief cells.
  • Some axons were in close vicinity to the parathyroid chief cells.
  • These findings indicate that the hamster parathyroid gland contain CGRP and substance P, which may regulate the blood flow and the secretory activity of the gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide / analysis. Mesocricetus / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / innervation. Substance P / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15649224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2096
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 33507-63-0 / Substance P; 83652-28-2 / Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
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32. Fan J, Yang Y, Lin S, Sun A: [Ectopic parathyroid gland hyperplasia in the pyriform sinus]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Nov;21(21):979-80, 984
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  • [Title] [Ectopic parathyroid gland hyperplasia in the pyriform sinus].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnosis and treatment of the ectopic parathyroid gland in the pyriform sinus.
  • METHOD: Retrospectively analysis of 1 case with ectopic parathyroid gland in the pyriform sinus and retrospectively review the past literatures.
  • RESULT: The cases with the ectopic parathyroid gland in the pyriform sinus reported in the past literatures included: 2 with parathyroid gland tissues, 3 with hyperplasia, the other 1 with adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The ectopic parathyroid gland hyperplasia in the pyriform sinus is rarely reported before and it usually causes misdiagnosis.
  • Better knowledge of the different position of the ectopic parathyroid gland hyperplasia in the pyriform sinus will help diagnosing and treating it.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Diseases / therapy. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Pyriform Sinus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Choristoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / therapy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18309653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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33. Iovino F, Armano G, Auriemma PP, Sergio R, De Sena G, Capuozzo V, Rosso F, Marino G, Papale F, Grimaldi A, Barbarisi A: [Tissue engineering of parathyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):312-5

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  • [Title] [Tissue engineering of parathyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] L'ingegnerizzazione tissutale delle cellule paratiroidee.
  • Attempts to transplant parathyroid tissue began in 1975 with the work of Wells, but still today results are disappointing.
  • However, with the development of tissue engineering techniques, some experimental approaches to build artificial parathyroid are been made.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Parathyroid cells were obtained from three chronic uremic patients in hemodialysis, operated for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Culture media, with a low calcium concentration, were optimised to physiologically stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion.
  • Besides, concentration of parathyroid hormone in the culture medium has been measured for several weeks.
  • RESULTS: After 24 hours of culture in RPMI, cells extracted from human parathyroid glands were nearly all adherent and organised in clusters to resemble the glandular organization.
  • The cellular population consisted predominantly of parathyroid cells (90-95%).
  • On collagen scaffolds, cells maintains an epithelial-like morphology also after 10 weeks, colonizing the scaffold surface and keeping a good proliferative rate with a discrete production of parathyroid hormone.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of parathyroid cells extracted from patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was certainly an appropriate choice that enabled us to achieve these results, that albeit partial bode well for the experimental in vivo animal model.
  • The bioengineered scaffolds when implanted in the subcutaneous can avoid the dispersion of parathyroid cells, assuring also the possibility to easily remove the implant in case of complications.
  • Our research was aimed primarily to the optimisation of PTH secreting human parathyroid cells cultures and then to the in vitro engineering of human parathyroid glands in three-dimensional collagen scaffolds.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen. Parathyroid Glands / cytology. Tissue Engineering / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion. Cells, Cultured. Extracellular Matrix. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 20646380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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34. Shiizaki K, Fukagawa M, Yuan Q, Hatamura I, Nii-Kono T, Saji F, Shigematsu T, Akizawa T: Direct injection of calcitriol or its analog improves abnormal gene expression in the hyperplastic parathyroid gland in uremia. Am J Nephrol; 2008;28(1):59-66
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  • [Title] Direct injection of calcitriol or its analog improves abnormal gene expression in the hyperplastic parathyroid gland in uremia.
  • AIMS: In this study, we investigated the effects of direct injection (DI) of calcitriol or maxacalcitol into the hyperplastic parathyroid gland (PTG) on altered gene expression related to the advanced status of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT).
  • In each uremic rat, one of the bilateral PTG was treated by DI of calcitriol (PTG(CAL)) or maxacalcitol (PTG(OCT)), and the other gland was treated with control solution (PTG(CONT)).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that very high concentrations of calcitriol or maxacalcitol in the PTG improve abnormal gene expression and proliferation activity of parathyroid cells, and might explain the better control of SHPT using the DI technique.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Gene Expression / drug effects. Hyperplasia. Male. Nephrectomy. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / physiopathology. Parathyroid Hormone / genetics. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17901691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9670
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Vitamins; 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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35. Tominaga Y, Inaguma D, Matsuoka S, Tahara H, Kukita K, Kurihara S, Onoda N, Tsuruta Y, Tsutsui S, Ohta K, Kuwahara M, Tanaka M, Nishizawa Y, PTG study group: Is the volume of the parathyroid gland a predictor of Maxacalcitol response in advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism? Ther Apher Dial; 2006 Apr;10(2):198-204
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  • [Title] Is the volume of the parathyroid gland a predictor of Maxacalcitol response in advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism?
  • We evaluated the relationship between the volume of parathyroid glands estimated by ultrasonography (US) and response of 22-oxa calcitriol (Maxacalcitol, OCT) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) to evaluate whether the volume can be a predictor of the OCT response.
  • The volume of the parathyroid glands were estimated by US before and 6 months after OCT treatment.
  • The volume of the largest gland in Group B was significantly larger than that in Group A (96.2 vs. 343.2 mm3: P < 0.001).
  • Clinical factors affecting response of OCT was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and only the volume of the largest gland was a significant factor.
  • We conclude that the glandular volume of the largest parathyroid gland estimated by US can be a useful factor to predict the OCT response in patients with moderate or severe renal HPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16684224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9979
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Apher Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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36. Marcheix B, Brouchet L, Berjaud J, Dahan M: Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Nov;30(5):808-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • She underwent first a subtotal resection of the parathyroid glands associated with subtotal thyroidectomy in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism and multi nodular thyroid.
  • Pathologic findings were consistent with hyperplasia and demonstrated a fifth parathyroid gland in the thyroid.
  • Two years later, the patient presented recurrent hyperparathyroidism associated with terminal renal insufficiency, fusion of Sesta Mibi scintigraphy and CT scan demonstrated a sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland in the aorto pulmonary window.
  • Pathologic findings demonstrated a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16979898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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37. Moretz WH 3rd, Watts TL, Virgin FW Jr, Chin E, Gourin CG, Terris DJ: Correlation of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels with parathyroid gland size. Laryngoscope; 2007 Nov;117(11):1957-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels with parathyroid gland size.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship of intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone levels (iPTH) with parathyroid adenoma weight and volume in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Data collected include preoperative serum calcium, ionized calcium, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, iPTH levels at baseline, 5 minutes, and 10 minutes, and parathyroid adenoma weight.
  • RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent minimally invasive parathyroidectomy with iPTH measurement for a single parathyroid adenoma between March 2004 and January 2006.
  • A significant correlation between preoperative serum calcium and ionized calcium levels and parathyroid adenoma weight was identified (P = .0008 and P = .03, respectively).
  • A significant correlation was also shown between baseline iPTH measurements and parathyroid adenoma volume (P = .03).
  • There was no correlation between baseline iPTH levels and parathyroid adenoma weight.
  • There was a significant correlation between parathyroid adenoma weight and percentage decrease of iPTH levels at 10 minutes compared to baseline (P = .04).
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative serum calcium and baseline iPTH levels may be useful in predicting parathyroid adenoma weight and volume, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17891053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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38. Daneshbod Y, Banani A, Kumar PV: Aberrant thymus and parathyroid gland presenting as a recurrent lateral neck mass: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J; 2006 Jul;85(7):452-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lymphatic Diseases.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant thymus and parathyroid gland presenting as a recurrent lateral neck mass: a case report.
  • When the tumor failed to disappear after a course of antibiotic therapy, it was excised.
  • Histologic study revealed that the encapsulated mass contained a parathyroid gland embedded within a histologically normal thymus.
  • The presence of thymic and parathyroid tissue within a single capsule supports the idea that these two structures have a common embryologic origin.
  • The combination of thymic and parathyroid tissue in a neck mass in a patient so young is rarely reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands. Thymus Gland
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16909820.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Hamdy NA: Parathyroid gland: Is parathyroidectomy safe and beneficial in the elderly? Nat Rev Endocrinol; 2009 Aug;5(8):422-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid gland: Is parathyroidectomy safe and beneficial in the elderly?

