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1. Dhumeaux D: [Congenital cystic diseases of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2005 Aug-Sep;29(8-9):878-82
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  • [Title] [Congenital cystic diseases of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts].
  • Congenital cystic lesions of bile ducts may affect intra or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Congenital hepatic fibrosis and von Meyenburg complexes are secondary to ductal plate malformation affecting the smallest intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Caroli's syndrome is secondary to ductal plate malformation affecting the largest intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Congenital cystic lesions of extrahepatic bile ducts consist of choledochal cyst, which is secondary to malformation of the pancreato-biliary ductal junction.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Diseases / congenital. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cysts / congenital. Liver Diseases / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / etiology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16294162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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2. Matsui A, Tanaka E, Choi HS, Winer JH, Kianzad V, Gioux S, Laurence RG, Frangioni JV: Real-time intra-operative near-infrared fluorescence identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts using clinically available contrast agents. Surgery; 2010 Jul;148(1):87-95
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  • [Title] Real-time intra-operative near-infrared fluorescence identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts using clinically available contrast agents.
  • BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic bile duct injuries are serious complications with patient morbidity.
  • We hypothesized that the invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence properties of methylene blue (MB) and indocyanine green (ICG) could be exploited for real-time, intraoperative imaging of the extrahepatic bile ducts during open and laparoscopic surgeries.
  • METHODS: In all, 2.0 mg/kg of MB and 0.05 mg/kg of ICG were injected intravenously into 35-kg female Yorkshire pigs and the extrahepatic bile ducts were imaged over time using either the Fluorescence-Assisted Resection and Exploration (FLARE) image-guided surgery system (open surgery) or a custom NIR fluorescence laparoscopy system.
  • The contrast-to-background ratio (CBR), contrast-to-liver ratio (CLR), and chemical concentrations in the cystic duct (CD) and common bile duct (CBD) were measured, and the performance of each agent was quantified.
  • Functional impairment of the ducts, including constriction and injury were immediately identifiable.
  • Using NIR fluorescence of ICG, extrahepatic bile ducts did not become visible until 90 min postinjection because of strong residual liver retention; however, between 90 and 240 min, ICG provided exquisitely high sensitivity for both CD and CBD, with CBR > or =8 and CLR > or =4.
  • CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that 2 clinically available NIR fluorophores, MB fluorescing at 700 nm and ICG fluorescing at 800 nm, provide sensitive, prolonged identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts and assessment of their functional status.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20117813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115296-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115296; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115296-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-115296
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS164788; NLM/ PMC2886157
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3. Jackowiak H, Lametschwandtner A: Angioarchitecture of the rabbit extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol; 2005 Oct;286(2):974-81
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  • [Title] Angioarchitecture of the rabbit extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder.
  • The angioarchitecture of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder of the miniature rabbit was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts.
  • Light microscopy of Masson-stained, paraffin-embedded transverse tissue sections served to attribute cast vascular structures to defined layers of bile ducts and gallbladder.
  • In all segments of the bile tract, a mucosal and a subserosal vascular network was found.
  • Differences in the angioarchitectonic patterns existed only in the subserosal networks as hepatic ducts own one supplying arteriole only, while the common bile duct owns a well-defined rete arteriosum subserosum.
  • A well-developed dense subserosus venous plexus was present throughout the bile tract.
  • Vascular patterns of the gallbladder body resembled those of the bile duct, whereby the dense subserous venous plexus was located close to the mucosal capillary network.
  • The subserosal network in the neck of the gallbladder resembled that of the cystic duct.
  • Measurements from tissue sections revealed bile tract diameters of 220-400 microm (extrahepatic ducts), 500-650 microm (cystic duct), and 4-6 mm (common bile duct).
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / blood supply. Gallbladder / blood supply. Rabbits / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16142813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4884
  • [Journal-full-title] The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Kim SW, Park DH, Shin HC, Kim IY, Park SH, Jung EJ, Kim CH: Duplication of the extrahepatic bile duct in association with choledocholithiasis as depicted by MDCT. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Nov-Dec;9(6):550-4

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  • [Title] Duplication of the extrahepatic bile duct in association with choledocholithiasis as depicted by MDCT.
  • We report here on an extremely rare case of duplicated extrahepatic bile ducts that was associated with choledocholithiasis, and this malady was visualized by employing the minimum intensity projection images with using multi-detector row CT.
  • The presence of duplicated extrahepatic bile ducts with a proximal communication, and the ducts were joined distally and they subsequently formed a single common bile duct, has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / abnormalities. Choledocholithiasis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19039272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627237
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5. Fatima S, Ahmad Z, Qureshi A, Minhas K, Pal I: Minimally invasive papillary carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2008 Oct;18(10):649-51
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive papillary carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Invasive papillary carcinomas of the Extrahepatic Bile Ducts (EBD) are uncommon (4-5%).
  • The course is less aggressive than conventional adenocarcinomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Here, we report a case of papillary carcinoma of the common bile duct showing minimal invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18940127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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6. Dutton JR, Chillingworth NL, Eberhard D, Brannon CR, Hornsey MA, Tosh D, Slack JM: Beta cells occur naturally in extrahepatic bile ducts of mice. J Cell Sci; 2007 Jan 15;120(Pt 2):239-45
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  • [Title] Beta cells occur naturally in extrahepatic bile ducts of mice.
  • Here, we show that beta cells are also present in the extra-hepatic bile ducts of mice.
  • They are characterised by insulin and C-peptide content, the presence of secretory granules that are immunoreactive for insulin, and the ducts exhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
  • Genetic lineage labelling shows that these beta cells arise from the liver domain rather than the pancreas and, by histological study, they appear to be formed directly from the bile duct epithelium in late embryogenesis.
  • Other endocrine cell types (producing somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide) are also found in close association with the bile-duct-derived beta cells, but exocrine pancreatic tissue is not present.
  • The finding also has evolutionary significance, because it is known that certain basal vertebrates usually form all of their beta cells from the bile ducts.
  • The mammalian bile-duct-derived beta cells might therefore represent an extant trace of the evolutionary origin of the vertebrate beta cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / cytology. Insulin-Secreting Cells / cytology. Insulin-Secreting Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Bile Ducts / cytology. Bile Ducts / drug effects. Biological Evolution. C-Peptide / analysis. Cell Lineage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Glucose / pharmacology. Immunohistochemistry. Insulin / analysis. Insulin / secretion. Liver / drug effects. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred Strains. Models, Biological. Organ Culture Techniques. Pancreas / drug effects. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17179205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9533
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cell science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0300415; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0500220; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / C-Peptide; 0 / Insulin; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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7. Tanaka E, Choi HS, Humblet V, Ohnishi S, Laurence RG, Frangioni JV: Real-time intraoperative assessment of the extrahepatic bile ducts in rats and pigs using invisible near-infrared fluorescent light. Surgery; 2008 Jul;144(1):39-48
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  • [Title] Real-time intraoperative assessment of the extrahepatic bile ducts in rats and pigs using invisible near-infrared fluorescent light.
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, only x-ray fluoroscopy is available for visualization of the extrahepatic bile ducts intraoperatively.
  • We hypothesized that with an appropriate fluorophore and imaging system, invisible near-infrared (NIR) light could be used for image-guided procedures on the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • METHODS: We quantified the performance of three 800 nm NIR fluorophores, differing primarily in their degree of hydrophilicity, for real-time imaging of the extrahepatic bile ducts in rats and pigs: IR-786, indocyanine green (ICG), and the carboxylic form of IRDyetrade mark 800CW (CW800-CA).
  • The signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the common bile duct relative to liver and pancreas was measured as a function of the dose of contrast agent, injection site, and kinetics using an intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging system described previously.
  • Bile samples were examined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) to determine the chemical form of fluorophores in bile.
  • RESULTS: Non-sulfonated (IR-786) and di-sulfonated (ICG) NIR fluorophores had poor efficiency and kinetics of excretion into bile.
  • Tetra-sulfonated CW800-CA, however, provided sensitive, specific, and real-time visualization of the extrahepatic bile ducts after a single low-dose given either intraportally or intravenously via systemic vein.
  • A SBR >/=2 provided sensitive assessment of extrahepatic bile duct anatomy and function for over 30 min post-injection, including the detection of millimeter-sized, radiolucent inclusions in pigs.
  • CW800-CA remained intact chemically after secretion into bile.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of invisible NIR light and an IV injection of CW800-CA provides prolonged, real-time visualization of the extrahepatic bile duct, without ionizing radiation and without changing the look of the operative field.

