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6. Macpherson AJ, Smith K: Mesenteric lymph nodes at the center of immune anatomy. J Exp Med; 2006 Mar 20;203(3):497-500
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  • [Title] Mesenteric lymph nodes at the center of immune anatomy.
  • Recent work shows that the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are the key site for tolerance induction to food proteins and that they also act as a firewall to prevent live commensal intestinal bacteria from penetrating the systemic immune system.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement / immunology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Immune Tolerance / immunology. Immunity, Mucosal. Lymph Nodes / immunology. Mesentery / immunology. Receptors, Chemokine / immunology

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  • [CommentOn] J Exp Med. 2006 Mar 20;203(3):519-27 [16533884.001]
  • (PMID = 16533891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Ccr7 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, CCR7; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2118258
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7. Monnet O, Cohen F, Lecorroller T, Vidal V, Jacquier A, Gaubert JY, Bartoli JM, Moulin G: [Cervical lymph nodes]. J Radiol; 2008 Jul-Aug;89(7-8 Pt 2):1020-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cervical lymph nodes].
  • The radiologist must know the anatomy of different lymph nodes as well as signs of malignancy (hypertrophy, enhancement, necrosis, capsular rupture, etc.).
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tonsillar Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18772779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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8. Elmore SA: Enhanced histopathology of the lymph nodes. Toxicol Pathol; 2006;34(5):634-47
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  • [Title] Enhanced histopathology of the lymph nodes.
  • The lymph nodes are the major route of entry for antigens and pathogens, via the afferent lymph flow, and they can be sensitive indicators of compounds with regional or systemic immunomodulatory/toxic effects and should therefore be included in the battery of lymphoid organs to evaluate for enhanced histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17067949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunotoxins
  • [Number-of-references] 5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS16226; NLM/ PMC1783683
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9. Pan WR, Suami H, Taylor GI: Senile changes in human lymph nodes. Lymphat Res Biol; 2008;6(2):77-83
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  • [Title] Senile changes in human lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: The degenerative process of lymph nodes is poorly documented.
  • METHODS: 161 lymph nodes of seven fresh and one embalmed human cadavers in the head and neck were studied.
  • We used 6% hydrogen peroxide, lead oxide injectant, and radiographs to demonstrate lymphatic vessels, and found both solidified and transparent lymph nodes.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-eight solidified and 123 transparent lymph nodes were found.
  • Senile involution affects all elements of the lymph node including the cortex, the medulla, and the architecture.
  • CONCLUSION: This study provides actual anatomical and histopathological images of lymph nodes in different degenerative stages in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / pathology. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18564922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-6851
  • [Journal-full-title] Lymphatic research and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lymphat Res Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Botturi D, Pizzorni Ferrarese F, Zamboni GA, Zerbato D: Preoperative workflow for lymph nodes staging. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg; 2009 Jan;4(1):99-104
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  • [Title] Preoperative workflow for lymph nodes staging.
  • PURPOSE: Accurate staging of lymph nodes relies mainly on surgical exploration and manual palpation.
  • METHODS: We set up a diagnostic process to extract lymph nodes shape and position from CTs and to analyze the trend of pixels intensities to determine tissue properties in order to feedback the force information.
  • RESULTS: We have integrated the model, obtained from both the morphological information and stiffness values, in our laparoscopy simulator and surgeons can virtually palpate, with a haptic device, the lymph nodes.
  • We evaluated the workflow extracting lymph nodes from a case study: the feedback provided through the simulator greatly helps the surgeon in the correct staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 20033607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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11. Nyman HT, O'Brien RT: The sonographic evaluation of lymph nodes. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2007 Aug;22(3):128-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The sonographic evaluation of lymph nodes.
  • Ultrasound can be used to detect and evaluate both normal and abnormal lymph nodes, as well as aid in biopsy sampling procedures, an important part of staging procedures in cancer patients.
  • Several parameters can be evaluated using ultrasound; lymph node size, margins, echogenicity, echopattern (echotexture), acoustic transmission, presence and distribution of vascular flow, and vascular flow indices.
  • The most diagnostically helpful include the short/long axis ratio of the lymph node, the pattern of distribution of the blood vessels within the lymph node, and to some extent the resistive and pulsatility indices.
  • This review discusses the use of ultrasound for detecting, evaluating, and sampling peripheral, abdominal and thoracic lymph nodes in small animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17844819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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12. Li XH, He JX, Chen P, Qiang YG, Wei XZ, Zhang GP, Hua N: [Regional lymph nodes targetting with enrichment of polyphase liposome]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;30(4):263-5
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  • [Title] [Regional lymph nodes targetting with enrichment of polyphase liposome].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of regional lymph nodes targetting with enrichment of radioactive 99mTc-polyphase liposome of 5-fluorouracil (99mTc-FL, FL).
  • The radioactivity was examined in the resected local lymph nodes, non-draining lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, lung, intestines, and in blood and urine.
  • The radioactive isotope uptake percentage (%) per gram in local lymph nodes was significantly different between each two groups among the 3 groups (P < 0.05).
  • The ratios of x of regional lymph nodes/non-draining lymph nodes, regional lymph nodes/blood, regional lymph nodes/urine, regional lymph nodes/liver, regional lymph nodes/spleen, regional lymph nodes/kidney, regional lymph nodes/heart, regional lymph nodes/lung, regional lymph nodes/intestine in group 1 were 232.00, 16.57, 23.20, 29.00, 19.33, 25.78, 46.40, 46.40 and 25.78, respectively.
  • The differences of radioactive isotope uptake percentage were statistically significant (P < 0.01) between regional lymph nodes and other organs, i. e. non-draining lymph nodes, blood, urine, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, lung and intestine per gram in each group.
  • So 99mTc-FL can be highly accumulated in the local lymph nodes.
  • This regional lymph nodes targetting with enrichment of radioactive 99mTc-FL evidently indicates the feasibility of regional lymph system chemotherapy for pulmonary malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Liposomes. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Organotechnetium Compounds

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  • (PMID = 18788628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium 99m 5-fluorouracil; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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13. Mack MG, Rieger J, Baghi M, Bisdas S, Vogl TJ: Cervical lymph nodes. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jun;66(3):493-500
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  • [Title] Cervical lymph nodes.
  • The lymph node staging is a very important prognostic parameter for patients with presenting with head neck cancer and is influencing the selection of the different therapeutic strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of them.
  • The accuracy of imaging techniques, such as US, MR imaging, and CT, depends on the appropriateness of radiological criteria used for diagnosing lymph node metastases.
  • Size of nodes and evidence of necrosis are still the most important radiological criteria.
  • A spherical lymph node larger than 10mm is an indicator for a malignant node, whereas an oval shape and/or a fatty hilus are more benign signs.
  • But there are many limitations and different cut offs published in the literature, indicating that the size of a lymph node is not a reliable criteria for the assessment of lymph nodes in the head and neck region.
  • Today new high-resolution MRI sequences and the development of specific contrast agents are offering new possibilities in the diagnostic work-up of head and neck lymph nodes.
  • This is causing a signal decrease on T2-weighted MR images in benign lymph nodes after administration of USPIO's, whereas malignant lymph nodes do not show a significant signal decrease.
  • Based on the fact, that the size evaluation of lymph nodes in the head and neck has not changed during the last decade, this paper will mainly focus on MRI with new contrast agents and new techniques as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI).
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Dextrans. Ferrosoferric Oxide. Humans. Iron. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetite Nanoparticles. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Oxides. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18337039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Magnetite Nanoparticles; 0 / Oxides; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; G6N3J05W84 / ferumoxides; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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4. Pirro N, Pignodel C, Cathala P, Fabbro-Peray P, Godlewski G, Prudhomme M: The number of lymph nodes is correlated with mesorectal morphometry. Surg Radiol Anat; 2008 Jun;30(4):297-302