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  • (PMID = 19629065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Romanchishen AF, Matveeva ZS: [Clinical symptoms of hyperparathyroidism and sizes of the parathyroid gland tumors]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2006;165(2):37-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical symptoms of hyperparathyroidism and sizes of the parathyroid gland tumors].
  • Three groups of patients with different degrees of primary hyperparathyroidism were compared: 36 patients with asymptomatic tumors (incidentalomas) of the parathyroid glands, 20 patients with parathyreoadenomas of medium size and mild signs of hyperparathyroidism and 26 patients with large adenomas and severe manifestations of the disease.
  • It was shown that asymptomatic tumors of the parathyroid glands (incidentalomas) might turn into clinically marked hyperparathyroidism as the size of the parathyroid tumors was growing.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16752637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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41. Braun B, Blank W: [Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid gland]. Internist (Berl); 2006 Jul;47(7):729-46; quiz 747
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ultrasound.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Sonographie der Schilddrüse und Nebenschilddrüsen.
  • Ultrasonography is the most important imaging tool in the diagnosis of thyroid disease.
  • The results of real-time B-imaging of the thyroid gland along with physical signs and basal TSH can aid in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction, of for instance, a small, hypoechogenic gland in Hashimoto's and radiation thyroiditis, or an enlarged, hypoechogenic and pulsating gland in Graves' disease.
  • Although recent improvements in technology have increased sensitivity of colored duplexsonography, certain sonographic differentiation of benign and malignant lesions as well as of active (hormone secreting) and inactive nodules is not yet possible.
  • Highly experienced investigators in ultrasound can assist preoperatively in the localization of parathyroid adenomas in primary and tertiary hyperthyroidism (when followed by (99m)Tc szintigraphy plus SPECT).
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Glands / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Gland / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Diseases.
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  • [Cites] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):1941-6 [11994321.001]
  • [Cites] Ultraschall Med. 2003 Apr;24(2):85-9 [12698372.001]
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  • (PMID = 16680414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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42. Nakanishi S, Fukagawa M: [Functional disorder of the parathyroid gland and vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Jul;15(7):119-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Functional disorder of the parathyroid gland and vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients].

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  • (PMID = 15995307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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43. Shroff P, McGrath GA, Pezzi CM: Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):363-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a series of cases of parathyroid incidentalomas and review the related medical literature.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all patients of one surgeon who underwent unplanned removal of enlarged parathyroid glands found either during a surgical procedure performed for indications other than hyperparathyroidism or by ultrasonography of the thyroid gland between September 1989 and December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Clinical and laboratory data-- especially serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels--as well as information on postoperative parathyroid function are reported.
  • RESULTS: Among 421 patients (355 who underwent thyroidectomy and 66 who underwent transhiatal esophagectomy), 5 cases of parathyroid incidentalomas (1.2%) were identified.
  • These incidental parathyroid adenomas were found during thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer in two patients, during esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in one patient (the first such reported case), and during ultrasonography of the neck for evaluation of thyroid nodules in two patients.
  • In one patient in whom intraoperative PTH level was determined both before and after resection of a large parathyroid adenoma, the initially high PTH value (180 pg/mL) declined to the normal range (48.2 pg/mL).
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental identification of enlarged parathyroid glands during a neck surgical procedure is not common but does occur.
  • Intraoperative and postoperative measurements of serum calcium and PTH along with postoperative bone density testing can help determine whether such parathyroid incidentalomas are functional.
  • These enlarged parathyroid glands should be removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16638722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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44. Chen H, Emura S, Shoumura S: Ultrastructure of the water-clear cell in the parathyroid gland of SAMP6 mice. Tissue Cell; 2006 Jun;38(3):187-92
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Osteoporosis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrastructure of the water-clear cell in the parathyroid gland of SAMP6 mice.
  • Although the parathyroid water-clear cell is very rare, it has clinical significance because of its association with parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma.
  • We investigated the morphology of the parathyroid glands in SAMP6 and age-matched normal mouse SAMR1.
  • The parathyroid water-clear cells, which contained numerous vacuoles and the crystalloid inclusions, were found in SAMP6 mice at 5, 8 and 12 months of age.
  • It was noted that the number of water-clear cells increased with aging, which are fairly consistent with the change of the serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level.
  • We did not find any water-clear cells in the parathyroid glands of SAMR1 mice.
  • The existence of water-clear cells may represent hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands in SAMP6.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging, Premature / metabolism. Aging, Premature / pathology. Osteoporosis / metabolism. Osteoporosis / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16624361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-8166
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue & cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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45. Parisi E, Almadén Y, Ibarz M, Panizo S, Cardús A, Rodriguez M, Fernandez E, Valdivielso JM: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are expressed in rat parathyroid gland and regulate PTH secretion. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; 2009 Jun;296(6):F1291-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are expressed in rat parathyroid gland and regulate PTH secretion.
  • In the present work, the presence of the receptor was determined in normal parathyroid glands (PTG) by real-time PCR, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistrochemistry.
  • Healthy animals showed a decrease in blood parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels 15 min after the treatment with NMDA.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19357180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-857X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate
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46. Carrillo-López N, Román-García P, Fernández-Martín JL, Cannata-Andía JB: Parathyroid gland regulation: contribution of the in vivo and in vitro models. Expert Opin Drug Discov; 2010 Mar;5(3):265-75

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid gland regulation: contribution of the in vivo and in vitro models.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: The current regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the development of parathyroid disorders in chronic kidney disease involve complex mechanisms.
  • WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: Readers will have an overview of the main findings and progress achieved in the knowledge of the parathyroid function combining the results obtained from the different models used to understand the parathyroid gland regulation.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Each of the available models used to study the complex system of parathyroid regulation has advantages and limitations; therefore, it is necessary to combine the information obtained from more than one model in order to have a more complete knowledge of the mechanisms involved in PTH regulation.

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  • (PMID = 22823022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-0441
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug discovery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Discov
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Bahar G, Feinmesser R, Joshua BZ, Shpitzer T, Morgenstein S, Popovtzer A, Shvero J: Hyperfunctioning intrathyroid parathyroid gland: a potential cause of failure in parathyroidectomy. Surgery; 2006 Jun;139(6):821-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hyperfunctioning intrathyroid parathyroid gland: a potential cause of failure in parathyroidectomy.
  • However, in rare patients, ectopic hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands may be located in the thyroid but missed on imaging studies or during surgery.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perioperative findings in 6 patients with intrathyroid parathyroid glands treated for hyperparathyroidism in our center over a 5-year period and to review the relevant literature.
  • Their files were reviewed for clinical features, surgical approach, intraoperative findings, parathyroid gland location, and morphologic and histopathologic characteristics.
  • The diagnosis in all patients was based on an increase in serum calcium concentration (10.1-13 mg/100 mL) and parathyroid hormone level (102-320 pg/mL).
  • When the parathyroid glands were not identified, bilateral neck and mediastinum were explored.
  • CONCLUSION: Intrathyroid parathyroid gland is a rare condition in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • In these patients, imaging may miss the pathologic gland.
  • Despite its rarity, the possibility of an intrathyroid parathyroid should be kept in mind, and, when meticulous bilateral exploration of the neck fails to identity the hyperfunctioning gland, the surgeon should consider hemithyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16782440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Wani S, Hao Z: Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):389-93

