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1. Xi L, Luketich JD, Raja S, Gooding WE, Litle VR, Coello MC, Finkelstein SD, Chestney ML, Landreneau RJ, Hughes SJ, Godfrey TE: Molecular staging of lymph nodes from patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Feb 1;11(3):1099-109
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  • [Title] Molecular staging of lymph nodes from patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate molecular markers for the detection of micrometastasis in esophageal adenocarcinoma, define algorithms to distinguish positive from benign lymph nodes and to validate these findings in an independent tissue set and in patients with p(N0) esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • All markers were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (QRT)-PCR on a limited set of primary tumors and benign lymph nodes.
  • Algorithms were statistically validated internally as well as externally on an independent set of lymph nodes.
  • Selected markers were then used to identify occult disease in lymph nodes from 34 patients with p(N0) esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Five of thirty-four patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma had positive nodes by multimarker QRT-PCR analysis and disease-free survival was significantly worse in these patients (P = 0.0023).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have identified novel QRT-PCR markers for the detection of occult lymph node disease in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 15709177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090665-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090665-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 90665-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / EPCAM protein, human; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / villin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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2. McLaughlin RA, Scolaro L, Robbins P, Hamza S, Saunders C, Sampson DD: Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer. Cancer Res; 2010 Apr 1;70(7):2579-84
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  • [Title] Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer.
  • Histologic assessment is the gold standard technique for the identification of metastatic involvement of lymph nodes in malignant disease, but can only be performed ex vivo and often results in the unnecessary excision of healthy lymph nodes, leading to complications such as lymphedema.
  • In this morphologic study, we show the capability of OCT to image nodal microarchitecture through an assessment of fresh, unstained ex vivo lymph node samples.
  • Examples include both benign human axillary lymph nodes and nodes containing metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Through accurate correlation with the histologic gold standard, OCT is shown to enable differentiation of lymph node tissue from surrounding adipose tissue, reveal nodal structures such as germinal centers and intranodal vessels, and show both diffuse and well circumscribed patterns of metastatic node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 20233873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Mentrikoski MJ, Ma L, Pryor JG, McMahon LA, Yang Q, Spaulding BO, Scott GA, Wang HL, Xu H: Diagnostic utility of IMP3 in segregating metastatic melanoma from benign nevi in lymph nodes. Mod Pathol; 2009 Dec;22(12):1582-7
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of IMP3 in segregating metastatic melanoma from benign nevi in lymph nodes.
  • Depending on the Breslow depth of the primary melanoma, sentinel lymph node biopsy is considered as standard of care for the staging of cutaneous melanoma, and is one of the most important prognostic factors.
  • The histologic analysis of these specimens becomes difficult to interpret when benign intranodal nevic cells mimic metastases.
  • Insulin-like growth factor-II messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein-3 (IMP3), also known as K homology domain-containing protein overexpressed in cancer or L523S, is a member of the insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein family and has been shown to have diagnostic utility in distinguishing cutaneous melanoma from benign nevi.
  • In this study, 43 sentinel lymph node biopsy specimens, including 13 with benign intranodal nevi and 30 with metastatic melanoma (two cases containing both benign nevi and metastatic melanoma), from 41 patients were immunohistochemically analyzed with a monoclonal antibody against IMP3.
  • None of the benign intranodal nevi expressed IMP3, whereas 21 out of 30 (70%) of the lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma did.
  • It seems that IMP3 is helpful in distinguishing benign intranodal nevi from metastatic melanoma in sentinel lymph node biopsy specimens, and could be a valuable diagnostic adjunct in sentinel lymph node biopsy assessment in which questions arise as to the malignancy of the melanocytes present.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymph Nodes / chemistry. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus / diagnosis. RNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 19734845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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4. Ferris RL, Xi L, Raja S, Hunt JL, Wang J, Gooding WE, Kelly L, Ching J, Luketich JD, Godfrey TE: Molecular staging of cervical lymph nodes in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 15;65(6):2147-56
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  • [Title] Molecular staging of cervical lymph nodes in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • Clinical staging of cervical lymph nodes from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) has only 50% accuracy compared with definitive pathologic assessment.
  • To address this potential overtreatment, sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is currently being evaluated to provide better staging of the neck.
  • We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) to screen 40 potential markers for their ability to detect SCCHN metastases to cervical lymph nodes.
  • Seven markers were identified with good characteristics for identifying metastatic disease, and these were validated using a set of 26 primary tumors, 19 histologically positive lymph nodes, and 21 benign nodes from patients without cancer.
  • Four markers discriminated between positive and benign nodes with accuracy >97% but only one marker, pemphigus vulgaris antigen (PVA), discriminated with 100% accuracy in both the observed data and a statistical bootstrap analysis.
  • The automated analysis with PVA provided perfect discrimination between histologically positive and benign lymph nodes and correctly identified two lymph nodes with micrometastatic tumor deposits.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15781625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90665-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Janssen J, Dietrich CF, Will U, Greiner L: Endosonographic elastography in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes. Endoscopy; 2007 Nov;39(11):952-7

