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1. Basso MM, Eynard AR, Valentich MA: Dietary lipids modulate fatty acid composition, gamma glutamyltranspeptidase and lipid peroxidation levels of the epididymis tissue in mice. Anim Reprod Sci; 2006 May;92(3-4):364-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dietary lipids modulate fatty acid composition, gamma glutamyltranspeptidase and lipid peroxidation levels of the epididymis tissue in mice.
  • The purpose of this work was to analyze the effect of diets that contain several oils whose composition in fatty acids were different, on the kinetic parameters of the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) and the lipoperoxidation of the epididymis because GGTP controls the level of the glutathione that is an molecule that regulates the level of oxidation protecting the maturation and survival of sperm in the lumen of the epididymis.
  • The caput portion of the epididymis was chosen because the epithelium of this segment synthesizes GGTP.
  • The significant increment in Km of GGTP in the olein and corn groups was correlated with greater amount of monounsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation in the epididymis.
  • In conclusion, modifications of dietary lipid sources differentially modulated the epididymis tissue fatty acid profile, lipid peroxidation amounts, and the Km of GGTP.
  • [MeSH-major] Dietary Fats / pharmacology. Epididymis / enzymology. Fatty Acids / analysis. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Sperm Maturation / drug effects. gamma-Glutamyltransferase / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 16055283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4320
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Fish Oils; 8001-30-7 / Corn Oil; EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase
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2. Shang XJ, Liu QZ, Kang N, Huang YF: [Protective effect of L-carnitine on the testis and epididymis against ornidazole-induced injury in male rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2009 Dec;15(12):1090-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Protective effect of L-carnitine on the testis and epididymis against ornidazole-induced injury in male rats].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of L-carnitine on the testis and epididymis against ornidazole (ORN)-induced injury in male rats.
  • RESULTS: Compared with Group A, Groups B and C showed significant decreases in the indexes of the testis and epididymis (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01), while Group D exhibited no difference and Group E extremely significant difference (P < 0.01).
  • HE staining revealed that the spermatogenic cells at all levels of testicular seminiferous tubules were neatly arranged in Group B, caduceus in some seminiferous tubules, with decreased number of sperm and sporadic spermatogenic cells in the epididymal duct.
  • Necrotic and caduceus spermatogenic cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules of Group C, with significantly decreased number of sperm and lots of non-sperm cell components in the epididymal duct.
  • No obvious changes were found in the testicular seminiferous tubules, nor evident reduction in the number of sperm in the epididymal duct of Group D.
  • Group E showed decreased number of sperm in the testicular seminiferous tubules, necrotic and caduceus spermatogenic cells, obviously reduced number of sperm and a lot of non-sperm cell components in the epididymal duct.
  • CONCLUSION: ORC can induce histopathological changes in the testis and epididymis of male rats, and L-carnitine plays a role in protecting the testis and epididymis from ORN-induced injury in male rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Carnitine / pharmacology. Epididymis / drug effects. Testis / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20180419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 62XCK0G93T / Ornidazole; S7UI8SM58A / Carnitine
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3. Wang J, Ruan K: miR-335 is involved in the rat epididymal development by targeting the mRNA of RASA1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2010 Nov 12;402(2):222-7
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  • [Title] miR-335 is involved in the rat epididymal development by targeting the mRNA of RASA1.
  • The expression of 350 miRNAs during the rat epididymal development was profiled by a home-made miRNA microarray recently.
  • The results showed that the expression of miR-335 decreased from postnatal day 7 to 49 in the rat epididymis.
  • Few studies on miR-335's roles in the epididymis and its targets have been reported so far.
  • The bioinformatic analysis indicated that one of miR-335's putative targets is RASA1, a known gene related to cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis, which may contribute to the epididymal development.
  • In addition, it was also found that the temporal expression of RASA1 was inverse to that of miR-335 during the epididymal development in the rat.
  • These results indicated that the reduction of miR-335 at least in part caused the upregulation of RASA1 in the rat epididymis.
  • Therefore, miR-335 can be involved in the epididymal development by affecting the expression of RASA1.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / growth & development. MicroRNAs / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20933506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
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4. Wakeman D, Warner BW: Urogenital nonunion--a rare anomaly associated with the undescended testis. Am J Surg; 2010 May;199(5):e59-60
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  • Complete urogenital nonunion presenting as complete separation of the epididymis and testicle is a rare condition.