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course of a patient with atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma manifesting as hypercalcemic parathyroid crisis.
  • METHODS: We present a case report and review the relevant literature on parathyroid cysts and atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas.
  • She had severe hypercalcemia (calcium level, 18.3 mg/dL) in conjunction with an elevated parathyroid hormone level of 1,472 pg/mL.
  • Intraoperatively, 25 mL of fluid was aspirated from the cystic mass, and the parathyroid hormone level in the fluid was 7,400,000 pg/mL.
  • The final pathologic diagnosis was an atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid cysts are uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass.
  • Although most parathyroid cysts are nonfunctional, 10% to 15% of such cysts are functional and can rarely manifest as acute parathyroid crisis.
  • Atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas are rare and have an unpredictable clinical course.
  • Treatment options for parathyroid cysts include aspiration, injection of sclerosing agents, and surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16638726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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49. Vulpio C, Bossola M, De Gaetano A, Maresca G, Di Stasio E, Zagaria L, Luciani G, Giordano A, Castagneto M: Parathyroid gland ultrasound patterns and biochemical findings after one-year cinacalcet treatment for advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ther Apher Dial; 2010 Apr;14(2):178-85
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kidney Failure.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid gland ultrasound patterns and biochemical findings after one-year cinacalcet treatment for advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Cinacalcet efficacy is limited in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and its effect on parathyroid gland (PTG) volume and morphology have not been sufficiently investigated.
  • Thirteen HD patients with severe SHPT (intact parathyroid hormone >700 pg/mL), US/scintigraphic evidence of at least one PTG with a diameter >7 mm, and high surgical risk or refusal of surgery were included.
  • At baseline and after one year of cinacalcet treatment a neck US was performed, providing data on 22 parathyroid glands in eight patients.
  • The US structural score remained unchanged in 16 parathyroid glands and increased in 6 (P < 0.03), while the vascular score remained unchanged in 16 parathyroid glands and decreased in 6 (P = 0.25).
  • Thus it can be concluded that cinacalcet treatment for one year in HD patients with severe SHPT is not associated with significant changes in parathyroid gland US patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Naphthalenes / pharmacology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20438540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9987
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Apher Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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50. Canalejo A, Canalejo R, Rodriguez ME, Martinez-Moreno JM, Felsenfeld AJ, Rodríguez M, Almaden Y: Development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia without uremia: role of dietary calcium and phosphate. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2010 Apr;25(4):1087-97
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Calcium.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia without uremia: role of dietary calcium and phosphate.
  • Background. Many experimental studies have demonstrated that parathyroid cell proliferation is induced by uremia and further aggravated by hypocalcemia, phosphorus retention and vitamin D deficiency.
  • However, these factors may also promote parathyroid growth without uremia.
  • In the present study, we examined the onset and progression of parathyroid hyperplasia regardless of the uremic setting, a situation that might occur soon during the early renal disease.
  • Thus, the novelty of this work resides in the close examination of the time course for the expected changes in proliferation rates and their association with parathyroid hormone (PTH) release in normal rats under the physiological demands of a high-phosphate diet (HPD) or a low-calcium diet (LCD).
  • Methods. We evaluated the functional response of the parathyroid glands in normal rats to different physiological demands an HPD 0.6% Ca, 1.2% P) and LCD 0.2% Ca, 0.6% P) and compared it with that of uremic rats.
  • Furthermore, we also evaluated the time course for the reversal of high-P and low-Ca-induced parathyroid cell growth and PTH upon normalization of dietary Ca and P intake (0.6% Ca, 0.6% P).
  • Results. The pattern in the development of parathyroid hyperplasia by the two dietary models was different.
  • Cell proliferation and VDR mRNA levels were restored to control values by Day 15; it is as though the gland had attained a sufficient level of hyperplasia to respond to the PTH challenge.
  • Conclusions. Regardless of uremia, a physiological demand to increase the PTH secretion driven either by a high P or a low Ca intake is able to induce a different pattern of parathyroid hyperplasia, which might be aggravated by the down-regulation of VDR expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Phosphorus, Dietary / administration & dosage. Uremia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19934096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2385
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium, Dietary; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphorus, Dietary; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
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51. Giddings CE, Rimmer J, Weir N: History of parathyroid gland surgery: an historical case series. J Laryngol Otol; 2009 Oct;123(10):1075-81
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Parathyroid Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] History of parathyroid gland surgery: an historical case series.
  • The history of the parathyroid glands is a fascinating one full of famous medical names.
  • The physiology of parathyroid hormone and calcium metabolism eluded physicians and the forefathers of thyroid surgery alike for several decades more.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Diseases / history. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / history

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  • (PMID = 19566973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Tanaka M, Nakanishi S, Komaba H, Itoh K, Matsushita K, Fukagawa M: Association between long-term efficacy of cinacalcet and parathyroid gland volume in haemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. NDT Plus; 2008 Aug;1(Suppl 3):iii49-iii53

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association between long-term efficacy of cinacalcet and parathyroid gland volume in haemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • This multicentre retrospective study was designed to determine the long-term efficacy of cinacalcet in patients with nodular hyperplasia, the advanced type of parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • Patients with ultrasonographically confirmed large parathyroid glands (volume >0.5 cm(3)) were considered to have nodular hyperplasia (n = 8).
  • Cinacalcet was started at the dose of 25 mg/day and titrated up to 100 mg/day to achieve the target intact-parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level of <250 pg/ml.

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  • (PMID = 25983974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4421134
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cinacalcet / haemodialysis / nodular hyperplasia / secondary hyperparathyroidism / ultrasonography
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53. Testini M, Rosato L, Avenia N, Basile F, Portincasa P, Piccinni G, Lissidini G, Biondi A, Gurrado A, Nacchiero M: The impact of single parathyroid gland autotransplantation during thyroid surgery on postoperative hypoparathyroidism: a multicenter study. Transplant Proc; 2007 Jan-Feb;39(1):225-30
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  • [Title] The impact of single parathyroid gland autotransplantation during thyroid surgery on postoperative hypoparathyroidism: a multicenter study.
  • BACKGROUND: We compared the surgical outcomes in patients undergoing bilateral thyroid surgery with or without parathyroid gland autotransplantation (PTAT).
  • A nonviable gland or difficulties in dissection of the parathyroid glands were encountered in 160 (13.7%) patients.
  • PTAT was associated with decreased occurrence of hypocalcemia in the two subgroups of patients operated for benign euthyroid disease (P < .0001), as compared with the control group.
  • Moreover, we observed that damage to one parathyroid gland has more side effects (ie, transient hypocalcemia) among patients who were preoperatively at low rather than at high risk of postoperative hypocalcemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypoparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / surgery


54. Shiizaki K, Hatamura I, Negi S, Nakazawa E, Tozawa R, Izawa S, Akizawa T, Kusano E: Cellular changes following direct vitamin D injection into the uraemia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland. NDT Plus; 2008 Aug;1(Suppl 3):iii42-iii48

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular changes following direct vitamin D injection into the uraemia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland.
  • Background. Hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland (PTG) is associated not only with excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) but also with changes in the parathyroid cell (PTC) characteristics (i.e. hyperproliferative activity and low contents of vitamin D and calcium-sensing receptors).