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  • [Title] Endosonographic elastography in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of this method in endosonography (EUS) of the dorsal mediastinum, and to compare the elastographic patterns of lymph nodes with results from EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 50 consecutive patients undergoing EUS-guided FNAB of at least one paraesophageal lymph node were included.
  • Each of these targeted lymph nodes was examined also elastographically.
  • RESULTS: In total, 66 lymph nodes were examined; 37 lymph nodes revealed benign and 29 malignant tissue at the histologic evaluation.
  • Good elastographic records were obtained for all lymph nodes.
  • Of the 37 benign lymph nodes, 31 showed a homogeneous pattern of intermediate elasticity, whereas a dominance of hard tissue with variable patterns was found in 23 of 29 malignant lymph nodes.
  • Applying these criteria, the accuracy range among the three examiners was between 81.8 % and 87.9 % for benign lymph nodes and between 84.6 % and 86.4 % for malignant ones.
  • CONCLUSION: EUS elastography of mediastinal lymph nodes can be performed reliably.
  • The method might occasionally be useful for targeting the most suitable lymph nodes for FNAB.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography / methods. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Probability. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18008203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Mack MG, Rieger J, Baghi M, Bisdas S, Vogl TJ: Cervical lymph nodes. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jun;66(3):493-500
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  • [Title] Cervical lymph nodes.
  • The lymph node staging is a very important prognostic parameter for patients with presenting with head neck cancer and is influencing the selection of the different therapeutic strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of them.
  • The accuracy of imaging techniques, such as US, MR imaging, and CT, depends on the appropriateness of radiological criteria used for diagnosing lymph node metastases.
  • Size of nodes and evidence of necrosis are still the most important radiological criteria.
  • A spherical lymph node larger than 10mm is an indicator for a malignant node, whereas an oval shape and/or a fatty hilus are more benign signs.
  • But there are many limitations and different cut offs published in the literature, indicating that the size of a lymph node is not a reliable criteria for the assessment of lymph nodes in the head and neck region.
  • Today new high-resolution MRI sequences and the development of specific contrast agents are offering new possibilities in the diagnostic work-up of head and neck lymph nodes.
  • This is causing a signal decrease on T2-weighted MR images in benign lymph nodes after administration of USPIO's, whereas malignant lymph nodes do not show a significant signal decrease.
  • Based on the fact, that the size evaluation of lymph nodes in the head and neck has not changed during the last decade, this paper will mainly focus on MRI with new contrast agents and new techniques as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI).
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Dextrans. Ferrosoferric Oxide. Humans. Iron. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetite Nanoparticles. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Oxides. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18337039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Magnetite Nanoparticles; 0 / Oxides; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; G6N3J05W84 / ferumoxides; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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7. Spannuth WA, Leath CA 3rd, Conner MG, Alvarez RD: Inflammatory pseudotumor of pelvic lymph nodes. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;108(3 Pt 2):779-82
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  • [Title] Inflammatory pseudotumor of pelvic lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Inflammatory pseudotumor is a rare benign cause of lymphadenopathy previously reported in several anatomic locations that can simulate malignant neoplasm.
  • Histologic examination revealed inflammatory pseudotumor of the lymph nodes, with immunohistochemical studies demonstrating actin-positive myofibroblastic cells.
  • CONCLUSION: Inflammatory pseudotumor of the pelvic lymph nodes is a rare entity and should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent fever and lymphadenopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Plasma Cell / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Fever. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyoma / pathology. Leiomyoma / surgery. Leukocytosis. Lymph Node Excision. Ovariectomy. Pelvic Pain. Pelvis. Postmenopause. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17018500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Elmore SA: Histopathology of the lymph nodes. Toxicol Pathol; 2006;34(5):425-54
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  • [Title] Histopathology of the lymph nodes.
  • Lymph nodes function as filters of tissues and tissue fluids and are sites of origin and production of lymphocytes for normal physiological functions.
  • The histological evaluation of lymph nodes is necessary in order to understand the immunotoxic effects of chemicals with the resulting data providing an important component of human risk assessment.
  • Daily insults, ageing and toxins can alter the normal histology and primary function of lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17067938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / 001-1520-808; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS15883; NLM/ PMC1892634
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9. Hilari JM, Mangas C, Xi L, Paradelo C, Ferrándiz C, Hughes SJ, Yueh C, Altomare I, Gooding WE, Godfrey TE: Molecular staging of pathologically negative sentinel lymph nodes from melanoma patients using multimarker, quantitative real-time rt-PCR. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Jan;16(1):177-85
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  • [Title] Molecular staging of pathologically negative sentinel lymph nodes from melanoma patients using multimarker, quantitative real-time rt-PCR.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic potential of quantitative reverse-transcription, polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in melanoma patients with pathologically negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLN).
  • Our study included 195 node-negative melanoma patients with a Breslow thickness greater than 0.76 mm (n = 158), or less than 0.76 mm but who had Clark level IV-V, microscopic ulceration, or pathological signs of regression (n = 32), and five patients with melanoma of unknown thickness.
  • A total of 370 lymph nodes were analyzed by qRT-PCR.
  • Previously published primer designs were tested for PAX3 and GalNAc-T and revealed that alternative PAX3 transcripts are differentially expressed in melanoma and benign lymph nodes.
  • PLAB and L1CAM did not appear to differentiate between malignant melanoma and benign melanocytes or lymph nodes in our analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Area Under Curve. Female. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 / genetics. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Middle Aged. Monophenol Monooxygenase / genetics. Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism. N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18982394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GDF15 protein, human; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 15; 0 / MAGEA3 protein, human; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 164289-47-8 / synovial sarcoma X breakpoint proteins; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase; EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.41 / polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
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10. Yang HX, Wu YL, Ding JA, Jiang GN, Zhou X, Chen C, Gao W, Chen G: [Detection of micrometastasis in mediastinal lymph nodes in operable non-small cell lung cancers]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 May;28(5):368-70
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  • [Title] [Detection of micrometastasis in mediastinal lymph nodes in operable non-small cell lung cancers].
  • OBJECTIVE: Using the LUNX-mRNA as a marker and RT-PCR technique to assess mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with operable NSCLC, to evaluate at gene level the feasibility of this method in detection of micrometastasis in NSCLC and the necessity of systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy during surgery.
  • The mediastinal lymph nodes were taken during operation.
  • Ten cases with benign lung disease were assayed by the same method as control.
  • RESULTS: Seventy one mediastinal lymph nodes were obtained from 20 patients, 8 (11.3%) of which showed histologically metastasis with HE staining, while 23 (32.4%) were LUNX-mRNA positive by RT-PCR, P < 0.001.
  • Micrometastasis was detected in 25.4% of all lymph nodes.
  • LUNX-mRNA was found to be positive in 23.6% of lymph nodes from 15 patients with stage I A-II B NSCLC compared with 62.5% from 5 patients with stage III NSCLC, with a significant difference (P = 0.003).
  • CONCLUSION: About 25.4% of mediastinal lymph nodes are with micrometastasis in patients with operable NSCLC.
  • Systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy is necessary to deal with the regional lymph nodes during surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Glycoproteins / genetics. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis. Phosphoproteins / genetics. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17045003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BPIFA1 protein, human; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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11. Wang WB, Cui YG, Yao SY: [Message RNA expression of LUNX, CK19 and CEA genes in NSCLC with micrometastasis in lymph nodes]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;30(2):121-4
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  • [Title] [Message RNA expression of LUNX, CK19 and CEA genes in NSCLC with micrometastasis in lymph nodes].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation of mRNA expression level of three cancer-associated genes-LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA and CEA mRNA with metastasis in lymph nodes and histopathological staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: Fifty-six tumor tissue samples and 103 regional lymph node samples were obtained from 56 patients with NSCLC, and another 35 lymph node samples as control from 15 patients with benign pulmonary diseases.
  • The mRNA expression of LUNX, CK19 and CEA genes was detected in these samples by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction), meanwhile, all lymph nodes were also examined by conventional pathological method.
  • RESULTS: mRNA expression of LUNX, CK19 and CEA genes in the regional lymph nodes of NSCLC was significantly higher than that in those of benign lung diseases (P < 0.05).
  • No significant correlation was found between positive mRNA expression of LUNX mRNA and CK19 mRNA in the lymph nodes and histopathologic type of lung cancer (P > 0.05).
  • But positive expression rate of CEA mRNA in the lymph nodes from adenocarcinoma patients was significantly higher than that in these from squamous cell carcinoma and other types of NSCLC (P < 0.05).
  • The expression level of LUNX mRNA in the lymph nodes was positively correlated with TNM stages.
  • CONCLUSION: LUNX mRNA and CK19 mRNA may serve as a molecular marker for detection of lymph node micrometastasis in patient with non-small cell lung cancer, but LUNX mRNA is superior to CK19 mRNA in both sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 18646695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BPIFA1 protein, human; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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12. Schmidt MB, Engel UH, Mogensen AM, Petersen LN, Bülow S, Wied U, Holck S, Danish Colorectal Cancer Group: [Resection time and number of detected colorectal lymph nodes in resection specimens with carcinoma]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Aug 24;171(35):2458-62
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  • [Title] [Resection time and number of detected colorectal lymph nodes in resection specimens with carcinoma].
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of identified lymph nodes (LNs) is an essential element in the pathologist's rapport on colorectal resection specimens with carcinoma (CRSC).
  • Provided this careful analysis failed to produce 12 LNs and all detected LNs were benign (pNx), the specimen was re-sampled for an additional 15-minute period.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Specimen Handling. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19732530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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13. Corben AD, Nehhozina T, Garg K, Vallejo CE, Brogi E: Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes: a possible pitfall in the staging of patients with breast carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1211-6
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  • [Title] Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes: a possible pitfall in the staging of patients with breast carcinoma.
  • The occurrence of benign epithelial inclusions in lymph nodes is well documented and can sometimes mimic metastatic carcinoma.
  • Benign müllerian inclusions, such as endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, are common in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, but their presence in supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes is a rare event.
  • We report our experience with 3 patients found to have endosalpingiosis in axillary sentinel lymph nodes obtained for staging of breast carcinoma.
  • Endosalpingiosis involved a single lymph node in 1 patient, and 2 nodes in each of the other 2; it was present in the lymph node capsule in all the 3 cases, with few glands scattered within the lymph node parenchyma in 2 of the patients.
  • Endosalpingiosis had been misinterpreted as metastatic carcinoma at another hospital in 1 of the 3 patients, with subsequent dissection of 19 additional benign axillary lymph nodes.
  • We conclude that endosalpingiosis can involve axillary lymph nodes and closely simulate metastatic mammary carcinoma.
  • Morphologic identification of ciliated cells and "peg" cells is most helpful to recognize this benign inclusion, and positive immunoreactivity for WT1 and/or PAX8 can be used to support the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cilia. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Paired Box Transcription Factors / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Unnecessary Procedures. WT1 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20631604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / WT1 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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14. Wang MZ, Wan XB, Chen Y, Zhang L, Zhong W, Zhong X, Shi JH, Liu T, Huang H, Zhang H, Xiao Y, Cai BQ, Li LY: [The results of transbronchial needle aspiration in 164 cases with enlarged mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;48(2):133-5
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  • [Title] [The results of transbronchial needle aspiration in 164 cases with enlarged mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) in the diagnosis of patients with enlarged mediastinal and/or hilar lymph node.
  • RESULTS: From June 1 2004 to December 31 2007, 164 patients were examined: including 80 lung cancers, 69 lung benign diseases, 2 other malignancy tumor, and 13 without definite diagnosis.
  • Total 260 lymph nodes were punctured.
  • There were 25 patients that diagnosis of lung cancer was pathologically determined by TBNA only.
  • A total of 122 lymph nodes in the 80 lung cancer patients were aspirated by TBNA with a positive rate of 65.6% (80/122).
  • From June 1 2006 to December 31 2007, lymph node tissues able to make histology diagnosis were yield in 73.5% (64/87) patients.
  • CONCLUSION: TBNA is quite safe and helpful in diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma, and in diagnosis of benign lung diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19549469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1426
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nei ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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15. Dangore-Khasbage S, Degwekar SS, Bhowate RR, Banode PJ, Bhake A, Choudhary MS, Lohe VK: Utility of color Doppler ultrasound in evaluating the status of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancer. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2009 Aug;108(2):255-63
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  • [Title] Utility of color Doppler ultrasound in evaluating the status of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the utility of color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy in oral cancer patients.
  • STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 70 cervical lymph nodes in 30 known primary oral cancer patients were evaluated with CDUS during a period of 8 months.
  • The intranodal perfusion sites and vascular resistance were the key CDUS features used to differentiate between reactive and metastatic cervical lymph nodes.
  • Histopathologic confirmations were obtained by excisional biopsy of the lymph nodes.
  • The results of preoperative clinical palpation of cervical lymph nodes and CDUS evaluation were compared with histopathologic outcome.
  • RESULTS: Clinical evaluation suspected 61 cervical lymph nodes to be malignant.
  • According to the CDUS, out of 70 nodes, 49 lymph nodes showed features of benign lymphadenopathy and 21 lymph nodes showed features of malignant lymphadenopathy, whereas histopathologic evaluations were in favor of reactive for 57 (81.42%) and for malignant lymphadenopathy in 13 (18.57%).
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / ultrasonography. Male. Neck. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prospective Studies. Regional Blood Flow. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19272807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Nassar A, Cohen C, Cotsonis G, Carlson G: Significance of intramammary lymph nodes in the staging of breast cancer: correlation with tumor characteristics and outcome. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):147-52
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  • [Title] Significance of intramammary lymph nodes in the staging of breast cancer: correlation with tumor characteristics and outcome.
  • Intramammary lymph nodes (intraMLNs) have received little attention as potential prognostic indicators for patients with breast carcinoma.
  • In all, 59 patients (50.8%) were found in association with benign breast conditions and the remaining 57 (49.2%) with primary breast carcinoma.
  • Primary tumor characteristics and axillary lymph node (AxLN) status were recorded.
  • Statistical analysis was performed to detect correlation between intraMLN and tumor characteristics as well as outcome.
  • Univariate analysis revealed that predictors of intraMLN metastases include: tumor size (p = 0.04), tumor grade (p = 0.04), tumor stage (p < 0.001), and AxLN status (p < 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18248563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Wortsman X, Revuz J, Jemec GB: Lymph nodes in hidradenitis suppurativa. Dermatology; 2009;219(1):22-4
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  • [Title] Lymph nodes in hidradenitis suppurativa.
  • BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory disease, and yet palpable lymph nodes are rarely found.
  • This may be due to lack of lymph node swelling or to the inability to palpate lymph node regions due to overlying disease.
  • Ultrasound was used to identify and measure regional lymph nodes in HS patients.
  • RESULTS: A total of 198 lymph nodes were identified in 6 HS patients in Hurley stage II and 4 in stage III, and 101 from regional control scans in healthy controls.
  • All the lymph nodes in both HS patients and controls showed a normal oval shape, with a hypoechoic rim and a hyperechoic center, and all were located in the deep subcutaneous tissue.
  • The overall mean lymph node number per region was not significantly different.
  • The overall mean lymph node diameter was not significantly different, but in patients with Hurley stage III disease it was significantly increased (1.3 +/- 0.4 cm, p = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSION: Lymph node involvement only occurs with late-stage HS and may therefore reflect secondary infection rather than primary etiological involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Hidradenitis Suppurativa / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19365106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Nissan A, Jager D, Roystacher M, Prus D, Peretz T, Eisenberg I, Freund HR, Scanlan M, Ritter G, Old LJ, Mitrani-Rosenbaum S: Multimarker RT-PCR assay for the detection of minimal residual disease in sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients. Br J Cancer; 2006 Mar 13;94(5):681-5
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  • [Title] Multimarker RT-PCR assay for the detection of minimal residual disease in sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients.
  • The presence of metastases in lymph nodes is the most powerful prognostic factor in breast cancer patients.
  • Routine histological examination of lymph nodes has limited sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer metastases.
  • The aim of the present study was to develop a multimarker reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of minimal residual disease in sentinel nodes of breast cancer patients.
  • RNA was extracted from 30 sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) obtained from 28 patients, three primary breast cancers (positive controls), three lymph nodes from patients with benign diseases, and peripheral blood lymphocytes of 10 healthy volunteers (negative controls).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. DNA Primers. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm, Residual. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16495929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA Primers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361196
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19. Song DE, Kahn AG, Khang SK, Ro JY: Pseudofungi in pericolic lymph nodes. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Apr;129(4):e97-e100
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  • [Title] Pseudofungi in pericolic lymph nodes.
  • We report a case of extensive pseudofungi in the pericolic lymph nodes.
  • Debulking of the masses (by means of a Hartmann operation) was performed under the clinical impression of a pelvic sarcoma, and histologically the masses demonstrated features of a malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • All pericolic lymph nodes demonstrated multiple septate hyphae-like structures with pigmentation, particularly in the subcapsular sinuses.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyphae. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mycoses / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15794699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Zhao TT, Li JG, Li YM: [Performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of primary breast cancer and staging of the regional lymph nodes]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Mar;29(3):206-9
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  • [Title] [Performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of primary breast cancer and staging of the regional lymph nodes].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of primary breast cancer, and the staging of regional lymph nodes.
  • Three nuclear medicine physicians analyzed the image and made the diagnosis.
  • 32 breast lesions were evaluated by histology, revealing 25 breast carcinomas and 7 benign pathological changes.
  • 23 patients had histological diagnosis of the breast tumor and regional lymph nodes.
  • 10 patients were proved to have lymph node metastasis, and PET/CT got a sensitivity of 60.0%.
  • As to a suspicious distant metastasis, PET/CT convinced the diagnosis.
  • But the accuracy of FDG PET/CT seems to be not high enough to identify patients who might avoid axillary lymph nodes dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17649638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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21. Guimaraes AR, Tabatabei S, Dahl D, McDougal WS, Weissleder R, Harisinghani MG: Pilot study evaluating use of lymphotrophic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for assessing lymph nodes in renal cell cancer. Urology; 2008 Apr;71(4):708-12
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  • [Title] Pilot study evaluating use of lymphotrophic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for assessing lymph nodes in renal cell cancer.
  • Protocols included T2 and T2* weighted imaging before and after administration of ferumoxtran-10 (Combidex) for the evaluation of lymph node (LN) involvement.
  • Lymph node dissection (LND) was performed in patients with stage 2 renal cell cancer (RCC), or transitional cell cancer (TCC), per routine clinical practice.
  • Nodes that lacked contrast uptake were deemed malignant, and those with homogeneous uptake were deemed benign.
  • RESULTS: MRI demonstrated 26 lymph nodes within the 9 patients imaged (24 benign and 2 malignant).
  • Pathologic results allowed comparison in 22 of the 26 lymph nodes and demonstrated high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (95.7%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dextrans. Female. Ferrosoferric Oxide. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetite Nanoparticles. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Pilot Projects. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18295316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Magnetite Nanoparticles; 0 / Oxides; 0 / ferumoxtran-10; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
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22. Pan WR, Suami H, Taylor GI: Senile changes in human lymph nodes. Lymphat Res Biol; 2008;6(2):77-83
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  • [Title] Senile changes in human lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: The degenerative process of lymph nodes is poorly documented.
  • METHODS: 161 lymph nodes of seven fresh and one embalmed human cadavers in the head and neck were studied.
  • We used 6% hydrogen peroxide, lead oxide injectant, and radiographs to demonstrate lymphatic vessels, and found both solidified and transparent lymph nodes.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-eight solidified and 123 transparent lymph nodes were found.
  • Senile involution affects all elements of the lymph node including the cortex, the medulla, and the architecture.
  • CONCLUSION: This study provides actual anatomical and histopathological images of lymph nodes in different degenerative stages in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / pathology. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18564922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-6851
  • [Journal-full-title] Lymphatic research and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lymphat Res Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Mamou J, Coron A, Hata M, Machi J, Yanagihara E, Laugier P, Feleppa EJ: Three-dimensional high-frequency characterization of cancerous lymph nodes. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2010 Mar;36(3):361-75
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional high-frequency characterization of cancerous lymph nodes.
  • High-frequency, three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative-ultrasound (QUS) methods were developed to characterize freshly-dissected lymph nodes of cancer patients.
  • Three-dimensional ultrasound data were acquired from lymph nodes using a 25.6-MHz center-frequency transducer.
  • Each node was inked prior to tissue fixation to recover orientation after sectioning for 3-D histologic evaluation.
  • In this study, 46 lymph nodes acquired from 27 patients diagnosed with colon cancer were processed.
  • Results revealed that fully-metastatic nodes could be perfectly differentiated from cancer-free nodes using slope or scatterer-size estimates.
  • Specifically, results indicated that metastatic nodes had an average effective scatterer size (i.e., 37.1 +/- 1.7 microm) significantly larger (p < 0.05) than that in cancer-free nodes (i.e., 26 +/- 3.3 microm).
  • Therefore, the 3-D QUS methods could provide a useful means of identifying small metastatic foci in dissected lymph nodes that might not be detectable using current standard pathology procedures.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20133046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100183-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100183-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100183; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100183; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100183-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100183-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100183-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100183-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100183-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100183-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS153240; NLM/ PMC2826510
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24. Botturi D, Pizzorni Ferrarese F, Zamboni GA, Zerbato D: Preoperative workflow for lymph nodes staging. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg; 2009 Jan;4(1):99-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative workflow for lymph nodes staging.
  • PURPOSE: Accurate staging of lymph nodes relies mainly on surgical exploration and manual palpation.
  • METHODS: We set up a diagnostic process to extract lymph nodes shape and position from CTs and to analyze the trend of pixels intensities to determine tissue properties in order to feedback the force information.
  • RESULTS: We have integrated the model, obtained from both the morphological information and stiffness values, in our laparoscopy simulator and surgeons can virtually palpate, with a haptic device, the lymph nodes.
  • We evaluated the workflow extracting lymph nodes from a case study: the feedback provided through the simulator greatly helps the surgeon in the correct staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 20033607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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25. Cox-Ganser JM, Burchfiel CM, Fekedulegn D, Andrew ME, Ducatman BS: Silicosis in lymph nodes: the canary in the miner? J Occup Environ Med; 2009 Feb;51(2):164-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. URANIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Silicosis in lymph nodes: the canary in the miner?
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate evidence that lymph node silicosis can precede parenchymal silicosis.
  • METHODS: The study population was comprised of 264 deceased male uranium miners for whom two or more of four pathologists agreed on the presence or absence of silicosis in lymph nodes and lung parenchyma.
  • RESULTS: Twenty percent of the miners had lymph node silicosis only, 4% had parenchymal silicosis only, and 39% had both.
  • Silica exposure was lower for miners with lymph node silicosis only than for those with both lymph node and parenchymal silicosis.
  • Lymph node silicosis was associated with parenchymal silicosis after adjustment for silica exposure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with silicosis potentially occurring in lymph nodes before the parenchyma.
  • Lymph node damage could impair silica clearance and increase the risk for parenchymal silicosis.