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  • (PMID = 18571583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115296-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB005805; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115296-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115296-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115296; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115296-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-115296; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB005805-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB005805-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB005805-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01-EB-005805; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB005805-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / IRDye800; 0 / Indoles; IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS56395; NLM/ PMC2453786
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8. Demoreuil C, Thirot-Bidault A, Dagher C, Bou-Farah R, Benbrahem C, Lazure T, Gayral F, Buffet C: [Poorly differentiated large cell endocrine carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 Mar;33(3):194-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Poorly differentiated large cell endocrine carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts].
  • We report a case of a poorly differentiated endocrine large cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts in a 73-year-old man, revealed by abdominal pain, jaundice and weight loss.
  • Computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography found tumoral stenosis of the main bile duct.
  • Brush cytology detected tumor cells.
  • Pathological examination of the resected bile duct disclosed a high-grade large cell carcinoma with morphological endocrine features and positivity for chromogranin A.
  • This tumor was associated with a minor component of adenocarcinomatous cells.
  • We discuss here the histogenesis of this tumor as well as its nosological position among the endocrine and mixed tumors of bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 19233580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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9. Portella AO, Trindade MR, Dias LZ, Goldenberg S, Trindade EN: Monopolar electrosurgery on the extrahepatic bile ducts during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an experimental controlled trial. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Jun;19(3):213-6
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  • [Title] Monopolar electrosurgery on the extrahepatic bile ducts during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an experimental controlled trial.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to investigate the occurrence of thermal injury in the extrahepatic bile ducts when monopolar electrosurgery is used to perform dieresis of the cystic duct and cystic vessels in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  • In the experimental groups, dieresis of the cystic duct and cystic vessels was performed with monopolar electrosurgery using a hook-like dissector using a power setting of 20 W, whereas in the control group this procedure was performed with a pair of Metzenbaum scissors disconnected from any kind of thermal energy source.
  • It consisted of exploratory laparotomy, cholangiography and both macroscopic and microscopic examination of the surgical specimen, which included cystic duct stump, hepatic duct and choledochus.
  • RESULTS: The presence of distal thermal injury, classified as second degree, 1.2 mm in the portion near the clipping area, was observed in only one of the cystic duct stumps after microscopic examination, without statistical significance.
  • No thermal injury was observed in the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Monopolar electrosurgery produced negligible thermal injury in the extrahepatic bile ducts after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / methods. Electrosurgery / methods. Gallbladder Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19542848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Le L, Pham AV, Dessanti A: Congenital dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts in children. Experience in the central hospital of Hue, Vietnam. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;16(1):24-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Congenital dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts in children. Experience in the central hospital of Hue, Vietnam.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The authors present a study of a series of cases in children with congenital dilatation of the extrahepatic bile ducts (CDEBD).
  • RESULTS: Diagnosis was based only on ultrasonography which was 100% accurate.
  • According to Miyano's classification, 26 cases presented as cystic dilatation of the main bile duct (MBD) associated with dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts, while in the other 12 cases the dilatation of the MBD was of the fusiform type.
  • The surgical treatment of choice was extensive excision of the dilatated extrahepatic bile ducts and biliary drainage according to the Roux-en-Y method in 36/38 patients.
  • During follow-up we observed one case of pancreatitis out of the 36 patients who underwent excision of the dilatated extrahepatic bile ducts, while the two patients who had internal biliary drainage without removal of the cysts suffered from numerous attacks of cholangitis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The reflux of bile in the dilated biliary tree plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of CDEBD.
  • Excision of the extrahepatic bile ducts and internal biliary drainage by Roux-en-Y has proved a satisfactory surgical method.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Choledochal Cyst / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y. Child. Child, Preschool. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Vietnam

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  • (PMID = 16544222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. González-Vela MC, Val-Bernal JF, Mayorga M, Cagigal ML, Fernández F, Mazorra F: Myeloid sarcoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts presenting as obstructive jaundice. APMIS; 2006 Sep;114(9):666-8
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  • [Title] Myeloid sarcoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts presenting as obstructive jaundice.
  • We report a rare case of myeloid sarcoma (MS) of the extrahepatic bile ducts presenting as obstructive jaundice in a patient without leukemia at time of diagnosis.
  • Computerized tomography scan of the abdomen showed stenosis of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography disclosed an irregular narrowing of the common biliary duct, suggestive of a cholangiocarcinoma, and resection was performed.
  • A literature search identified two previously reported cases of MS of the extrahepatic biliary duct.
  • MS should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of a patient with obstructive jaundice.
  • Immunohistochemistry is essential for a correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / pathology. Jaundice, Obstructive / pathology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16948823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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12. Henson DE, Schwartz AM, Nsouli H, Albores-Saavedra J: Carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of vater share a field for carcinogenesis: a population-based study. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Jan;133(1):67-71
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  • [Title] Carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of vater share a field for carcinogenesis: a population-based study.
  • CONTEXT: Carcinomas co-occur in the pancreas, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a field effect for carcinogenesis exists in the ampulla of Vater, extrahepatic bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas.
  • Cases were compared by age frequency density plots, age-specific incidence rates, and logarithmic plots of the age-specific incidence rates and age of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Incidence rates were 11.71, 1.43, 0.88, and 0.49 per 100,000 persons at risk for pancreatic, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampullary carcinomas, respectively.
  • Logarithmic plots of the age-specific incidence rates with age of diagnosis produced parallel linear rate patterns for the 4 sites indicative of similar populations for tumor development.
  • However, density and logarithmic plots of pancreatic endocrine carcinomas, a tumor of different cellular differentiation and carcinogenic pathway, served as a comparison.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla have a common embryonic cellular ancestry, differentiation pathways, mucosal histologic patterns, and population-related tumor development indicating a field effect in carcinogenesis.
  • Pancreatic cancers are most common because the surface area of the pancreas' ductal system is greater than that of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Population Surveillance. United States / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009 Jun;133(6):850 [19492873.001]
  • (PMID = 19123739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Kersten S, Wein A, Albrecht H, Reulbach U, Maennlein G, Wolff K, Ostermeier N, Hohenberger W, Hahn EG, Boxberger F: Palliative systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine (GEM) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as 24h-infusion in patients with advanced inoperable biliary tract cancer (UICC stage IV). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15633

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  • : e15633 Background: Due to the late diagnosis of biliary tract carcinomas in an advanced tumor stage, the application of palliative chemotherapy frequently remains as a possible treatment option.
  • METHODS: Evaluation of 35 pts. based on our prospective tumor registry data; essential inclusion criteria: histologically proven adeno-carcinoma, UICC stage IV, chemonaivity; all the pts. were presented in the interdisciplinary tumorboard of Erlangen University and were primarily non-curatively-resectable (n = 35); evaluation period: 11/1998 - 09/2008; treatment schedule: 1.000 mg/m<sup>2</sup> of GEM as a 0.5h-infusion (inf.) combined with 2.000 mg/m<sup>2</sup> of 5-FU as a 24h-inf. via port catheter on day 1, 8, 15 qd 22.
  • RESULTS: Median age: 64 years; men/women: n=18/17; ECOG 0/1/2: n=10/21/4; localisation: intrahepatic bile ducts: n=19, extrahepatic bile ducts: n=11; gall bladder: n=4; metastases: liver: 91.4%, lymph nodes: 51.4%, peritoneum: 28.8%, bones: 8.6%, intestine: 8.6%, skin: 2.9%, lungs: 2.9%; chemotherapy applications: total number: 486, average value/patient: 13.9; CA 19-9 elevated yes/no: n=13/22 (37.1%/62.9%); CEA elevated yes/no: n=15/9 (42.9%/25.7%, not evaluable: 11); higher grade toxicity (III or IV): leukocytopenia III: 14.3%, thrombocytopenia III: 2.9%, weariness III: 2.9%, diarrhea III: 5.7%, diarrhea IV: 2.9%, vomiting IV: 2.9%, pain III: 5.7%, ascites III: 5.7%, infections III: 2.9%, thromboembolia IV: 2.9%, elevated bilirubin value III: 1.7%, grade IV: 8.3%; deep leg vein thrombosis: 15%; median TTP: 5.1 months (95% CI: 2.9 - 7.2); median overall survival: 10.4 months (95% CI: 7.9 - 12.9); 6-months-/1-year-/2-year-survival rate: 65.7%/45.7%/17.1%; response rate: PR: n=5 (14.3%), SD: n=18 (51.4%), PD: n=7 (20%), not evaluable: n=5 (14.3%); tumor control (PR/SD): n=23 (65.7%); median follow-up: 10.4 months.

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  • (PMID = 27962748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Sasaki T, Isayama H, Nakai Y, Ito Y, Togawa O, Yagioka H, Kogure H, Yasuda I, Hasebe O, Maetani I: Multicenter phase II study of gemcitabine (GEM) plus S-1 in patients (pts) with advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15516

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  • Tumor response was the primary endpoint and was assessed according to RECIST every 8 weeks.
  • The primary tumor site was; 14 pts in gallbladders, 14 pts in intrahepatic bile ducts, 6 pts in extrahepatic bile ducts, and 1 pt in Vater of papilla.

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  • (PMID = 27962281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Pătraşcu T, Burcoş T, Doran H, Cristian D, Brezean I, Voiculescu S, Catrina E, Vereanu I: [Injuries of the extrahepatic bile ducts in laparoscopic cholecystectomy]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2006 Jul-Aug;101(4):385-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Injuries of the extrahepatic bile ducts in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].
  • In laparoscopic technique, the incidence and the severity of injuries of the extrahepatic bile ducts are significantly higher (0-2,7%) than in open surgery (0,2-0,5%).
  • In complete transections of the common bile duct, a hepatico-jejuno-anastomosis using a Roux en Y-loop appears to be the best solution.
  • It is emphasized the fact that an accurate diagnosis and surgical technique are essential for a favourable evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / injuries. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17059149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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16. Ungureanu FD, Ioachimescu M, Ungurianu L, Pricop M, Mircea G, Dragoescu D, Moldovan AC: [Choledochal cyst as a complex malformation of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2005 Jan-Feb;100(1):63-8