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  • (PMID = 25983973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4421129
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR) / apoptosis / parathyroid hyperplasia / percutaneous vitamin D injection therapy (PDIT) / secondary hyperparathyroidism / vitamin D receptor (VDR)
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55. Balasanthiran A, Sandler B, Amonoo-Kuofi K, Swamy R, Kaniyur S, Kaplan F: Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):603-7
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  • [Title] Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland.
  • Parathyroid imaging was then requested and an adenoma was identified.
  • Surprisingly, surgery revealed the coexistence of a parathyroid adenoma with the unexpected finding of sarcoid granulomas within the parathyroid and thyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Granuloma / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Sarcoidosis / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Gland / pathology


56. Rangoonwala SP, Suryawanshi SA, Pandey AK: Responses of serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels as well as parathyroid gland and calcitonin producing C cells of Rattus norvegicus to Mipcin administration. J Environ Biol; 2007 Apr;28(2 Suppl):475-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Responses of serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels as well as parathyroid gland and calcitonin producing C cells of Rattus norvegicus to Mipcin administration.
  • Parathyroid chief cells of the experimental rats exhibited degranulation, vacuolation, loss of secretory (hormone) granules and lipid droplets, decreased chromatin in nuclei and damages in the endoplasmic reticulum as well as cristae of mitochondria at 14 days of the treatment.
  • Not much of changes could be seen in the oxyphil cells of parathyroid as well as thyroid C cells of the Mipcin-treated rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Carbamates / toxicity. Hypocalcemia / chemically induced. Insecticides / toxicity. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcitonin / metabolism. Male. Phosphates / blood. Rats. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17929768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8704
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-isopropylphenyl-N-methylcarbamate; 0 / Carbamates; 0 / Insecticides; 0 / Phosphates; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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57. Lignitz S, Musholt TJ, Kreft A, Engel R, Brzezinska R, Pohlenz J: Intrathyroidal thymic tissue surrounding an intrathyroidal parathyroid gland, the cause of a solitary thyroid nodule in a 6-year-old boy. Thyroid; 2008 Oct;18(10):1125-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroidal thymic tissue surrounding an intrathyroidal parathyroid gland, the cause of a solitary thyroid nodule in a 6-year-old boy.
  • Ectopic intrathyroidal thymic tissue is a rare occurrence; parathyroid glands sometimes occur in an intrathyroidal location, but this is uncommon.
  • A hemithyroidectomy was performed, and histological investigation revealed that the nodule consisted of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus tissue surrounding a well-defined parathyroidal gland.
  • This condition is an exceedingly rare cause of a thyroid nodule, but intrathyroidal thymic tissue should probably be included in the differential diagnosis of solitary thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands. Thymus Gland. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18844477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Hammami H, Bouguerba A, Sellem A, Slim I, Ben Brahim H, Benzarti S, Chebbi MK: [Scintigraphic preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid gland]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jul;85(7):541-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Scintigraphic preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Place de la scintigraphie dans la détection préopératoire des glandes parathyroïdes pathologiques.
  • THE AIM of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of scintigraphic preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSION: parathyroid scintigraphy is non invasive, accurate and costeffective in localizing abnormal parathyroid gland especialy adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / abnormalities. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Preoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18064982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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59. Johansson H: Parathyroid history and the Uppsala anatomist Ivar Sandström. Med Secoli; 2009;21(1):387-401
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  • [Title] Parathyroid history and the Uppsala anatomist Ivar Sandström.
  • The parathyroid gland was first recognized in 1850 by Richard Owen during a dissection of an Indian rhinoceros at the London Zoo.
  • The credit for the discovery of the parathyroid has, however, been given to the Uppsala anatomist Ivar Sandström, who was the first to demonstrate the gland in man.
  • Sandström's detailed anatomical and histological studies of the parathyroid gland were published in a Swedish journal, "Upsala Läkareförenings förhandlingar", in 1880.
  • Ivar Sandström, the man behind the discovery of the parathyroid gland, often called the last anatomical discovery, was a disharmonious person with psychiatric problems and he committed suicide in 1889 at the age of 37 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Anatomy / history. Parathyroid Glands / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 20481375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-9001
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina nei secoli
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Secoli
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Sandström I
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60. Prasad KK, Agarwal G, Mishra SK, Krishnani N: Oxyphilic cell adenoma of parathyroid resulting in primary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa cystica--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):448-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxyphilic cell adenoma of parathyroid resulting in primary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa cystica--a case report.
  • Adenomas of the parathyroid gland, the majority of which are of the solitary chief cell type, are the most frequent cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • Parathyroid adenomas composed predominantly or exclusively of oxyphil cells are rare and most oxyphil cell adenomas of this organ remain clinically silent.
  • We present here a case of hyperfunctioning oxyphil cell adenoma of the parathyroid gland resulting in pHPT, osteitis fibrosa cystica and simultaneous bilateral fractures upper shafts of femora.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17001919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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61. Pi M, Chen L, Huang M, Luo Q, Quarles LD: Parathyroid-specific interaction of the calcium-sensing receptor and G alpha q. Kidney Int; 2008 Dec;74(12):1548-56
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  • [Title] Parathyroid-specific interaction of the calcium-sensing receptor and G alpha q.
  • The calcium-sensing receptor regulates various parathyroid gland functions, including hormone secretion, gene transcription, and chief cell hyperplasia through G alpha q- and G alpha i-dependent signaling pathways.
  • To determine the specific function of G alpha q in these processes, we generated transgenic mice using the human parathyroid hormone promoter to drive overexpression of a dominant negative G alpha q loop minigene to selectively disrupt G alpha q function in the parathyroid gland.
  • The G alpha q loop mRNA was highly expressed in the parathyroid gland but not in other tissues of these transgenic mice.
  • Adult transgenic mice, however, exhibited an increase in parathyroid hormone mRNA and in its basal serum level as well as in gland size.
  • The response of the parathyroid gland to hypocalcemia was found to be reduced in sensitivity in the transgenic mice when compared to their wild-type controls.
  • Abnormalities of the parathyroid gland function in these transgenic mice were similar to those of heterozygous G alpha q(+/-) and calcium sensing receptor(+/-) mice.
  • These studies demonstrate the feasibility of selectively targeting the parathyroid gland to investigate signaling mechanisms downstream of the calcium receptor.