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  • [Cites] Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Feb 15;157(4):364-75 [12578807.001]
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  • (PMID = 19209037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5948
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of occupational and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Occup. Environ. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / MSIA93-45; United States / PHS HHS / / MSIA93-45
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4OC371KSTK / Uranium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS107779; NLM/ PMC2724317
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26. Nyman HT, O'Brien RT: The sonographic evaluation of lymph nodes. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2007 Aug;22(3):128-37
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  • [Title] The sonographic evaluation of lymph nodes.
  • Ultrasound can be used to detect and evaluate both normal and abnormal lymph nodes, as well as aid in biopsy sampling procedures, an important part of staging procedures in cancer patients.
  • Several parameters can be evaluated using ultrasound; lymph node size, margins, echogenicity, echopattern (echotexture), acoustic transmission, presence and distribution of vascular flow, and vascular flow indices.
  • The most diagnostically helpful include the short/long axis ratio of the lymph node, the pattern of distribution of the blood vessels within the lymph node, and to some extent the resistive and pulsatility indices.
  • This review discusses the use of ultrasound for detecting, evaluating, and sampling peripheral, abdominal and thoracic lymph nodes in small animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17844819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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27. Bleiweiss IJ, Nagi CS, Jaffer S: Axillary sentinel lymph nodes can be falsely positive due to iatrogenic displacement and transport of benign epithelial cells in patients with breast carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 May 1;24(13):2013-8
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  • [Title] Axillary sentinel lymph nodes can be falsely positive due to iatrogenic displacement and transport of benign epithelial cells in patients with breast carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratins (CK) is common practice in evaluating sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast carcinoma.
  • Iatrogenic epithelial cell displacement and benign transport of breast epithelial cells into axillary lymph nodes are recently described phenomena.
  • We report 25 cases in which these factors probably resulted in benign epithelial cells in axillary SLNs (ie, false positivity).
  • RESULTS: In all cases, the cytologic features of the epithelial cells in the SLNs were benign, and 22 matched those of corresponding intraductal papillomas that were involved by or were separate from the DCIS in the original cores or surgical biopsies.
  • Nineteen cases showed benign epithelial cell displacement at the biopsy site.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma can be falsely positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Cell Movement. Epithelial Cells / pathology. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 May 1;24(13):1978-9 [16606969.001]
  • (PMID = 16606970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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28. Li XH, He JX, Chen P, Qiang YG, Wei XZ, Zhang GP, Hua N: [Regional lymph nodes targetting with enrichment of polyphase liposome]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;30(4):263-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

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  • [Title] [Regional lymph nodes targetting with enrichment of polyphase liposome].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of regional lymph nodes targetting with enrichment of radioactive 99mTc-polyphase liposome of 5-fluorouracil (99mTc-FL, FL).
  • The radioactivity was examined in the resected local lymph nodes, non-draining lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, lung, intestines, and in blood and urine.
  • The radioactive isotope uptake percentage (%) per gram in local lymph nodes was significantly different between each two groups among the 3 groups (P < 0.05).
  • The ratios of x of regional lymph nodes/non-draining lymph nodes, regional lymph nodes/blood, regional lymph nodes/urine, regional lymph nodes/liver, regional lymph nodes/spleen, regional lymph nodes/kidney, regional lymph nodes/heart, regional lymph nodes/lung, regional lymph nodes/intestine in group 1 were 232.00, 16.57, 23.20, 29.00, 19.33, 25.78, 46.40, 46.40 and 25.78, respectively.
  • The differences of radioactive isotope uptake percentage were statistically significant (P < 0.01) between regional lymph nodes and other organs, i. e. non-draining lymph nodes, blood, urine, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, lung and intestine per gram in each group.
  • So 99mTc-FL can be highly accumulated in the local lymph nodes.
  • This regional lymph nodes targetting with enrichment of radioactive 99mTc-FL evidently indicates the feasibility of regional lymph system chemotherapy for pulmonary malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Liposomes. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Organotechnetium Compounds

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  • (PMID = 18788628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium 99m 5-fluorouracil; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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29. Koelliker SL, Chung MA, Mainiero MB, Steinhoff MM, Cady B: Axillary lymph nodes: US-guided fine-needle aspiration for initial staging of breast cancer--correlation with primary tumor size. Radiology; 2008 Jan;246(1):81-9
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  • [Title] Axillary lymph nodes: US-guided fine-needle aspiration for initial staging of breast cancer--correlation with primary tumor size.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonographic (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of axillary lymph nodes for preoperative staging of breast cancer across a range of primary tumor sizes, by using histologic findings as a reference standard.
  • Lymph nodes were classified as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious on the basis of US characteristics at retrospective review.
  • US-guided FNA in the most suspicious node at US, or the largest node if all appeared benign, was performed.
  • Final pathologic results (sentinel lymph node biopsy [SNB] or axillary lymph node dissection [ALND]) were compared with US and preoperative US-guided FNA results.
  • Results were assessed according to tumor size.
  • RESULTS: Primary tumor sizes were 0.3-12 cm (mean, 3 cm).
  • Sensitivity of US-guided FNA increased with primary tumor size.
  • CONCLUSION: US-guided FNA of axillary lymph nodes in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer had a sensitivity that increased with increasing size of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2007
  • (PMID = 17991784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Pirro N, Pignodel C, Cathala P, Fabbro-Peray P, Godlewski G, Prudhomme M: The number of lymph nodes is correlated with mesorectal morphometry. Surg Radiol Anat; 2008 Jun;30(4):297-302

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The number of lymph nodes is correlated with mesorectal morphometry.
  • BACKGROUND: Lymph node involvement is one of the most significant prognostic factors of patients with rectal cancer.
  • However, the distribution of mesorectal lymph nodes is not well known.
  • This study was designed to assess lymph nodes in the mesorectum and to evaluate the correlation between the volume and weight of the mesorectum and the number of lymph nodes.
  • Lymph nodes were sought by manual dissection and were submitted for histological examination.
  • The correlation between the number of lymph nodes and the volume and weight of the mesorectum was evaluated by non-parametric Spearman test.
  • RESULTS: A total of 178 lymph nodes were identified.
  • The mean number of lymph nodes per specimen was 9.2 +/- 4.5.
  • The lymph nodes were mostly smaller than 3 mm and located in the superior and posterior parts of the mesorectum.
  • A positive correlation was found between the number of mesorectal lymph nodes and the volume and weight of the mesorectum.
  • The number of lymph nodes in the superior rectal mesentery was independent of its volume and its weight.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mesorectal lymph nodes are mainly located above the peritoneal reflection within the posterior mesorectum.
  • The positive correlation between the volume or the weight of the mesorectum and the number of mesorectal lymph nodes should be considered as a possible means to determine the minimum number of mesorectal lymph nodes required for histological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Mesentery / anatomy & histology. Rectum / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 18309450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0930-1038
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Radiol Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Wiese D, Saha S, Yestrepsky B, Korant A, Sirop S: A prospective study of false-positive diagnosis of micrometastatic cells in the sentinel lymph nodes in colorectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Aug;16(8):2166-9
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  • [Title] A prospective study of false-positive diagnosis of micrometastatic cells in the sentinel lymph nodes in colorectal cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) with multilevel sections (MLS) and cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (CK-IHC) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) upstages 15-20% of patients (pts).
  • False-positive SLNs occur in breast cancer due to mechanical transport of cells during mapping procedures, or to pre-existing benign cellular inclusions.
  • Ninety of the pts underwent a second mapping in normal bowel away from the primary tumor.
  • The first 1-5 blue nodes near the primary tumor were marked as SLNs; those near the second injection site were marked as nontumor SLNs (nt-SLNs).
  • RESULTS: Of 314 pts, 30 had benign tumor and 284 had invasive cancer.
  • Forty-six of the 274 pts (16.8%) had low-volume metastasis in 57 SLNs: 31 pts (11.3%) had 38 SLNs with micrometastasis (>0.2 mm, <or=2 mm), while 15 pts (5.5%) had 19 SLNs with isolated tumor cells (<or=0.2 mm).
  • For 100 pts with second SLNM (70/90 pts successfully mapped with 102 nt-SLNs), or with SLNM of benign pathology (30/30 pts successfully mapped with 88 SLNs), there were no false positives in any of 190 nodes (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: No false positives due to mechanical transport of cells or to benign cellular inclusions were identified in 190 lymph nodes from 100 patients with SLNM in benign bowel.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / secondary. Hepatectomy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] False Positive Reactions. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19412630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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32. Port ER, Patil S, Stempel M, Morrow M, Cody HS 3rd: Number of lymph nodes removed in sentinel lymph node-negative breast cancer patients is significantly related to patient age and tumor size: a new source of bias in morbidity assessment? Cancer; 2010 Apr 15;116(8):1987-91
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  • [Title] Number of lymph nodes removed in sentinel lymph node-negative breast cancer patients is significantly related to patient age and tumor size: a new source of bias in morbidity assessment?
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has been well-established for axillary lymph node staging for patients with breast cancer.
  • For lymph node-negative patients, planned "backup" axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is rarely indicated.
  • Among patients with negative SLNs, the authors observed variation by tumor size and patient age in the total number of lymph nodes removed (SLNs plus non-SLNs).
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of this institution's SLN database identified 4103 SLN biopsy procedures between 1997 and 2004 in which SLN biopsy was performed for prophylactic mastectomy, ductal carcinoma in situ, or T1 to T2 invasive cancers, and the SLNs were benign.
  • RESULTS: The mean number of SLNs, non-SLNs, and total lymph nodes for all tumor sizes was 2.8, 1.5, and 4.3, respectively, and increased with tumor size (more lymph nodes were removed for T2 than for T1 tumors: 6.3 vs 4.3; P < .0001).
  • More total lymph nodes were also removed in patients aged <or=50 years than in those aged >50 years (4.6 lymph nodes vs 4.2 lymph nodes; P = .006).
  • In approximately 8% of patients (322 of 4103 patients), >or=10 lymph nodes were removed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity of SLN biopsy is less than that of ALND, but for pN0 patients, the total number of lymph nodes removed increased with tumor size and younger patient age.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / surgery. Bias (Epidemiology). Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20151427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Quesada O, Suárez-Bonnet A, Andrada M, Fernández A, de los Monteros AE: Epithelial and pancreatic choristoma in bovine lymph nodes. J Comp Pathol; 2010 Feb-Apr;142(2-3):218-22
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  • [Title] Epithelial and pancreatic choristoma in bovine lymph nodes.
  • Lymph nodes from 186 cows were evaluated as part of a bovine tuberculosis eradication programme.
  • The mediastinal lymph nodes of 13 animals contained atypical structures.
  • To the best of our knowledge these are the first histological and immunohistochemical descriptions of epithelial and pancreatic choristomas in bovine lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cattle Diseases / pathology. Choristoma / veterinary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Pancreas. Respiratory Mucosa

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19758598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Maĭborodin IV, Borodin IuI, Kharchenko VG, Korabel'shchikov GD: [Mesenteric lymph nodes in the newborns with inflammatory and non-inflammatory abdominal diseases]. Arkh Patol; 2006 May-Jun;68(3):25-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Mesenteric lymph nodes in the newborns with inflammatory and non-inflammatory abdominal diseases].
  • Light microscopy was used to study mesenteric lymph nodes in 46 neonatal infants who had died from small bowel atresia, inflammatory abdominal processes and diseases.
  • There were no lymphoid follicles with germinative centers in the mesenteric lymph nodes of all neonatal infants, which seemed to result from the lack of antigenic stimulation during intrauterine development.
  • Medullary substance malformation in the lymph nodes promotes the occurrence of inflammation in the region of their lymph collection and favors the progression and generalization of a pathological process.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Diseases / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mesentery / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16830620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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35. Tournoy KG, Maddens S, Gosselin R, Van Maele G, van Meerbeeck JP, Kelles A: Integrated FDG-PET/CT does not make invasive staging of the intrathoracic lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer redundant: a prospective study. Thorax; 2007 Aug;62(8):696-701
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Integrated FDG-PET/CT does not make invasive staging of the intrathoracic lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer redundant: a prospective study.
  • The accuracy of FDG-PET scans for staging of lymph nodes is too low to replace invasive nodal staging.
  • METHODS: In a prospective study, the mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes in patients with proven NSCLC were investigated with integrated FDG-PET/CT scanning.
  • Pathological confirmation of all suspect lymph nodes was obtained to calculate the accuracy of the fusion images.
  • In addition, the use of the standardised uptake value (SUV) in the staging of intrathoracic lymph nodes was analysed.
  • RESULTS: 105 intrathoracic lymph node stations from 52 patients with NSCLC were characterised.
  • The prevalence of malignancy in the lymph nodes was 36%.
  • The sensitivity of the integrated FDG-PET/CT scan to detect malignant lymph nodes was 84% and its specificity was 85% (positive likelihood ratio 5.64, negative likelihood ratio 0.19).
  • SUV(max), SUV(mean) and the SUV(max)/SUV(liver) ratio were all significantly higher in malignant than in benign lymph nodes.
  • At a cut-off value of 1.5 for the SUV(max)/SUV(liver )ratio, the sensitivity and specificity to detect malignant lymph node invasion were 82% and 93%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The accuracy of integrated FDG-PET/CT scanning is too low to replace invasive intrathoracic lymph node staging in patients with NSCLC.
  • The visual interpretation of the fusion images of the integrated FDG-PET/CT scan can be replaced by the quantitative variable SUV(max)/SUV(liver) without loss of accuracy for intrathoracic lymph node staging.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Prospective Studies