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The number of lymph nodes is correlated with mesorectal morphometry.
  • BACKGROUND: Lymph node involvement is one of the most significant prognostic factors of patients with rectal cancer.
  • However, the distribution of mesorectal lymph nodes is not well known.
  • This study was designed to assess lymph nodes in the mesorectum and to evaluate the correlation between the volume and weight of the mesorectum and the number of lymph nodes.
  • Lymph nodes were sought by manual dissection and were submitted for histological examination.
  • The correlation between the number of lymph nodes and the volume and weight of the mesorectum was evaluated by non-parametric Spearman test.
  • RESULTS: A total of 178 lymph nodes were identified.
  • The mean number of lymph nodes per specimen was 9.2 +/- 4.5.
  • The lymph nodes were mostly smaller than 3 mm and located in the superior and posterior parts of the mesorectum.
  • A positive correlation was found between the number of mesorectal lymph nodes and the volume and weight of the mesorectum.
  • The number of lymph nodes in the superior rectal mesentery was independent of its volume and its weight.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mesorectal lymph nodes are mainly located above the peritoneal reflection within the posterior mesorectum.
  • The positive correlation between the volume or the weight of the mesorectum and the number of mesorectal lymph nodes should be considered as a possible means to determine the minimum number of mesorectal lymph nodes required for histological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Mesentery / anatomy & histology. Rectum / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 18309450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0930-1038
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Radiol Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Maĭborodin IV, Borodin IuI, Kharchenko VG, Korabel'shchikov GD: [Mesenteric lymph nodes in the newborns with inflammatory and non-inflammatory abdominal diseases]. Arkh Patol; 2006 May-Jun;68(3):25-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Mesenteric lymph nodes in the newborns with inflammatory and non-inflammatory abdominal diseases].
  • Light microscopy was used to study mesenteric lymph nodes in 46 neonatal infants who had died from small bowel atresia, inflammatory abdominal processes and diseases.
  • There were no lymphoid follicles with germinative centers in the mesenteric lymph nodes of all neonatal infants, which seemed to result from the lack of antigenic stimulation during intrauterine development.
  • Medullary substance malformation in the lymph nodes promotes the occurrence of inflammation in the region of their lymph collection and favors the progression and generalization of a pathological process.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Diseases / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mesentery / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16830620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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21. Uibu T, Vanhala E, Sajantila A, Lunetta P, Mäkelä-Bengs P, Goebeler S, Jäntti M, Tossavainen A: Asbestos fibers in para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes. Am J Ind Med; 2009 Jun;52(6):464-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Asbestos fibers in para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Asbestos fibers are known to accumulate in lung parenchyma and thoracic lymph nodes, but their presence and translocation into the extrapulmonary tissues need clarification.
  • We assessed the presence of asbestos in the para-aortic (PA) and mesenteric (ME) lymph nodes.
  • METHODS: PA and ME lymph nodes and lung tissue from 17 persons who underwent medicolegal autopsy for suspicion of asbestos-related disease and from five controls were analyzed for asbestos fibers using transmission electron microscopy.
  • RESULTS: High concentrations of amphibole asbestos fibers were detected in several lung tissue samples and in the respective PA and ME lymph nodes.
  • The mean concentration for the 10 persons with a lung asbestos content of >/=1 million fibers/g of dry tissue (f/g) was 0.85 (<0.05-4.36) million f/g in the PA lymph nodes and 0.55 (<0.02-2.86) million f/g in the ME lymph nodes.
  • The respective mean values for the 12 persons with a lung asbestos concentration of <1 million f/g were 0.07 for the PA lymph nodes and 0.03 million f/g for the ME nodes.
  • The lung asbestos burden that predicted the detection of asbestos in abdominal lymph nodes was 0.45 million f/g.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In addition to their accumulation in lung tissue, asbestos fibers also collect in the retroperitoneal and the mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • Even low-level occupational exposure results in the presence of crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, or chrysotile in these abdominal lymph nodes.
  • Our results support the hypothesis of lymph drainage as an important translocation mechanism for asbestos in the human body.
  • [MeSH-major] Asbestos / analysis. Asbestosis / pathology. Lung / chemistry. Lymph Nodes / chemistry. Occupational Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19296550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of industrial medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ind. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Asbestos, Amphibole; 0 / Mineral Fibers; 1332-21-4 / Asbestos
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22. Lucey BC, Stuhlfaut JW, Soto JA: Mesenteric lymph nodes: detection and significance on MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Jan;184(1):41-4
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  • [Title] Mesenteric lymph nodes: detection and significance on MDCT.
  • OBJECTIVE: Unsuspected mesenteric lymph nodes are frequently found on abdominal CT scans in everyday clinical practice.
  • The purpose of this study is to document the incidence of mesenteric lymph nodes in a previously healthy population and to provide guidelines for further management.
  • Two radiologists evaluated the images by consensus and recorded the presence of mesenteric lymph nodes greater than 3 mm in the short axis.
  • Lymph node size, number, and location (central, peripheral, or right lower quadrant) were documented.
  • RESULTS: Of the 120 patients with otherwise normal CT scans, 47 had mesenteric lymph nodes greater than 3 mm.
  • Of these 47 patients, 22 (47%) had five or more lymph nodes detected.
  • Twenty-five (53%) of the 47 patients had four or fewer nodes.
  • The mean size of the largest nodes was 4.8 mm (range, 3-9 mm), and the mean size of the nodes found per patient was 3.6 mm (range, 3-6 mm).
  • These nodes were identified only at the mesenteric root in 32 patients (68%), only in the mesenteric periphery in eight patients (17%), and only in the right lower quadrant in five patients (11%).
  • Nodes were identified in more than one location in two patients (4%).
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental finding of mesenteric lymph nodes is common, reflecting more widespread use of thin-collimation MDCT and PACS workstations.
  • In general, these nodes are small, measuring less than 5 mm.
  • Such nodes when found in an otherwise healthy population are clinically insignificant and require no further imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / radiography. Mesentery / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15615948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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23. Liu J, Wong HL, Moselhy J, Bowen B, Wu XY, Johnston MR: Targeting colloidal particulates to thoracic lymph nodes. Lung Cancer; 2006 Mar;51(3):377-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting colloidal particulates to thoracic lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Thoracic lymphatics and lymph nodes can be affected by cancer and other diseases.
  • METHODS: Various micro- and nanoparticles of charcoal, polystyrene and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) were administered into the pleural space of rats to study the lymphatic distribution of particles from the pleural cavity to the thoracic lymph nodes.
  • (3) the transport of particles to regional lymph nodes was consistently found in all three animal models;.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Regional thoracic lymphatics and lymph nodes can be accessed by colloidal particles injected into the pleural space.
  • [MeSH-major] Charcoal / administration & dosage. Lactic Acid / administration & dosage. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Pleura / physiology. Polyglycolic Acid / administration & dosage. Polymers / administration & dosage. Polystyrenes / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16413084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polystyrenes; 0 / polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 26009-03-0 / Polyglycolic Acid; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid
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24. Pulitzer MP, Gerami P, Busam K: Solar elastotic material in dermal lymphatics and lymph nodes. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;34(10):1492-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solar elastotic material in dermal lymphatics and lymph nodes.
  • The movement of material via passive mechanical transport through lymphatic channels (also known as benign mechanical transport) is a physiologic mechanism invoked to explain the occasional presence of benign heterotopic tissues within lymph nodes.
  • However, historically, the concept of benign mechanical transport has provoked controversy.
  • The proof of this concept is of fundamental importance to the claim that foreign cells or cellular aggregates found within a sentinel lymph node do not necessarily represent clinically relevant metastatic disease.
  • Herein we present the previously undescribed finding of solar elastotic material within the dermal lymphatics, and/or capsules, subcapsular sinuses, and parenchyma of lymph nodes of 9 patients.
  • Solar elastotic material was found in lymph nodes in association with metastatic melanoma, nodal melanocytic nevi, and in otherwise unremarkable lymph nodes lacking extrinsic cells.
  • These findings support the concept of the mechanical transport of both benign and malignant tissues through lymphatics and document that passively transported material can appear in any compartment of the lymph node; an important concept to give evidence for, as it offers a sound explanation for the presence of some cellular deposits within lymphoid tissue and supports the assertion that some of these deposits are benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermis / pathology. Elastic Tissue / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biological Transport. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Jan;35(1):152-3 [21164299.001]
  • (PMID = 20829679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Miletić Z, Gizdić B, Stoos-Veić T, Kaić G, Novak NP, Tadić M, Jaksić O, Ostović KT: Flow cytometric analysis of deep-seated lymph nodes. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):377-80
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  • [Title] Flow cytometric analysis of deep-seated lymph nodes.
  • Flow cytometry (FC) immunophenotyping is an important tool in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy and is widely used in the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) on fine-needle aspirates of lymph nodes and extranodal sites.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for FC analysis from deep-seated lymph nodes and to compare results of FC clonality analysis to cytomorphologic diagnosis of sampled lymph nodes.
  • For cytological diagnosis direct smears were made, selected slide was stained for rapid-on site evaluation procedure.
  • Sixteen patients with suspected NHL of deep-seated lymph nodes obtained by EUS-FNA were submitted for FC clonality analysis using four-color multiparameter flow cytometry stained with kappa/lambda/CD19/CD45.
  • Monoclonality was demonstrated in seven of 11 cases cytologically diagnosed as NHL and four of 11 cases cytologically diagnosed as benign were polyclonal.
  • Our results show that EUS-FNAC with FC is a sensitive and specific tool in the diagnosis of deep-seated B-NHL.
  • Cytologic diagnosis combined with FC clonality analysis can be performed in majority of cases and may eliminate need for open biopsy in some cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Flow Cytometry / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Abdominal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin Light Chains / genetics. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / ultrasonography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20698105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains
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26. Chan JM, Shin LK, Jeffrey RB: Ultrasonography of abnormal neck lymph nodes. Ultrasound Q; 2007 Mar;23(1):47-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasonography of abnormal neck lymph nodes.
  • Features of cervical lymph nodes using gray-scale and color and power Doppler ultrasonography can help to distinguish normal and reactive lymph nodes from potentially metastatic lymph nodes.
  • The distinguishing features that separate abnormal from normal cervical lymph nodes include peripheral vascularity, shape, overall lymph node echogenicity, absence of hilus, presence of nodal microcalcifications, and cystic changes.
  • Often, a combination of these features is needed to assign a cervical lymph node as being abnormal.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / abnormalities. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 17558229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-8771
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound quarterly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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27. Wolff CS, Castillo SF, Larson DR, O'Byrne MM, Fredericksen M, Deschamps C, Allen MS, Zais TG, Romero Y: Ivor Lewis approach is superior to transhiatal approach in retrieval of lymph nodes at esophagectomy. Dis Esophagus; 2008;21(4):328-33
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  • [Title] Ivor Lewis approach is superior to transhiatal approach in retrieval of lymph nodes at esophagectomy.
  • Lymph node involvement may impact postoperative therapeutic decision-making and prognosis in patients undergoing esophagectomy.
  • This study evaluates which surgical approach yields the most lymph nodes.
  • Lymph nodes were categorized into one of 17 regions per the American Joint Committee on Cancer, with the total number of lymph nodes, summed over each region, used as the primary outcome.
  • A mean of 18.7 (SD 8.5) lymph nodes were retrieved with the Ivor Lewis approach as compared to 17.4 (SD 9.2) with the extended Ivor Lewis approach (P = 0.30).
  • Since there was no statistical difference between the number of nodes collected in either Ivor Lewis approach, they were collapsed into one group for comparison with the transhiatal cases.
  • Significantly more lymph nodes were collected with an Ivor Lewis approach (mean 18.5, SD 8.6) than with a transhiatal approach (mean 9.0, SD 5.0, P < 0.001).
  • As expected, more thoracic lymph nodes were retrieved with the Ivor Lewis approach [mean 12.4 (SD 7.0) vs. 4.7 (SD 5.3), P < 0.001].
  • The Ivor Lewis approach was also superior for retrieval of abdominal nodes [mean 6.1 (SD 5.6) versus 4.3 (SD 4.4), P = 0.01].
  • More lymph nodes are obtained at esophagectomy with an Ivor Lewis than a transhiatal approach.

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  • (PMID = 18477255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 02956
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Kraal G, Samsom JN, Mebius RE: The importance of regional lymph nodes for mucosal tolerance. Immunol Rev; 2006 Oct;213:119-30

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The importance of regional lymph nodes for mucosal tolerance.
  • These organs, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and gut-associated Peyer's patches, are compartmentalized, providing separate niches for T and B cells.
  • From our studies on mucosal tolerance in mouse models, it has become evident that regional lymph nodes draining the mucosa are important sites to direct immune responses.
  • Here, we discuss the way regional lymph nodes contribute to the direction of immune responses and what is known about the local factors and cell behavior that form the basis for these differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Immune Tolerance / physiology. Immunity, Mucosal / physiology. Lymph Nodes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16972900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-2896
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunological reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunol. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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29. Abrao MS, Podgaec S, Dias JA Jr, Averbach M, Garry R, Ferraz Silva LF, Carvalho FM: Deeply infiltrating endometriosis affecting the rectum and lymph nodes. Fertil Steril; 2006 Sep;86(3):543-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Deeply infiltrating endometriosis affecting the rectum and lymph nodes.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We performed an evaluation of lesion size, number of lesions present in the bowel, intestinal wall layers affected by the endometriotic lesion, circumference of the intestinal loop affected by the endometriotic lesion, and presence of lymph nodes with foci of endometriosis.
  • RESULT(S): Analysis of the surgical samples revealed lymph nodes in the pericolic adipose tissue of 19 (54%), cases and in 5 of these cases (26.3%), endometriosis had affected the lymph nodes.
  • When the thickness of the endometriotic lesion reached 1.75 cm, lymph nodes of all patients were affected, and all patients in whom more than 80% of the circumference of the intestinal loop was affected by endometriosis presented with positive lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSION(S): This study raises doubts about whether this form of the disease can still be considered a clinically benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometriosis / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Rectal Diseases / pathology. Rectum / pathology


30. Esen G: Ultrasound of superficial lymph nodes. Eur J Radiol; 2006 Jun;58(3):345-59

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound of superficial lymph nodes.
  • US is a powerful tool for characterization of superficial lymph nodes.
  • Unlike other imaging techniques like CT and MRI, which mainly depend on size for differential diagnosis, US can evaluate important parameters such as shape, margins, internal structure and abnormal vascularization.
  • It is possible to evaluate the heterogeneous inner structure due to necrosis, unsharp or irregular borders due to extracapsular spread and abnormal vascularization with multiple subcapsular feeding vessels due to tumor angiogenesis.
  • The advances in US technology like high-resolution transducers, power Doppler function and contrast agents have all contributed to the well established role of US in the evaluation of lymph nodes.
  • This article mainly focuses on the sonographic criteria for differential diagnosis of normal, reactive, inflammatous and neoplastic lymph nodes as well as examination techniques in the neck, axilla, internal mammary and inguinal regions and indications in various clinical settings.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Illustration

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  • (PMID = 16480846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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31. McCormack D, Al-Shaer M, Goldschmidt BS, Dale PS, Henry C, Papageorgio C, Bhattacharyya K, Viator JA: Photoacoustic detection of melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes. J Biomech Eng; 2009 Jul;131(7):074519
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  • [Title] Photoacoustic detection of melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • One method of staging melanoma is performed by taking a sentinel node biopsy, in which the first node in the lymphatic drainage path of the primary lesion is removed and tested for the presence of melanoma cells.
  • Current standard of care typically involves taking fewer than ten histologic sections of the node out of the hundreds of possible sections available in the tissue.
  • We have developed a photoacoustic method that probes the entire intact node.
  • We acquired a lymph node from a healthy canine subject.
  • Approximately 1 x 10(6) cells were separated and injected into the lymph node.
  • We also had a healthy lymph node in which no melanoma cells were implanted.
  • We used a tunable laser system set at 532 nm to irradiate the lymph nodes.
  • Three piezoelectric acoustic detectors were positioned near the lymph node to detect photoacoustic pulses generated within the lymph nodes.
  • We also acquired lymph nodes from pigs and repeated the experiments with increased amplification and improved sensors.
  • We detected photoacoustic responses from a lymph node with as few as 500 melanoma cells injected into the tissue, while normal lymph nodes showed no response.
  • Photoacoustic generation can be used to detect melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • This detection can be used to guide further histologic study of the node, increasing the accuracy of the sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acoustics / instrumentation. Elasticity Imaging Techniques / instrumentation. Lasers. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Dogs. Equipment Design. Equipment Failure Analysis. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19640155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-0731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomechanical engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomech Eng
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Kvirikashvili TO: [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children]. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jan;(130):41-4
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  • [Title] [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children].
  • We investigated 79 patients (76.0%) with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes among all 104 with general abdominal lymphosarcoma.
  • Surgical intervention and radial therapy is inexpedient in a treatment program of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children.
  • Besides, it is shown the superiority of intensive program of polychemical therapy OMDV: vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.5 mg/m(2) i/v in the 1 day; metotrexate -- 250 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the I day; dexamethazone 10 mg/m(2) per os 1-5 day; vepesid -- 100 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the 4 and 5 days.) in comparison with the ACOP scheme: adriamicine or rubomicine - 30 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); cyclophosphane -- 600 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.4 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); prednisolone -- 40 mg/m(2) every day 4-6 week quitting gradually) for treatment of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in childhood age.
  • General recovery without recurrence in children with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes was occurred in 44.2% cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16510909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
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33. Ozmen MM, Ozmen F, Zulfikaroglu B: Lymph nodes in gastric cancer. J Surg Oncol; 2008 Nov 1;98(6):476-81
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  • [Title] Lymph nodes in gastric cancer.
  • As the lymphatic distribution of stomach is very complex, the determination of the actual lymph node involvement is important for making the decision in order to avoid complications.
  • Sentinel node navigation surgery has recently been introduced in gastrointestinal tract cancer.
  • Present article reviews the detection techniques of lymph nodes and significance of lymphadenectomies in gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphography. Preoperative Care. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Compounds. Tin Fluorides