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  • (PMID = 18813283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR017686; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR037308-21; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR037308; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01-AR37308; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR037308-21
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS133175; NLM/ PMC2760404
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62. Kawata T, Nagano N: [The calcium receptor and magnesium metabolism]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Nov;15(11):43-50
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  • The calcium receptor (CaR), which regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis, senses Mg(2+) and participates in Mg(2+) metabolism mainly at the parathyroid gland and kidney as well as Ca(2+) metabolism.
  • In the parathyroid gland, Mg(2+) suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion by the activation of CaR, and regulates the sensitivity of CaR by its unique effect.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16272613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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63. Goodman WG, Quarles LD: Development and progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease: lessons from molecular genetics. Kidney Int; 2008 Aug;74(3):276-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The identification of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and the clarification of its role as the major regulator of parathyroid gland function have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis and evolution of secondary hyperthyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD).
  • Signaling through the CaSR has direct effects on three discrete components of parathyroid gland function, which include parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, PTH synthesis, and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • Disturbances in calcium and vitamin D metabolism that arise owing to CKD diminish the level of activation of the CaSR, leading to increases in PTH secretion, PTH synthesis, and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • Each represents a physiological adaptive response by the parathyroid glands to maintain plasma calcium homeostasis.
  • Studies of genetically modified mice indicate that signal transduction via the CaSR is a key determinant of parathyroid cell proliferation and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • Because enlargement of the parathyroid glands has important implications for disease progression and disease severity, it is possible that clinical management strategies that maintain adequate calcium-dependent signaling through the CaSR will ultimately prove useful in diminishing parathyroid gland hyperplasia and in modifying disease progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Progression. Humans. Mice. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 17568787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-60107
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
  • [Number-of-references] 151
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64. Bal A, Sachdeva MU, Joshi K, Behera A, Arora S, Gupta S: Non-functioning mediastinal parathyroid adenoma with sarcoid-like granulomatous lymphadenopathy. APMIS; 2007 Jun;115(6):784-8
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  • [Title] Non-functioning mediastinal parathyroid adenoma with sarcoid-like granulomatous lymphadenopathy.
  • Non-secretory parathyroid adenomas arising in an ectopic parathyroid gland are rare.
  • We report a case of non-functioning anterior mediastinal parathyroid adenoma associated with mediastinal lymphadenopathy caused by sarcoid-like granulamatous inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / complications. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17550391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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65. Kuriloff DB, Kizhner V: Parathyroid gland preservation and selective autotransplantation utilizing topical lidocaine in total thyroidectomy. Laryngoscope; 2010 Jul;120(7):1342-4
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  • [Title] Parathyroid gland preservation and selective autotransplantation utilizing topical lidocaine in total thyroidectomy.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To review a new technique during total thyroidectomy that facilitates parathyroid gland preservation and selective autotransplantation utilizing topical 2% plain lidocaine as a spasmolytic/vasodilator agent.
  • Interventions were: parathyroid glands (PGs) with signs of devascularization treated with a topical solution of 2% plain lidocaine in an attempt to restore blood flow before committing to autotransplantation.
  • A total of 40 parathyroid glands were autotransplanted.
  • [MeSH-major] Lidocaine / administration & dosage. Parasympatholytics / administration & dosage. Parathyroid Glands / transplantation. Thyroidectomy / methods. Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20583232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parasympatholytics; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine
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66. Souza ER, Scrignoli JA, Bezerra FC, Ribeiro SL, Passos LF: Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma. J Clin Rheumatol; 2008 Oct;14(5):281-4
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Hyperparathyroidism, primary.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease caused by exaggerated secretion of the parathyroid gland hormone, produced by an adenoma in 80% of cases.
  • Herein, the authors report a 72-year-old woman with a delayed diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, produced by an intrathoracic adenoma, with a longstanding course, presenting with severe osteoporosis, multiple fractures, bone deformities, and neurologic impairments.
  • Persistent hypercalcemia, high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were documented and a paratracheal mass was found on a helicoidal tomography of the thorax.
  • After surgical removal, the histopathological examination confirmed an ectopic adenoma of the parathyroid gland and the patient achieved some improvement in her clinical picture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Bone Diseases, Endocrine / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Choristoma. Female. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Nephrocalcinosis / etiology. Nephrolithiasis / etiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Tracheal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18824925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-7355
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Shiizaki K, Hatamura I, Nakazawa E, Ogura M, Masuda T, Akizawa T, Kusano E: Molecular and morphological approach of uremia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland following direct maxacalcitol injection. Med Mol Morphol; 2008 Jun;41(2):76-82
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular and morphological approach of uremia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland following direct maxacalcitol injection.
  • The mechanisms explaining the clinical effects of direct maxacalcitol (OCT) injection into the hyperplastic parathyroid gland (PTG) in uremic patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) were investigated by molecular and morphological examination.
  • The changes in serum intact parathyroid hormone (intact-PTH) level, vitamin D and Ca-sensing receptor (VDR and CaSR, respectively) expression levels in PTG, and the calcium (Ca)-PTH response curve were examined; the induction of apoptosis in parathyroid cells (PTC) was also analyzed by the TUNEL method, DNA electrophoresis, and electron microscopic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Uremia / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bone and Bones / abnormalities. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Bone and Bones / pathology. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Death / drug effects. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / complications. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Injections. Models, Animal. Organ Size / drug effects. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Rats