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  • [Title] [Choledochal cyst as a complex malformation of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts].
  • The authors present the case of a 64 years woman with a choledochal cyst along with a complex malformation of both intra and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The patient was admitted with a diagnosis of acute and underestimated cholecystitis, which was in fact a real acute severe suppurated angiocolitis located at the cystic cavity level along with severe hepato-renal failure.
  • As long as the choledochal cyst evolves as a stand-alone entity, it can frequently be associated with other malformations of the bile ducts--such as choledochal duct stenosis or abnormal connection of the common hepatic duct with pancreatic ducts.
  • The main dilatation was engulfing the whole common bile duct with a fusiform aspect, and the cranial end is opening into a long hepatic duct from which were emerging several biliary segments branches, for both hepatic lobes.
  • This aspect of a multistage convergence with four branches which is opening into a long hepatic bile duct and then in the choledochal cyst, represents an unusual malformation which does not respect the rules described by former published authors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / abnormalities. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / abnormalities. Choledochal Cyst / diagnosis. Choledochal Cyst / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15810708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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17. Khunamornpong S, Lerwill MF, Siriaunkgul S, Suprasert P, Pojchamarnwiputh S, Chiangmai WN, Young RH: Carcinoma of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):366-79
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases.
  • Information on ovarian metastasis of carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder is limited.
  • Sixteen examples are reported; 3 primary tumors were hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 5 common bile duct carcinomas, and 8 gallbladder carcinomas.
  • The primary tumor was identified before the detection of the ovarian lesions in 5 cases, was simultaneously detected with the ovarian metastases in 9, and was diagnosed postoperatively in 2.
  • Mucinous epithelial differentiation was seen in 81%, sometimes with foci of benign-like or borderline-like epithelium simulating primary ovarian mucinous neoplasia.
  • Signet ring cells were present in sufficient quantity for a diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor in four tumors.
  • Although the diagnosis of a metastatic tumor to the ovary is possible in most of the cases based on standard diagnostic criteria, problems in the differential diagnosis may be posed by morphologic patterns that overlap strikingly with primary ovarian neoplasms, benign, borderline, and malignant, as discussed herein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18580314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Itatsu K, Zen Y, Yamaguchi J, Ohira S, Ishikawa A, Ikeda H, Sato Y, Harada K, Sasaki M, Sasaki M, Sakamoto H, Nagino M, Nimura Y, Ohta T, Nakanuma Y: Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 is an unfavorable postoperative prognostic factor in cholangiocarcinoma of the perihilar, hilar, and extrahepatic bile ducts. Hum Pathol; 2008 May;39(5):710-9
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 is an unfavorable postoperative prognostic factor in cholangiocarcinoma of the perihilar, hilar, and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma of the perihilar, hilar, and extrahepatic bile ducts (collectively referred to as the large bile ducts) is an intractable disease, and a papillary phenotype and well-differentiated histologic grade have been proposed as indicators of a favorable prognosis after surgical resection.
  • We subjected 66 surgically resected specimens of cholangiocarcinoma of the large bile ducts to clinicopathologic examination, including postoperative survival, papillary phenotype, and immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2,-7, -9, and membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MP).
  • Expression of MMP-7 in cholangiocarcinoma is an unfavorable postoperative prognostic factor of cholangiocarcinoma arising from the large bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 / biosynthesis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18329694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.80 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 14
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19. Ahmadi O, Nicholson Mde L, Gould ML, Mitchell A, Stringer MD: Interstitial cells of Cajal are present in human extrahepatic bile ducts. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Feb;25(2):277-85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interstitial cells of Cajal are present in human extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • This study sought to determine whether ICC are present in human bile ducts.
  • Paraffin-embedded sections (3 microm) from the gallbladder (fundus, body and neck) and both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts were investigated.
  • RESULTS: c-kit-positive cells with characteristic ICC morphology were identified in the subepithelial and muscular layers of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • They were most prominent within the muscle layer of the extrahepatic bile ducts where they were organized into loosely arranged laminae running parallel to circular smooth muscle fibers.
  • ICC were not found in intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time that ICC are present in human extrahepatic bile ducts where they are more densely aggregated than in the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / cytology. Gallbladder / cytology. Interstitial Cells of Cajal

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  • (PMID = 19793166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.4.21.59 / Tryptases
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20. Labiia AI, Bagmet NN, Ratnikova NP, Skipenko OG: [Results of surgical treatment of benign strictures of extrahepatic bile ducts]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2007;(6):26-9

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  • [Title] [Results of surgical treatment of benign strictures of extrahepatic bile ducts].
  • The main reason of benign biliary strictures is the traumatic bile duct injuries during laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy.
  • There were analyzed the short- and long-term results of surgical reconstruction in 160 patients with of benign strictures of hepaticocholedochus.
  • CONCLUSION: biliodigestive anastomosis is method of choice for treatment of benign biliary strictures of hepaticocholedochus.
  • Hepaticojejunostomy with Roux-en-jejunal limb is more preferable variant of reconstruction for treatment of benign biliary strictures of HC.
  • In patient with not wide bile ducts and in technically difficult cases transhepatic biliary drainage is acceptable.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Common Bile Duct / surgery. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Hepatic Duct, Common / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17690662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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21. Herrera L, Martino E, Rodríguez-Sanjuán JC, Castillo J, Casafont F, González F, Figols J, Casanueva J, Cagigas M, Gómez-Fleitas M: Traumatic neuroma of extrahepatic bile ducts after orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2009 Apr;41(3):1054-6
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  • [Title] Traumatic neuroma of extrahepatic bile ducts after orthotopic liver transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Neuroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19376425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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22. Miyazawa M, Torii T, Toshimitsu Y, Kamizasa N, Suzuki T, Shinozuka N, Ishizawa K, Koyama I: Alpha-fetoprotein-producing clear cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2006 Jul;40(6):555-7
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  • [Title] Alpha-fetoprotein-producing clear cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Her abdominal computed tomography scan revealed dilation of the intrahepatic bile duct and a tumorlike lesion protruding into the cystic duct and gallbladder from the junction between the middle portion of the bile duct and the right and left hepatic ducts.
  • Surgery revealed a tumor extending from the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) to the cystic duct, with no intrahepatic tumor components.
  • The tumor was histologically diagnosed as an AFP-producing cholangiocarcinoma of the clear cell type, originating from the EHBD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / metabolism. Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16825940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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23. Madhusudhan KS, Srivastava DN, Dash NR, Gupta C, Gupta SD: Case report. Schwannoma of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts: a rare case. Br J Radiol; 2009 Oct;82(982):e212-5
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  • [Title] Case report. Schwannoma of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts: a rare case.
  • Although involvement of the extrahepatic duct is common, occurrence in the intrahepatic ducts has not been reported.
  • We report a case of combined intrahepatic and extrahepatic schwannoma in a 46-year-old man presenting with obstructive jaundice.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19759209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Zherlov GK, Karpovich AV, Zykov DV, Krasnoperov AV, Demakov MV: [Antireflux hepaticojejunostomy in treatment of cancer of the head of pancreas or extrahepatic bile-ducts]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2009;(3):17-22
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  • [Title] [Antireflux hepaticojejunostomy in treatment of cancer of the head of pancreas or extrahepatic bile-ducts].
  • Valve hepaticojejunoanastomosis was performed when hepatic duct length was 12-15 mm; weather hepatic duct was shorter then 12 mm, the valve was performed in efferent jejunal loop.
  • Preoperative bile ducts decompression allowed decrease risk of hepatic failure and shorten the hospital-stay time after the major operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Cholangitis / prevention & control. Common Bile Duct. Hepatic Duct, Common / surgery. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Jejunum / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19365376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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25. Góra-Gebka M, Liberek A, Sikorska-Wiśniewska G, Gołebiewski J, Kamińska B: [Primary sclerosing cholangitis in children - clinical manifestations and diagnostic difficulties]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2009 Oct-Dec;13(4):227-30
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  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a rare chronic disease of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, which causes cholestasis with inflammation and fibrosis ultimately resulting in biliary cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20081269.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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26. Albores-Saavedra J, Batich K, Hossain S, Henson DE, Schwartz AM: Carcinoid tumors and small-cell carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts: a comparative study based on 221 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Dec;13(6):378-83
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors and small-cell carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts: a comparative study based on 221 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.
  • Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder (GB) and extrahepatic biliary ducts (EHBDs) include carcinoid tumors and small-cell carcinomas (SCCs).
  • For the GB, the mean age of diagnosis for carcinoids was 64.5, and for SCC, it was 67.5.
  • Carcinoid tumors and SCC of the extrahepatic biliary tree are uncommon neoplasms that differ in their demographics and biologic behavior, supporting the distinction of these 2 histopathologic types.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / epidemiology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology


27. Adsay NV: Neoplastic precursors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary system. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2007 Dec;36(4):889-900, vii
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  • [Title] Neoplastic precursors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary system.
  • Premalignant lesions of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts have been poorly studied compared with their counterparts in the remainder of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17996796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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28. Jain M, Agarwal A: MRCP findings in recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Apr;66(1):79-83

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  • OBJECTIVE: In this essay, we present the spectrum of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct abnormalities seen on MRCP in patients with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis.
  • CONCLUSION: MRCP is a promising, noninvasive alternative to more invasive direct cholangiography for evaluating the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts in patients with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance / methods. Cholangitis / diagnosis. Cholangitis / parasitology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 17590555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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29. Rodríguez-Pascual J, De Vicente E, Quijano Y, Pérez-Rodríguez F, Bergaz F, Hidalgo M, Duran I: Isolated recurrence of distal adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct on a draining sinus scar after curative resection: case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:96
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  • [Title] Isolated recurrence of distal adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct on a draining sinus scar after curative resection: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgical resection remains the gold standard for the treatment of localized adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present an unusual case of distal adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts that was treated with surgery and relapsed two years later with a solitary recurrence on the tract of a previous Redon drain.
  • Decisions are made based on clinical parameters from retrospective series, such as tumor grade, surgical margins or lymph node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cicatrix / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20003448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2801668
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30. Yarema IV, Muslov SA: Mathematical model of little invasive interventions on the hollow organs using traditional and shape memory Ni-Ti-based biocompatible superelastic materials. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2006 Dec;142(6):739-41
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  • Comparative analysis of the mode of deformation of hollow organs (extrahepatic bile ducts at the site of stricture) was carried out by the finite elements method during interventions in the lumen using stone extraction Dormia basket made of stainless steel and NiTi.
  • Geometrical and physical models of the ducts and basket were created, strain and deformation fields in the choledochal walls were determined, criteria of traumaticity and medical technological requirements to the material and geometry of lithoextractors were formulated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / abnormalities. Computer Simulation. Elasticity. Finite Element Analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17603684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng; rus
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alloys; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 7OV03QG267 / Nickel; D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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31. Masunari H, Shimada H, Endo I, Fujii Y, Tanaka K, Sekido H, Togo S: Surgical anatomy of hepatic hilum with special reference of the plate system and extrahepatic duct. J Gastrointest Surg; 2008 Jun;12(6):1047-53

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical anatomy of hepatic hilum with special reference of the plate system and extrahepatic duct.
  • Little has been reported regarding the anatomical relationship between the plate system and the extrahepatic bile duct.
  • The extent, composition, and distribution of the extrahepatic bile ducts within the system were investigated.
  • The length between the confluence of the hepatic duct and the branch point of the segmental duct (level I) and the length between the branch point of the segmental duct and the segmental Glisson's pedicle (level II) were measured.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The bile ducts in the plate system correspond to the extrahepatic bile ducts and their lengths are variable for every segment.
  • Knowing the lengths of the resectable extrahepatic bile ducts is useful for deciding which segment should be resected according to the cancerous invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / anatomy & histology. Liver / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 17939013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Budarin VN: [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in urgent surgery]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(5):35-8

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  • Opinion about high rate of lesion of extrahepatic bile ducts during laparoscopic surgeries is not confirmed.