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18720367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Compounds; 0 / Tin Fluorides; 0 / technetium Tc 99m tin fluoride colloid
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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34. Cochran AJ, Huang RR, Lee J, Itakura E, Leong SP, Essner R: Tumour-induced immune modulation of sentinel lymph nodes. Nat Rev Immunol; 2006 Sep;6(9):659-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumour-induced immune modulation of sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), being the first nodes to receive lymph from a primary tumour and the preferential site of initial tumour metastases, are intensively exposed to the bioactive products of tumour cells and other associated cells.
  • We postulate that tumour-induced immune modulation of SLNs facilitates lymph-node metastases by inhibiting the generation of tumour-specific cytotoxic T cells that are active against tumour cells of primary and metastatic melanomas.
  • Immune modulation of the lymph nodes can be reversed by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a finding that has implications for the future therapy of lymph-node metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Movement. Dendritic Cells / cytology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Humans. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16932751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-1733
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Rev. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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35. Barbu A, Suehling M, Xu X, Liu D, Zhou SK, Comaniciu D: Automatic detection and segmentation of axillary lymph nodes. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv; 2010;13(Pt 1):28-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Automatic detection and segmentation of axillary lymph nodes.
  • Lymph node detection and measurement is a difficult and important part of cancer treatment.
  • In this paper we present a robust and effective learning-based method for the automatic detection of solid lymph nodes from Computed Tomography data.
  • First, it presents a learning based approach to lymph node detection based on Marginal Space Learning.
  • Second, it presents an efficient MRF-based segmentation method for solid lymph nodes.
  • An extensive evaluation on 101 volumes containing 362 lymph nodes shows that this method obtains a 82.3% detection rate at 1 false positive per volume, with an average running time of 5-20 seconds per volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20879211.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Xi L, Luketich JD, Raja S, Gooding WE, Litle VR, Coello MC, Finkelstein SD, Chestney ML, Landreneau RJ, Hughes SJ, Godfrey TE: Molecular staging of lymph nodes from patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Feb 1;11(3):1099-109
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular staging of lymph nodes from patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate molecular markers for the detection of micrometastasis in esophageal adenocarcinoma, define algorithms to distinguish positive from benign lymph nodes and to validate these findings in an independent tissue set and in patients with p(N0) esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • All markers were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (QRT)-PCR on a limited set of primary tumors and benign lymph nodes.
  • Algorithms were statistically validated internally as well as externally on an independent set of lymph nodes.
  • Selected markers were then used to identify occult disease in lymph nodes from 34 patients with p(N0) esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Five of thirty-four patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma had positive nodes by multimarker QRT-PCR analysis and disease-free survival was significantly worse in these patients (P = 0.0023).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have identified novel QRT-PCR markers for the detection of occult lymph node disease in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 15709177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 90665-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / EPCAM protein, human; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / villin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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37. Namba F, Asaoka N, Kishimoto M, Kibayashi T, Yamato K, Osaki K, Okimoto N: [Case of multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Oct;45(10):779-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Case of multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes].
  • Biopsy by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) yielded a diagnosis of multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes.
  • In cases with the above radiologic findings, careful attention should be paid to making the differential diagnosis between intrapulmonary lymph nodes and primary lung cancer.
  • Solitary intrapulmonary lymph nodes are encountered frequently, but multiple or increasing numbers of nodes, as in our case, are very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung / pathology. Lung Diseases / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18018626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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38. Stoeckelhuber BM, Wiesmann M, Berg SA, Tronnier M, Stoeckelhuber M, Krueger S, Gellissen J, Bergmann-Koester CU: [Sonography of enlarged lymph nodes: Pathogenetic categorization using contrast enhanced power Doppler sonography]. Hautarzt; 2006 Jul;57(7):610-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Sonography of enlarged lymph nodes: Pathogenetic categorization using contrast enhanced power Doppler sonography].
  • [Transliterated title] Sonographische Diagnostik vergrösserter Lymphknoten: Pathogenetische Kategorisierung mit der kontrastverstärkten Powerdoppler-Sonographie.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to categorize enlarged superficial lymph nodes as benign or malignant using sonomorphologic features and vascularization pattern.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Enlarged superficial lymph nodes in 57 patients were assessed with B-mode and contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography.
  • The lymph nodes were categorized as benign or malignant.
  • RESULTS: In 55 patients, 40 lymph nodes were correctly categorized as benign and 15 lymph nodes correctly as malignant.
  • Intact hilar vessels and branching indicated benign enlargement, destruction of the hilum with vessels running peripherally along the capsule indicated metastatic destruction.
  • Two benign lymph nodes were considered malignant (false positive).
  • CONCLUSION: B-mode ultrasound along with contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound is an easy, cost-effective, and reliable tool for differentiation and categorization of enlarged superficial lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Invest Radiol. 1998 Mar;33(3):146-52 [9525753.001]
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  • (PMID = 16673107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Ahuja AT, Ying M: Sonographic evaluation of cervical lymph nodes. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 May;184(5):1691-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sonographic evaluation of cervical lymph nodes.
  • OBJECTIVE: Sonography is a useful imaging tool in the evaluation of cervical lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic appearances of normal nodes differ from those of abnormal nodes.
  • Sonographic features that help to identify abnormal nodes include shape (round), absent hilus, intranodal necrosis, reticulation, calcification, matting, soft-tissue edema, and peripheral vascularity.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Diseases / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • (PMID = 15855141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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40. Turner J, Vollmer RT: Lymph nodes in colorectal carcinoma. The Poisson probability paradigm. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jun;125(6):866-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymph nodes in colorectal carcinoma. The Poisson probability paradigm.
  • This article introduces use of the Poisson probability density function and Bayes probability rule to understand and analyze lymph nodal metastases in colorectal carcinoma.
  • In 213 cases with negative lymph nodes, we found that the Bayes-estimated probability of missed metastases was related significantly to subsequent survival (P = .0006).
  • In 157 cases with lymph nodal metastases, we found that the estimated value of the Poisson parameter a was associated more closely with subsequent survival than pN stage (P = 9 10(-6)).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Poisson Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16690486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Cserni G: Pathological evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2007 Jan;16(1):17-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathological evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes.
  • The sentinel lymph nodes are the most likely site of nodal metastasis.
  • Their focused analysis results in upstaging cancers, although the extra yield from a more intensive work-up is generally dominated by micrometastases and isolated tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. MART-1 Antigen. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17336234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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42. Chiu JT, Wobeser G, Bollinger T: Granulomatous inflammation in retropharyngeal lymph nodes of wild cervids in Saskatchewan. J Wildl Dis; 2009 Jul;45(3):625-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granulomatous inflammation in retropharyngeal lymph nodes of wild cervids in Saskatchewan.
  • A portion of retropharyngeal lymph nodes from 6,824 wild cervids, comprising 1,458 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 5,345 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 11 unidentified deer (Odocoileus spp.
  • Aerobic and anaerobic culture from frozen tissue from the lymph nodes was negative, as was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium bovis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Wild / microbiology. Female. Lymph Nodes / microbiology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Prevalence. Saskatchewan / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19617472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3558
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wildlife diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Wildl. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Thomsen JB, Sørensen JA, Jakobsen J, Karstoft J: [Introduction to ultrasonography of lymph nodes of the neck]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Feb 2;171(6):423-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Introduction to ultrasonography of lymph nodes of the neck].
  • This is a short introduction to ultrasonography of lymph nodes of the neck in patients with malignant melanoma, head & neck cancer and skin cancer.
  • Ultrasonography is well-suited for evaluation of regional lymph node status.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Neck. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19208332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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44. Chen HC, Kang BH, Lai CT, Lin YS: Sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes. J Chin Med Assoc; 2005 Jul;68(7):339-42
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Sarcoidosis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes.
  • Only the presentation of sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes without typical manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis poses a diagnostic difficulty.
  • The biopsy from the neck mass demonstrated non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma of the lymph nodes.
  • Although our patient's definitive diagnosis could not be determined, the case highlights 2 important issues: sarcoidal granuloma in lymph nodes may be a precursor of sarcoidosis, even in the absence of pulmonary or other systemic involvement; and regular follow-up is recommended in such cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neck

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  • (PMID = 16038376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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45. Spannuth WA, Leath CA 3rd, Conner MG, Alvarez RD: Inflammatory pseudotumor of pelvic lymph nodes. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;108(3 Pt 2):779-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inflammatory pseudotumor of pelvic lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Inflammatory pseudotumor is a rare benign cause of lymphadenopathy previously reported in several anatomic locations that can simulate malignant neoplasm.
  • Histologic examination revealed inflammatory pseudotumor of the lymph nodes, with immunohistochemical studies demonstrating actin-positive myofibroblastic cells.
  • CONCLUSION: Inflammatory pseudotumor of the pelvic lymph nodes is a rare entity and should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent fever and lymphadenopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Plasma Cell / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Fever. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyoma / pathology. Leiomyoma / surgery. Leukocytosis. Lymph Node Excision. Ovariectomy. Pelvic Pain. Pelvis. Postmenopause. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17018500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Baldazzi V, Paci P, Bernaschi M, Castiglione F: Modeling lymphocyte homing and encounters in lymph nodes. BMC Bioinformatics; 2009;10:387

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modeling lymphocyte homing and encounters in lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: The efficiency of lymph nodes depends on tissue structure and organization, which allow the coordination of lymphocyte traffic.
  • Despite their essential role, our understanding of lymph node specific mechanisms is still incomplete and currently a topic of intense research.
  • RESULTS: In this paper, we present a hybrid discrete/continuous model of the lymph node, accounting for differences in cell velocity and chemotactic response, influenced by the spatial compartmentalization of the lymph node and the regulation of cells migration, encounter, and antigen presentation during the inflammation process.
  • Furthermore, we investigate the consequences of the absence of dendritic cells at different times during infection, and the dependence of system dynamics on the regulation of lymphocyte exit from lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Computational Biology / methods. Lymph Nodes / physiology. Lymphocytes / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19939270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC bioinformatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Bioinformatics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2790470
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47. Kürle S, Schulte KW, Homey B: [Accumulation of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes]. Hautarzt; 2009 Oct;60(10):781-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Accumulation of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes].
  • A 22-year-old woman presented with a superficial spreading melanoma on her right thigh (tumor thickness 1.0 mm, Clark-Level III).
  • Intra-operatively, we observed a black pigmented lymph node highly suspicious for metastatic disease, but histological examination excluded metastatic spread and detected the accumulation of black pigment within the lymph node.
  • Clinical differentiation between tattoo pigments and metastatic disease within lymph nodes is not possible.
  • Histological confirmation of an enlarged pigmented lymph node is therefore essential before radical surgery is performed.
  • Hence, accumulation of tattoo pigment within enlarged and pigmented lymph nodes needs to be included into the differential diagnosis and the documentation of decorative tattoos is important during skin cancer screening as well as during the follow-up of melanoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / pharmacokinetics. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Tattooing