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  • (PMID = 18592161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; N2UJM5NBF6 / maxacalcitol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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68. Patel CN, Scarsbrook AF: Multimodality imaging in hyperparathyroidism. Postgrad Med J; 2009 Nov;85(1009):597-605
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Diagnostic Imaging.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Traditional bilateral neck dissection and exploratory surgery has been overtaken by focused, minimally invasive procedures in patients with single-gland disease.
  • Accurate preoperative localisation of the involved parathyroid gland is the cornerstone for success of the new surgical techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19892895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] Postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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69. Imelda F, Bandar IN, Setiyohadi B, Suwondo P, Nasar IM, Darwito: Postural shortening due to primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma. Acta Med Indones; 2006 Apr-Jun;38(2):89-91
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Hyperparathyroidism, primary.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postural shortening due to primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma.
  • The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism is based on the following biochemical examinations: parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, creatinine clearance, 24 hour urinary calcium, and another examination such as parathyroid gland scan.
  • The patient was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • We found high levels of parathyroid hormone and low levels of serum calcium caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Body Height / physiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / physiopathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16799210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
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70. Bonczynski J: Primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2007 May;22(2):70-4
SciCrunch. OMIA - Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals: Data: Gene Expression .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats is a solitary adenoma involving an extracapsular parathyroid gland.
  • The prognosis is excellent if the affected parathyroid gland is removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / surgery. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17591292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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71. Gal A, Ridge TK, Graves TK: Cloning and sequencing of the calcium-sensing receptor from the feline parathyroid gland. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;38(1):57-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cloning and sequencing of the calcium-sensing receptor from the feline parathyroid gland.
  • Messenger RNA of the calcium-sensing receptor from feline parathyroid gland (fCaSR) was reversed transcribed to cDNA, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into E. coli.
  • [MeSH-major] Cats / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / physiology. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / physiology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19700256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0054
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ GQ354887
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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72. Sakals SA, Gillick MS, Kerr ME, Boston SE: Diagnosing the etiology of hypercalcemia in a dog: a case of primary hyperparathyroidism. Vet Pathol; 2010 May;47(3):579-81
SciCrunch. OMIA - Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals: Data: Gene Expression .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Serum total calcium, free calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone concentrations were elevated.
  • Surgical exploration of the ventral neck revealed a grossly enlarged right external parathyroid gland.
  • The histopathological diagnosis for the excised right parathyroid gland was an incompletely resected parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma in the dog is an infrequent cause of hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / veterinary. Hyperparathyroidism / veterinary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20472810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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73. Wang XL, Wu YH, Xu ZG, Ni S, Liu J: [Parathyroid glands are differentiated from lymph node by activated-carbon particles]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;44(2):136-40
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Parathyroid glands are differentiated from lymph node by activated-carbon particles].
  • OBJECTIVE: To probe into an new methods preserving parathyroid gland of patients with thyroid carcinoma.
  • Emulsion of activated-carbon particles was injected into the thyroid gland of trial group patients.
  • Total lymph node, metastasis lymph node and parathyroid gland in the black stained tissue, and non-black stained tissue in the central compartment dissection specimen of trial group and central compartment dissection specimen of control group were counted respectively.
  • No parathyroid gland was found in the black-stained tissue.
  • Nine lymph nodes included 2 metastasis lymph nodes and 7 parathyroid glands were found in the non-black stained tissue of central compartment dissection specimen of trial group.
  • There were 124 lymph nodes included 80 metastasis lymph nodes and 8 parathyroid glands in central compartment dissection specimen of control group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lymph node of VI group can be stained black by activated carbon particles, and parathyroid gland cannot be stained black.
  • Maybe, parathyroid gland can be preserved by removing the black stain lymph node and retaining the non-black stained tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Nanotubes, Carbon. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19558888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nanotubes, Carbon
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74. Libánský P, Astl J, Adámek S, Nanka O, Pafko P, Spacková J, Foltán R, Sedý J: Surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in children: report of 10 cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2008 Aug;72(8):1177-82
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  • It is caused by overproduction of parathormone by a pathologically changed parathyroid gland.
  • Surgery was curative in nine patients; reoperation was necessary in one patient because an ectopic parathyroid gland was not detected during the primary operation.
  • Removal of pathologically changed parathyroid glands offers definitive and safe treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in children.
  • Special care should be taken if an ectopic parathyroid gland is suspected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers / blood. Calcium / blood. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18513806.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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75. Imachi H, Murao K, Kontani K, Yokomise H, Miyai Y, Yamamoto Y, Kushida Y, Haba R, Ishida T: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis. Endocrine; 2009 Oct;36(2):194-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pancreatitis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis.
  • After the episode of acute pancreatitis subsided, laboratory investigation revealed increased serum calcium (12.0 mg/dl), decreased serum phosphorus (2.7 mg/dl), and increased serum parathyroid hormone (intact) levels (131 pg/ml).
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck did not reveal any mass lesions in the parathyroid gland.
  • However, (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy revealed that there was one functioning parathyroid gland in the upper mediastinum.
  • Combined (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in the mediastinum.
  • Microscopic examination revealed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma (1.3 x 0.4 cm(2)) adjacent to the atrophic parathyroid gland in right thymus gland.
  • We report the case of a patient diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • An ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma may manifest as an episode of acute pancreatitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Pancreatitis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 19598003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Dumasius V, Angelos P: Parathyroid surgery in renal failure patients. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2010 Apr;43(2):433-40, x-xi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid surgery in renal failure patients.
  • The goals of this publication are to review the pathophysiology of parathyroid gland function in patients with impaired renal function, make recommendations for how to proceed with a parathyroidectomy in these patients, and to provide some guidelines for preoperative and postoperative management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / transplantation. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Postoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care. Renal Dialysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8259
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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77. Brown EM, Lian JB: New insights in bone biology: unmasking skeletal effects of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor. Sci Signal; 2008;1(35):pe40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Experiments performed in mice in which expression of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) was completely nullified specifically in parathyroid cells, chondrocytes, or cells of the osteoblast lineage have identified phenotypes that indicate a key role for the CaSR in embryonic development of the skeleton, postnatal bone formation, and osteoblast differentiation that are independent of the calcitropic hormone axis.
  • These long-awaited studies further clarify the signaling relationships between the parathyroid gland, kidney, and metabolic bone disease in patients with mutations in the gene encoding the CaSR, and they provide new insights into understanding the signaling pathways involving the CaSR in skeletal cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Remodeling / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Chondrocytes / cytology. Chondrocytes / physiology. Humans. Mice. Osteoblasts / cytology. Osteoblasts / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • [CommentOn] Sci Signal. 2008;1(35):ra1 [18765830.001]
  • (PMID = 18765829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-9145
  • [Journal-full-title] Science signaling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci Signal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
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78. Romanchishen AF, Matveeva ZS: [A combination of diseases of the thyroid and asymptomatic adenoma of the parathyroid glands]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2006;165(1):40-2
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Diseases.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A combination of diseases of the thyroid and asymptomatic adenoma of the parathyroid glands].
  • The authors have analyzed the cases of diagnosis of asymptomatic tumors of the parathyroid gland made during 8814 operations on the thyroid in the period from 1995 through 2004.
  • The probability of detecting parathyroid incidentalomas in different forms of goiter was calculated which reaches 0.4%.
  • A precision technique of operating allows the parathyroid tumors to be detected at the preclinical stage in all patients apart from a removal of the necessary volume of the thyroid tissue, guaranteed preservation of the laryngeal nerves and parathyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16568854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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79. Guerrero MA, Vriens MR, Suh I, Khanafshar E, Clark OH: Intraoperative diagnostic strategy to distinguish parathyroid adenomas from metastatic thyroid cancer. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(5):454-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative diagnostic strategy to distinguish parathyroid adenomas from metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the limitations of frozen section examination and the value of intraoperative tissue aspiration for parathyroid hormone assay to distinguish parathyroid adenomas from metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We describe 2 patients with a biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent intraoperative frozen section analysis of suspected parathyroid tumors.
  • Parathyroid gland aspiration for parathyroid hormone was also performed for confirmation.
  • RESULTS: The intraoperative frozen section examination of the suspected parathyroid tumors inaccurately identified the tumors as follicular carcinomas.
  • The parathyroid gland aspirate, however, accurately substantiated the presence of parathyroid adenomas, rather than follicular cancers.
  • CONCLUSION: Aspiration of a suspected parathyroid tumor for parathyroid hormone assay accurately determines whether a nodule is a parathyroid gland and facilitates intraoperative decision making, especially when frozen section diagnosis is misleading.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19491067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Rix TE, Sinha P: Inadvertent parathyroid excision during thyroid surgery. Surgeon; 2006 Dec;4(6):339-42

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inadvertent parathyroid excision during thyroid surgery.
  • Inadvertent removal of parathyroid glands is a recognised complication of this operation and may have consequences on the longterm regulation of calcium homeostasis post-operatively.
  • We aimed to establish the incidence of parathyroid gland excision during surgery for thyroid disease and whether there was an effect on calcium control in patients in whom inadvertent parathyroidectomy had occurred.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of thyroid operations at our hospital from 2001 to 2004 was carried out, reviewing pathology reports to identify specimens which included parathyroid tissue.
  • Parathyroid tissue was removed inadvertently in 5 of 30 thyroidectomies (16.7%) and 17 of 96 total thyroid lobectomies (17.7%) or 17.4% of all thyroid operations during this time.
  • None of the patients in whom a parathyroid gland was removed inadvertently became hypocalcaemic post-operatively and all of these patients were normocalcaemic when followed-up at six weeks.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In specialist hands there is a risk of removing a single parathyroid gland of approximately 17% during thyroid surgery.
  • Careful capsular dissection will reduce the incidence of removing more than one gland
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / injuries. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] Surgeon. 2008 Dec;6(6):380; author reply 380-1 [19110828.001]
  • [CommentIn] Surgeon. 2008 Dec;6(6):380; author reply 380-1 [19112668.001]
  • (PMID = 17152197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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81. Goodman WG: Calcimimetics: a remedy for all problems of excess parathyroid hormone activity in chronic kidney disease? Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens; 2005 Jul;14(4):355-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Calcimimetics: a remedy for all problems of excess parathyroid hormone activity in chronic kidney disease?
  • It acts as an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor, the molecular mechanism that controls parathyroid hormone secretion.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The ability of calcimimetic agents to enhance signaling through the calcium-sensing receptor in parathyroid cells affects several important components of parathyroid gland function.
  • Results from several large clinical trials demonstrate that cinacalcet effectively lowers plasma parathyroid hormone levels in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism when used either alone or together with vitamin D.
  • Cinacalcet also diminishes parathyroid hormone gene expression, and studies in experimental animals indicate that its use retards the progression of parathyroid gland hyperplasia and increases bone mass.
  • SUMMARY: Calcimimetic agents have diverse effects on parathyroid gland function that may enhance the overall medical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients undergoing dialysis regularly.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Diseases / blood. Kidney Diseases / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chronic Disease. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15931004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1062-4821
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-60107
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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82. Drüeke TB: Klotho, FGF23, and FGF receptors in chronic kidney disease: a yin-yang situation? Kidney Int; 2010 Dec;78(11):1057-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • FGF23 activates its receptor FGFR1, splice variant IIIC, in the parathyroid gland via a klotho-dependent mechanism and suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion.
  • Klotho also may regulate PTH secretion in an FGF23-independent mode, by modulating parathyroid Na+/K+-ATPase activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Chronic Disease. Humans. Kidney / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Phosphorus / metabolism. Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase / metabolism