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2001 Jan 1;19(1):111-8 [11134203.001]
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  • (PMID = 17687098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-6376
  • [Journal-full-title] Thorax
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorax
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117288
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36. Monnet O, Cohen F, Lecorroller T, Vidal V, Jacquier A, Gaubert JY, Bartoli JM, Moulin G: [Cervical lymph nodes]. J Radiol; 2008 Jul-Aug;89(7-8 Pt 2):1020-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cervical lymph nodes].
  • The radiologist must know the anatomy of different lymph nodes as well as signs of malignancy (hypertrophy, enhancement, necrosis, capsular rupture, etc.).
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tonsillar Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18772779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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37. Randolph GJ, Angeli V, Swartz MA: Dendritic-cell trafficking to lymph nodes through lymphatic vessels. Nat Rev Immunol; 2005 Aug;5(8):617-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dendritic-cell trafficking to lymph nodes through lymphatic vessels.
  • Optimal encounter with naive T cells for the presentation of these antigens requires that the dendritic cells migrate to draining lymph nodes through lymphatic vessels.
  • In this article, we review important aspects of what is known about dendritic-cell trafficking into and through lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes.
  • Gaining a better understanding of the crosstalk between dendritic cells and lymphatic vessels during the migration of dendritic cells to lymph nodes is essential for future advances in manipulating dendritic-cell migration as a means to fine-tune immune responses in clinical settings.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemotaxis. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Lymph Nodes / immunology. Lymphatic Vessels / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16056255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-1733
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Rev. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Immunologic Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 129
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38. Tonar Z, Egger GF, Witter K, Wolfesberger B: Quantification of microvessels in canine lymph nodes. Microsc Res Tech; 2008 Oct;71(10):760-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantification of microvessels in canine lymph nodes.
  • Quantification of microvessels in tumors is mostly based on counts of vessel profiles in tumor hot spots.
  • Our aim was to test an unbiased method for quantifying microvessels in healthy and tumorous lymph nodes of dogs.
  • The total area sampled from each node was 5.68 mm(2).
  • [MeSH-major] Biometry / methods. Blood Vessels / anatomy & histology. Blood Vessels / pathology. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Pathology / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18615685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0029
  • [Journal-full-title] Microscopy research and technique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microsc. Res. Tech.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Carmon M, Mintz A, Hain D, Olsha O: Clinical implications of contralateral axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Breast; 2006 Apr;15(2):266-8
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  • [Title] Clinical implications of contralateral axillary sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Extra-axillary sentinel lymph nodes can only be detected if radioactive tracer is used and pre-operative scans are carried out.
  • The presence of metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in most extra-axillary sites will upstage patients if the ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node is normal.
  • Paradoxically, the presence of metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in the contralateral axilla has the potential to prevent upstaging to stage IV, but only if detected as a sentinel node at the initial surgery rather than as a systemic recurrence at some later time.
  • We describe a case of bilateral axillary sentinel lymph nodes detected by pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy in a patient with a medial quadrant breast cancer and discuss the possible implications of such a finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid

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  • (PMID = 16005230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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40. Elmore SA: Enhanced histopathology of the lymph nodes. Toxicol Pathol; 2006;34(5):634-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enhanced histopathology of the lymph nodes.
  • The lymph nodes are the major route of entry for antigens and pathogens, via the afferent lymph flow, and they can be sensitive indicators of compounds with regional or systemic immunomodulatory/toxic effects and should therefore be included in the battery of lymphoid organs to evaluate for enhanced histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • [Cites] Toxicology. 2000 Jan 17;142(3):213-9 [10667892.001]
  • [Cites] J Anat. 1971 Sep;109(Pt 3):369-83 [5153800.001]
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  • (PMID = 17067949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunotoxins
  • [Number-of-references] 5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS16226; NLM/ PMC1783683
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41. Larsen MH, Fristrup CW, Pless T, Ainsworth AP, Nielsen HO, Hovendal CP, Mortensen MB: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle marking of lymph nodes. Endoscopy; 2010 Feb;42(2):133-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle marking of lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: No previous studies have evaluated the ability of endoscopic ultrasonography to describe the anatomic location of lymph nodes on the basis of a node-to-node comparison.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of a new endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle technique for marking lymph nodes.
  • End points were the ability to identify and isolate the marked lymph node during surgery and a comparison between the location of the pin as suggested by EUS and the actual location found in the resected specimen.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-three lymph nodes were marked.
  • The lymph nodes were isolated in the resection specimens in 18 patients (95 %).
  • In 89 % of the cases the marked lymph node was in the same location as described by EUS.
  • CONCLUSION: EUS-FNM with a silver pin in lymph nodes is feasible and safe.
  • EUS-FNM seems to be a suitable tool for evaluating lymph nodes on the basis of a node-to-node comparison.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography / methods. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 19967630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. Uibu T, Vanhala E, Sajantila A, Lunetta P, Mäkelä-Bengs P, Goebeler S, Jäntti M, Tossavainen A: Asbestos fibers in para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes. Am J Ind Med; 2009 Jun;52(6):464-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Asbestos fibers in para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Asbestos fibers are known to accumulate in lung parenchyma and thoracic lymph nodes, but their presence and translocation into the extrapulmonary tissues need clarification.
  • We assessed the presence of asbestos in the para-aortic (PA) and mesenteric (ME) lymph nodes.
  • METHODS: PA and ME lymph nodes and lung tissue from 17 persons who underwent medicolegal autopsy for suspicion of asbestos-related disease and from five controls were analyzed for asbestos fibers using transmission electron microscopy.
  • RESULTS: High concentrations of amphibole asbestos fibers were detected in several lung tissue samples and in the respective PA and ME lymph nodes.
  • The mean concentration for the 10 persons with a lung asbestos content of >/=1 million fibers/g of dry tissue (f/g) was 0.85 (<0.05-4.36) million f/g in the PA lymph nodes and 0.55 (<0.02-2.86) million f/g in the ME lymph nodes.
  • The respective mean values for the 12 persons with a lung asbestos concentration of <1 million f/g were 0.07 for the PA lymph nodes and 0.03 million f/g for the ME nodes.
  • The lung asbestos burden that predicted the detection of asbestos in abdominal lymph nodes was 0.45 million f/g.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In addition to their accumulation in lung tissue, asbestos fibers also collect in the retroperitoneal and the mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • Even low-level occupational exposure results in the presence of crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, or chrysotile in these abdominal lymph nodes.
  • Our results support the hypothesis of lymph drainage as an important translocation mechanism for asbestos in the human body.
  • [MeSH-major] Asbestos / analysis. Asbestosis / pathology. Lung / chemistry. Lymph Nodes / chemistry. Occupational Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19296550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of industrial medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ind. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Asbestos, Amphibole; 0 / Mineral Fibers; 1332-21-4 / Asbestos
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43. Baghi M, Mack MG, Wagenblast J, Hambek M, Rieger J, Bisdas S, Gstoettner W, Engels K, Vogl T, Knecht R: Iron oxide particle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for detection of benign lymph nodes in the head and neck: how reliable are the results? Anticancer Res; 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5B):3571-5
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  • [Title] Iron oxide particle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for detection of benign lymph nodes in the head and neck: how reliable are the results?
  • AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasmall paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO: Sinerem)-enhanced MRI in patients with head and neck cancer and enlarged lymph nodes compared with current staging examinations using histology as a gold standard.
  • One patient showed a lymph node of 6 mm in the short axial diameter which was suggested as being metastatic in Sinerem-enhanced MRI according to the enhancement pattern of Sinerem.
  • [MeSH-major] Ferric Compounds / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17972519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ferric Compounds; 1K09F3G675 / ferric oxide
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44. Lahaye MJ, Beets GL, Engelen SM, Kessels AG, de Bruïne AP, Kwee HW, van Engelshoven JM, van de Velde CJ, Beets-Tan RG: Locally advanced rectal cancer: MR imaging for restaging after neoadjuvant radiation therapy with concomitant chemotherapy. Part II. What are the criteria to predict involved lymph nodes? Radiology; 2009 Jul;252(1):81-91
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  • [Title] Locally advanced rectal cancer: MR imaging for restaging after neoadjuvant radiation therapy with concomitant chemotherapy. Part II. What are the criteria to predict involved lymph nodes?
  • Two observers evaluated nodes for border irregularity, short- and long-axis diameters, and estimated percentage of white region (<30%, 30%-50%, or >50%) within the node (3D T2*-weighted images).
  • Ratio of the measured surface area of the white region within the black node to the measured surface area of the total node (Ratio(A)) was calculated.
  • Signal intensity (SI) in gluteus muscle (SI(GM)) and in total node (SI(TN)) were used to calculate SI(TN)/SI(GM) ratio.
  • RESULTS: Lesion-by-lesion analysis was feasible in 201 lymph nodes.
  • AUC for estimated percentage of white region within the node, Ratio(A), and SI(TN)/SI(GM) ratio for observer 1 were 0.98, 0.99, and 0.62 and for observer 2 were 0.97, 0.98, and 0.65, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The most reliable predictors for identifying benign nodes after radiation therapy with concomitant chemotherapy by using USPIO-enhanced MR imaging for restaging in patients with rectal cancer were estimated percentage of white region within the node and Ratio(A).
  • Measurements on standard 2D T2-weighted fast spin-echo images versus primary staging results offer reasonably good accuracy to identify benign lymph nodes after therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Drug Therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19403848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Chan JM, Shin LK, Jeffrey RB: Ultrasonography of abnormal neck lymph nodes. Ultrasound Q; 2007 Mar;23(1):47-54
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  • [Title] Ultrasonography of abnormal neck lymph nodes.
  • Features of cervical lymph nodes using gray-scale and color and power Doppler ultrasonography can help to distinguish normal and reactive lymph nodes from potentially metastatic lymph nodes.
  • The distinguishing features that separate abnormal from normal cervical lymph nodes include peripheral vascularity, shape, overall lymph node echogenicity, absence of hilus, presence of nodal microcalcifications, and cystic changes.
  • Often, a combination of these features is needed to assign a cervical lymph node as being abnormal.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / abnormalities. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 17558229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-8771
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound quarterly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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46. Lucey BC, Stuhlfaut JW, Soto JA: Mesenteric lymph nodes: detection and significance on MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Jan;184(1):41-4
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  • [Title] Mesenteric lymph nodes: detection and significance on MDCT.
  • OBJECTIVE: Unsuspected mesenteric lymph nodes are frequently found on abdominal CT scans in everyday clinical practice.
  • The purpose of this study is to document the incidence of mesenteric lymph nodes in a previously healthy population and to provide guidelines for further management.
  • Two radiologists evaluated the images by consensus and recorded the presence of mesenteric lymph nodes greater than 3 mm in the short axis.
  • Lymph node size, number, and location (central, peripheral, or right lower quadrant) were documented.
  • RESULTS: Of the 120 patients with otherwise normal CT scans, 47 had mesenteric lymph nodes greater than 3 mm.
  • Of these 47 patients, 22 (47%) had five or more lymph nodes detected.
  • Twenty-five (53%) of the 47 patients had four or fewer nodes.
  • The mean size of the largest nodes was 4.8 mm (range, 3-9 mm), and the mean size of the nodes found per patient was 3.6 mm (range, 3-6 mm).
  • These nodes were identified only at the mesenteric root in 32 patients (68%), only in the mesenteric periphery in eight patients (17%), and only in the right lower quadrant in five patients (11%).
  • Nodes were identified in more than one location in two patients (4%).
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental finding of mesenteric lymph nodes is common, reflecting more widespread use of thin-collimation MDCT and PACS workstations.
  • In general, these nodes are small, measuring less than 5 mm.
  • Such nodes when found in an otherwise healthy population are clinically insignificant and require no further imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / radiography. Mesentery / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15615948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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47. Macpherson AJ, Smith K: Mesenteric lymph nodes at the center of immune anatomy. J Exp Med; 2006 Mar 20;203(3):497-500
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Mesenteric lymph nodes at the center of immune anatomy.
  • Recent work shows that the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are the key site for tolerance induction to food proteins and that they also act as a firewall to prevent live commensal intestinal bacteria from penetrating the systemic immune system.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement / immunology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Immune Tolerance / immunology. Immunity, Mucosal. Lymph Nodes / immunology. Mesentery / immunology. Receptors, Chemokine / immunology