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  • (PMID = 19756437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents
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48. Qian CN, Resau JH, Teh BT: Prospects for vasculature reorganization in sentinel lymph nodes. Cell Cycle; 2007 Mar 1;6(5):514-7
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prospects for vasculature reorganization in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Primary tumors can induce vasculature and lymph channel reorganizations within sentinel lymph nodes before the arrival of cancer cells.
  • The key blood vessels in such nodes that are remodeled are high endothelial venules (HEVs).
  • This tumor-induced reorganization is quite different from an endotoxin-induced inflammatory vasculature alteration.
  • We review some of the accepted doctrines on lymph flow and lymphatic metastasis in light of this reorganization.
  • More investigations are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the morphological and functional alteration of HEVs, the fluid exchanges between lymph and blood, the microenvironmental preparation for cancer cells to survive and expand in the lymph node, and the detail process of further distant dissemination of cancer cells from the lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / blood supply. Lymph Nodes / physiopathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / physiopathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17329977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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49. Liberale G, Lasser P, Sabourin JC, Malka D, Duvillard P, Elias D, Boige V, Goéré D, Ducreux M, Pocard M: Sentinel lymph nodes of colorectal carcinoma: reappraisal of 123 cases. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Mar;31(3):281-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel lymph nodes of colorectal carcinoma: reappraisal of 123 cases.
  • AIMS: Results concerning the usefulness of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in colorectal carcinoma have been discordant.
  • The SLN technique may be used to guide surgical resection (lymph mapping), restrict the lymph node analysis solely to the SLN (accuracy) and upgrade tumor staging when micrometastases are specifically detected in the SLN.
  • On average, twenty lymph nodes (range: 5-74) and two SLNs (range: 1-5) were identified.
  • Lymph mapping was used in 11% of patients to guide surgical resection; the SLN was negative in 14 of 36 N+ patients (39% false-negatives); HES staining enabled detection of micrometastases in 8 of 84 initially N0 patients (10% secondary upgrading to N+).
  • CONCLUSION: Limiting node analysis to the SLN cannot replace a complete pathology examination of all resected lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Coloring Agents. False Negative Reactions. Female. Fluorescent Dyes. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2007 Mar;31(3):279-80 [17396085.001]
  • (PMID = 17396086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes
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50. Schramm R, Menger MD, Harder Y, Schmits R, Adam O, Weitz-Schmidt G, Schäfers HJ: Statins inhibit lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymph nodes. Immunology; 2007 Mar;120(3):315-24
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

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  • [Title] Statins inhibit lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymph nodes.
  • Lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymph nodes is governed by adhesion molecules, including lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1).
  • We used a cervical lymph node preparation to study the effects of simvastatin on lymphocyte adhesion to high endothelial venules (HEVs) by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy (IVM).
  • Histological analysis after a 10-day treatment with simvastatin showed reduced cellularity of cervical lymph nodes, as indicated by a reduction of the relative area of haematoxylin-stained cell nuclei in cervical lymph node cross-sections from 94 +/- 0% in vehicle-treated controls to 77 +/- 3% in simvastatin-treated mice (P < 0.05).
  • We conclude that statin compounds are capable of inhibiting lymphocyte homing to murine peripheral lymph nodes in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Leukocyte Rolling / drug effects. Lymph Nodes / immunology. Lymphocytes / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17140403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-2805
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / LFA 878; 0 / Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Oxazines; AGG2FN16EV / Simvastatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2265897
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51. Brennick JB, Yan S: False-positive cells in sentinel lymph nodes. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2008 May;25(2):116-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] False-positive cells in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Melanoma sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) are carefully evaluated to maximize sensitivity.
  • Examination includes hematoxylin and eosin (H+E) stained sections at multiple levels through the node, with subsequent immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for melanocytic markers if H+E sections are negative for melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. MART-1 Antigen. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18697715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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52. Shidham VB: Evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for melanoma metastases by pathologists. Clin Plast Surg; 2010 Jan;37(1):101-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for melanoma metastases by pathologists.
  • The pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for melanoma metastases is not without significant challenges.
  • This article discusses various approaches along with recommended dos and don'ts for optimum evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for melanoma metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intraoperative Period. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19914462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0504
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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53. Centkowski P, Sawczuk-Chabin J, Prochorec M, Warzocha K: Hodgkin's lymphoma and tuberculosis coexistence in cervical lymph nodes. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Mar;46(3):471-5
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Hodgkin's lymphoma and tuberculosis coexistence in cervical lymph nodes.
  • We describe the case of a 47-year-old man admitted to the Department of Hematology because of fever, enlarged cervical and supraclavicular lymph nodes, hepatosplenomegaly and non-specific lung infiltrations.
  • The histopathological examination of the cervical lymph node revealed Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) NS type I.
  • Despite BEACOPP chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone), the enlarged lymph nodes, lung infiltrations and fever persisted.
  • However, the biopsy of the supraclavicular lymph node revealed multiple, caseating and necrotizing granulomatous lesions with scattered Reed-Sternberg (R-S) cells.
  • The auramin staining presented acid-fast bacilli and allowed the diagnosis of productive and caseating TB coexisting with HL.
  • The diagnosis may be difficult due to similarities in the clinical course, laboratory tests and imaging procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / complications. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / complications

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  • (PMID = 15621842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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54. Kirchner GI, Tischendorf JJ, Bleck J, Wagner S, Caselitz M, Klempnauer J, Manns MP, Gebel M: Perihilar lymph nodes in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with and without cholangiocellular carcinoma. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2008;43(11):1366-70
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perihilar lymph nodes in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with and without cholangiocellular carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Enlarged perihilar lymph nodes have been described in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).
  • The aim of the study was to determine the clinical relevance of perihilar lymph nodes in PSC patients with and without cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The status of perihilar lymph nodes was investigated in 117 patients with PSC using "high-end" ultrasound.
  • Lymph node status was correlated with the presence of CCC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
  • RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of PSC patients without CCC and 86% of patients with CCC had enlarged perihilar lymph nodes (NS).
  • In CCC patients, the width of lymph nodes was significantly larger (12+/-6 mm versus 8+/-4 mm; p=0.0001), and the length:width ratio (2.15+/-0.7:1 versus 2.5+/-0.6:1; p=0.004) of the lymph nodes was significantly lower.
  • Thirty-seven percent of PSC patients without CCC and 57% of patients with PSC and CCC had multiple perihilar lymph nodes (p=0.04).
  • In all patients, the presence versus absence of IBD had no influence on the number (84% versus 74%,) and size of perihilar lymph nodes (length: 21+/-10 mm versus 19+/-7 mm).
  • Lymph node status did not correlate with the number of episodes of cholangitis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Enlarged perihilar lymph nodes are characteristic of patients with PSC.
  • Since perihilar lymph nodes are not predictive of the presence of complicating CCC, such patients should not be excluded from liver transplantation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged


55. Shen SS, Haupt BX, Ro JY, Zhu J, Bailey HR, Schwartz MR: Number of lymph nodes examined and associated clinicopathologic factors in colorectal carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):781-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Number of lymph nodes examined and associated clinicopathologic factors in colorectal carcinoma.
  • The number of lymph nodes recovered and examined in resection specimens has been recently shown to be critical for proper staging and is associated with survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinicopathologic factors that may be associated with the number of lymph nodes harvested from surgical resections.
  • DESIGN: Clinicopathologic factors of 434 consecutive cases of colorectal cancers treated by surgical resection from a single tertiary medical center were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with number of lymph nodes recovered.
  • RESULTS: Our data show that patient age, tumor location, and length of resected bowel segment were associated with number of lymph nodes harvested in surgical resections of colorectal cancer.
  • The average number of lymph nodes was 18.2 and 17.8 for patients younger than 50 years and aged 50 through 60 years, respectively, whereas it was 14.4, 15.1, and 14.9 for patients aged 61 through 70 years, 71 through 80 years, and 80 years and older, respectively.
  • More lymph nodes were present in resection specimens of cecum/ascending colon and descending colon cancers than in those of transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectal cancers.
  • There was a linear increase in number of lymph nodes examined with increasing length of bowel resection specimens.
  • In multivariate regression analysis, the factors that remained independent predictors of removal of 12 or more lymph nodes from resection specimens were tumor location and length of resected bowel segment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The number of lymph nodes obtained in resection specimens for colorectal cancer was significantly associated with the length of resected segments of bowel, patient age, and location of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19415953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Christensen AF, Bourke JL, Nielsen MB, Møller H, Svendsen LB, Mogensen AM, Vainer B: Detection rate of periintestinal lymph nodes. Ultraschall Med; 2006 Aug;27(4):360-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection rate of periintestinal lymph nodes.
  • AIM: Compared to standard two-dimensional (2D) endosonography, three-dimensional (3D) endosonography has been presented as a possible improvement regarding imaging of the gastrointestinal (G-I) tract and detection of metastatic lymph nodes.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of detecting periintestinal lymph nodes in surgical specimens using 3D endosonography.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Surgical specimens from 31 patients with malignant G-I tumours were investigated by 3-D endosonography and histology with focus on the presence of periintestinal lymph nodes and presence of metastasis.
  • Position and size of the lymph nodes were mapped on a photo of the specimen both by the pathologist and the examiners.
  • RESULTS: Three-dimensional endosonography detected 48 out of 60 malignant lymph nodes (80.0 %), and 110 out of 219 benign lymph nodes (50.2 %).
  • The positive predictive value for an endosonographic finding interpreted as a lymph node was 0.97.
  • CONCLUSION: The detection rates for periintestinal lymph nodes were relatively high and seemed superior to the one usually assigned to 2D endosonography.
  • Although distinguishing between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes remains a problem, all patients with histologically confirmed metastasis to lymph nodes were detected by 3D endosonography, and the technique thus seems suitable for grouping of patients prior to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Rectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Stomach Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16596506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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57. Nakahara T: [Tracers used for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Mar;110(2):86-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Tracers used for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes].
  • The dye or isotope technique is generally used for sentinel lymph node mapping.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes can easily be detected with the dye method 5-20 min after peritumoral tracer injection.
  • When using dye mapping alone, sentinel lymph node detection should be achieved before the dye reaches nonsentinel nodes.
  • Lymphoscintigraphy often permits preoperative sentinel lymph node detection as a guide to intraoperative survey.
  • In current practice, the combination of a radioisotope and blue dye for lymphatic mapping is thought to improve the sentinel lymph node identification rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Radioisotopes
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 19348200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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58. Katagiri K, Katakai T, Ebisuno Y, Ueda Y, Okada T, Kinashi T: Mst1 controls lymphocyte trafficking and interstitial motility within lymph nodes. EMBO J; 2009 May 6;28(9):1319-31
SciCrunch. Marmoset Gene list: Data: Gene Annotation .

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  • [Title] Mst1 controls lymphocyte trafficking and interstitial motility within lymph nodes.
  • Furthermore, Mst1(-/-) lymphocytes had impaired motility over lymph node-derived stromal cells and within lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. B-Lymphocytes / cytology. B-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Line. Cells, Cultured. Chemokine CCL21 / pharmacology. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Immunoblotting. In Vitro Techniques. Lymph Nodes / cytology. Lymphoid Tissue / cytology. Lymphoid Tissue / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Spleen / cytology. Spleen / metabolism. Stromal Cells / cytology. Stromal Cells / metabolism. T-Lymphocytes / cytology. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism


59. Ohtani O, Ohtani Y: Structure and function of rat lymph nodes. Arch Histol Cytol; 2008 Sep;71(2):69-76

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Structure and function of rat lymph nodes.
  • The lymph node comprises a critical crossroad for encounters between antigen presenting cells, antigens from lymph, and lymphocytes recruited into lymph nodes from the blood.
  • The node consists of spaces lined with lymphatic endothelial cells and parenchyma.
  • The sponge-like framework of the node parenchyma is composed of collagen fibers invested with reticular cells.
  • Lymphocytes migrate from the node parenchyma into the lymphatic labyrinths in the deep cortex.
  • Close to the labyrinths are high endothelial venules (HEVs), through which circulating lymphocytes enter the node parenchyma.
  • HEVs strongly express Aquaporin-1, suggesting that HEVs are involved in the net absorption of water, but not protein, from lymph coming through afferent lymphatics.
  • Fluids and migrating cells arriving at the node preferentially flow through the subcapsular sinuses, intermediate sinuses, and medullary sinuses in this order.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymphatic System / anatomy & histology. Lymphatic System / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18974599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-9465
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of histology and cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Histol. Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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60. Nakayama K, Okada D, Koizumi K, Kawaguchi Y, Shimizu K: [Tuberculoma of the mediastinal lymph nodes with spinal caries]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 Aug;59(9):826-30

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Tuberculoma of the mediastinal lymph nodes with spinal caries].
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated partially calcified enlargements of the anterior mediastinal lymph nodes and pleural effusion in both lungs.
  • Therefore, we performed a lymph node biopsy using a thoracoscope for a definitive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes. Tuberculoma / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Spinal / complications