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  • [CommentOn] Kidney Int. 2010 Dec;78(11):1119-27 [20631679.001]
  • (PMID = 21076444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase; EC 3.2.1.31 / klotho protein; EC 3.6.3.9 / Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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83. Ikeda K: [Genes causing parathyroid diseases]. Clin Calcium; 2005 Dec;15(12):38-44

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Genes causing parathyroid diseases].
  • Discovery of Gcm2 as an essential transcription factor for parathyroid gland development disclosed another, unexpected source of circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH), the thymus.
  • A recent phylogenetic analysis of Gcm2 has led to a new theory that parathyroid glands in tetrapods were transformed from the gills of fish during evolution.
  • I review genes involved in the pathogenesis of hyper- and hypo-function of parathyroid glands as well as in the development of parathyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Hypoparathyroidism / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Neuropeptides / genetics. Nuclear Proteins. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16322672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / GCM2 protein, human; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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84. Ramon I, Kleynen P, Body JJ, Karmali R: Fibroblast growth factor 23 and its role in phosphate homeostasis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):1-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Currently, maintaining phosphate homeostasis is considered the result of a complex network of endocrine feedback loops between parathyroid gland, kidney, and bone.

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  • (PMID = 19776202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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85. Santamaria I, Alvarez-Hernandez D, Cannata-Andia JB: Genetics and molecular disorders in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism: lessons from rna and microarray studies. J Nephrol; 2005 Jul-Aug;18(4):469-73

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This may happen because recovery of the functional control of the parathyroid gland, once some irreversible molecular and genetic changes have occurred, can be only partial.

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  • (PMID = 16245257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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86. Muthukrishnan J, Verma A, Modi KD, Kumaresan K, Jha S: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma--the hidden culprit. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Jul;55:515-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic parathyroid adenoma--the hidden culprit.
  • Inability to locate the adenoma in an ectopic parathyroid gland may further delay the diagnosis of these cases.
  • Aberrant migration during development may lead to intrathyroidal or other ectopic locations of parathyroid glands.
  • Similarity in cytological picture between thyroids and parathyroids may further complicate diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • Nuclear imaging scintigraphy accurately localizes the tumor in 90% of cases and simplifies the surgical management.
  • We encountered three such cases with the parathyroid gland adenomas in ectopic locations in which pre-operative nuclear imaging played a major role.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17907504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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87. Saito A, Matsumoto Y, Oyama Y, Asaka M, Yokoyama H: Effectiveness of weekly percutaneous maxacalcitol injection therapy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ther Apher Dial; 2010 Feb;14(1):98-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Intact parathyroid hormone decreased from 797 +/- 178 pg/mL to 253 +/- 25 pg/mL, and the parathyroid gland volume initially increased during the first week, but thereafter, it gradually decreased with weekly PMIT (wPMIT).
  • Finally, the parathyroid gland volume decreased from 1.27 +/- 1.06 cm(3) to 0.24 +/- 0.15 cm(3) after wPMIT.
  • The benefits of our method were confirmed on weekly ultrasonographic examinations, which detailed the gradual reduction in gland size following an initial increase after the first injection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Alkaline Phosphatase / drug effects. Biomarkers / blood. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Osteocalcin / blood. Osteocalcin / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood. Renal Dialysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20438525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9987
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Apher Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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88. Alwaheeb S, Rambaldini G, Boerner S, Coiré C, Fiser J, Asa SL: Worrisome histologic alterations following fine-needle aspiration of the parathyroid. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Oct;59(10):1094-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Worrisome histologic alterations following fine-needle aspiration of the parathyroid.
  • The case of a male patient with hypercalcaemia who was subsequently found to have a nodule in the thyroid gland is reported here.
  • The abnormality in the parathyroid gland showed worrisome histological changes that were suspicious of a malignant lesion, resembling the changes seen in the thyroid gland after FNA.
  • Parathyroid cells were identified by a review of the previous FNA.
  • The concept of WHAFFT, which can mimic the features of malignancy in the parathyroid gland, is therefore introduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Artifacts. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17021134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1861746
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89. Radek T, Piasecki T: Topography and arterial supply of the thyroid and the parathyroid glands in selected species of Falconiformes. Anat Histol Embryol; 2007 Aug;36(4):241-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topography and arterial supply of the thyroid and the parathyroid glands in selected species of Falconiformes.
  • In Accipitridae the larger left gland was usually situated significantly more cranially than the right one.
  • The location of the parathyroid glands in common kestrel was relatively constant.
  • Seven topographical patterns of the location of the parathyroid gland were noted in Accipitridae.
  • The parathyroid glands were supplied by one to three parathyroid arteries.
  • The vessels for the cranial parathyroid gland mostly originated from the caudal thyroid artery, while for the caudal one - from the oesophagotracheobronchial artery.
  • The average number of thyroid and parathyroid arteries in common buzzard was significantly higher than those in common kestrel.
  • [MeSH-major] Falconiformes / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / anatomy & histology. Parathyroid Glands / blood supply. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 17617099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2096
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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90. Komaba H, Nakanishi S, Fujimori A, Tanaka M, Shin J, Shibuya K, Nishioka M, Hasegawa H, Kurosawa T, Fukagawa M: Cinacalcet effectively reduces parathyroid hormone secretion and gland volume regardless of pretreatment gland size in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol; 2010 Dec;5(12):2305-14