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  • (PMID = 16007023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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33. Bagnenko SF, Savello VE, Kabanov MIu, Korol'kov AIu, Iakovleva DM: [Application of exchangeable transhepatic frame stents in patients with posttraumatic strictures of the hepatic and common bile duct]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2008;167(2):69-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Application of exchangeable transhepatic frame stents in patients with posttraumatic strictures of the hepatic and common bile duct].
  • For the period from 2000 through 2007 there were 27 patients treated for lesions of extrahepatic bile ducts of different genesis.
  • Using the nonperforated exchangeable transhepatic drains in patients after reconstructive operations on the extrahepatioc bile ducts gave good immediate results of operations and substantially improved quality of life of the patients in the postoperative period.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Injuries / complications. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Common Bile Duct / injuries. Hepatic Duct, Common / injuries. Prosthesis Implantation / instrumentation. Stents
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Cholecystitis / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Intraoperative Complications. Laparotomy / methods. Male. Prosthesis Design. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Wounds, Gunshot / complications. Wounds, Gunshot / diagnosis. Wounds, Gunshot / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18522191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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34. Thomsen MK, Lange A, Frøkiaer J: [The role of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in neonates with persistant jaundice]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2005 Sep 26;167(39):3675-8
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  • Perinatal obliteration of extrahepatic bile ducts requires immediate surgery, whereas other causes of persisting jaundice may be treated medically and/or conservatively.

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  • (PMID = 16219213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Diethyl-iminodiacetic Acid
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35. Delić J, Savković A, Isaković E: [Anatomical variations of roots of the common bile duct]. Med Arh; 2008;62(2):73-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anatomical variations of roots of the common bile duct].
  • Variations of extrahepatic bile ducts are the basis of hepatobilliar surgery, and they may be a problem during the surgical procedures.
  • Common hepatic duct wich is formed by connecting of right hepatic duct and left hepatic duct is noticed in 92% of cases, and in 5% of cases was formed by tree bile ducts.
  • Aberant bile ducts was found in 3% of total number of examined.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatic Duct, Common / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 18669222.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski arhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Arh
  • [Language] bos
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
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36. Plachkov I, Kostov D, Ivanov V: [Particularities of splanchnic innervation of the upper abdomen organs - clinical experience]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2007;(5):10-4
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  • There have been made conclusions concerning the intraoperative behavior and tactics for surgical pain control in pancreatic, distal esophageal, gastric, extrahepatic bile ducts and liver neoplasms in nonoperative stage.

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  • (PMID = 18580825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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37. Law ST, Lee WK, Li MK, Lok KH: A gentleman with anemia and cholestasis. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:536207

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a rare cause of cholestasis caused by progressive inflammation and fibrosis of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts leading to multifocal ductal strictures.
  • The concomitant diagnosis of these two diseases is not typical.
  • The management includes the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and potential complications of primary sclerosing cholangitis, including dominant strictures of bile duct, portal hypertension, gallbladder diseases, cholangiocarcinoma, and colonoscopic surveillance.

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  • (PMID = 21209818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3014831
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38. Gore RM, Shelhamer RP: Biliary tract neoplasms: diagnosis and staging. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7 Spec No A:S15-23
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Diagnostic Imaging.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biliary tract neoplasms: diagnosis and staging.
  • Most biliary tract neoplasms are malignant and have been traditionally divided into cancers of the gallbladder, the extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater.
  • Although infrequent, bile duct carcinomas and cancer of the gallbladder are not rare.
  • In the United States, an estimated 6000-7000 new cases of carcinoma of the gallbladder and 3000-4000 new cases of carcinoma of the bile ducts are diagnosed annually.
  • Familiarity with the imaging characteristics of gallbladder and bile duct neoplasms is important to expedite the diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patients who often present with non-specific symptoms of right upper quadrant pain, jaundice, and weight loss.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17921093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2727973
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39. Mohanty SK, Shivakumar P, Sabla G, Bezerra JA: Loss of interleukin-12 modifies the pro-inflammatory response but does not prevent duct obstruction in experimental biliary atresia. BMC Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr 19;6:14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Loss of interleukin-12 modifies the pro-inflammatory response but does not prevent duct obstruction in experimental biliary atresia.
  • While the expression of IFNgamma regulates the obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts by lymphocytes, the role of IL-12 in the pathogenesis of biliary obstruction is unknown.
  • Based on the role of IL-12 as a key proinflammatory cytokine, we hypothesized that loss of IL-12 prevents the obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • IL-12KO mice had a remarkable neutrophil-rich portal inflammation and epithelial sloughing of extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • CONCLUSION: Loss of IL-12 did not modify the progression of bile duct obstruction in experimental biliary atresia.

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  • (PMID = 16623951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK064403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-064403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-64008
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RNA primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1479354
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40. Kaya M, Kanmaz T, Boleken ME, Yücesan S: Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(5):418-20
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  • Although incidental carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts have been reported, to the best of our knowledge this is the first published case of a choledochal cyst associated with an appendix carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Choledochal Cyst / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15864427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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41. Shivakumar P, Sabla GE, Whitington P, Chougnet CA, Bezerra JA: Neonatal NK cells target the mouse duct epithelium via Nkg2d and drive tissue-specific injury in experimental biliary atresia. J Clin Invest; 2009 Aug;119(8):2281-90
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  • [Title] Neonatal NK cells target the mouse duct epithelium via Nkg2d and drive tissue-specific injury in experimental biliary atresia.
  • Although the etiology is unknown, a neonatal adaptive immune signature has been mechanistically linked to obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Analysis of livers of infants at diagnosis revealed that NK cells populate the vicinity of intrahepatic bile ducts and overexpress several genes involved in cytotoxicity.
  • Using a model of rotavirus-induced biliary atresia in newborn mice, we found that activated NK cells also populated murine livers and were the most abundant cells in extrahepatic bile ducts at the time of obstruction.
  • Depletion of NK cells and blockade of Nkg2d each prevented injury of the duct epithelium after rotavirus infection, maintained continuity of duct lumen between the liver and duodenum, and enabled bile flow, despite the presence of virus in the tissue and the overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines.
  • These findings identify NK cells as key initiators of cholangiocyte injury via Nkg2d and demonstrate that injury to the duct epithelium drives the phenotype of experimental biliary atresia.

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  • (PMID = 19662681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-8238
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK078392; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-064008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-078392
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Klrk1 protein, mouse; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2719928
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42. Németh Z, Szász AM, Somorácz A, Tátrai P, Németh J, Gyorffy H, Szíjártó A, Kupcsulik P, Kiss A, Schaff Z: Zonula occludens-1, occludin, and E-cadherin protein expression in biliary tract cancers. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Sep;15(3):533-9
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The incidence of cholangiocarcinomas originating from intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as of gallbladder carcinoma is increasing worldwide.
  • We demonstrated that the tight junction components ZO-1, occludin, and E-cadherin are downregulated in carcinomas arising from various compartments of the biliary tract (normal intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, gallbladder) as compared with their normal sites of origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / metabolism. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Occludin. Tissue Array Analysis. Zonula Occludens-1 Protein

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  • (PMID = 19184677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / OCLN protein, human; 0 / Occludin; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TJP1 protein, human; 0 / Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
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43. Lim JH, Mairiang E, Ahn GH: Biliary parasitic diseases including clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis. Abdom Imaging; 2008 Mar-Apr;33(2):157-65
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  • These flukes reside in the peripheral small bile ducts of the liver and produce chronic inflammation of the bile duct, bile duct dilatation, mechanical obstruction, and bile duct wall thickening.
  • On imaging, peripheral small intrahepatic bile ducts are dilated, but the large bile ducts and extrahepatic bile ducts are not dilated or slightly dilated.
  • Chronic infection may result in cholangiocarcinoma of the liver parenchyma or along the bile ducts.
  • Human infection of Fasciola hepatica, a cattle flukes, may occur inadvertently, and the flukes migrate in the liver (hepatic phase) and reside the bile ducts (biliary phase).
  • In the biliary phase, the flukes are demonstrated in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts and the gallbladder as small intraluminal flat objects, sometimes moving spontaneously.
  • Bile ducts are dilated.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract / parasitology. Biliary Tract Diseases / diagnosis. Biliary Tract Diseases / parasitology. Clonorchiasis / diagnosis. Fascioliasis / diagnosis. Opisthorchiasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17934771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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44. Bezerra JA: Biliary atresia--translational research on key molecular processes regulating biliary injury and obstruction. Chang Gung Med J; 2006 May-Jun;29(3):222-30
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  • Biliary atresia is the most common cause of pathologic jaundice in young infants and results from the obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts by an inflammatory and fibro-obliterative process.
  • Although the pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial, recent patient- and animal-based studies began deciphering the molecular pathways involved in biliary injury and duct obstruction.
  • Using large-scale genomics and immunostaining of livers from children with biliary atresia, investigators have discovered unique molecular signatures of dominant proinflammatory cytokines at the time of diagnosis.
  • Then, using these mice in mechanistic studies, interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) has been shown to regulate the biliary tropism of lymphocytes to the biliary system, and to play a critical role in the inflammatory obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts.

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  • (PMID = 16924882.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-64008
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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45. Sousa MB, Leão AC, Coutinho JF, de Oliveira Ramos AM: Histopathology findings in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus Linnaeus, 1758) with chronic weight loss associated with bile tract obstruction by infestation with Platynosomum (Loos, 1907). Primates; 2008 Oct;49(4):283-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Weight Control.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathology findings in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus Linnaeus, 1758) with chronic weight loss associated with bile tract obstruction by infestation with Platynosomum (Loos, 1907).
  • Even though its etiology is very difficult to determine, particular variables, such as weight loss, diarrhea and alopecia, associated or not with infestation in the pancreatic ducts with Trichospirura leptossoma (Nematoda: Thelazioidea), seem to be linked with the syndrome.
  • This study investigated the histopathology of the lungs, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and pancreatic ducts of six common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) suffering from severe non-diarrheic weight loss.
  • These flukes, which provoke common infection in cats, were also observed inside the gallbladder as well as in the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts in common marmosets.