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  • (PMID = 16922442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Bahnson PB, Snyder C, Omran LM: Salmonella enterica in superficial cervical (prescapular) and ileocecal lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs. J Food Prot; 2006 Apr;69(4):925-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Foodborne Illness.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Salmonella enterica in superficial cervical (prescapular) and ileocecal lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs.
  • Because certain lymph nodes may be incorporated in food products, the presence of Salmonella enterica in these tissues could pose a food safety risk.
  • We designed this two-part study to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in prescapular lymph nodes from normal slaughtered swine.
  • Prescapular lymph nodes were collected from 300 systematically selected pigs in study 1 and, in study 2, from 75 pigs distributed among 10 herds.
  • For study 2, pooled bacterial cultures were also completed on ileocecal lymph nodes, combining tissue from five pigs per pool (n = 60 pools).
  • No Salmonella was detected in study 1 among prescapular lymph nodes (95% confidence interval, 0.0 to 1.16%).
  • Salmonella was not detected in 75 prescapular lymph nodes from study 2, although Salmonella was detected in 5 of 10 herds in ileocecal lymph nodes.
  • We conclude that prescapular lymph nodes posed a limited food safety risk in this population of pigs.
  • [MeSH-major] Abattoirs. Food Contamination / analysis. Lymph Nodes / microbiology. Salmonella Infections, Animal / epidemiology. Salmonella enterica / isolation & purification. Swine Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16629040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0362-028X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of food protection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Food Prot.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Neoral C, Aujeský R, Král V, Klein J, Bohanes T, Vrba R, Koranda P: [The technique of securing sentinel lymph nodes in tumors of the distal oesophagus and the stomach ]. Rozhl Chir; 2005 Jun;84(6):307-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Stomach Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The technique of securing sentinel lymph nodes in tumors of the distal oesophagus and the stomach ].
  • [Transliterated title] Technika získání sentinelových uzlin u tumorů v oblasti distálního jícnu a zaludku.
  • The authors discuss the technique of identification and biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
  • They describe difficulties and problems of the technique, in which the identified sentinel lymph node is obtained mainly employing endoscopical and minimally invasive techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16149226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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63. Cserni G: Histopathologic examination of the sentinel lymph nodes. Breast J; 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5 Suppl 2):S152-6
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  • [Title] Histopathologic examination of the sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the most likely site of regional metastasis.
  • Several guidelines relating to the histopathology of sentinel nodes, including the recent European Working Group for Breast Screening Pathology guidelines, are briefly summarized.
  • These latter advocate multilevel assessment of grossly or intraoperatively negative sentinel nodes with levels separated by a maximum of 1 mm and allow IHC in their assessment, although this latter method is not mandatory.
  • There are also minimum requirements for the reports on sentinel node histology.
  • For example, the reports should include the extent of nodal involvement, the method used for their identification, and preferably the method used for investigating the sentinel nodes, even if the results are negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Intraoperative Care. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16958995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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64. Ha YH, Jeong SY, Lim SB, Choi HS, Hong YS, Chang HJ, Kim DY, Jung KH, Park JG: Influence of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on the number of lymph nodes retrieved in rectal cancer. Ann Surg; 2010 Aug;252(2):336-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on the number of lymph nodes retrieved in rectal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of preoperative chemoradiotherapy to the number of lymph nodes retrieved in curative intent surgery for rectal cancer.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Current guidelines recommend evaluation of least 12 to 14 lymph nodes in rectal cancer.
  • It is well known that lymph nodes retrieval is affected by many factors.
  • We explored associations between the number of lymph nodes retrieved in the pathologic specimen and patient demographics (age, gender, body mass index [BMI]), treatment (surgeon, sphincter-saving, preoperative chemoradiotherapy), and tumor-related variables (location, stage, histology).
  • After adjustment for other factors, we compared the mean number of obtained lymph nodes between patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy and those treated without preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that age, BMI, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, location, and stage significantly related the number of lymph nodes retrieved.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed age, BMI, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, and stage as independent factors influencing the number of lymph nodes retrieved.
  • The mean number of lymph nodes adjusted for age, BMI, and stage was significantly lower in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy than in those treated without preoperative chemoradiotherapy (14.5 vs. 21.5, P < 0.001).
  • In patients who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy, advanced age (P < 0.001) and high BMI (P = 0.037) were associated with decreased number of retrieved lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy significantly decreased the number of retrieved lymph nodes by approximately 33%.
  • Therefore, the recommended number of retrieved lymph nodes should be adjusted when rectal cancer is treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20647928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Janssen J, Dietrich CF, Will U, Greiner L: Endosonographic elastography in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes. Endoscopy; 2007 Nov;39(11):952-7

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  • [Title] Endosonographic elastography in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of this method in endosonography (EUS) of the dorsal mediastinum, and to compare the elastographic patterns of lymph nodes with results from EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 50 consecutive patients undergoing EUS-guided FNAB of at least one paraesophageal lymph node were included.
  • Each of these targeted lymph nodes was examined also elastographically.
  • RESULTS: In total, 66 lymph nodes were examined; 37 lymph nodes revealed benign and 29 malignant tissue at the histologic evaluation.
  • Good elastographic records were obtained for all lymph nodes.
  • Of the 37 benign lymph nodes, 31 showed a homogeneous pattern of intermediate elasticity, whereas a dominance of hard tissue with variable patterns was found in 23 of 29 malignant lymph nodes.
  • Applying these criteria, the accuracy range among the three examiners was between 81.8 % and 87.9 % for benign lymph nodes and between 84.6 % and 86.4 % for malignant ones.
  • CONCLUSION: EUS elastography of mediastinal lymph nodes can be performed reliably.
  • The method might occasionally be useful for targeting the most suitable lymph nodes for FNAB.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography / methods. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Probability. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18008203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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66. Bandhauer F: [Evaluation of cervical lymph nodes by ultrasound]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2005 Mar 16;94(11):423-6
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of cervical lymph nodes by ultrasound].
  • Abscesses and calcifications in cervical lymph nodes can be easily detected by ultrasound.
  • Lymphomas often manifest in cervical lymph nodes and change size and sonografic structure.
  • Lymph node metastasis of head and neck carcinomas are characterised by size, shape, vascularisation and infiltration.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Lymphadenitis / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Lymphoma / radiography. Neck / ultrasonography. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15822439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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67. Prieto S, Gomez-Ochoa P, De Blas I, Gascón M, Aceña C, Corda A, Sosa I, Gregori T, Couto G: Pathologic correlation of resistive and pulsatility indices in canine abdominal lymph nodes. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2009 Sep-Oct;50(5):525-9
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  • [Title] Pathologic correlation of resistive and pulsatility indices in canine abdominal lymph nodes.
  • We assessed the ability of the resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) to allow differentiation between normal, reactive, and neoplastic lymph nodes.
  • Forty-seven medial iliac and 54 mesenteric lymph nodes from 83 dogs were evaluated sonographically.
  • We found a significant difference in the RI and PI in nonneoplastic vs. neoplastic medial iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • Values higher than 0.67 for the RI and 1.02 for the PI in medial iliac lymph nodes and higher than 0.76 for the RI and 1.23 for the PI in mesenteric lymph nodes had a high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating benign from neoplastic lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19788039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Mayer MN, Lawson JA, Silver TI: Sonographic characteristics of presumptively normal canine medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2010 Nov-Dec;51(6):638-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sonographic characteristics of presumptively normal canine medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes.
  • The medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes are not routinely palpable in the dog, and ultrasound imaging provides an alternate noninvasive technique to assess these lymph nodes, as well as to guide needle aspiration.
  • Herein we describe the ultrasound characteristics of the medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes in 50 healthy dogs, as well as frequency and ease of node detection.
  • The relationship between the size of the lymph nodes and the following variables was assessed: age, gender, body weight, body condition score, body length, and thoracic height and width.
  • Right and left medial iliac lymph nodes were detected in 50 (100%) dogs, right superficial inguinal lymph node(s) in 49 (98%) dogs, and left superficial inguinal lymph node(s) in 47 (96%) dogs.
  • In > 90% of both sets of lymph nodes, the echogenicity was hypoechoic or isoechoic to surrounding tissues, with a corticomedullary or homogenous echotexture, smooth, clearly defined margins, and a fusiform shape.
  • Increasing weight, distance from the sternal manubrium to the ischium, and thoracic height and width were associated with increased lymph node size (P-values < 0.05).
  • Average lymph node sizes and range of sizes provide preliminary reference values for the medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes in normal dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Dogs / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 21158237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Arthur TM, Brichta-Harhay DM, Bosilevac JM, Guerini MN, Kalchayanand N, Wells JE, Shackelford SD, Wheeler TL, Koohmaraie M: Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes potentially destined for use in ground beef. J Food Prot; 2008 Aug;71(8):1685-8
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  • [Title] Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes potentially destined for use in ground beef.
  • A potential source of pathogenic bacteria in ground beef is the lymphatic system, specifically the lymph nodes.
  • Bacteria have been isolated from the lymph nodes of cattle at slaughter; however, most studies have dealt with mesenteric lymph nodes, which are not normally incorporated into ground beef.
  • The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and multidrug-resistance status of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes associated with lean and fat trimmings that might be utilized in ground beef production.
  • Bovine lymph nodes (n = 1,140) were collected from commercial beef processing plants.
  • Half of the lymph nodes sampled were obtained from cull cow and bull processing plants, and the remainder were obtained from fed beef processing plants.
  • Lymph nodes located in chuck and flank adipose tissue were collected for this study.
  • Salmonella prevalence in the lymph node samples was low, with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and a 95% confidence interval of 0.85 to 2.3%.
  • Lymph nodes from cull cattle carcasses had a higher prevalence of Salmonella than did those from fed cattle carcasses.
  • Lymph nodes from the flanks of cow and bull carcasses had the highest prevalence at 3.86%, whereas lymph nodes from the chuck region of fed cattle carcasses had the lowest prevalence at 0.35%.
  • Three of the 18 Salmonella-positive lymph node samples contained multidrug-resistant Salmonella, and all 3 samples were from cull cattle.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Cattle / microbiology. Drug Resistance, Bacterial. Lymph Nodes / microbiology. Meat Products / microbiology. Salmonella / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 18724765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0362-028X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of food protection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Food Prot.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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70. Hocke M, Menges M, Topalidis T, Dietrich CF, Stallmach A: Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in discrimination between benign and malignant mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Apr;134(4):473-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in discrimination between benign and malignant mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum reflect neoplastic, infectious or other diseases.
  • The classification of these nodes is crucial in the management of the patient.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 122 patients (age: 63 +/- 15 years, 92 males, 30 females) with enlarged mediastinal and/or paraaortic lymph nodes diagnosed by CT scan were included in the study.
  • EUS-guided fine needle aspiration was performed and cytologic specimens were diagnosed as representing a malignant or benign process in case of Papanicolau IV and V, or Papanicolau I and II, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Based on cytology results, the investigated lymph nodes were classified as neoplastic (n = 48) or non-neoplastic lymph nodes.
  • Using the B-mode criteria the preliminary diagnosis was confirmed in 64 out of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 86%).
  • Regarding malignant lymph nodes 33 of 48 were confirmed (sensitivity 68%).
  • Using the advanced contrast-enhanced EUS criteria the diagnosis was confirmed in 68 of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 91%).
  • However, in case of malignant lymph nodes the number of correct diagnoses dropped to 29 of 48 lymph nodes (sensitivity 60%).
  • The contrast-enhanced EUS criteria to identify benign lymph nodes and node enlargement in malignant lymphoma do not differ.
  • If those ten patients with malignant lymphoma are excluded, the sensitivity of the contrast enhanced EUS for malignant lymph nodes rises to 73%.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced EUS improves the specificity in diagnosing benign lymph nodes as compared to B-mode EUS.
  • It does not improve the correct identification of malignant lymph nodes and cannot replace EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mediastinum / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17891499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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71. Kroon BK, Valdés Olmos R, Nieweg OE, Horenblas S: Non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in penile carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2005 Sep;32(9):1096-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in penile carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and cause of non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes on preoperative lymphoscintigrams for penile cancer and its implications for further management.
  • METHODS: Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed after injection of (99m)Tc-labelled nanocolloid in 123 clinically node-negative penile carcinoma patients.
  • Thus, in 27 (11%) of 246 groins, no sentinel node was visualized.
  • After the occurrence of a tumour-positive node in a non-visualized groin, we explore non-visualized groins by blue dye mapping and intraoperative palpation.
  • Sentinel nodes were retrieved in four out of eight such groins, of which one contained metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: In penile carcinoma patients, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy visualizes a sentinel node in 89% of groins.
  • Sentinel nodes can be intraoperatively identified in more than half of these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Preoperative Care / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15875177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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72. Akduman EI, Momtahen AJ, Balci NC, Mahajann N, Havlioglu N, Wolverson MK: Comparison between malignant and benign abdominal lymph nodes on diffusion-weighted imaging. Acad Radiol; 2008 May;15(5):641-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison between malignant and benign abdominal lymph nodes on diffusion-weighted imaging.
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to review the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of benign and metastatic abdominal lymph nodes on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with a total of 40 benign (20 patients) and 16 malignant (8 patients) lymph nodes who underwent DWI MRI of the abdomen (b = 0.600) were enrolled in the study.
  • ADC values of the lymph nodes were measured and comparison was made between benign and malignant groups.
  • RESULTS: Mean ADC value of lymph nodes was 2.38 +/- 0.29 and 1.84 +/- 0.37 x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec in the benign and malignant groups, respectively.
  • There was a significant statistical difference between the ADC values of benign and malignant lymph nodes (P < .0005).
  • CONCLUSION: A wide range of ADC values exist in patients with metastatic abdominal lymph nodes, with a tendency of higher ADC values in benign lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18423322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Parungo CP, Ohnishi S, Kim SW, Kim S, Laurence RG, Soltesz EG, Chen FY, Colson YL, Cohn LH, Bawendi MG, Frangioni JV: Intraoperative identification of esophageal sentinel lymph nodes with near-infrared fluorescence imaging. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Apr;129(4):844-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative identification of esophageal sentinel lymph nodes with near-infrared fluorescence imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: In esophageal cancer, selective removal of involved lymph nodes could improve survival and limit complications from extended lymphadenectomy.
  • Mapping with vital blue dyes or technetium Tc-99m often fails to identify intrathoracic sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Our purpose was to develop an intraoperative method for identifying sentinel lymph nodes of the esophagus with high-sensitivity near-infrared fluorescence imaging.
  • METHODS: Six Yorkshire pigs underwent thoracotomy and received submucosal, esophageal injection of quantum dots, a novel near-infrared fluorescent lymph tracer designed for retention in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Six additional pigs underwent thoracotomy and received submucosal esophageal injection of CW800 conjugated to human serum albumin, another novel lymph tracer designed for uptake into distant lymph nodes.
  • These lymph tracers fluoresce in the near-infrared, permitting visualization of migration to sentinel lymph nodes with a custom intraoperative imaging system.
  • RESULTS: Injection of the near-infrared fluorescent lymph tracers into the esophagus revealed communicating lymph nodes within 5 minutes of injection.
  • In all 6 pigs that received quantum dot injection, only a single sentinel lymph node was identified.
  • Among pigs that received fluorophore-conjugated albumin injection, in 5 of 12 a single sentinel lymph node was revealed, but in 7 of 12 two sentinel lymph nodes were identified.
  • There was no dominant pattern in the appearance of the sentinel lymph nodes either cranial or caudal to the injection site.
  • CONCLUSION: Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of sentinel lymph nodes is a novel and reliable intraoperative technique with the power to assist with identification and resection of esophageal sentinel lymph nodes.