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  • [Cites] J Exp Med. 2000 Feb 7;191(3):435-44 [10662789.001]
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  • (PMID = 16533891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Ccr7 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, CCR7; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2118258
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48. Pulitzer MP, Gerami P, Busam K: Solar elastotic material in dermal lymphatics and lymph nodes. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;34(10):1492-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solar elastotic material in dermal lymphatics and lymph nodes.
  • The movement of material via passive mechanical transport through lymphatic channels (also known as benign mechanical transport) is a physiologic mechanism invoked to explain the occasional presence of benign heterotopic tissues within lymph nodes.
  • However, historically, the concept of benign mechanical transport has provoked controversy.
  • The proof of this concept is of fundamental importance to the claim that foreign cells or cellular aggregates found within a sentinel lymph node do not necessarily represent clinically relevant metastatic disease.
  • Herein we present the previously undescribed finding of solar elastotic material within the dermal lymphatics, and/or capsules, subcapsular sinuses, and parenchyma of lymph nodes of 9 patients.
  • Solar elastotic material was found in lymph nodes in association with metastatic melanoma, nodal melanocytic nevi, and in otherwise unremarkable lymph nodes lacking extrinsic cells.
  • These findings support the concept of the mechanical transport of both benign and malignant tissues through lymphatics and document that passively transported material can appear in any compartment of the lymph node; an important concept to give evidence for, as it offers a sound explanation for the presence of some cellular deposits within lymphoid tissue and supports the assertion that some of these deposits are benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermis / pathology. Elastic Tissue / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biological Transport. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Jan;35(1):152-3 [21164299.001]
  • (PMID = 20829679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Liu J, Wong HL, Moselhy J, Bowen B, Wu XY, Johnston MR: Targeting colloidal particulates to thoracic lymph nodes. Lung Cancer; 2006 Mar;51(3):377-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting colloidal particulates to thoracic lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Thoracic lymphatics and lymph nodes can be affected by cancer and other diseases.
  • METHODS: Various micro- and nanoparticles of charcoal, polystyrene and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) were administered into the pleural space of rats to study the lymphatic distribution of particles from the pleural cavity to the thoracic lymph nodes.
  • (3) the transport of particles to regional lymph nodes was consistently found in all three animal models;.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Regional thoracic lymphatics and lymph nodes can be accessed by colloidal particles injected into the pleural space.
  • [MeSH-major] Charcoal / administration & dosage. Lactic Acid / administration & dosage. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Pleura / physiology. Polyglycolic Acid / administration & dosage. Polymers / administration & dosage. Polystyrenes / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16413084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polystyrenes; 0 / polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 26009-03-0 / Polyglycolic Acid; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid
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50. Miletić Z, Gizdić B, Stoos-Veić T, Kaić G, Novak NP, Tadić M, Jaksić O, Ostović KT: Flow cytometric analysis of deep-seated lymph nodes. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):377-80
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  • [Title] Flow cytometric analysis of deep-seated lymph nodes.
  • Flow cytometry (FC) immunophenotyping is an important tool in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy and is widely used in the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) on fine-needle aspirates of lymph nodes and extranodal sites.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for FC analysis from deep-seated lymph nodes and to compare results of FC clonality analysis to cytomorphologic diagnosis of sampled lymph nodes.
  • For cytological diagnosis direct smears were made, selected slide was stained for rapid-on site evaluation procedure.
  • Sixteen patients with suspected NHL of deep-seated lymph nodes obtained by EUS-FNA were submitted for FC clonality analysis using four-color multiparameter flow cytometry stained with kappa/lambda/CD19/CD45.
  • Monoclonality was demonstrated in seven of 11 cases cytologically diagnosed as NHL and four of 11 cases cytologically diagnosed as benign were polyclonal.
  • Our results show that EUS-FNAC with FC is a sensitive and specific tool in the diagnosis of deep-seated B-NHL.
  • Cytologic diagnosis combined with FC clonality analysis can be performed in majority of cases and may eliminate need for open biopsy in some cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Flow Cytometry / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Abdominal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin Light Chains / genetics. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / ultrasonography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20698105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains
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51. Wolff CS, Castillo SF, Larson DR, O'Byrne MM, Fredericksen M, Deschamps C, Allen MS, Zais TG, Romero Y: Ivor Lewis approach is superior to transhiatal approach in retrieval of lymph nodes at esophagectomy. Dis Esophagus; 2008;21(4):328-33
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  • [Title] Ivor Lewis approach is superior to transhiatal approach in retrieval of lymph nodes at esophagectomy.
  • Lymph node involvement may impact postoperative therapeutic decision-making and prognosis in patients undergoing esophagectomy.
  • This study evaluates which surgical approach yields the most lymph nodes.
  • Lymph nodes were categorized into one of 17 regions per the American Joint Committee on Cancer, with the total number of lymph nodes, summed over each region, used as the primary outcome.
  • A mean of 18.7 (SD 8.5) lymph nodes were retrieved with the Ivor Lewis approach as compared to 17.4 (SD 9.2) with the extended Ivor Lewis approach (P = 0.30).
  • Since there was no statistical difference between the number of nodes collected in either Ivor Lewis approach, they were collapsed into one group for comparison with the transhiatal cases.
  • Significantly more lymph nodes were collected with an Ivor Lewis approach (mean 18.5, SD 8.6) than with a transhiatal approach (mean 9.0, SD 5.0, P < 0.001).
  • As expected, more thoracic lymph nodes were retrieved with the Ivor Lewis approach [mean 12.4 (SD 7.0) vs. 4.7 (SD 5.3), P < 0.001].
  • The Ivor Lewis approach was also superior for retrieval of abdominal nodes [mean 6.1 (SD 5.6) versus 4.3 (SD 4.4), P = 0.01].
  • More lymph nodes are obtained at esophagectomy with an Ivor Lewis than a transhiatal approach.

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  • (PMID = 18477255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 02956
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Kvirikashvili TO: [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children]. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jan;(130):41-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children].
  • We investigated 79 patients (76.0%) with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes among all 104 with general abdominal lymphosarcoma.
  • Surgical intervention and radial therapy is inexpedient in a treatment program of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children.
  • Besides, it is shown the superiority of intensive program of polychemical therapy OMDV: vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.5 mg/m(2) i/v in the 1 day; metotrexate -- 250 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the I day; dexamethazone 10 mg/m(2) per os 1-5 day; vepesid -- 100 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the 4 and 5 days.) in comparison with the ACOP scheme: adriamicine or rubomicine - 30 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); cyclophosphane -- 600 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.4 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); prednisolone -- 40 mg/m(2) every day 4-6 week quitting gradually) for treatment of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in childhood age.
  • General recovery without recurrence in children with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes was occurred in 44.2% cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16510909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
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53. McCormack D, Al-Shaer M, Goldschmidt BS, Dale PS, Henry C, Papageorgio C, Bhattacharyya K, Viator JA: Photoacoustic detection of melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes. J Biomech Eng; 2009 Jul;131(7):074519
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photoacoustic detection of melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • One method of staging melanoma is performed by taking a sentinel node biopsy, in which the first node in the lymphatic drainage path of the primary lesion is removed and tested for the presence of melanoma cells.
  • Current standard of care typically involves taking fewer than ten histologic sections of the node out of the hundreds of possible sections available in the tissue.
  • We have developed a photoacoustic method that probes the entire intact node.
  • We acquired a lymph node from a healthy canine subject.
  • Approximately 1 x 10(6) cells were separated and injected into the lymph node.
  • We also had a healthy lymph node in which no melanoma cells were implanted.
  • We used a tunable laser system set at 532 nm to irradiate the lymph nodes.
  • Three piezoelectric acoustic detectors were positioned near the lymph node to detect photoacoustic pulses generated within the lymph nodes.
  • We also acquired lymph nodes from pigs and repeated the experiments with increased amplification and improved sensors.
  • We detected photoacoustic responses from a lymph node with as few as 500 melanoma cells injected into the tissue, while normal lymph nodes showed no response.
  • Photoacoustic generation can be used to detect melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • This detection can be used to guide further histologic study of the node, increasing the accuracy of the sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acoustics / instrumentation. Elasticity Imaging Techniques / instrumentation. Lasers. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Dogs. Equipment Design. Equipment Failure Analysis. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19640155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-0731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomechanical engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomech Eng
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Kraal G, Samsom JN, Mebius RE: The importance of regional lymph nodes for mucosal tolerance. Immunol Rev; 2006 Oct;213:119-30

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The importance of regional lymph nodes for mucosal tolerance.
  • These organs, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and gut-associated Peyer's patches, are compartmentalized, providing separate niches for T and B cells.
  • From our studies on mucosal tolerance in mouse models, it has become evident that regional lymph nodes draining the mucosa are important sites to direct immune responses.
  • Here, we discuss the way regional lymph nodes contribute to the direction of immune responses and what is known about the local factors and cell behavior that form the basis for these differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Immune Tolerance / physiology. Immunity, Mucosal / physiology. Lymph Nodes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16972900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-2896
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunological reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunol. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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55. Abrao MS, Podgaec S, Dias JA Jr, Averbach M, Garry R, Ferraz Silva LF, Carvalho FM: Deeply infiltrating endometriosis affecting the rectum and lymph nodes. Fertil Steril; 2006 Sep;86(3):543-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Deeply infiltrating endometriosis affecting the rectum and lymph nodes.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We performed an evaluation of lesion size, number of lesions present in the bowel, intestinal wall layers affected by the endometriotic lesion, circumference of the intestinal loop affected by the endometriotic lesion, and presence of lymph nodes with foci of endometriosis.
  • RESULT(S): Analysis of the surgical samples revealed lymph nodes in the pericolic adipose tissue of 19 (54%), cases and in 5 of these cases (26.3%), endometriosis had affected the lymph nodes.
  • When the thickness of the endometriotic lesion reached 1.75 cm, lymph nodes of all patients were affected, and all patients in whom more than 80% of the circumference of the intestinal loop was affected by endometriosis presented with positive lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSION(S): This study raises doubts about whether this form of the disease can still be considered a clinically benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometriosis / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Rectal Diseases / pathology. Rectum / pathology


56. Esen G: Ultrasound of superficial lymph nodes. Eur J Radiol; 2006 Jun;58(3):345-59

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound of superficial lymph nodes.
  • US is a powerful tool for characterization of superficial lymph nodes.
  • Unlike other imaging techniques like CT and MRI, which mainly depend on size for differential diagnosis, US can evaluate important parameters such as shape, margins, internal structure and abnormal vascularization.
  • It is possible to evaluate the heterogeneous inner structure due to necrosis, unsharp or irregular borders due to extracapsular spread and abnormal vascularization with multiple subcapsular feeding vessels due to tumor angiogenesis.
  • The advances in US technology like high-resolution transducers, power Doppler function and contrast agents have all contributed to the well established role of US in the evaluation of lymph nodes.
  • This article mainly focuses on the sonographic criteria for differential diagnosis of normal, reactive, inflammatous and neoplastic lymph nodes as well as examination techniques in the neck, axilla, internal mammary and inguinal regions and indications in various clinical settings.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Illustration

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  • (PMID = 16480846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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57. Ozmen MM, Ozmen F, Zulfikaroglu B: Lymph nodes in gastric cancer. J Surg Oncol; 2008 Nov 1;98(6):476-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymph nodes in gastric cancer.
  • As the lymphatic distribution of stomach is very complex, the determination of the actual lymph node involvement is important for making the decision in order to avoid complications.
  • Sentinel node navigation surgery has recently been introduced in gastrointestinal tract cancer.
  • Present article reviews the detection techniques of lymph nodes and significance of lymphadenectomies in gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphography. Preoperative Care. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Compounds. Tin Fluorides