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  • (PMID = 18841441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Primates; journal of primatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Primates
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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46. Hirano Y, Tatsuzawa Y, Shimizu J, Kinoshita S, Kawaura Y, Takahashi S: Efficacy of multi-slice computed tomography cholangiography before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Aug;76(8):693-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury is one of the serious surgical complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
  • Clear biliary tract imaging to detect the anomaly of the bile ducts before operation is thought to be useful to prevent this complication.
  • We evaluated the recognition of the junction of the cystic duct and detection of anomalies of the extrahepatic bile ducts using the latter two methods.
  • RESULTS: In 33 patients, DIC-CT showed the junction of the cystic duct in 31 (94%) and MRC in 25 (76%) patients, respectively.
  • Anomalies of the extrahepatic bile ducts or the cystic duct were detected in four (12%) patients by DIC-CT, but MRC could show only one of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts / pathology. Cholangiography / methods. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Diseases / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16916385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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47. Ohtsuka M, Kimura F, Shimizu H, Yoshidome H, Kato A, Yoshitomi H, Furukawa K, Mitsuhashi N, Takeuchi D, Takayashiki T, Suda K, Miyazaki M: Surgical strategy for mucin-producing bile duct tumor. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci; 2010 May;17(3):236-40
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

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  • [Title] Surgical strategy for mucin-producing bile duct tumor.
  • Tumors with copious mucin production within the intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts have been reported as mucin-producing bile duct tumors (MPBTs).
  • Because mucin produced by these tumors causes recurrent cholangitis and obstructive jaundice, surgical resection should be indicated even if these tumors are regarded as benign.
  • In order to choose the appropriate surgical procedure, exact preoperative assessment of tumor location and cancer extension is important, especially evaluation of the extent of superficial spreading through cholangioscopic observation and biopsy.
  • In principle, MPBTs should be resected in a manner similar to that employed for other types of bile duct carcinomas.
  • That is, major hepatectomy with or without extrahepatic bile duct resection or pancreaticoduodenectomy should be chosen as the surgical procedure, and intraoperative frozen section at the stumps of the bile duct is essential.
  • On the other hand, when precise diagnosis is completed preoperatively and the lesion is diagnosed as adenoma or carcinoma with invasion confined to the ductal wall and limited superficial spreading, limited resections preserving organ functions as much as possible can be considered as a choice among surgical procedures.
  • All ten patients with MPBT resected at our institution according to these strategies are still alive without tumor recurrence, with a median survival of 48.0 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Mucins / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Hepatectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19649559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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48. Erickson N, Mohanty SK, Shivakumar P, Sabla G, Chakraborty R, Bezerra JA: Temporal-spatial activation of apoptosis and epithelial injury in murine experimental biliary atresia. Hepatology; 2008 May;47(5):1567-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Biliary atresia is a fibro-inflammatory cholangiopathy that obstructs the extrahepatic bile ducts in young infants.
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that apoptosis is a significant mechanism of injury to duct epithelium.
  • To test this hypothesis, we quantified apoptosis using terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling and active caspase-3 staining in livers and extrahepatic bile ducts from Balb/c mice infected with Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) within 24 hours of birth.
  • RRV induced a significant increase in labeled cells in the portal tracts and in epithelial and subepithelial compartments of extrahepatic bile ducts, with onset within 3 days and peaks at 5-10 days.
  • Exploring mechanisms of injury, we found increased biliary expression of caspases 1 and 4 and of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma)-related and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-related genes.
  • In vivo, administration of the caspase inhibitor IDN-8050 decreased apoptosis in the duct epithelium and the extent of epithelial injury after RRV challenge.

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  • (PMID = 18393301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK078392; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK64008
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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49. Cox H, Ma M, Bridges R, Debru E, Bathe O, Sutherland F, Dixon E: Well differentiated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the setting of biliary papillomatosis: a case report and review of the literature. Can J Gastroenterol; 2005 Dec;19(12):731-3
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  • BP is a rare, benign and potentially fatal disease of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Although a benign disease, a review of the literature demonstrated that BP often recurs after surgical resection, carries a poor prognosis and has a moderately high malignant transformation rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Papilloma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde / methods. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparotomy / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16341314.001).
  • [ISSN] 0835-7900
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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50. Atadzhanov ShK: [The ways for reduction of complication rate after laparoscopic cholecystectomy at acute cholecystitis]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2007;(12):26-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All these patients underwent endoscopic papillosphincterotomy before LCE for removal of bile hypertension.
  • Intraoperative injuries of extrahepatic bile ducts occurred at 5 (0.27%), bleeding--at 10 (0.6%) patients.
  • Postoperative complications were seen at 36 (2.0%) patients including intraabdominal bleeding (4), drainage bile less (8), subhepatic abscess (4), epigastric wound infection (16).
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / injuries. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / methods. Cholecystitis, Acute / surgery. Jaundice, Obstructive / prevention & control. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic / methods

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  • (PMID = 18163110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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51. Gusani NJ, Marsh JW, Nalesnik MA, Tublin ME, Gamblin TC: Carcinoid of the extra-hepatic bile duct: a case report with long-term follow-up and review of literature. Am Surg; 2008 Jan;74(1):87-90
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  • [Title] Carcinoid of the extra-hepatic bile duct: a case report with long-term follow-up and review of literature.
  • Extrahepatic bile duct tumors, 80 per cent of which are adenocarcinomas, are rare neoplasms accounting for less than two per cent of all cancers.
  • Carcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic bile ducts is a reportable lesion, with only approximately 50 cases described in the literature since 1959.
  • We present a case of a primary extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid tumor resected for cure with the longest reported follow-up time (11 years) after surgery.
  • We also summarize the existing literature with regard to this rare tumor.
  • Our case lends strong support to the notion that extrahepatic biliary carcinoids are generally indolent lesions that, if aggressively resected, can result in excellent long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18274439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD049109
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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52. Akaydin M, Ersoy YE, Erozgen F, Ferlengez E, Kaplan R, Celik A, Memmi N: Tubulovillous adenoma in the common bile duct causing obstructive jaundice. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2009 Oct-Dec;72(4):450-4

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  • [Title] Tubulovillous adenoma in the common bile duct causing obstructive jaundice.
  • Villous adenomas are benign epithelial lesions with a malignant potential which can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the rectum and colon, less frequently in the small bowel and very rarely in the biliary tract.
  • Villous adenomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts are exceptional and only a few cases have been reported.
  • Common bile duct (CBD) adenomas often present in a fashion similar to their malignant counterparts, and adenocarcinoma arising from a villous adenoma of the ampullary biliary epithelium is also extremely rare.
  • We present here a tubulovillous adenoma, arising in the common bile duct, as a cause of obstructive jaundice, and discuss the characteristics of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / complications. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / complications. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20163042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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53. Gauthier-Villars M, Franchi S, Gauthier F, Fabre M, Pariente D, Bernard O: Cholestasis in children with portal vein obstruction. J Pediatr; 2005 Apr;146(4):568-73
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  • We describe cholestasis as a result of bile duct abnormalities in 8 children with portal vein obstruction.
  • Each displayed dilation and narrowing of intra- and/or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • We conclude that children with portal vein obstruction may exhibit clinically significant cholestasis as a result of external compression of the bile duct by the cavernoma.

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  • (PMID = 15812469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Elfadili H, Majbar A, Zouaidia F, Elamrani N, Sabbah F, Raiss M, Mahassini N, Hrora A, Ahallat M: Spontaneous rupture of a recurrent hepatic cystadenoma. World J Hepatol; 2010 Aug 27;2(8):322-4

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  • Biliary cystadenoma is a rare cystic tumor of the middle aged woman that usually arises in the liver or occasionally in the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The lack of specific clinical and biological features hinders diagnosis before surgery.

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  • (PMID = 21161016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999295
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cystadenoma / Liver / Spontaneous rupture
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55. Khan SA, Toledano MB, Taylor-Robinson SD: Epidemiology, risk factors, and pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma. HPB (Oxford); 2008;10(2):77-82
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  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal cancer of the biliary epithelium, arising either within the liver (intrahepatic, ICC) or in the extrahepatic bile ducts (extrahepatic ECC).
  • This review of the literature on the international epidemiological rates of CCA, both intra- and extrahepatic, explores possible explanations for the trends found.
  • These include primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infestation, congenital fibropolycystic liver, bile duct adenomas, and biliary papillomatosis, hepatolithiasis, chemical carcinogens such as nitrosamines, Thorotrast, chronic viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease and obesity.

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  • (PMID = 18773060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504381
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cholangiocarcinoma
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56. Mani H, Climent F, Colomo L, Pittaluga S, Raffeld M, Jaffe ES: Gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas: clinicopathological observations and biological implications. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Sep;34(9):1277-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas: clinicopathological observations and biological implications.
  • Lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts are exceedingly rare.
  • We present the clinicopathological features of 19 cases from our files; 14 patients had primary lymphoma (13 involving gall bladder and 1 involving common hepatic duct), while 5 had systemic lymphoma on further work-up.
  • A comprehensive literature review revealed 36 primary gall bladder and 16 primary extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas.
  • When compared with primary gall bladder lymphomas, those involving the extrahepatic bile ducts present at a younger age (47 y vs. 63 y) usually with obstructive jaundice, and are less often associated with gallstones (17% vs. 50%) or regional lymph node involvement (6% vs. 31%).
  • In conclusion, primary lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts show a broad spectrum of disease types, but in many respects mirror the spectrum of primary lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cholecystitis / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gallstones / complications. Gallstones / pathology. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20679881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 SC000550-27
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS221592; NLM/ PMC2929270
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57. Deixler E, Helmke K: [Extrahepatic cholestasia during therapy with Zolmitriptan (AscoTop)]. Z Gastroenterol; 2005 Sep;43(9):1045-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Extrahepatic cholestasia during therapy with Zolmitriptan (AscoTop)].
  • [Transliterated title] Extrahepatische Cholestase unter Therapie mit Zolmitriptan (Asco-Top).
  • By means of ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and magnetic resonant cholangiopancreatography, dilated extrahepatic bile ducts were diagnosed.
  • Quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy demonstrated retention of activity in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts and delayed transit of activity to the duodenum as signs of papillary dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / radionuclide imaging. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / chemically induced. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / diagnosis. Oxazolidinones / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16142613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oxazolidinones; 0 / Serotonin Receptor Agonists; 0 / Tryptamines; 2FS66TH3YW / zolmitriptan
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58. Petersen C: Pathogenesis and treatment opportunities for biliary atresia. Clin Liver Dis; 2006 Feb;10(1):73-88, vi
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  • It results from an inflammatory and fibrosing obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts in the first few months of life.
  • Early diagnosis and timely surgical portoenterostomy are necessary for improved biliary drainage, but the liver disease progresses to end-stage biliary cirrhosis in most patients.