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  • (PMID = 15821653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5223
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / F32 HL72568-01; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R33 EB000673; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21/R33 EB-00673; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB000673; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / F32 HL072568
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Serum Albumin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS5015; NLM/ PMC1361260
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74. Wittekindt NE, Padhi A, Schuster SC, Qi J, Zhao F, Tomsho LP, Kasson LR, Packard M, Cross P, Poss M: Nodeomics: pathogen detection in vertebrate lymph nodes using meta-transcriptomics. PLoS One; 2010;5(10):e13432
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  • [Title] Nodeomics: pathogen detection in vertebrate lymph nodes using meta-transcriptomics.
  • Here we evaluate the microbial biota in healthy mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) by analyses of lymph node meta-transcriptomes. cDNA libraries from five individuals and two pools of samples were prepared from retropharyngeal lymph node RNA enriched for polyadenylated RNA and sequenced using Roche-454 Life Sciences technology.
  • Representatives of all bacterial phyla were detected in the seven libraries based on protein-coding transcripts indicating that viable microbiota were present in lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Deer / microbiology. Gene Expression Profiling. Lymph Nodes / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 20976145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2956653
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75. Watanabe T: [Generation of artificial lymph nodes (aLNs) and their immunological function]. Nihon Rinsho; 2008 Jul;66(7):1391-6
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  • [Title] [Generation of artificial lymph nodes (aLNs) and their immunological function].
  • We demonstrated that artificial lymph nodes (aLNs) could be generated by the transplantation of stromal cell-embedded biocompatible scaffolds into the renal subcapsular space in mice.
  • These data indicate that the lymph node-like lymphoid tissues which were generated on stromal cell-embedded biocompatible scaffolds were easily transplantable and could mount a strong antigen specific humoral as well as cellular immune responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Artificial Organs. Lymph Nodes

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  • (PMID = 18616133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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76. Gelb HR, Freeman LJ, Rohleder JJ, Snyder PW: Feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2010 Nov-Dec;51(6):628-33
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  • [Title] Feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs.
  • Our goal was to develop and validate a technique to identify the sentinel lymph nodes of the mammary glands of healthy dogs with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and evaluate the feasibility of obtaining representative samples of a sentinel lymph node under ultrasound guidance using a new biopsy device.
  • Ultrasound was then used to follow the contrast agent through the lymphatic channel to the sentinel lymph node.
  • Lymph node biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance, followed by an excisional biopsy of the lymph nodes and a regional mastectomy procedure.
  • Excised tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination and evaluated as to whether they were representative of the node.
  • The ultrasound contrast agent was easily visualized with ultrasound leading up to the sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Eight normal lymph nodes (two inguinal, one axillary in two dogs; two inguinal in one dog) were identified and biopsied.
  • Samples from four of eight lymph nodes contained both cortical and medullary lymphoid tissue.
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be successfully used to image and guide minimally invasive biopsy of the normal sentinel lymph nodes draining the mammary glands in healthy dogs.
  • Further work is needed to evaluate whether this technique may be applicable in patients with breast cancer or other conditions warranting evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / ultrasonography. Mammary Glands, Animal / ultrasonography. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 21158235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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77. Van den Broeck W, Derore A, Simoens P: Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice. J Immunol Methods; 2006 May 30;312(1-2):12-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.
  • Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers.
  • In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes.
  • Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes).
  • Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes.
  • Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes).
  • Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed.
  • The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Mice, Inbred BALB C / anatomy & histology. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16624319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1759
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunological methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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78. Goyal M, Kodandapani S, Sharanabasappa SN, Palanki SD: Mesothelial cell inclusions mimicking adenocarcinoma in cervical lymph nodes in association with chylous effusion. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2010 Apr;31(2):62-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mesothelial cell inclusions mimicking adenocarcinoma in cervical lymph nodes in association with chylous effusion.
  • Mesothelial cell inclusions in lymph nodes are of rare occurrence and can be mistaken as metastatic adenocarcinomas, mesothelioma or sinus histiocytosis.
  • These are usually found in mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes and are associated with effusions.
  • We report a case of benign mesothelial cell inclusions in cervical lymph nodes, which was associated with chylous effusion, and immunohistochemistry revealed unusual weak cytoplasmic epithelial membrane antigen positivity in the cells.

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  • (PMID = 21209767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2970937
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / chylous effusion / epithelial membrane antigen / mesothelial cell inclusions
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79. Motycka V, Ferko A, Tycová V, Nikolov H, Sotona O, Cecka F, Dusek T, Chobola M, Pospísil I: [Numbers of lymph nodes in large intestinal resections for colorectal carcinoma]. Rozhl Chir; 2010 Mar;89(3):198-201
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  • [Title] [Numbers of lymph nodes in large intestinal resections for colorectal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Pocet uzlin u resekcí tlustého streva pro kolorektální karcinom.
  • INTRODUCTION: Precise evaluation of lymph nodes in the surgical specimen is crucial for the staging and subsequent decision about the adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer.
  • Prognosis of the patients can be assessed only in cases when at least 12 lymph nodes in the surgical specimen are examined.
  • METHODS: We compared all resections for primary colorectal cancer and rectal cancer (C 18-C20) performed in the Department of Surgery in University Hospital Hradec Králové in the years 2005 and 2008 and we evaluated numbers of examined lymph nodes in the surgical specimens.
  • In tumours of the right part of the colon (C180-C184) treated by right hemicolectomy: on an average 7.9 (+/- 5.3) lymph nodes were examined in the specimens in 2005, and 15.3 (+/- 7.0) lymph nodes in 2008.
  • In tumours of the left part of the colon (C185-C186) treated by left hemicolectomy: 6.5 (+/- 5.1) lymph nodes were examined in 2005, and 19.6 (+/- 15.6) in 2008.
  • In tumours of the sigmoid colon (C187) 9.1 (+/- 6.9) lymph nodes were examined in 2005,and 15.4 (+/- 7.9) in 2008.
  • In tumours of the rectosigmoid junction (C19) 8.0 (+/- 6.9) lymph nodes were examined in 2005, and 17.8 (+/- 11.2) in 2008.
  • In rectal cancer (C20) 5.2 (+/- 4.5) lymph nodes were examined in 2005, and 13.6 (+/- 12.5) in 2008.
  • There is a significant difference in a number of examined lymph nodes in patients without neodadjuvant treatment compared to those with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
  • In 2005, in an average 3.7 (+/- 3.3) lymph nodes were removed in rectal resections after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, in 2008 in an average 7.6 (+/- 6.1) lymph nodes were removed.
  • In 2005, in an average 5.1 (+/- 3.7) lymph nodes in rectal resections after neoadjuvant radiotherapy were removed, in 2008 6.3 (+/- 4.3) lymph nodes were removed.
  • In 2005, in an average 7.0 (+/- 5.5) lymph nodes in rectal resections without neoadjuvant therapy were removed, in 2008 20.9 (+/- 14.1) lymph nodes were removed.
  • Laparoscopic resections were comparable with open resections regarding the number of examined lymph nodes in our group of patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Introducing the laparoscopic approach to resections of colorectal carcinomas did not decrease radicalism of the operation as to the number of removed lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision

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  • (PMID = 20514917.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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80. Hadamitzky C, Spohr H, Debertin AS, Guddat S, Tsokos M, Pabst R: Age-dependent histoarchitectural changes in human lymph nodes: an underestimated process with clinical relevance? J Anat; 2010 May;216(5):556-62
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  • [Title] Age-dependent histoarchitectural changes in human lymph nodes: an underestimated process with clinical relevance?
  • Experimental evidence indicates that lymph nodes in humans undergo alterations during ageing.
  • This is clinically important because of the crucial role of these organs in the immune system and their lymph reabsorption and drainage function.
  • Although some age-related changes in lymph node histoarchitecture have been described, they are seldom taken into account in traditional depictions of lymph nodes.
  • Recently introduced clinical procedures, such as intranodal vaccination or lymph node transplantation, have demonstrated the need for an accurate knowledge of these degenerative processes.
  • In this study, superficial inguinal lymph nodes were obtained from 41 deceased patients between 17 and 98 years old.
  • An immunohistochemical analysis was carried out, on the basis of which lymph node degeneration was scored according to the numbers of lymphocytes and high endothelial venules, and degree of fibrosis and lipomatosis.
  • Paradoxically, these changes were also detected in some of the nodes from younger age groups.
  • In conclusion, lymph nodes can display degenerative changes that are mainly age-related and often diverge from the common description found in textbooks.
  • These alterations should be taken into account when dealing with lymph nodes diagnostically and therapeutically in clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Lymphocytes / cytology