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18720367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Compounds; 0 / Tin Fluorides; 0 / technetium Tc 99m tin fluoride colloid
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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58. Cochran AJ, Huang RR, Lee J, Itakura E, Leong SP, Essner R: Tumour-induced immune modulation of sentinel lymph nodes. Nat Rev Immunol; 2006 Sep;6(9):659-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumour-induced immune modulation of sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), being the first nodes to receive lymph from a primary tumour and the preferential site of initial tumour metastases, are intensively exposed to the bioactive products of tumour cells and other associated cells.
  • We postulate that tumour-induced immune modulation of SLNs facilitates lymph-node metastases by inhibiting the generation of tumour-specific cytotoxic T cells that are active against tumour cells of primary and metastatic melanomas.
  • Immune modulation of the lymph nodes can be reversed by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a finding that has implications for the future therapy of lymph-node metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Movement. Dendritic Cells / cytology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Humans. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16932751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-1733
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Rev. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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59. Barbu A, Suehling M, Xu X, Liu D, Zhou SK, Comaniciu D: Automatic detection and segmentation of axillary lymph nodes. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv; 2010;13(Pt 1):28-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Automatic detection and segmentation of axillary lymph nodes.
  • Lymph node detection and measurement is a difficult and important part of cancer treatment.
  • In this paper we present a robust and effective learning-based method for the automatic detection of solid lymph nodes from Computed Tomography data.
  • First, it presents a learning based approach to lymph node detection based on Marginal Space Learning.
  • Second, it presents an efficient MRF-based segmentation method for solid lymph nodes.
  • An extensive evaluation on 101 volumes containing 362 lymph nodes shows that this method obtains a 82.3% detection rate at 1 false positive per volume, with an average running time of 5-20 seconds per volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20879211.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Namba F, Asaoka N, Kishimoto M, Kibayashi T, Yamato K, Osaki K, Okimoto N: [Case of multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Oct;45(10):779-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Case of multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes].
  • Biopsy by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) yielded a diagnosis of multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes.
  • In cases with the above radiologic findings, careful attention should be paid to making the differential diagnosis between intrapulmonary lymph nodes and primary lung cancer.
  • Solitary intrapulmonary lymph nodes are encountered frequently, but multiple or increasing numbers of nodes, as in our case, are very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung / pathology. Lung Diseases / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18018626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Cserni G: Pathological evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2007 Jan;16(1):17-34
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  • [Title] Pathological evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes.
  • The sentinel lymph nodes are the most likely site of nodal metastasis.
  • Their focused analysis results in upstaging cancers, although the extra yield from a more intensive work-up is generally dominated by micrometastases and isolated tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. MART-1 Antigen. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17336234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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62. Ahuja AT, Ying M: Sonographic evaluation of cervical lymph nodes. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 May;184(5):1691-9
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  • [Title] Sonographic evaluation of cervical lymph nodes.
  • OBJECTIVE: Sonography is a useful imaging tool in the evaluation of cervical lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic appearances of normal nodes differ from those of abnormal nodes.
  • Sonographic features that help to identify abnormal nodes include shape (round), absent hilus, intranodal necrosis, reticulation, calcification, matting, soft-tissue edema, and peripheral vascularity.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Diseases / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • (PMID = 15855141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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63. Stoeckelhuber BM, Wiesmann M, Berg SA, Tronnier M, Stoeckelhuber M, Krueger S, Gellissen J, Bergmann-Koester CU: [Sonography of enlarged lymph nodes: Pathogenetic categorization using contrast enhanced power Doppler sonography]. Hautarzt; 2006 Jul;57(7):610-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Sonography of enlarged lymph nodes: Pathogenetic categorization using contrast enhanced power Doppler sonography].
  • [Transliterated title] Sonographische Diagnostik vergrösserter Lymphknoten: Pathogenetische Kategorisierung mit der kontrastverstärkten Powerdoppler-Sonographie.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to categorize enlarged superficial lymph nodes as benign or malignant using sonomorphologic features and vascularization pattern.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Enlarged superficial lymph nodes in 57 patients were assessed with B-mode and contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography.
  • The lymph nodes were categorized as benign or malignant.
  • RESULTS: In 55 patients, 40 lymph nodes were correctly categorized as benign and 15 lymph nodes correctly as malignant.
  • Intact hilar vessels and branching indicated benign enlargement, destruction of the hilum with vessels running peripherally along the capsule indicated metastatic destruction.
  • Two benign lymph nodes were considered malignant (false positive).
  • CONCLUSION: B-mode ultrasound along with contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound is an easy, cost-effective, and reliable tool for differentiation and categorization of enlarged superficial lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16673107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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64. Turner J, Vollmer RT: Lymph nodes in colorectal carcinoma. The Poisson probability paradigm. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jun;125(6):866-72
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  • [Title] Lymph nodes in colorectal carcinoma. The Poisson probability paradigm.
  • This article introduces use of the Poisson probability density function and Bayes probability rule to understand and analyze lymph nodal metastases in colorectal carcinoma.
  • In 213 cases with negative lymph nodes, we found that the Bayes-estimated probability of missed metastases was related significantly to subsequent survival (P = .0006).
  • In 157 cases with lymph nodal metastases, we found that the estimated value of the Poisson parameter a was associated more closely with subsequent survival than pN stage (P = 9 10(-6)).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Poisson Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16690486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Baldazzi V, Paci P, Bernaschi M, Castiglione F: Modeling lymphocyte homing and encounters in lymph nodes. BMC Bioinformatics; 2009;10:387

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modeling lymphocyte homing and encounters in lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: The efficiency of lymph nodes depends on tissue structure and organization, which allow the coordination of lymphocyte traffic.
  • Despite their essential role, our understanding of lymph node specific mechanisms is still incomplete and currently a topic of intense research.
  • RESULTS: In this paper, we present a hybrid discrete/continuous model of the lymph node, accounting for differences in cell velocity and chemotactic response, influenced by the spatial compartmentalization of the lymph node and the regulation of cells migration, encounter, and antigen presentation during the inflammation process.
  • Furthermore, we investigate the consequences of the absence of dendritic cells at different times during infection, and the dependence of system dynamics on the regulation of lymphocyte exit from lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Computational Biology / methods. Lymph Nodes / physiology. Lymphocytes / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19939270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC bioinformatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Bioinformatics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2790470
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66. Chen HC, Kang BH, Lai CT, Lin YS: Sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes. J Chin Med Assoc; 2005 Jul;68(7):339-42
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  • [Title] Sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes.
  • Only the presentation of sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes without typical manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis poses a diagnostic difficulty.
  • The biopsy from the neck mass demonstrated non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma of the lymph nodes.
  • Although our patient's definitive diagnosis could not be determined, the case highlights 2 important issues: sarcoidal granuloma in lymph nodes may be a precursor of sarcoidosis, even in the absence of pulmonary or other systemic involvement; and regular follow-up is recommended in such cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neck

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  • (PMID = 16038376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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67. Thomsen JB, Sørensen JA, Jakobsen J, Karstoft J: [Introduction to ultrasonography of lymph nodes of the neck]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Feb 2;171(6):423-6
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  • [Title] [Introduction to ultrasonography of lymph nodes of the neck].
  • This is a short introduction to ultrasonography of lymph nodes of the neck in patients with malignant melanoma, head & neck cancer and skin cancer.
  • Ultrasonography is well-suited for evaluation of regional lymph node status.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Neck. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19208332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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68. Chiu JT, Wobeser G, Bollinger T: Granulomatous inflammation in retropharyngeal lymph nodes of wild cervids in Saskatchewan. J Wildl Dis; 2009 Jul;45(3):625-30
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  • [Title] Granulomatous inflammation in retropharyngeal lymph nodes of wild cervids in Saskatchewan.
  • A portion of retropharyngeal lymph nodes from 6,824 wild cervids, comprising 1,458 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 5,345 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 11 unidentified deer (Odocoileus spp.
  • Aerobic and anaerobic culture from frozen tissue from the lymph nodes was negative, as was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium bovis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Wild / microbiology. Female. Lymph Nodes / microbiology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Prevalence. Saskatchewan / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19617472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3558
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wildlife diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Wildl. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Lee BE, Redwine J, Foster C, Abella E, Lown T, Lau D, Follette D: Mediastinoscopy might not be necessary in patients with non-small cell lung cancer with mediastinal lymph nodes having a maximum standardized uptake value of less than 5.3. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2008 Mar;135(3):615-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mediastinoscopy might not be necessary in patients with non-small cell lung cancer with mediastinal lymph nodes having a maximum standardized uptake value of less than 5.3.
  • The maximum standardized uptake value obtained with integrated fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography has been proposed to be a predictor of malignancy in mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • A recent study has also suggested that accuracy of integrated fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography might be improved by increasing the maximum standardized uptake value used for calling a lymph node positive from 2.5 to 5.3.
  • We tested the hypotheses that the maximum standardized uptake value is a predictor of individual lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer and that pathologic staging with mediastinoscopy might not be necessary in patients with a maximum standardized uptake value of less than 5.3 in their mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 765 lymph nodes sampled from 110 patients in a single institution with biopsy-proved non-small cell lung cancer.
  • All patients underwent integrated fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography before biopsy or resection of their mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • All N2 lymph nodes were individually assessed according to station.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-one (19%) of 110 patients had N2 disease, and a total of 765 N2 lymph nodes were pathologically examined.
  • The mean and median maximum standardized uptake values for N2 nodes with metastatic disease were 9.2 (95% confidence interval, 7.0-11.4) and 7.2 (range, 2.2-25.8), respectively.
  • For benign N2 nodes, the mean and median maximum standardized uptake values were 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-1.6) and 1.0 (range, 1.0-9.6), respectively (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The maximum standardized uptake value is a predictor of individual lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • More importantly, these results suggest that some patients with non-small cell lung cancer with a maximum standardized uptake value less than 5.3 in their N2 lymph nodes might be able to forego mediastinoscopy and proceed directly to thoracotomy.
  • This represents a significant change in the current management of standardized uptake value-positive mediastinal lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Male. Mediastinoscopy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy / methods. Pneumonectomy / mortality. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18329480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Kürle S, Schulte KW, Homey B: [Accumulation of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes]. Hautarzt; 2009 Oct;60(10):781-3
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  • [Title] [Accumulation of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes].
  • A 22-year-old woman presented with a superficial spreading melanoma on her right thigh (tumor thickness 1.0 mm, Clark-Level III).
  • Intra-operatively, we observed a black pigmented lymph node highly suspicious for metastatic disease, but histological examination excluded metastatic spread and detected the accumulation of black pigment within the lymph node.
  • Clinical differentiation between tattoo pigments and metastatic disease within lymph nodes is not possible.
  • Histological confirmation of an enlarged pigmented lymph node is therefore essential before radical surgery is performed.
  • Hence, accumulation of tattoo pigment within enlarged and pigmented lymph nodes needs to be included into the differential diagnosis and the documentation of decorative tattoos is important during skin cancer screening as well as during the follow-up of melanoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / pharmacokinetics. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Tattooing

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  • (PMID = 19756437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
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  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
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  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents
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71. Schramm R, Menger MD, Harder Y, Schmits R, Adam O, Weitz-Schmidt G, Schäfers HJ: Statins inhibit lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymph nodes. Immunology; 2007 Mar;120(3):315-24
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  • [Title] Statins inhibit lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymph nodes.
  • Lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymph nodes is governed by adhesion molecules, including lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1).
  • We used a cervical lymph node preparation to study the effects of simvastatin on lymphocyte adhesion to high endothelial venules (HEVs) by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy (IVM).
  • Histological analysis after a 10-day treatment with simvastatin showed reduced cellularity of cervical lymph nodes, as indicated by a reduction of the relative area of haematoxylin-stained cell nuclei in cervical lymph node cross-sections from 94 +/- 0% in vehicle-treated controls to 77 +/- 3% in simvastatin-treated mice (P < 0.05).
  • We conclude that statin compounds are capable of inhibiting lymphocyte homing to murine peripheral lymph nodes in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Leukocyte Rolling / drug effects. Lymph Nodes / immunology. Lymphocytes / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17140403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-2805
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / LFA 878; 0 / Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Oxazines; AGG2FN16EV / Simvastatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2265897
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72. Qian CN, Resau JH, Teh BT: Prospects for vasculature reorganization in sentinel lymph nodes. Cell Cycle; 2007 Mar 1;6(5):514-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prospects for vasculature reorganization in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Primary tumors can induce vasculature and lymph channel reorganizations within sentinel lymph nodes before the arrival of cancer cells.
  • The key blood vessels in such nodes that are remodeled are high endothelial venules (HEVs).
  • This tumor-induced reorganization is quite different from an endotoxin-induced inflammatory vasculature alteration.
  • We review some of the accepted doctrines on lymph flow and lymphatic metastasis in light of this reorganization.
  • More investigations are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the morphological and functional alteration of HEVs, the fluid exchanges between lymph and blood, the microenvironmental preparation for cancer cells to survive and expand in the lymph node, and the detail process of further distant dissemination of cancer cells from the lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / blood supply. Lymph Nodes / physiopathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / physiopathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17329977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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73. Brennick JB, Yan S: False-positive cells in sentinel lymph nodes. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2008 May;25(2):116-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] False-positive cells in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Melanoma sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) are carefully evaluated to maximize sensitivity.
  • Examination includes hematoxylin and eosin (H+E) stained sections at multiple levels through the node, with subsequent immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for melanocytic markers if H+E sections are negative for melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. MART-1 Antigen. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18697715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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74. Liberale G, Lasser P, Sabourin JC, Malka D, Duvillard P, Elias D, Boige V, Goéré D, Ducreux M, Pocard M: Sentinel lymph nodes of colorectal carcinoma: reappraisal of 123 cases. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Mar;31(3):281-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel lymph nodes of colorectal carcinoma: reappraisal of 123 cases.
  • AIMS: Results concerning the usefulness of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in colorectal carcinoma have been discordant.
  • The SLN technique may be used to guide surgical resection (lymph mapping), restrict the lymph node analysis solely to the SLN (accuracy) and upgrade tumor staging when micrometastases are specifically detected in the SLN.
  • On average, twenty lymph nodes (range: 5-74) and two SLNs (range: 1-5) were identified.
  • Lymph mapping was used in 11% of patients to guide surgical resection; the SLN was negative in 14 of 36 N+ patients (39% false-negatives); HES staining enabled detection of micrometastases in 8 of 84 initially N0 patients (10% secondary upgrading to N+).
  • CONCLUSION: Limiting node analysis to the SLN cannot replace a complete pathology examination of all resected lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Coloring Agents. False Negative Reactions. Female. Fluorescent Dyes. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2007 Mar;31(3):279-80 [17396085.001]
  • (PMID = 17396086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes
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75. Shidham VB: Evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for melanoma metastases by pathologists. Clin Plast Surg; 2010 Jan;37(1):101-12
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for melanoma metastases by pathologists.
  • The pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for melanoma metastases is not without significant challenges.
  • This article discusses various approaches along with recommended dos and don'ts for optimum evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for melanoma metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intraoperative Period. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19914462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0504
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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76. Centkowski P, Sawczuk-Chabin J, Prochorec M, Warzocha K: Hodgkin's lymphoma and tuberculosis coexistence in cervical lymph nodes. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Mar;46(3):471-5
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  • [Title] Hodgkin's lymphoma and tuberculosis coexistence in cervical lymph nodes.
  • We describe the case of a 47-year-old man admitted to the Department of Hematology because of fever, enlarged cervical and supraclavicular lymph nodes, hepatosplenomegaly and non-specific lung infiltrations.
  • The histopathological examination of the cervical lymph node revealed Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) NS type I.
  • Despite BEACOPP chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone), the enlarged lymph nodes, lung infiltrations and fever persisted.
  • However, the biopsy of the supraclavicular lymph node revealed multiple, caseating and necrotizing granulomatous lesions with scattered Reed-Sternberg (R-S) cells.
  • The auramin staining presented acid-fast bacilli and allowed the diagnosis of productive and caseating TB coexisting with HL.
  • The diagnosis may be difficult due to similarities in the clinical course, laboratory tests and imaging procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / complications. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / complications