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  • (PMID = 16376795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-3261
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in liver disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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59. Prudkov MI, Stolin AV, Karmatskikh AIu: [Rapid diagnosis of purulent-destructive forms of acute calculous cholecystitis]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(5):32-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Rapid diagnosis of purulent-destructive forms of acute calculous cholecystitis].
  • Risk of intraabdominal complications depends on the fact of obstruction of gallbladder neck and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Algorithm of a rapid diagnosis was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystitis, Acute / diagnosis. Gallbladder / ultrasonography. Gallstones / diagnosis. Palpation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Suppuration / diagnosis. Suppuration / etiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16007022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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60. Bezerra JA: Potential etiologies of biliary atresia. Pediatr Transplant; 2005 Oct;9(5):646-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The disease is caused by a progressive inflammatory and fibrosing obliteration of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • While infectious agents have varied in different patient populations, studies of liver specimens at different phases of disease point to a pro-inflammatory commitment of lymphocytes at the time of diagnosis, and to their potential role in regulating bile duct obstruction.

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  • (PMID = 16176425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1397-3142
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Transplant
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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61. Talwalkar JA, Lindor KD: Primary sclerosing cholangitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2005 Jan;11(1):62-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Important complications from PSC include metabolic bone disease, colorectal neoplasia, and cholangiocarcinoma.
  • A diagnosis of PSC should be considered among individuals with IBD and elevated serum liver biochemical tests.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cholangiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Liver Transplantation. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15674115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0998
  • [Journal-full-title] Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 198
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62. Michaels A, Levy C: Endoscopic and surgical management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Medscape J Med; 2008;10(10):242
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Primary sclerosing cholangitis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare, chronic cholestatic liver disease of uncertain etiology characterized by the destruction of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts through inflammation and fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / surgery. Endoscopy, Digestive System / methods

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  • (PMID = 19099036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-1997
  • [Journal-full-title] Medscape journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medscape J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2605132
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63. Delbaldo C, Laurent A, Grenier J, Cherqui D, Luciani A, Piedbois P: [Management of biliary tract carcinomas]. Rev Prat; 2009 Apr 20;59(4):469-73

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge thérapeutique des cancers des voies biliaires et de la vésicule biliaire.
  • Biliary tract carcinomas comprise gallbladder carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, which arise from the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts.

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  • (PMID = 19462864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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64. Scialpi M, Baraldi R, Campioni P, Mannella P: Obstructive jaundice. Rays; 2005 Jul-Sep;30(3):263-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • On sonography, marked dilatation of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with a hyperechoic round neoformation was visualized.
  • Cholangiopancreatography was therefore necessary to establish a correct diagnosis and the subsequent therapeutic approach.
  • A definitive diagnosis could not be established on exclusive imaging findings.
  • Surgery was performed with the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma with lithiasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / radiography. Cholangiocarcinoma / radiography. Choledocholithiasis / radiography. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16512074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-7740
  • [Journal-full-title] Rays
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rays
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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65. Shivakumar P, Sabla G, Mohanty S, McNeal M, Ward R, Stringer K, Caldwell C, Chougnet C, Bezerra JA: Effector role of neonatal hepatic CD8+ lymphocytes in epithelial injury and autoimmunity in experimental biliary atresia. Gastroenterology; 2007 Jul;133(1):268-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Here, we investigate this question by examining the role of T lymphocytes in the destruction of extrahepatic bile ducts of neonatal mice using an experimental model of biliary atresia.
  • Among these cells, depletion of CD4(+) cells did not change the course of inflammatory injury and obstruction of neonatal bile ducts.
  • In contrast, loss of CD8(+) cells remarkably suppressed duct injury, prevented luminal obstruction, and restored bile flow.
  • In adoptive transfer experiments, we found that primed CD8(+) cells preferentially homed to extrahepatic bile ducts of neonatal mice and invaded their epithelial lining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primed neonatal CD8(+) cells can activate a pro-inflammatory program, target diseased and healthy duct epithelium, and drive the phenotypic expression of biliary atresia, thus constituting a potential therapeutic target to halt disease progression.

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  • (PMID = 17631148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5085
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK64008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064008-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK064403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK064403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK064008-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / Epitopes; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS27364; NLM/ PMC2013308
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66. Sassi SH, Charfi L, Abbes I, Mrad K, Dhouib R, Hamida NB, Oubiche F, Barsaoui S, Romdhane KB: [Cholestasis caused by a choledochal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma in a 22-month-old boy]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Feb;28(1):45-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Une choléstase causée par un rhabdomyosarcome botryoïde du cholédoque chez un nourrisson de 22 mois.
  • Botrioid rhabdomyosarcoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts is a rare cause of jaundice in children.
  • The gallbladder, the cystic duct, the common bile duct and the pancreatic head were resected.
  • The diagnosis was made on pathological examination; adjuvant chemotherapy followed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Choledochal Cyst / pathology. Cholestasis / etiology. Jaundice, Obstructive / pathology. Lymphangioma, Cystic / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18538715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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67. Grigoriu M, Palade R, Vasile D, Voiculescu D, Năstăsescu T: ["Rendez-vous" procedure. Mini-invasive treatment of biliary stones]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2006 May-Jun;101(3):273-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallstones.

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  • Mini invasive approach, laparoscopic and endoscopic, represents these days a therapeutically standard in treatment of concomitant biliary stones: gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts.

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  • (PMID = 16927916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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68. Vergine M, Pozzo S, Pogliani E, Rondena M, Roccabianca P, Bertazzolo W: Common bile duct obstruction due to a duodenal gastrinoma in a dog. Vet J; 2005 Jul;170(1):141-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Common bile duct obstruction due to a duodenal gastrinoma in a dog.
  • Clinical examination and laboratory findings suggested the presence of a severe hepatobiliary disorder.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography showed a diffuse increase in echogenicity of the liver, with severe gallbladder dilation and marked dilation of the cystic duct, common bile duct and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Based on these findings, an extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (EBTO) of unknown cause was suspected.
  • At laparotomy, the gallbladder and the extrahepatic bile ducts appeared severely dilated.
  • The duodenum at the level of the common duct orifice appeared slightly thickened and severely hardened for a length of 1 cm.
  • After euthanasia and necropsy, histopathology showed the presence of a neuroendocrine neoplasia involving the duodenal wall with focal invasion of the adjacent pancreas and small liver metastases.
  • These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of gastrinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholestasis / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Duodenal Neoplasms / veterinary. Gastrinoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / veterinary. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15993800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0233
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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69. Guarise A, Venturini S, Faccioli N, Pinali L, Morana G: Role of magnetic resonance in characterising extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Radiol Med; 2006 Jun;111(4):526-38
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GADOPENTETATE DIMEGLUMINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of magnetic resonance in characterising extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) in correctly locating and characterising biliary strictures in patients affected by extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, identify findings suggestive of the disease, identify lesions with similar MR features and possible criteria for differential diagnosis and establish prospective MR accuracy in diagnosis of malignant obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 39 patients affected by extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma confirmed by histology or cytology.
  • The studies were evaluated for the following parameters: site of obstruction (hilar, proximal or distal), presence of intra- or extrahepatic dilation of bile ducts, morphology of ductal stenosis (gradual tapering or abrupt ending), morphology of the lesion (mass like or circumferential), dimension, signal intensity before contrast medium administration and lesion enhancement after administration of contrast medium.
  • Finally, we assessed the most useful sequence for the diagnosis.
  • In order to evaluate MR accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts, we prospectively reviewed MR examinations of 74 patients affected by obstructive jaundice (55 malignant lesions and 19 inflammatory lesions).
  • MR diagnosis was compared with histology or cytology considered as the gold standard.
  • RESULTS: MR allowed identification and localisation of 41/41 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.
  • Fifty-four percent of the lesions showed gradual duct tapering; the remaining lesions showed an abrupt ending.
  • MR had good sensitivity (91%) but poor specificity (47%) in characterising stenosis as malignant, given the large number (10/19) of benign lesions evaluated as neoplastic lesions.
  • On the other hand, lesions with parietal thickening, particularly if smaller than 1 cm, require endoscopic cytology or histology because of the high risk of unnecessary procedures for benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Ferrosoferric Oxide. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Iron. Magnetite Nanoparticles. Male. Oxides. Retrospective Studies. Siloxanes

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  • (PMID = 16779539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Magnetite Nanoparticles; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Siloxanes; 0 / ferumoxsil; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
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70. Hosonuma K, Sato K, Honma M, Kashiwabara K, Takahashi H, Takagi H, Mori M: Small-cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct: a case report and review of the literature. Hepatol Int; 2008 Mar;2(1):129-32
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small-cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct: a case report and review of the literature.
  • A small-cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct in a 69-year-old woman is herein reported.
  • A tumor measuring approximately 3 cm in diameter was located at the confluence of the common bile duct, cystic duct, and common hepatic duct.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma without any gland formation or differentiation to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor cells were immunoreactive for epithelial markers such as epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin and for the neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin.
  • According to the review of 16 previously reported cases and our case of small-cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts, there is no significant difference in the clinicopathological findings, namely, age, sex, site of carcinoma, and prognosis between the cases with or without squamous or glandular components.
  • No CD34-positive multipotent adult progenitor cells, which might be the origin of the small-cell carcinoma, were detected in the bile duct epithelium in our case.