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  • (PMID = 20345860.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-7580
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of anatomy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871991
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81. Gaschen L, Angelette N, Stout R: Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2010 Nov-Dec;51(6):634-7
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs.
  • Herein, we describe the normal contrast-enhanced harmonic, color, and power Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics of the medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs.
  • Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of the medial iliac lymph nodes was performed on 14 healthy dogs after intravenous administration of the lipoprotein-bound inert gas-filled microbubble contrast media Definity.
  • Non-contrast-enhanced power and color Doppler examinations were performed in each node to assess vascular patterns subjectively.
  • Normal lymph nodes exhibited a mean contrast wash-in phase beginning at 6.3 s from the time of injection with mean peak pixel intensity at 12.1s.
  • Normal lymph nodes in dogs have a central artery with a centrifugal and uniform branching pattern.
  • Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography is a noninvasive examination that demonstrates improved visibility of the intranodal architecture of healthy medial iliac lymph nodes in dogs compared with conventional, non-contrast-enhanced Doppler methods that may have future clinical applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Dogs / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 21158236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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82. Sun Y, Zhang C, Chen Z, Sun W, Li W, Jiang G, Tian Y: [Investigation and clinical significance of the micrometastasis of prelaryngeal lymph nodes in the patients with glottic carcinoma]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(19):882-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Investigation and clinical significance of the micrometastasis of prelaryngeal lymph nodes in the patients with glottic carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of the micrometastasis of prelaryngeal lymph nodes in the patients with glottic carcinoma.
  • METHOD: In prelaryngeal lymph nodes from 26 patients with glottic carcinoma, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA was detected with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparing with the routine histopathologic methods (HE staining).
  • RESULT: The positive expression of CK19 mRNA in prelaryngeal lymph nodes was detected in 8 patients (30.77%).
  • In 8 cases with stage I glottic carcinoma, no micrometastasis in the prelaryngeal lymph node was found, and in 18 cases with stage II - VA glottic carcinoma, micrometastasis was found in 8 cases (44.44%) (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The detection of prelaryngeal lymph nodes micrometastasis with RT-PCR is more sensitive than with the routine histopathologic methods.
  • The study of micrometastasis of prelaryngeal lymph nodes may provide information for the clinical management of the patients with glottic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Keratin-19 / genetics. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17168115.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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83. Hagtvedt T, Aaløkken TM, Stensvold A, Graff BA, Kolbenstvedt A: Computed tomography enhancement characteristics of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the neck. Dentomaxillofac Radiol; 2007 May;36(4):234-6
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  • [Title] Computed tomography enhancement characteristics of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the neck.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate prospectively CT contrast medium enhancement curves of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the neck.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with biopsy-proven lymphoma had their enlarged cervical lymph nodes examined with dynamic CT and compared with a control group.
  • RESULTS: The mean contrast medium enhancement of the lymphomatous nodes was significantly lower than that of the control group in the time interval from 40 s to 180 s after injection.
  • DISCUSSION: The enhancement pattern previously suggested from studies of retroperitoneal lymph nodes was confirmed in this prospective study of cervical nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymphoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17536092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Dento maxillo facial radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dentomaxillofac Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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84. Wróel T, Mazur G, Dziegiel P, Jeleń M, Szuba A, Kuliczkowski K, Zabel M: Density of intranodal lymphatics and VEGF-C expression in B-cell lymphoma and reactive lymph nodes. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2006;44(1):43-7
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  • [Title] Density of intranodal lymphatics and VEGF-C expression in B-cell lymphoma and reactive lymph nodes.
  • Lymphatic vasculature in solid tumors may serve as the pathway for metastatic spread of the cancer to the regional lymph nodes and to distant organs.
  • LYVE-1 was shown to be a specific marker for lymphatic vessels in normal and tumor tissue.
  • The aim of the present study was the evaluation of lymph node LYVE-1-positive lymphatic sinus density (LSD) and VEGF-C expression in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (nHL) and in reactive lymph nodes.
  • Sixty paraffin-embedded lymph nodes from newly diagnosed patients with B-cell nHL were evaluated.
  • Twelve lymph node biopsy specimens from adult patients with reactive lymphonodulitis were used as controls.
  • Sections of lymph nodes were stained immunohistochemically for LYVE-1 and VEGF-C.
  • VEGF-C expression in lymph nodes of nHL patients was low and not significantly different from that in the control (p = 0.6).
  • The mean LSD in reactive lymph nodes was higher than in nHL (p = 0.03).
  • Only in 2 out of 12 reactive lymph nodes LYVE-1-positive vessels were absent.
  • Higher LSD in reactive lymph nodes as compared to those of nHL patients suggests that lymphoma proliferation leads to the destruction of the existing lymphatics rather than to lymphangiogenesis within lymph nodes.
  • NHL are not associated with increased expression of VEGF-C nor increased LYVE-1-positive lymphatic sinuses density within lymph nodes.

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  • (PMID = 16584091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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85. Yang F, Hu J, Yang D, Long J, Luo G, Jin C, Yu X, Xu J, Wang C, Ni Q, Fu D: Pilot study of targeting magnetic carbon nanotubes to lymph nodes. Nanomedicine (Lond); 2009 Apr;4(3):317-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pilot study of targeting magnetic carbon nanotubes to lymph nodes.
  • AIM: The lymphatic distribution of magnetic carbon nanotubes was studied in vivo and compared with magnetic-activated carbon particles, which were selectively taken up in the lymphatic channels and delivered to the regional lymph nodes.
  • The draining lymph nodes were harvested at different times postadministration to examine the lymphatic distribution of these particles.
  • RESULTS: mMWNTs had the same properties of lymph node mapping as magnetic-activated carbon particles in mice independent of lymph node metastasis.
  • The degree of black staining of lymph nodes and concentration of mMWNTs had a dose-response relationship.
  • Aggregation of magnetic particles was found around the metastatic foci within the lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSION: The feasibility of targeting magnetic carbon nanotubes to lymph nodes was demonstrated and the results support further studies for their potential use in diagnosing and treating cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / ultrastructure. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrastructure. Nanotubes, Carbon / analysis. Nanotubes, Carbon / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Animals. Charcoal / pharmacokinetics. Magnetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Transplantation. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19331539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-6963
  • [Journal-full-title] Nanomedicine (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nanomedicine (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Nanotubes, Carbon; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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86. Komine M, Kawasako K, Okamoto M, Matsuda K, Hirayama K, Takehana K, Koiwa M, Kurosawa T, Taniyama H: Epithelioid cells in mediastinal lymph nodes of cattle without cancer. Vet Pathol; 2009 May;46(3):430-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epithelioid cells in mediastinal lymph nodes of cattle without cancer.
  • Epithelioid cells are found in lymph nodes in cases of metastatic carcinoma; however, epithelioid cells with benign features have also been discovered incidentally in lymph nodes.
  • Epithelioid cells were observed in mediastinal lymph nodes of cattle without cancer during routine diagnostic necropsy.
  • To explain this finding, the authors evaluated the prevalence and histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features retrospectively using mediastinal lymph nodes from 110 cattle and found that 66 of the lymph nodes contained epithelioid cells.
  • In all 66 nodes, most of the epithelioid cells were individual or aggregated in nodal sinuses; in 21 nodes, some epithelioid cells formed tubular structures.
  • The individual and aggregated epithelioid cells were mostly considered to be mesothelial in origin by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination; presumably, they entered the lymph nodes via lymphatic vessels, because they were found in afferent lymphatic vessels and nodal sinuses.
  • Although the presence of epithelioid cells in lymph nodes prompts suspicion of metastatic carcinoma, the epithelioid cells in these bovine lymph nodes did not disrupt nodal architecture, lacked atypia or mitotic figures, and did not invade nodal parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cattle. Epithelioid Cells / cytology. Lymph Nodes / cytology

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  • (PMID = 19176503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Angel CE, Chen CJ, Horlacher OC, Winkler S, John T, Browning J, MacGregor D, Cebon J, Dunbar PR: Distinctive localization of antigen-presenting cells in human lymph nodes. Blood; 2009 Feb 5;113(6):1257-67

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distinctive localization of antigen-presenting cells in human lymph nodes.
  • It is therefore surprising that knowledge of the professional APCs in human lymph nodes is limited.
  • Using 3-color immunohistochemistry, we have identified APCs in human lymph nodes, excluding plasmacytoid APCs, that fall into 2 nonoverlapping classes:.
  • Surprisingly, this second class of APCs was almost entirely absent from many lymph nodes.
  • Our data suggest that most CD208+ cells, often referred to as "interdigitating cells," derive from migratory APCs, and that the major APC subset consistently resident in the paracortex of human lymph nodes is the CD209+ subset.
  • The identification of 2 distinct APC populations in the paracortex of human lymph nodes has important implications for understanding T-lymphocyte responses and optimizing vaccine design.

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  • (PMID = 18987360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / WT066630
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687552
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88. Wang B, Wesley IV, McKean JD, O'Connor AM: Sub-iliac lymph nodes at slaughter lack ability to predict Salmonella enterica prevalence for swine farms. Foodborne Pathog Dis; 2010 Jul;7(7):795-800

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sub-iliac lymph nodes at slaughter lack ability to predict Salmonella enterica prevalence for swine farms.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the value of deep systemic sub-iliac lymph nodes collected at slaughter as predictors of Salmonella prevalence in live hogs.
  • Within each cohort, 30 farm fecal samples on farm and 30 sub-iliac lymph nodes from matched pigs at slaughter were collected.
  • Overall, 3.4% (51 of 1490) of farm feces and 0.06% (1 of 1739) of sub-iliac lymph nodes were Salmonella positive; 71.4% (15 of 21) of farms had at least one positive fecal sample, and 4.2% (1 of 24) had at least one positive sub-iliac lymph node.
  • The median within-farm prevalence of Salmonella in farm fecal samples was 1.7%, ranging from 0% to 38.3%; for sub-iliac lymph nodes the median was 0%, ranging from 0% to 1.1%.
  • The median within-cohort prevalence in farm fecal samples was 0%, ranging from 0% to 43.3%; for sub-iliac lymph nodes the median was 0%, ranging from 0% to 4%.
  • Salmonella Braenderup was recovered from the sub-iliac lymph node.
  • The low detection rate of Salmonella in sub-iliac lymph nodes (0.06%) limits its usefulness as a dependable predictor of Salmonella contamination originating on farm (3.4%).
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen. Lymph Nodes / microbiology. Salmonella Infections, Animal / epidemiology. Salmonella enterica / isolation & purification. Swine Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20187754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-7125
  • [Journal-full-title] Foodborne pathogens and disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Hagtvedt T, Aaløkken TM, Smith HJ, Graff BA, Holte H, Kolbenstvedt A: Enhancement characteristics of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the neck. Acta Radiol; 2010 Jun;51(5):555-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enhancement characteristics of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the neck.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies of computed tomography (CT) enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes suggest that these nodes might have lower post contrast attenuation values than normal lymph nodes.
  • We have previously found that the contrast medium enhancement curves of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the neck had significantly lower enhancement than those of presumably normal lymph nodes.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively compare CT contrast medium enhancement curves of a homogeneous population of 28 patients with lymphomatous lymph nodes of the neck with 20 controls; to compare enhancement curves before and after successful treatment and to compare nodes with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and nodes with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients (12 with HL) with lymphomatous lymph nodes of the neck and 20 control patients with sarcomas and presumably normal neck nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations.
  • RESULTS: The lymphomatous lymph nodes had significantly lower mean enhancement values than those of the control group (mean HU value at 90 s 77.9+/-10.5 HU and 93.4+/-15.3 HU, respectively, sensitivity 91% for values <92 HU at 90 s).
  • No significant difference in mean percentage loss of enhancement was found between normal nodes and lymph nodes with HL before treatment, but there was a slightly significant difference between normal nodes and lymph nodes with NHL.
  • No significant difference in percentage loss of enhancement was found between normal nodes and lymphomatous lymph nodes after treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Dynamic CT examinations showed that lymphomatous lymph nodes had significantly lower mean enhancement values than those of the control group and confirmed the findings from a pilot study.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymphoma / radiography. Neck / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20429760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol
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90. Maĭborodin IV, Maĭborodina VI, Pozdniakova SV, Grek OR: [Similarity and difference of the response of Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of rats to polychemotherapy]. Antibiot Khimioter; 2005;50(2-3):8-13
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  • [Title] [Similarity and difference of the response of Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of rats to polychemotherapy].
  • The structure of the Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of rats at different periods after polychemotherapy was investigated by light microscopy.
  • After the use of antitumor drugs the number of the blasts and mytoses in the lymphoid follicles with the mesenteric lymph node bright centres and in the Peyer's patch follicles lowered, that along with the decrease of the size of the mantle zone in the lymph node follicles and the decrease of the area of the bright centres in the follicles of the lympoid formations in the intestinal wall was evident of the proliferation inhibition and B cells differentiation in the lymphoid organs.
  • The size of the mantle zone in the follicles of the mesenteric lymph nodes decreased while the size of the germinative centres did not change.
  • The different responses of the lymphoid organs could be associated with some remote location of the lymph nodes with respect to the antigen source (damaged epithelium and intestinal lumen contents).