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  • (PMID = 15621842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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77. Kirchner GI, Tischendorf JJ, Bleck J, Wagner S, Caselitz M, Klempnauer J, Manns MP, Gebel M: Perihilar lymph nodes in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with and without cholangiocellular carcinoma. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2008;43(11):1366-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perihilar lymph nodes in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with and without cholangiocellular carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Enlarged perihilar lymph nodes have been described in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).
  • The aim of the study was to determine the clinical relevance of perihilar lymph nodes in PSC patients with and without cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The status of perihilar lymph nodes was investigated in 117 patients with PSC using "high-end" ultrasound.
  • Lymph node status was correlated with the presence of CCC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
  • RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of PSC patients without CCC and 86% of patients with CCC had enlarged perihilar lymph nodes (NS).
  • In CCC patients, the width of lymph nodes was significantly larger (12+/-6 mm versus 8+/-4 mm; p=0.0001), and the length:width ratio (2.15+/-0.7:1 versus 2.5+/-0.6:1; p=0.004) of the lymph nodes was significantly lower.
  • Thirty-seven percent of PSC patients without CCC and 57% of patients with PSC and CCC had multiple perihilar lymph nodes (p=0.04).
  • In all patients, the presence versus absence of IBD had no influence on the number (84% versus 74%,) and size of perihilar lymph nodes (length: 21+/-10 mm versus 19+/-7 mm).
  • Lymph node status did not correlate with the number of episodes of cholangitis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Enlarged perihilar lymph nodes are characteristic of patients with PSC.
  • Since perihilar lymph nodes are not predictive of the presence of complicating CCC, such patients should not be excluded from liver transplantation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged


78. Shen SS, Haupt BX, Ro JY, Zhu J, Bailey HR, Schwartz MR: Number of lymph nodes examined and associated clinicopathologic factors in colorectal carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):781-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Number of lymph nodes examined and associated clinicopathologic factors in colorectal carcinoma.
  • The number of lymph nodes recovered and examined in resection specimens has been recently shown to be critical for proper staging and is associated with survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinicopathologic factors that may be associated with the number of lymph nodes harvested from surgical resections.
  • DESIGN: Clinicopathologic factors of 434 consecutive cases of colorectal cancers treated by surgical resection from a single tertiary medical center were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with number of lymph nodes recovered.
  • RESULTS: Our data show that patient age, tumor location, and length of resected bowel segment were associated with number of lymph nodes harvested in surgical resections of colorectal cancer.
  • The average number of lymph nodes was 18.2 and 17.8 for patients younger than 50 years and aged 50 through 60 years, respectively, whereas it was 14.4, 15.1, and 14.9 for patients aged 61 through 70 years, 71 through 80 years, and 80 years and older, respectively.
  • More lymph nodes were present in resection specimens of cecum/ascending colon and descending colon cancers than in those of transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectal cancers.
  • There was a linear increase in number of lymph nodes examined with increasing length of bowel resection specimens.
  • In multivariate regression analysis, the factors that remained independent predictors of removal of 12 or more lymph nodes from resection specimens were tumor location and length of resected bowel segment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The number of lymph nodes obtained in resection specimens for colorectal cancer was significantly associated with the length of resected segments of bowel, patient age, and location of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19415953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Christensen AF, Bourke JL, Nielsen MB, Møller H, Svendsen LB, Mogensen AM, Vainer B: Detection rate of periintestinal lymph nodes. Ultraschall Med; 2006 Aug;27(4):360-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection rate of periintestinal lymph nodes.
  • AIM: Compared to standard two-dimensional (2D) endosonography, three-dimensional (3D) endosonography has been presented as a possible improvement regarding imaging of the gastrointestinal (G-I) tract and detection of metastatic lymph nodes.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of detecting periintestinal lymph nodes in surgical specimens using 3D endosonography.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Surgical specimens from 31 patients with malignant G-I tumours were investigated by 3-D endosonography and histology with focus on the presence of periintestinal lymph nodes and presence of metastasis.
  • Position and size of the lymph nodes were mapped on a photo of the specimen both by the pathologist and the examiners.
  • RESULTS: Three-dimensional endosonography detected 48 out of 60 malignant lymph nodes (80.0 %), and 110 out of 219 benign lymph nodes (50.2 %).
  • The positive predictive value for an endosonographic finding interpreted as a lymph node was 0.97.
  • CONCLUSION: The detection rates for periintestinal lymph nodes were relatively high and seemed superior to the one usually assigned to 2D endosonography.
  • Although distinguishing between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes remains a problem, all patients with histologically confirmed metastasis to lymph nodes were detected by 3D endosonography, and the technique thus seems suitable for grouping of patients prior to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Rectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Stomach Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16596506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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80. Ohtani O, Ohtani Y: Structure and function of rat lymph nodes. Arch Histol Cytol; 2008 Sep;71(2):69-76

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Structure and function of rat lymph nodes.
  • The lymph node comprises a critical crossroad for encounters between antigen presenting cells, antigens from lymph, and lymphocytes recruited into lymph nodes from the blood.
  • The node consists of spaces lined with lymphatic endothelial cells and parenchyma.
  • The sponge-like framework of the node parenchyma is composed of collagen fibers invested with reticular cells.
  • Lymphocytes migrate from the node parenchyma into the lymphatic labyrinths in the deep cortex.
  • Close to the labyrinths are high endothelial venules (HEVs), through which circulating lymphocytes enter the node parenchyma.
  • HEVs strongly express Aquaporin-1, suggesting that HEVs are involved in the net absorption of water, but not protein, from lymph coming through afferent lymphatics.
  • Fluids and migrating cells arriving at the node preferentially flow through the subcapsular sinuses, intermediate sinuses, and medullary sinuses in this order.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymphatic System / anatomy & histology. Lymphatic System / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18974599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-9465
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of histology and cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Histol. Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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81. Nakahara T: [Tracers used for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Mar;110(2):86-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Tracers used for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes].
  • The dye or isotope technique is generally used for sentinel lymph node mapping.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes can easily be detected with the dye method 5-20 min after peritumoral tracer injection.
  • When using dye mapping alone, sentinel lymph node detection should be achieved before the dye reaches nonsentinel nodes.
  • Lymphoscintigraphy often permits preoperative sentinel lymph node detection as a guide to intraoperative survey.
  • In current practice, the combination of a radioisotope and blue dye for lymphatic mapping is thought to improve the sentinel lymph node identification rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Radioisotopes
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 19348200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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82. Katagiri K, Katakai T, Ebisuno Y, Ueda Y, Okada T, Kinashi T: Mst1 controls lymphocyte trafficking and interstitial motility within lymph nodes. EMBO J; 2009 May 6;28(9):1319-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mst1 controls lymphocyte trafficking and interstitial motility within lymph nodes.
  • Furthermore, Mst1(-/-) lymphocytes had impaired motility over lymph node-derived stromal cells and within lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. B-Lymphocytes / cytology. B-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Line. Cells, Cultured. Chemokine CCL21 / pharmacology. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Immunoblotting. In Vitro Techniques. Lymph Nodes / cytology. Lymphoid Tissue / cytology. Lymphoid Tissue / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Spleen / cytology. Spleen / metabolism. Stromal Cells / cytology. Stromal Cells / metabolism. T-Lymphocytes / cytology. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism


83. Nakayama K, Okada D, Koizumi K, Kawaguchi Y, Shimizu K: [Tuberculoma of the mediastinal lymph nodes with spinal caries]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 Aug;59(9):826-30

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Tuberculoma of the mediastinal lymph nodes with spinal caries].
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated partially calcified enlargements of the anterior mediastinal lymph nodes and pleural effusion in both lungs.
  • Therefore, we performed a lymph node biopsy using a thoracoscope for a definitive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes. Tuberculoma / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Spinal / complications