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  • (PMID = 19669289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716877
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71. Strazzabosco M, Fabris L: Functional anatomy of normal bile ducts. Anat Rec (Hoboken); 2008 Jun;291(6):653-60
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional anatomy of normal bile ducts.
  • The biliary tree is a complex network of conduits that begins with the canals of Hering and progressively merges into a system of interlobular, septal, and major ducts which then coalesce to form the extrahepatic bile ducts, which finally deliver bile to the gallbladder and to the intestine.
  • In addition to funneling bile into the intestine, cholangiocytes (the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts) are actively involved in bile production by performing both absorbitive and secretory functions.
  • More recently, other important biological properties restricted to cholangiocytes lining the smaller bile ducts have been outlined, with regard to their plasticity (i.e., the ability to undergo limited phenotypic changes), reactivity (i.e., the ability to participate in the inflammatory reaction to liver damage), and ability to behave as liver progenitor cells.

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  • (PMID = 18484611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-8494
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Rec (Hoboken)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK034989; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK079005; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK079005; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK34989
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • [Number-of-references] 47
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS493217; NLM/ PMC3743051
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72. Wittenburg H, Mössner J, Caca K: Endoscopic treatment of duodenal obstruction due to a gallstone ("Bouveret's syndrome"). Ann Hepatol; 2005 Apr-Jun;4(2):132-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • On abdominal x-ray the extrahepatic bile ducts were positive for gas and on ultrasound a gallstone in the duodenum was suspected whereas the gallbladder was not detectable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy. Female. Humans. Intestinal Fistula / diagnosis. Intestinal Fistula / etiology. Intestinal Fistula / surgery. Lithotripsy. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16010248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1665-2681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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73. Parlak E, Ciçek B, Dişibeyaz S, Köksal AS, Sahin B: An endoscopic finding in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: retraction of the main duodenal papilla into the duodenum wall. Gastrointest Endosc; 2007 Mar;65(3):532-6
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Primary sclerosing cholangitis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is reached by typical cholangiographic findings and liver biopsy.
  • The characteristic cholangiographic abnormalities consist of multifocal strictures and dilatations in the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • In patients with retraction of the papilla, both of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts were involved; however, only the intrahepatic bile ducts were involved in patients with no retraction of papilla.
  • Extrahepatic involvement seems to be necessary for the occurrence of this finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater / abnormalities. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde / methods. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Duodenoscopy / methods. Duodenum / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17321263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Geonzon-Gonzales MR: Primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gastroenterol Nurs; 2007 Mar-Apr;30(2):102-5; quiz 105-7
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Primary sclerosing cholangitis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown origin characterized by progressive inflammation, destruction, and fibrosis of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The disease leads to obliteration of intrahepatic bile ducts and to biliary cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and portal hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17440311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-895X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology nursing : the official journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Cholagogues and Choleretics; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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75. Layfield LJ, Cramer H: Primary sclerosing cholangitis as a cause of false positive bile duct brushing cytology: report of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Feb;32(2):119-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary sclerosing cholangitis as a cause of false positive bile duct brushing cytology: report of two cases.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology characterized by ongoing inflammation, destruction, and fibrosis of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Irregular narrowing and dilation of the biliary duct system produces the characteristic beaded pattern seen on cholangiogram.
  • Bile duct brushing cytology is the primary screening technique for cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Few false positive bile duct brushings have been reported in the literature, with the majority of these having occurred in a background of PSC.
  • We report two patients with PSC in whom bile duct brush cytologies were falsely positive for carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15637668.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Nazyrov FG, Khadzhibaev AM, Altyev BK, Deviatov AV, Atadzhanov ShK: [Operations in injuries and strictures of bile ducts]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2006;(4):46-51
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Operations in injuries and strictures of bile ducts].
  • Analysis of surgical treatment of 336 patients with cicatricial strictures and iatrogenic external fistulas of extrahepatic bile ducts is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Injuries / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / injuries. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / methods. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 16710224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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77. Nahon S, Cadranel JF, Chazouilleres O, Biour M, Jouannaud V, Marteau P: Liver and inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 May;33(5):370-81
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Diseases.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most common manifestation, sclerosing cholangitis, characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the intra- andor extrahepatic bile ducts, is unusual in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Diseases / etiology. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / prevention & control. Humans. Liver / blood supply. Vascular Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19394180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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78. Smith T, Befeler AS: High-dose ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2007 Mar;9(1):54-9
SciCrunch. DrugBank: Data: Chemical .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disease that results in progressive fibrosis of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, is the most promising treatment option because of its benign side effect profile and documented benefit in the treatment of other cholestatic liver diseases, including primary biliary cirrhosis.

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  • (PMID = 17335678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8037
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholagogues and Choleretics; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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79. Ozin Y, Parlak E, Kiliç ZM, Temuçin T, Saşmaz N: Sclerosing cholangitis-like changes in hepatobiliary tuberculosis. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar;21(1):50-3
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Tuberculosis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Atypical presentations of tuberculosis might cause difficulties in diagnosis, especially in developing countries.
  • Primary hepatobiliary tuberculosis is a rare condition and the diagnosis of this condition necessitates a high index of suspicion.
  • In this report, we present a case with obstructive jaundice, dilated intrahepatic bile ducts and lymphadenopathies in the porta hepatis.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography showed irregularities, strictures and dilatations both in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts resembling sclerosing cholangitis.
  • The present case shows that primary hepatobiliary tuberculosis may mimic primary sclerosing cholangitis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with sclerosing cholangitis-like changes on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Diseases / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Hepatic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20533114.001).
  • [ISSN] 2148-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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80. Price L, Kozarek R, Agoff N: Squamous cell carcinoma arising within a choledochal cyst. Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Oct;53(10):2822-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Choledochal cysts are rare congenital or acquired cystic dilatations of the intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Choledochal Cyst / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Female. Humans. Pancreatitis, Chronic / diagnosis. Pancreatitis, Chronic / etiology

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Carcinoma, Squamous Cell.
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  • (PMID = 18274902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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81. Beldi G, Styner M, Schindera S, Inderbitzin D, Candinas D: Intraoperative three-dimensional fluoroscopic cholangiography. Hepatogastroenterology; 2006 Mar-Apr;53(68):157-9
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  • Precise intraoperative assessment of the architecture of the biliary tree could reduce lesions to intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The bile ducts were displayed three-dimensionally by realtime rotational projections or multiplanar reconstructions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / radiography. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / radiography. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Cystadenoma / radiography. Cystadenoma / surgery. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16608014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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82. Charatcharoenwitthaya P, Lindor KD: Primary sclerosing cholangitis: diagnosis and management. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2006 Feb;8(1):75-82
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  • [Title] Primary sclerosing cholangitis: diagnosis and management.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease caused by progressive inflammatory destruction of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, and ultimately cirrhosis.
  • Cholangiography is the gold standard for diagnosis of PSC.
  • The typical radiologic findings include multifocal strictures and dilation involving the intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary tract, or both.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16510038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8037
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholagogues and Choleretics; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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83. Nakazawa T, Ohara H, Sano H, Ando T, Aoki S, Kobayashi S, Okamoto T, Nomura T, Joh T, Itoh M: Clinical differences between primary sclerosing cholangitis and sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis. Pancreas; 2005 Jan;30(1):20-5
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  • RESULTS: SC with AIP as a diagnosis occurs abruptly with obstructive jaundice compared with PSC where diagnosis is often based on findings of asymptomatic liver test abnormalities.
  • The most prominent features of cholangiograms for the SC with AIP cases were stenosis of the lower common bile duct.
  • However, sclerosing changes in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts or hilar hepatic region were observed for half of the cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Bilirubin / blood. Biopsy. Cholangiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / blood. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / pathology. Liver / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas / pathology. Prognosis


84. Cardinale V, Wang Y, Carpino G, Alvaro D, Reid L, Gaudio E: Multipotent stem cells in the biliary tree. Ital J Anat Embryol; 2010;115(1-2):85-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The biliary tree system consists of two divisions: intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • A common progenitor for liver, biliary duct system, and ventral pancreas exists at early stages of development, when the anterior definitive endoderm is forming the foregut.
  • Several studies indicate that the biliary tree contains stem cell compartments for liver, pancreas and the bile duct system and persisting into adulthood.
  • The biliary tree stem/progenitors represent a new source of cells that can be used as tools for regenerative medicine of liver, bile duct and pancreas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / cytology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / embryology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / physiology. Humans. Liver / cytology. Liver / embryology. Liver / physiology

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  • (PMID = 21072995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-6714
  • [Journal-full-title] Italian journal of anatomy and embryology = Archivio italiano di anatomia ed embriologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ital J Anat Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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85. Lee HK, Park SJ, Yi BH, Lee AL, Moon JH, Chang YW: Imaging features of adult choledochal cysts: a pictorial review. Korean J Radiol; 2009 Jan-Feb;10(1):71-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Choledochal cysts are rare congenital anomalies which are principally diagnosed by disproportional dilatation of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • In addition, choledochal cysts are believed to arise from the anomalous union of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct outside the duodenal wall which is also proximal to the sphincter of the Oddi mechanism.
  • The multidetector computed tomography with reformatted imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography represent the important techniques providing the anatomical resolution and detail required to properly diagnose and classify choledochal cysts and their associated abnormal features of the biliary tree, as well as their pancreaticobile duct union.
  • This study describes the various imaging features of a choledochal cyst in adults according to the various types of anomalous unions of the pancreaticobile duct according to Komi's classification and anatomic location according to Todani's classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Choledochal Cyst / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Humans. Pancreatic Ducts / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 19182506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 15
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2647175
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86. Shin YS, Jang YS, Kang MK, Jang BK, Park KS, Hwang JS, Kwon JH, Kang YN: [A case of sclerosing cholangitis showing response to prednisolone]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2007 Dec;50(6):402-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by progressive fibrosis and destruction of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts resulting in hepatic failure and death.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Prednisolone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18159180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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87. Sandmann M, Fähndrich M, Heike M: ["Endoscopy in a stone quarry"--multiple pigment stones 6 weeks after delivery]. Z Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar;48(3):401-5
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  • The endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed the presence of more than 100 small stones in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • An endoscopic papillotomy was performed and multiple small black stones were removed from the bile duct by basket into the duodenum.
  • [MeSH-major] Choledocholithiasis / diagnosis. Choledocholithiasis / surgery. Puerperal Disorders / diagnosis. Puerperal Disorders / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20221994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7803
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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88. Jafri M, Donnelly B, McNeal M, Ward R, Tiao G: MAPK signaling contributes to rotaviral-induced cholangiocyte injury and viral replication. Surgery; 2007 Aug;142(2):192-201
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  • METHODS: Extrahepatic bile ducts from BALB/c pups or immortalized cholangiocytes subjected to RRV infection or control were analyzed, using Western blots, for phosphorylated members of the MAPK family: p38, ERK 1/2, JNK 1/2, and downstream transcription factors.