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  • (PMID = 16308933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0235-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Antibiotiki i khimioterapiia = Antibiotics and chemoterapy [sic]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antibiot. Khimioter.
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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91. Ostadi MA, Harnish JL, Stegienko S, Urbach DR: Factors affecting the number of lymph nodes retrieved in colorectal cancer specimens. Surg Endosc; 2007 Dec;21(12):2142-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors affecting the number of lymph nodes retrieved in colorectal cancer specimens.
  • BACKGROUND: Staging of colorectal cancer is dependent on the number of lymph nodes in a surgical specimen that are positive for metastatic cancer.
  • It is generally recommended that a minimum of 12 lymph nodes be examined to ensure adequate staging.
  • It is unclear which factors specifically contribute to variation in the number of lymph nodes retrieved from surgical specimens.
  • This study aims to understand the factors affecting the number of lymph nodes identified in surgical colorectal cancer specimens.
  • We used univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA), and univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to study variation in the lymph node number associated with a variety of explanatory variables.
  • RESULTS: The average number of lymph nodes retrieved per case was 18.1, with 70 (26.5%) cases containing fewer than 12.
  • Variation in the lymph node number was greatest between different pathology assistants (p = or< 0.001).
  • The mean number of nodes retrieved by different pathology assistants ranged from 12.6 to 29.7.
  • On average, surgery for recurrent cancer removed 6.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 10.9, p = 0.02) fewer lymph nodes than for primary cancer.
  • Each additional year of patient age was associated with retrieval of 0.1 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.2, p = 0.005) fewer nodes, and rectal cancer specimens had 2.7 (95% CI 0.04 to 5.4, p = 0.05) fewer lymph nodes than colon cancer specimens.
  • CONCLUSION: Most of the variation in the number of lymph nodes identified in surgical specimens from colorectal cancer operations was accounted for by differences between pathology assistants.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pathology, Surgical / education. Physician Assistants. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17522917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Jiang J, He QQ, Yang XH, Liang Y, Fan LJ, Zhang Y, Guo MQ: Contribution of minute axillary lymph nodes to accurate staging for patients with breast cancer. Chin Med J (Engl); 2007 Oct 20;120(20):1762-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contribution of minute axillary lymph nodes to accurate staging for patients with breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node metastasis is a very important metastatic pathway in breast cancer and its accurate detection is important for staging tumour and guiding therapy.
  • However, neither the accuracy of routine detection of lymph node in surgical specimens nor the significance of minute lymph node with metastases in breast cancer is clear.
  • A modified method for conveniently detecting minute lymph node in specimens of axillary dissections in patients with breast cancer was used to analyze their influence on staging breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Lymph nodes in fresh, unfixed, specimens of axillary dissections from 127 cases of breast cancer were detected routinely.
  • Minute lymph nodes were detected by light of bottom lamp and examined by routine pathology.
  • RESULTS: Lymph nodes (n = 2483, 19.6 +/- 8.0 per case) were found by routine method.
  • A further 879 lymph nodes up to 6 mm (781 < 3 mm, 6.9 +/- 5.3 per case, increasing mean to 26.5 +/- 9.7) were found from the axillary tissues after soaking in Carnoy's solution.
  • By detection of minute lymph nodes, the stages of lymph node metastasis in 7 cases were changed from pathological node (pN) stage pN(0) to pN(1) in 4 cases, from pN(1) to pN(2) in 2 and from pN(2) to pN(3) in 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The accurate staging of axillary lymph node metastasis can be obtained routinely with number of axillary lymph nodes in most cases of breast cancer.
  • To avoid neglecting minute lymph nodes with metastases, small axillary nodes should be searched carefully in the cases of earlier breast cancer with no swollen axillary nodes.
  • Treatment with Carnoy's solution can expediently detect minute axillary nodes and improve the accurate staging of lymph nodes in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18028767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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93. Hashimoto M, Matsuda M, Watanabe G: Metachronous resection of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology; 2009 May-Jun;56(91-92):788-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metachronous resection of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lymph node metastases are common at autopsy; being found in 28% of autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have lymph nodes metastases.
  • However, effective treatment for metastatic lymph nodes has not yet been established.
  • METHODOLOGY: We resected lymph node metastases in 8 out of 10 hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
  • We assessed the clinical course and the prognosis of these patients to determine the effectiveness of resecting metastatic lymph nodes and the factors related to survival.
  • RESULTS: Eight out of 10 patients underwent lymph node resection nine times, while removal of metastatic lymph nodes proved impossible in two patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection is an option for selected patients with lymph node metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma and the complete removal of metastatic lymph nodes may achieve a survival benefit in selected patients.
  • Metachronous lymph node metastases should be resected in patients with a controlled primary liver tumor, because no other treatment option for lymph nodes metastases has yet been established.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods

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  • (PMID = 19621703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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94. Gleeson FC, Rajan E, Levy MJ, Clain JE, Topazian MD, Harewood GC, Papachristou GI, Takahashi N, Rosen CB, Gores GJ: EUS-guided FNA of regional lymph nodes in patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc; 2008 Mar;67(3):438-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] EUS-guided FNA of regional lymph nodes in patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) in regional lymph-node staging in patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma before liver transplantation has yet to be determined.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of regional lymph-node detection, identify EUS features predictive of benign or malignant lymph nodes, compare EUS lymph-node detection rates to CT/magnetic resonance imaging and exploratory laparotomy, and evaluate the impact of EUS-FNA on patient selection for liver transplantation.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Lymph-node morphology and echo features.
  • RESULTS: EUS identified lymph nodes in all patients.
  • FNA of 70 lymph nodes identified metastases in 9 nodes of 8 patients (17%), who were then precluded from transplantation before a staging laparotomy.
  • Identified lymph nodes, irrespective of malignant involvement, were typically oval and geographic in shape, of mixed echogenicity, with a hypoechoic border.
  • The EUS finding of absent regional lymph-node metastases was confirmed in 20 of 22 by a subsequent exploratory staging laparotomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS identified lymph nodes in all patients, and confirmation of malignant lymph nodes detected by FNA precluded 17% of patients from transplantation.
  • EUS-FNA of visualized lymph nodes irrespective of appearance is advised because morphology and echo features do not predict malignant involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Endosonography. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Gastrointest Endosc. 2009 Feb;69(2):387; author reply 387-8 [19185700.001]
  • [CommentIn] Gastrointest Endosc. 2008 Mar;67(3):444-5 [18294505.001]
  • (PMID = 18061597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Bulekbaeva LE, Makashev EK, Demchenko GA, Abdreshov SN: [Transport function of lymph nodes in body antiorthostatic posture]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova; 2007 Jan;93(1):39-45

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Transport function of lymph nodes in body antiorthostatic posture].
  • The spontaneous contractile activity of isolated lymph nodes and the lymph flow from intestine lymphatic vessel in antiorthostatic posture of rats with an inclination angle of 30 degrees during 7-14 days, was decreased.
  • Contractions of the rat lymph nodes in response to actions of adrenaline, acetylcholine and histamine were diminished.
  • There are changes of biochemical components of lymph and blood plasma with simultaneous decrease of the blood plasma volume.

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  • (PMID = 17465272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0869-8139
  • [Journal-full-title] Rossiiskii fiziologicheskii zhurnal imeni I.M. Sechenova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 0 / Vasodilator Agents
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96. Matsuoka H, Masaki T, Sugiyama M, Atomi Y, Ohkura Y, Sakamoto A: Morphological characteristics of lateral pelvic lymph nodes in rectal carcinoma. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Sep;392(5):543-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphological characteristics of lateral pelvic lymph nodes in rectal carcinoma.
  • AIM: Macroscopic and imaging indicators for lymph node metastasis have been documented not in lateral pelvic lymph nodes but in mesorectal lymph nodes in patients with rectal carcinoma.
  • We conducted this study to uncover morphological characteristics of lateral pelvic lymph nodes in patients with rectal carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma who had total mesorectal excision and lateral pelvic lymph node dissection were studied.
  • Total number of lateral pelvic lymph nodes evaluated was 462, with 538 mesorectal lymph nodes being used for comparison.
  • Factors of lymph nodes evaluated were size (long- and short-axes diameters), shape (ovoid and irregular), and heterogeneity of internal structure.
  • RESULTS: Lateral pelvic lymph node at non-metastatic status appeared to be longer (4.5 vs 3.5 mm) and thinner (2.2 vs 2.6 mm) than mesorectal lymph nodes.
  • ROC curve analysis, for discriminating non-metastatic and metastatic lateral pelvic lymph nodes, revealed that a short-axis diameter appeared to be the most prominent factor with highest area under curve (0.907) and was more reliable than either long-axis diameter (0.811) or shape (0.527) other than internal structure (1.00).
  • CONCLUSION: Lateral pelvic lymph nodes tended to be longer and thinner than mesorectal lymph nodes at non-metastatic status.
  • A short-axis diameter of 4 mm or larger was the prominent indicator of metastasis in lateral pelvic lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. ROC Curve. Rectum / pathology. Rectum / surgery. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17380345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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97. Denisov AB, Kantserova LR: Morphological changes in submandibular lymph nodes after subcutaneous implantation of gold alloys. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2005 Apr;139(4):477-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphological changes in submandibular lymph nodes after subcutaneous implantation of gold alloys.
  • Functional activity of cells in regional lymph nodes of the major salivary glands was studied in rats after subcutaneous implantation of gold alloys.
  • Alloy 900 modified the function of regional lymph nodes.

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  • (PMID = 16027885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gold Alloys
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98. Maconi G, Di Sabatino A, Ardizzone S, Greco S, Colombo E, Russo A, Cassinotti A, Casini V, Corazza GR, Bianchi Porro G: Prevalence and clinical significance of sonographic detection of enlarged regional lymph nodes in Crohn's disease. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2005 Nov;40(11):1328-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence and clinical significance of sonographic detection of enlarged regional lymph nodes in Crohn's disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: Reactive regional lymph node enlargement is a frequent ultrasonographic finding in patients with Crohn's disease.
  • This study assesses the prevalence of enlarged regional mesenteric lymph nodes and its clinical significance in Crohn's disease, and in particular whether there is a correlation between the sonographic detection of enlarged regional lymph nodes and the degree of clinical or biochemical activity of the disease.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 240 in- and outpatients with Crohn's disease underwent intestinal ultrasound to assess the presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes as well as the thickness and echopattern of the bowel wall, the site and extent of Crohn's disease and the presence of stenosis, fistulas and abscesses.
  • A multivariate model by means of multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent variables linked to regional lymph node enlargement.
  • RESULTS: Enlarged regional lymph nodes were detected ultrasonographically in 25.4% of Crohn's disease patients.
  • The presence of regional lymph nodes showed a weak correlation with both clinical and biochemical Crohn's disease activity.
  • Regional lymph nodes were found more frequently in young patients (50% of patients < 30 years, 18% of patients between 30 and 50 yrs, and 7% of patients > 50 yrs; p<0.0001) and in patients with a shorter disease duration.
  • Enlarged regional lymph nodes were strongly correlated with internal fistulas and intra-abdominal abscesses.
  • The multiple regression analysis showed that age, duration of disease and presence of internal fistulas were the best independent predictive factors linked to the presence of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sonographic detection of enlarged regional lymph nodes is more frequent in young patients, which suggests an earlier phase of Crohn's disease and the presence of septic complications such as fistulas and abscesses, but this is of limited valued in assessing disease activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Crohn Disease / complications. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / epidemiology. Lymphatic Diseases / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • (PMID = 16243717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5521
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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99. Mempel TR, Junt T, von Andrian UH: Rulers over randomness: stroma cells guide lymphocyte migration in lymph nodes. Immunity; 2006 Dec;25(6):867-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rulers over randomness: stroma cells guide lymphocyte migration in lymph nodes.
  • In this issue of Immunity, Bajénoff et al. (2006) demonstrate that stromal cell networks serve as guidance structures that direct and limit the migration of B and T cells in lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / immunology. Lymph Nodes / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Models, Immunological. Stromal Cells / immunology

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  • [CommentOn] Immunity. 2006 Dec;25(6):989-1001 [17112751.001]
  • (PMID = 17174930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-7613
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunity
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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100. Chen J, Xu R, Hunt GC, Krinsky ML, Savides TJ: Influence of the number of malignant regional lymph nodes detected by endoscopic ultrasonography on survival stratification in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 May;4(5):573-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of the number of malignant regional lymph nodes detected by endoscopic ultrasonography on survival stratification in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: The nodal staging of esophageal cancer accounts for the absence or presence of metastatic lymph nodes (N0 or N1, respectively).
  • Surgical data suggest that patients have worse survival when esophagectomy specimens contain higher numbers of regional malignant lymph nodes.
  • It has been proposed that the staging system for esophageal cancer be modified to include the number of malignant lymph nodes.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the number of malignant-appearing regional lymph nodes detected on endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) on survival in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Endoscopy reports were reviewed to determine the number of malignant-appearing periesophageal lymph nodes seen on EUS examination.
  • Subjects were categorized as having 0, 1-2, or >2 periesophageal lymph nodes.
  • RESULTS: Among 85 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma, the Kaplan-Meier curves showed distinct survival advantages in those with fewer malignant-appearing regional lymph nodes (P=.0008).
  • The median survivals were 66 months, 14.5 months, and 6.5 months for 0, 1-2, and >2 malignant-appearing lymph nodes, respectively.
  • Survival was also influenced by celiac lymph nodes and tumor length, both of which were associated with increased number of malignant nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The number of malignant-appearing periesophageal lymph nodes detected by EUS is associated with improved survival stratification in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma and should be considered in the presurgical staging of esophageal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16630763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA23100
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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