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cinacalcet effectively reduces parathyroid hormone secretion and gland volume regardless of pretreatment gland size in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume.
  • Ultrasonography was performed to measure the parathyroid gland size at baseline, week 26, and week 52.
  • RESULTS: Of the 81 subjects enrolled, 56 had parathyroid glands smaller than 500 mm(3) (group S) and 25 had at least one enlarged gland larger than 500 mm(3) (group L).
  • Cinacalcet therapy also resulted in a significant reduction in parathyroid gland volume regardless of pretreatment size, which was in sharp contrast to historical controls (n = 87) where parathyroid gland volume progressively increased with traditional therapy alone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cinacalcet effectively decreases serum PTH levels and concomitantly reduces parathyroid gland volume, even in patients with marked parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Glands / drug effects. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 20798251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-905X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994093
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91. Ogawa T, Tsuji E, Kanauchi H, Yamada K, Mimura Y, Kaminishi M: Excision of postesophageal parathyroid adenoma in posterior mediastinum with intraoperative 99mTechnetium sestamibi scanning. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Nov;84(5):1754-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Excision of postesophageal parathyroid adenoma in posterior mediastinum with intraoperative 99mTechnetium sestamibi scanning.
  • Although approximately 25% of parathyroid tumors in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism are located in the mediastinum, nearly all these tumors can be removed through cervical exploration.
  • The mediastinal tumors are usually located in the inferior parathyroid gland, and the ectopic mediastinal tumors derived from the superior glands are extremely rare.
  • We present a case of retroesophageal mediastinal parathyroid adenoma that developed in the left superior parathyroid gland.
  • A thoracotomy was required to remove this tumor.
  • Radioisotope-guided surgery was effective at identifying the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Choristoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17954108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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92. Alvarez-Hernandez D, Naves-Diaz M, Gomez-Alonso C, Coto E, Cannata-Andia JB: Tissue-specific effect of VDR gene polymorphisms on the response to calcitriol. J Nephrol; 2008 Nov-Dec;21(6):843-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 1,25-DIHYDROXYCHOLECALCIFEROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this paper we review several studies carried out in this field to investigate the possible influence of VDR polymorphisms on different aspects of bone and parathyroid gland metabolism.
  • On the other hand, experimental studies carried out in both human primary osteoblasts and human parathyroid glands showed that while in osteoblasts the BAt haplotype showed a worse response to calcitriol, in parathyroid glands the results were the opposite, and BAt was the haplotype associated with better responses.
  • Overall, the results reinforce the suggestion that VDR polymorphisms play an important role in bone and parathyroid gland behavior, leading to different response patterns due to a likely tissue-specific effect of the VDR response to calcitriol.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / metabolism. Calcitriol / pharmacology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Polymorphism, Genetic / drug effects. Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19034868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Vitamins; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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93. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Rabaa L, Daher R, Abou Zeid H, Jabbour H, Hachem K, Smayra T: Ultrasonography: highly accuracy technique for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma. Laryngoscope; 2008 Sep;118(9):1574-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasonography: highly accuracy technique for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • Group 1 included the patients in whom the preoperative cervical ultrasound localized one abnormal parathyroid gland; these patients underwent unilateral surgical exploration of the neck under local anesthesia.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity and positive predictive value of ultrasonography in detecting abnormal parathyroid gland were 96% and 98%, respectively.
  • Mediastinal and retroesophageal localizations of abnormal parathyroid gland adversely affected the accuracy of the ultrasound.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Preoperative Care / methods. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18475203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Yeh CT, Lin YP, Yang WC, Yang AH, Lai MY, Lin CC: Rapid recurrence of hyperparathyroidism from both nodularly hyperplastic autograft at forearm and residual tissues at neck after parathyroidectomy in a hemodialysis patient with calciphylaxis. Am J Med Sci; 2006 May;331(5):284-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Residual parathyroid gland in the retrothyroid region was found later.
  • Rapidly recurrent HPT originating from both the residual parathyroid tissues and the enlarged autograft within such short time after parathyroidectomy is rare in the literature.
  • The multinodular hyperplasia pattern of the parathyroid gland may be a major factor for such rapid recurrence.
  • In addition to good control of calcium and phosphate, regular follow-up of parathyroid hormone level and imaging studies of not only autografted gland at the forearm but also possibly residual parathyroid tissues at the neck are important for monitoring recurrence in maintenance hemodialysis patients after parathyroidectomy with forearm autograft, especially in those with pathologic type of nodular hyperplasia and calciphylaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Calciphylaxis / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcium / blood. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Female. Forearm / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Neck / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / blood. Recurrence. Renal Dialysis. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 16702801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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95. Norman J, Politz D: Measuring individual parathyroid gland hormone production in real-time during radioguided parathyroidectomy. Experience in over 8,000 operations. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):147-57
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Measuring individual parathyroid gland hormone production in real-time during radioguided parathyroidectomy. Experience in over 8,000 operations.
  • AIM: Determining the physiologic activity (hormone production) of individual parathyroid glands by measuring their contained radioactivity is extremely accurate and provides tremendous guidance during parathyroidectomy.
  • Ex-vivo measures of parathyroid glands, thyroid nodules, lymph nodes, thymus, and fat were obtained from all patients, constituting over 42,000 specimens.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid glands occur in three distinct groups according to their hormone production which very accurately indicates the type of pathology present.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Measures of sequestered radioactivity is an extremely accurate estimate of individual parathyroid gland hormone production allowing near 100% distinction between normal, hyperplasic, and adenomatous glands as well as distinguishing parathyroids from other neck tissues (fat, lymph nodes, thyroid).
  • This instantaneous measure can eliminate frozen sections and parathyroid hormone assays in nearly all patients undergoing parathyroid surgery, providing insight that allows the operation to progress rapidly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Computer Systems. Parathyroid Glands / secretion. Parathyroid Hormone / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secretion. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 18846022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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96. Page C, Strunski V: Parathyroid risk in total thyroidectomy for bilateral, benign, multinodular goitre: report of 351 surgical cases. J Laryngol Otol; 2007 Mar;121(3):237-41
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid risk in total thyroidectomy for bilateral, benign, multinodular goitre: report of 351 surgical cases.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the risk of hypocalcaemia (transient or permanent) after total thyroidectomy for bilateral, benign, multinodular goitre, the frequency and impact of unintentional parathyroidectomy, and the value of parathyroid gland autotransplantation during thyroid surgery.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 351 surgical patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy for bilateral, benign, multinodular goitre over a seven-year period.
  • Parathyroid data were collected during surgery and histological examination.
  • Parathyroid gland autotransplantation had been performed in 7 per cent of cases during surgery.
  • Unintentional parathyroidectomy and parathyroid gland autotransplantation do not affect serum calcium levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Hypoparathyroidism / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / injuries. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17054818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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97. Yamada S, Taniguchi M, Tokumoto M, Tsuruya K, Hirakata H, Iida M: Early intervention with intravenous or pulse oral vitamin D therapy is more effective in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ther Apher Dial; 2010 Aug 1;14(4):424-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines recommend vitamin D therapy should be started when the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) exceeds 300 pg/mL in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • To examine whether the effect of vitamin D therapy on mineral metabolism and parathyroid gland growth varies according to the stage of secondary hyperparathyroidism and iPTH level, 47 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism received either intravenous or pulse oral vitamin D therapy.
  • The patients were divided into two groups based on the iPTH level at the start of vitamin D therapy: the P(<300) group (N = 23) with iPTH <300 pg/mL; and the P(>or=300) group (N = 24) with iPTH >or=300 pg/mL.
  • We examined serial changes in several serum mineral parameters and parathyroid gland volume and the cumulative incidence of parathyroidectomy in the first two years.
  • Serum calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, and iPTH levels of the P(>or=300) group were significantly higher than those of the P(<300) group, and could not be maintained within the target ranges set by the K/DOQI guidelines.
  • In contrast, the serum levels of phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, and iPTH were maintained within the target ranges and the parathyroid gland did not enlarge in the P(<300) group.
  • The cumulative incidence of parathyroidectomy in the P(>or=300) group was significantly higher than in the P(<300) group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Minerals / blood. Organ Size. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Pulse Therapy, Drug. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20649764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9987
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Apher Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Minerals; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Vitamins; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
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98. Hirai T, Nakashima A, Takasugi N, Yorioka N: Response of secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet depends on parathyroid size. Nephron Clin Pract; 2010;114(3):c187-93

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Response of secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet depends on parathyroid size.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several reports have indicated that the measurement of parathyroid gland size assists the management of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • This study examined whether parathyroid gland enlargement influenced the response of secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet.
  • Based on the parathyroid gland size measured by ultrasonography, the patients were divided into group S (gland <500 mm(3)) and group L (gland >or=500 mm(3)).
  • Serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (intact PTH), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen were measured over time.
  • Thus, the presence of parathyroid enlargement (nodular hyperplasia) may delay the response of secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / ultrasonography. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19955824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-2110
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephron. Clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephron Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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99. Charous DD, Charous MT, Cunnane MF, Spiegel JR: A third branchial pouch cyst presenting as a lateral neck mass in an adult. Ear Nose Throat J; 2006 Nov;85(11):754-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The mass was excised uneventfully, and the final pathology revealed a normocellular parathyroid gland and thymic tissue.

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  • (PMID = 17168156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Tanaka H: [Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism due to abnormalities in parathyroid organogenesis]. Clin Calcium; 2007 Aug;17(8):1206-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism due to abnormalities in parathyroid organogenesis].
  • Recent advance in mouse genomics has provided us lots of information concerning genes playing critical roles during organogenesis of parathyroid gland.
  • Systematic survey of the anomalies in face and the other organ is important to confirm the diagnosis.
  • And people should keep in mind that PTH could not be produced only in parathyroid in parathyroid agenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypoparathyroidism / etiology. Organogenesis / genetics. Parathyroid Glands / embryology

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  • (PMID = 17660617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA3 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA3 protein, human; 0 / GCM2 protein, human; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SOX3 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Sox3 protein, mouse; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / TBX1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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