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  • (PMID = 17689685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK072858; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK0728858-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Transcription Factors
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89. Choi D, Hong ST: Imaging diagnosis of clonorchiasis. Korean J Parasitol; 2007 Jun;45(2):77-85
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  • [Title] Imaging diagnosis of clonorchiasis.
  • The basic imaging finding of clonorchiasis is diffuse dilatation of the peripheral intrahepatic bile ducts, without dilation of the large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The images of cholangiocarcinoma associated with clonorchiasis show both the tumor with obstruction images and diffuse dilatation of the peripheral intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiography. Clonorchiasis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts / parasitology. Bile Ducts / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17570969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-4001
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 29
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2526300
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90. Ligato S, Furmaga W, Cartun RW, Hull D, Tsongalis GJ: Primary carcinoid tumor of the common hepatic duct: A rare case with immunohistochemical and molecular findings. Oncol Rep; 2005 Mar;13(3):543-6
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumor of the common hepatic duct: A rare case with immunohistochemical and molecular findings.
  • We report immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular findings in a rare case of a carcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic bile ducts in a 33-year-old woman, who presented with a 3.9x2.8x2.6 cm mass within the right and common hepatic ducts.
  • She underwent surgery and a carcinoid tumor was identified.
  • By molecular analysis, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) with opposite allelic patterns between the gastrin-positive and gastrin-negative areas of the tumor was identified.
  • The molecular studies for LOH along with the morphology and IHC profiling suggest that this second population of gastrin-positive carcinoid cells may represent a new clone within the carcinoid tumor with differentiation toward gastrin production or may represent the next step in the carcinogenic process with a gradual emergence of a more aggressive clone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / genetics. Bile Duct Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / immunology. Hepatic Duct, Common / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15706430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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91. Lee SO: [Physiologic and pathologic experimental models for studying cholangiocytes]. Korean J Hepatol; 2008 Jun;14(2):139-49

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cholangiocytes (epithelial cells lining the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts) and hepatocytes are two major components of liver epithelia.
  • Although cholangiocytes are less numerous than hepatocytes, they are involved in both bile secretion and diverse cellular processes such as cell-cycle phenomena, cell signaling, and interactions with other cells, matrix components, foreign organisms, and xenobiotics.
  • Cholangiocytes are also targets in several human diseases including cholangiocarcinoma, primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune cholangitis, and vanishing bile-duct syndrome.
  • The following aspects are reviewed: isolation of cholangiocytes from the liver and their heterogeneity, various culture systems, establishment of cholangiocyte cell lines, isolation and usage of intrahepatic bile-duct units, three-dimensional modeling of the bile duct, experimental models for inducing cholangiocyte proliferation, and various cholangiopathies such as cholangiocarcinoma, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune cholangitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts / cytology. Bile Ducts / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bile Duct Diseases / etiology. Disease Models, Animal. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / physiology. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Mice. Models, Animal

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  • (PMID = 18617761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hepatol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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92. Roskams T, Desmet V: Embryology of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, the ductal plate. Anat Rec (Hoboken); 2008 Jun;291(6):628-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Embryology of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, the ductal plate.
  • In the human embryo, the first anlage of the bile ducts and the liver is the hepatic diverticulum or liver bud.
  • For up to 8 weeks of gestation, the extrahepatic biliary tree develops through lengthening of the caudal part of the hepatic diverticulum.
  • The hepatic duct (ductus hepaticus) develops from the cranial part (pars hepatica) of the hepatic diverticulum.
  • The distal portions of the right and left hepatic ducts develop from the extrahepatic ducts and are clearly defined tubular structures by 12 weeks of gestation.
  • The proximal portions of the main hilar ducts derive from the first intrahepatic ductal plates.
  • The extrahepatic bile ducts and the developing intrahepatic biliary tree maintain luminal continuity from the very start of organogenesis throughout further development, contradicting a previous study in the mouse suggesting that the extrahepatic bile duct system develops independently from the intrahepatic biliary tree and that the systems are initially discontinuous but join up later.
  • The normal development of intrahepatic bile ducts requires finely timed and precisely tuned epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which proceed from the hilum of the liver toward its periphery along the branches of the developing portal vein.
  • Lack of remodeling of the ductal plate results in the persistence of an excess of embryonic bile duct structures remaining in their primitive ductal plate configuration.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / embryology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / embryology

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  • (PMID = 18484608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-8494
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Rec (Hoboken)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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93. Kashiwazaki M, Nakamori S, Makino T, Omura Y, Yasui M, Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Hirao M, Takami K, Fujitani K, Mishima H, Sugiura T, Tsujinaka T: [An icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma with no detectable tumor in the liver but with an intrabile duct recurrent tumor]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2099-101
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  • [Title] [An icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma with no detectable tumor in the liver but with an intrabile duct recurrent tumor].
  • The intraductal tumor was removed with the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • A histological examination of the tumor showed an icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The recurrent tumor was detected as intrajejunal tumor thrombi by a CT scan.
  • The tumor thrombi in jejunal limb were removed.
  • At 2 months after the operation, an intrahepatic lesion and tumor thrombi were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / secondary. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18219911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Protein Precursors; 53230-14-1 / acarboxyprothrombin; 9001-26-7 / Prothrombin
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94. Eckel F, Schmid RM: Emerging drugs for biliary cancer. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2007 Nov;12(4):571-89
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  • Biliary cancer comprise carcinoma of the gallbladder as well as the intrahepatic, hilar and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Recent investigations into the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in biliary carcinogenesis and tumour growth have contributed greatly to our understanding of biliary cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17979600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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95. Kim DH, Song MH, Kim DH: Malignant carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(5):485-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Carcinoid Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct: report of a case.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile duct are exceedingly rare and account for between 0.1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, with most reported cases arising from the gallbladder.
  • We herein present what we believe is only the 47th reported case of a primary carcinoid tumor occurring in the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Laboratory and imaging studies gave results that were consistent with a malignant obstruction in the common bile duct.
  • Pathologically, an ill-demarcated mass was noted in the common bile duct measuring 1.6 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm in size.
  • The tumor had invaded the adjacent pancreatic tissues.
  • The final pathologic diagnosis was well-differentiated carcinoid tumor of a malignant nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Female. Humans

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  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
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96. Pitt HA, Nakeeb A: Operative approach to gallbladder cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2006 Apr;8(2):161-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In most Western countries gallbladder cancer is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • However, the extent of hepatic and lymph node resection, the need for resection of the extrahepatic ducts in nonjaundiced patients, the role of vascular resection, and the advisability of hepatopancreatoduodenectomy remain a matter of debate.
  • Although no data from prospective, randomized studies are available, resection of the gallbladder and adjacent liver with or without the extrahepatic bile ducts and with a regional lymph node dissection is the operative approach recommended for selected patients with gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Cholecystectomy / methods. Female. Hepatectomy / methods. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care / methods. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Survival Rate

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  • [ISSN] 1522-8037
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
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97. Mieli-Vergani G, Vergani D: Biliary atresia. Semin Immunopathol; 2009 Sep;31(3):371-81
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Biliary Atresia.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It results from inflammatory destruction of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • It is the most frequent surgically correctable liver disorder in infancy and the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in paediatric age.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / immunology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / immunology. Biliary Atresia / diagnosis. Biliary Atresia / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19533128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-2300
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Immunopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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98. Morelli L, Piscioli F, Cudazzo E, Del Nonno F, Licci S: Simultaneous occurrence of metastasizing carcinoid tumour of the gallbladder and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a young man. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2007 Oct-Dec;70(4):371-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kidney Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous occurrence of metastasizing carcinoid tumour of the gallbladder and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a young man.
  • Carcinoid tumour is an endocrine neoplasia described for the first time in 1888 and rarely observed in the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Gallbladder carcinoid tumour was first reported by Joel in 1929.
  • Histological examination revealed a typical gallbladder carcinoid tumour with regional lymph nodal metastasis and a renal cell carcinoma, with morphological and histochemical features of the chromophobe type.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of gallbladder carcinoid tumour with an unexpected aggressive behaviour in a very young patient, with concurrent renal cell carcinoma, chromophobe variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology


99. Holzapfel K, Breitwieser C, Prinz C, Rummeny EJ, Gaa J: [Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography using gadolinium-EOB-DTPA. Preliminary experience and clinical applications]. Radiologe; 2007 Jun;47(6):536-44
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GADOPENTETATE DIMEGLUMINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) with heavily T2-weighted RARE and HASTE sequences has become an important imaging modality for the morphologic evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • However, for the diagnosis of functional biliary disorders, cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) and endoscopic manometry, two invasive techniques with considerable morbidity and mortality, remain the standard.

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  • (PMID = 17965849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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100. Matsui A: Immune pathogenesis of sclerosing cholangitis in biliary atresia. Hepatol Res; 2007 Oct;37 Suppl 3:S501

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Biliary atresia (BA) is the most frequent single life-threatening hepatic disorder in early childhood in Japan, Europe and North America.
  • BA is characterized by complete inability to excrete bile associated with obstruction, destruction or absence of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Pathologic study of tissues removed from the porta hepatis and of the proximal extrahepatic bile ducts suggests that BA in the vast majority of infants results from a sclerosing, inflammatory lesion initiated in ductular tissues.
  • In KP, bile duct remnants or fibrous tissues in front of the hepatic artery are dissected and a Roux-en -Y anastomosis is fashioned between the area of the porta hepatic and the jejunum.
  • However in BA, bile duct injury and sclerosing inflammation is ongoing even after apparently successful KP.

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  • (PMID = 17931210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6346
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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