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  • (PMID = 16922442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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84. Ha YH, Jeong SY, Lim SB, Choi HS, Hong YS, Chang HJ, Kim DY, Jung KH, Park JG: Influence of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on the number of lymph nodes retrieved in rectal cancer. Ann Surg; 2010 Aug;252(2):336-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on the number of lymph nodes retrieved in rectal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of preoperative chemoradiotherapy to the number of lymph nodes retrieved in curative intent surgery for rectal cancer.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Current guidelines recommend evaluation of least 12 to 14 lymph nodes in rectal cancer.
  • It is well known that lymph nodes retrieval is affected by many factors.
  • We explored associations between the number of lymph nodes retrieved in the pathologic specimen and patient demographics (age, gender, body mass index [BMI]), treatment (surgeon, sphincter-saving, preoperative chemoradiotherapy), and tumor-related variables (location, stage, histology).
  • After adjustment for other factors, we compared the mean number of obtained lymph nodes between patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy and those treated without preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that age, BMI, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, location, and stage significantly related the number of lymph nodes retrieved.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed age, BMI, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, and stage as independent factors influencing the number of lymph nodes retrieved.
  • The mean number of lymph nodes adjusted for age, BMI, and stage was significantly lower in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy than in those treated without preoperative chemoradiotherapy (14.5 vs. 21.5, P < 0.001).
  • In patients who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy, advanced age (P < 0.001) and high BMI (P = 0.037) were associated with decreased number of retrieved lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy significantly decreased the number of retrieved lymph nodes by approximately 33%.
  • Therefore, the recommended number of retrieved lymph nodes should be adjusted when rectal cancer is treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20647928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Bahnson PB, Snyder C, Omran LM: Salmonella enterica in superficial cervical (prescapular) and ileocecal lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs. J Food Prot; 2006 Apr;69(4):925-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Salmonella enterica in superficial cervical (prescapular) and ileocecal lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs.
  • Because certain lymph nodes may be incorporated in food products, the presence of Salmonella enterica in these tissues could pose a food safety risk.
  • We designed this two-part study to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in prescapular lymph nodes from normal slaughtered swine.
  • Prescapular lymph nodes were collected from 300 systematically selected pigs in study 1 and, in study 2, from 75 pigs distributed among 10 herds.
  • For study 2, pooled bacterial cultures were also completed on ileocecal lymph nodes, combining tissue from five pigs per pool (n = 60 pools).
  • No Salmonella was detected in study 1 among prescapular lymph nodes (95% confidence interval, 0.0 to 1.16%).
  • Salmonella was not detected in 75 prescapular lymph nodes from study 2, although Salmonella was detected in 5 of 10 herds in ileocecal lymph nodes.
  • We conclude that prescapular lymph nodes posed a limited food safety risk in this population of pigs.
  • [MeSH-major] Abattoirs. Food Contamination / analysis. Lymph Nodes / microbiology. Salmonella Infections, Animal / epidemiology. Salmonella enterica / isolation & purification. Swine Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16629040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0362-028X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of food protection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Food Prot.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Neoral C, Aujeský R, Král V, Klein J, Bohanes T, Vrba R, Koranda P: [The technique of securing sentinel lymph nodes in tumors of the distal oesophagus and the stomach ]. Rozhl Chir; 2005 Jun;84(6):307-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The technique of securing sentinel lymph nodes in tumors of the distal oesophagus and the stomach ].
  • [Transliterated title] Technika získání sentinelových uzlin u tumorů v oblasti distálního jícnu a zaludku.
  • The authors discuss the technique of identification and biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
  • They describe difficulties and problems of the technique, in which the identified sentinel lymph node is obtained mainly employing endoscopical and minimally invasive techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16149226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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87. Cserni G: Histopathologic examination of the sentinel lymph nodes. Breast J; 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5 Suppl 2):S152-6
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  • [Title] Histopathologic examination of the sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the most likely site of regional metastasis.
  • Several guidelines relating to the histopathology of sentinel nodes, including the recent European Working Group for Breast Screening Pathology guidelines, are briefly summarized.
  • These latter advocate multilevel assessment of grossly or intraoperatively negative sentinel nodes with levels separated by a maximum of 1 mm and allow IHC in their assessment, although this latter method is not mandatory.
  • There are also minimum requirements for the reports on sentinel node histology.
  • For example, the reports should include the extent of nodal involvement, the method used for their identification, and preferably the method used for investigating the sentinel nodes, even if the results are negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Intraoperative Care. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16958995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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88. Bandhauer F: [Evaluation of cervical lymph nodes by ultrasound]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2005 Mar 16;94(11):423-6
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of cervical lymph nodes by ultrasound].
  • Abscesses and calcifications in cervical lymph nodes can be easily detected by ultrasound.
  • Lymphomas often manifest in cervical lymph nodes and change size and sonografic structure.
  • Lymph node metastasis of head and neck carcinomas are characterised by size, shape, vascularisation and infiltration.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Lymphadenitis / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Lymphoma / radiography. Neck / ultrasonography. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15822439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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89. Arthur TM, Brichta-Harhay DM, Bosilevac JM, Guerini MN, Kalchayanand N, Wells JE, Shackelford SD, Wheeler TL, Koohmaraie M: Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes potentially destined for use in ground beef. J Food Prot; 2008 Aug;71(8):1685-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes potentially destined for use in ground beef.
  • A potential source of pathogenic bacteria in ground beef is the lymphatic system, specifically the lymph nodes.
  • Bacteria have been isolated from the lymph nodes of cattle at slaughter; however, most studies have dealt with mesenteric lymph nodes, which are not normally incorporated into ground beef.
  • The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and multidrug-resistance status of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes associated with lean and fat trimmings that might be utilized in ground beef production.
  • Bovine lymph nodes (n = 1,140) were collected from commercial beef processing plants.
  • Half of the lymph nodes sampled were obtained from cull cow and bull processing plants, and the remainder were obtained from fed beef processing plants.
  • Lymph nodes located in chuck and flank adipose tissue were collected for this study.
  • Salmonella prevalence in the lymph node samples was low, with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and a 95% confidence interval of 0.85 to 2.3%.
  • Lymph nodes from cull cattle carcasses had a higher prevalence of Salmonella than did those from fed cattle carcasses.
  • Lymph nodes from the flanks of cow and bull carcasses had the highest prevalence at 3.86%, whereas lymph nodes from the chuck region of fed cattle carcasses had the lowest prevalence at 0.35%.
  • Three of the 18 Salmonella-positive lymph node samples contained multidrug-resistant Salmonella, and all 3 samples were from cull cattle.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Cattle / microbiology. Drug Resistance, Bacterial. Lymph Nodes / microbiology. Meat Products / microbiology. Salmonella / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 18724765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0362-028X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of food protection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Food Prot.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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90. Kroon BK, Valdés Olmos R, Nieweg OE, Horenblas S: Non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in penile carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2005 Sep;32(9):1096-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in penile carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and cause of non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes on preoperative lymphoscintigrams for penile cancer and its implications for further management.
  • METHODS: Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed after injection of (99m)Tc-labelled nanocolloid in 123 clinically node-negative penile carcinoma patients.
  • Thus, in 27 (11%) of 246 groins, no sentinel node was visualized.
  • After the occurrence of a tumour-positive node in a non-visualized groin, we explore non-visualized groins by blue dye mapping and intraoperative palpation.
  • Sentinel nodes were retrieved in four out of eight such groins, of which one contained metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: In penile carcinoma patients, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy visualizes a sentinel node in 89% of groins.
  • Sentinel nodes can be intraoperatively identified in more than half of these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Preoperative Care / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15875177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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91. Hocke M, Menges M, Topalidis T, Dietrich CF, Stallmach A: Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in discrimination between benign and malignant mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Apr;134(4):473-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in discrimination between benign and malignant mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum reflect neoplastic, infectious or other diseases.
  • The classification of these nodes is crucial in the management of the patient.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 122 patients (age: 63 +/- 15 years, 92 males, 30 females) with enlarged mediastinal and/or paraaortic lymph nodes diagnosed by CT scan were included in the study.
  • EUS-guided fine needle aspiration was performed and cytologic specimens were diagnosed as representing a malignant or benign process in case of Papanicolau IV and V, or Papanicolau I and II, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Based on cytology results, the investigated lymph nodes were classified as neoplastic (n = 48) or non-neoplastic lymph nodes.
  • Using the B-mode criteria the preliminary diagnosis was confirmed in 64 out of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 86%).
  • Regarding malignant lymph nodes 33 of 48 were confirmed (sensitivity 68%).
  • Using the advanced contrast-enhanced EUS criteria the diagnosis was confirmed in 68 of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 91%).
  • However, in case of malignant lymph nodes the number of correct diagnoses dropped to 29 of 48 lymph nodes (sensitivity 60%).
  • The contrast-enhanced EUS criteria to identify benign lymph nodes and node enlargement in malignant lymphoma do not differ.
  • If those ten patients with malignant lymphoma are excluded, the sensitivity of the contrast enhanced EUS for malignant lymph nodes rises to 73%.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced EUS improves the specificity in diagnosing benign lymph nodes as compared to B-mode EUS.
  • It does not improve the correct identification of malignant lymph nodes and cannot replace EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mediastinum / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] J Clin Ultrasound. 2002 Jan;30(1):1-11 [11807848.001]
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  • (PMID = 17891499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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92. Mayer MN, Lawson JA, Silver TI: Sonographic characteristics of presumptively normal canine medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2010 Nov-Dec;51(6):638-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sonographic characteristics of presumptively normal canine medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes.
  • The medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes are not routinely palpable in the dog, and ultrasound imaging provides an alternate noninvasive technique to assess these lymph nodes, as well as to guide needle aspiration.
  • Herein we describe the ultrasound characteristics of the medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes in 50 healthy dogs, as well as frequency and ease of node detection.
  • The relationship between the size of the lymph nodes and the following variables was assessed: age, gender, body weight, body condition score, body length, and thoracic height and width.
  • Right and left medial iliac lymph nodes were detected in 50 (100%) dogs, right superficial inguinal lymph node(s) in 49 (98%) dogs, and left superficial inguinal lymph node(s) in 47 (96%) dogs.
  • In > 90% of both sets of lymph nodes, the echogenicity was hypoechoic or isoechoic to surrounding tissues, with a corticomedullary or homogenous echotexture, smooth, clearly defined margins, and a fusiform shape.
  • Increasing weight, distance from the sternal manubrium to the ischium, and thoracic height and width were associated with increased lymph node size (P-values < 0.05).
  • Average lymph node sizes and range of sizes provide preliminary reference values for the medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes in normal dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Dogs / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 21158237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Prieto S, Gomez-Ochoa P, De Blas I, Gascón M, Aceña C, Corda A, Sosa I, Gregori T, Couto G: Pathologic correlation of resistive and pulsatility indices in canine abdominal lymph nodes. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2009 Sep-Oct;50(5):525-9
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  • [Title] Pathologic correlation of resistive and pulsatility indices in canine abdominal lymph nodes.
  • We assessed the ability of the resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) to allow differentiation between normal, reactive, and neoplastic lymph nodes.
  • Forty-seven medial iliac and 54 mesenteric lymph nodes from 83 dogs were evaluated sonographically.
  • We found a significant difference in the RI and PI in nonneoplastic vs. neoplastic medial iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • Values higher than 0.67 for the RI and 1.02 for the PI in medial iliac lymph nodes and higher than 0.76 for the RI and 1.23 for the PI in mesenteric lymph nodes had a high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating benign from neoplastic lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19788039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Akduman EI, Momtahen AJ, Balci NC, Mahajann N, Havlioglu N, Wolverson MK: Comparison between malignant and benign abdominal lymph nodes on diffusion-weighted imaging. Acad Radiol; 2008 May;15(5):641-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison between malignant and benign abdominal lymph nodes on diffusion-weighted imaging.
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to review the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of benign and metastatic abdominal lymph nodes on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with a total of 40 benign (20 patients) and 16 malignant (8 patients) lymph nodes who underwent DWI MRI of the abdomen (b = 0.600) were enrolled in the study.
  • ADC values of the lymph nodes were measured and comparison was made between benign and malignant groups.
  • RESULTS: Mean ADC value of lymph nodes was 2.38 +/- 0.29 and 1.84 +/- 0.37 x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec in the benign and malignant groups, respectively.
  • There was a significant statistical difference between the ADC values of benign and malignant lymph nodes (P < .0005).
  • CONCLUSION: A wide range of ADC values exist in patients with metastatic abdominal lymph nodes, with a tendency of higher ADC values in benign lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18423322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Parungo CP, Ohnishi S, Kim SW, Kim S, Laurence RG, Soltesz EG, Chen FY, Colson YL, Cohn LH, Bawendi MG, Frangioni JV: Intraoperative identification of esophageal sentinel lymph nodes with near-infrared fluorescence imaging. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Apr;129(4):844-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative identification of esophageal sentinel lymph nodes with near-infrared fluorescence imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: In esophageal cancer, selective removal of involved lymph nodes could improve survival and limit complications from extended lymphadenectomy.
  • Mapping with vital blue dyes or technetium Tc-99m often fails to identify intrathoracic sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Our purpose was to develop an intraoperative method for identifying sentinel lymph nodes of the esophagus with high-sensitivity near-infrared fluorescence imaging.
  • METHODS: Six Yorkshire pigs underwent thoracotomy and received submucosal, esophageal injection of quantum dots, a novel near-infrared fluorescent lymph tracer designed for retention in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Six additional pigs underwent thoracotomy and received submucosal esophageal injection of CW800 conjugated to human serum albumin, another novel lymph tracer designed for uptake into distant lymph nodes.
  • These lymph tracers fluoresce in the near-infrared, permitting visualization of migration to sentinel lymph nodes with a custom intraoperative imaging system.
  • RESULTS: Injection of the near-infrared fluorescent lymph tracers into the esophagus revealed communicating lymph nodes within 5 minutes of injection.
  • In all 6 pigs that received quantum dot injection, only a single sentinel lymph node was identified.
  • Among pigs that received fluorophore-conjugated albumin injection, in 5 of 12 a single sentinel lymph node was revealed, but in 7 of 12 two sentinel lymph nodes were identified.
  • There was no dominant pattern in the appearance of the sentinel lymph nodes either cranial or caudal to the injection site.
  • CONCLUSION: Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of sentinel lymph nodes is a novel and reliable intraoperative technique with the power to assist with identification and resection of esophageal sentinel lymph nodes.

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  • (PMID = 15821653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5223
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / F32 HL72568-01; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R33 EB000673; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21/R33 EB-00673; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB000673; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / F32 HL072568
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Serum Albumin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS5015; NLM/ PMC1361260
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96. Wittekindt NE, Padhi A, Schuster SC, Qi J, Zhao F, Tomsho LP, Kasson LR, Packard M, Cross P, Poss M: Nodeomics: pathogen detection in vertebrate lymph nodes using meta-transcriptomics. PLoS One; 2010;5(10):e13432
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  • [Title] Nodeomics: pathogen detection in vertebrate lymph nodes using meta-transcriptomics.
  • Here we evaluate the microbial biota in healthy mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) by analyses of lymph node meta-transcriptomes. cDNA libraries from five individuals and two pools of samples were prepared from retropharyngeal lymph node RNA enriched for polyadenylated RNA and sequenced using Roche-454 Life Sciences technology.
  • Representatives of all bacterial phyla were detected in the seven libraries based on protein-coding transcripts indicating that viable microbiota were present in lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Deer / microbiology. Gene Expression Profiling. Lymph Nodes / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 20976145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2956653
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97. Watanabe T: [Generation of artificial lymph nodes (aLNs) and their immunological function]. Nihon Rinsho; 2008 Jul;66(7):1391-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Generation of artificial lymph nodes (aLNs) and their immunological function].
  • We demonstrated that artificial lymph nodes (aLNs) could be generated by the transplantation of stromal cell-embedded biocompatible scaffolds into the renal subcapsular space in mice.
  • These data indicate that the lymph node-like lymphoid tissues which were generated on stromal cell-embedded biocompatible scaffolds were easily transplantable and could mount a strong antigen specific humoral as well as cellular immune responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Artificial Organs. Lymph Nodes

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  • (PMID = 18616133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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98. Van den Broeck W, Derore A, Simoens P: Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice. J Immunol Methods; 2006 May 30;312(1-2):12-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.
  • Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers.
  • In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes.
  • Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes).
  • Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes.
  • Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes).
  • Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed.
  • The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Mice, Inbred BALB C / anatomy & histology. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16624319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1759
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunological methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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99. Gelb HR, Freeman LJ, Rohleder JJ, Snyder PW: Feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2010 Nov-Dec;51(6):628-33
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  • [Title] Feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs.
  • Our goal was to develop and validate a technique to identify the sentinel lymph nodes of the mammary glands of healthy dogs with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and evaluate the feasibility of obtaining representative samples of a sentinel lymph node under ultrasound guidance using a new biopsy device.
  • Ultrasound was then used to follow the contrast agent through the lymphatic channel to the sentinel lymph node.
  • Lymph node biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance, followed by an excisional biopsy of the lymph nodes and a regional mastectomy procedure.
  • Excised tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination and evaluated as to whether they were representative of the node.
  • The ultrasound contrast agent was easily visualized with ultrasound leading up to the sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Eight normal lymph nodes (two inguinal, one axillary in two dogs; two inguinal in one dog) were identified and biopsied.
  • Samples from four of eight lymph nodes contained both cortical and medullary lymphoid tissue.
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be successfully used to image and guide minimally invasive biopsy of the normal sentinel lymph nodes draining the mammary glands in healthy dogs.
  • Further work is needed to evaluate whether this technique may be applicable in patients with breast cancer or other conditions warranting evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / ultrasonography. Mammary Glands, Animal / ultrasonography. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 21158235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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100. Gaschen L, Angelette N, Stout R: Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2010 Nov-Dec;51(6):634-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs.
  • Herein, we describe the normal contrast-enhanced harmonic, color, and power Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics of the medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs.
  • Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of the medial iliac lymph nodes was performed on 14 healthy dogs after intravenous administration of the lipoprotein-bound inert gas-filled microbubble contrast media Definity.
  • Non-contrast-enhanced power and color Doppler examinations were performed in each node to assess vascular patterns subjectively.
  • Normal lymph nodes exhibited a mean contrast wash-in phase beginning at 6.3 s from the time of injection with mean peak pixel intensity at 12.1s.
  • Normal lymph nodes in dogs have a central artery with a centrifugal and uniform branching pattern.
  • Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography is a noninvasive examination that demonstrates improved visibility of the intranodal architecture of healthy medial iliac lymph nodes in dogs compared with conventional, non-contrast-enhanced Doppler methods that may have future clinical applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Dogs / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 21158236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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