  • We present a case of complete separation of the testis and epididymis found incidentally during an exploration of an undescended testicle palpable in the inguinal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptorchidism / diagnosis. Epididymis / abnormalities. Testis / abnormalities. Urogenital Abnormalities / diagnosis. Urogenital Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis. Abnormalities, Multiple / surgery. Child, Preschool. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20466097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Henderson NA, Cooke GM, Robaire B: Region-specific expression of androgen and growth factor pathway genes in the rat epididymis and the effects of dual 5alpha-reductase inhibition. J Endocrinol; 2006 Sep;190(3):779-91
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  • [Title] Region-specific expression of androgen and growth factor pathway genes in the rat epididymis and the effects of dual 5alpha-reductase inhibition.
  • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is the primary androgen acting in the epididymis, the site of sperm maturation.
  • However, signaling pathways involved in regulating or mediating DHT actions in the epididymis remain largely unknown.
  • The goals of this study were to determine the expression profiles of potential signaling systems in the epididymis and assess their DHT-dependence using two different dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitors.
  • Rats were untreated or gavaged with vehicle, 10 mg/kg per day PNU157706 or 32 mg/kg per day FK143 for 28 days and epididymal gene expression was analyzed.
  • Gene array analysis revealed analogous effects of FK143 on overall epididymal gene expression when compared with previous PNU157706 studies.
  • Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of the 5alpha-reductase isozymes, androgen receptor, and members of the IGF, FGF, TGF, and VEGF families revealed novel region-specific expression profiles in the epididymis that were differentially affected by 5alpha-reductase inhibition; the two inhibitors had parallel effects.
  • These results provide insight into epididymal signaling mechanisms and indicate potential candidates acting either upstream or downstream of DHT to regulate and/or mediate its actions in the epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors. Androgens / metabolism. Epididymis / enzymology. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17003279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(3-(3-(bis(4-isobutylphenyl)methylamino)benzoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)butyric acid; 0 / 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Androstenes; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / PNU 157706; 0 / Phenylbutyrates; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 1.3.99.5 / 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.1.11 / TGF-beta type I receptor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type I
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6. Zhou WL, Zuo WL, Ruan YC, Wang Z, DU JY, Xiong Y, Chan HC: The role of extracellular ATP in the male reproductive tract. Sheng Li Xue Bao; 2007 Aug 25;59(4):487-94
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  • This review summarizes the signal pathways through which ATP induces anion secretion by the epithelia of the epididymis, as well as its epithelium-dependent modulation of smooth muscle contraction of the vas deferens.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Epididymis / physiology. Epithelium / physiology. Humans. Male. Muscle Contraction. Muscle, Smooth / physiology. Vas Deferens / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17700968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0371-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Li Xue Bao
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate
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7. Liu XF, Li HC: [Present state of studies on anatomical anomalies in cryptorchidism]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2006 Oct;12(10):936-8
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  • Undescended testis is frequently accompanied with the anomalies of the spermatic cord, gubernaculum testis, processus vaginalis, and epididymis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Epididymis / abnormalities. Humans. Male. Spermatic Cord / abnormalities. Testis / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 17121029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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8. Muñoz Sánchez MJ, Muñoz Fernández L, Prados Olleta N, Vara Thorbeck R: Testicular-epididymal hemodynamics and inguinal hernia. Eur Surg Res; 2005 Jul-Aug;37(4):257-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular-epididymal hemodynamics and inguinal hernia.
  • Testicular-epididymal hemodynamics is studied by ultrasonographic color velocity imaging (CVI) in patients with primary, uncomplicated inguinal hernias.
  • This procedure shows that the hernia does not cause significant alterations in the arterial circulation of the testicle and epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / blood supply. Hernia, Inguinal / ultrasonography. Testis / blood supply

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16260878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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9. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of androstenedione (CAS No. 63-05-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2010 Sep;(560):1, 7-31,33-171 passim
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  • The numbers of sperm per mg cauda epididymis in the 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg male groups and the total number of sperm per cauda epididymis in 50 mg/kg males were significantly less than those of the vehicle controls.

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  • (PMID = 21037592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Mutagens; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione
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10. Oliveira H, Spanò M, Guevara MA, Santos TM, Santos C, Pereira Mde L: Evaluation of in vivo reproductive toxicity of potassium chromate in male mice. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Jul;62(4):391-404
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Testis and epididymis histology was evaluated by light microscopy and testicular cells populations were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM).
  • Spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis and their morphology and several functional parameters (density, motility, viability, mitochondrial function, acrosome integrity) were evaluated.
  • Besides a reduction in seminiferous tubules diameter, exposure to potassium chromate did not induce further histopathological changes in mice testis or epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromates / toxicity. Environmental Pollutants / toxicity. Epididymis / drug effects. Potassium Compounds / toxicity. Reproduction / drug effects. Spermatozoa / drug effects. Testis / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19577443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromates; 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Potassium Compounds; 5P0R38CN2X / potassium chromate(VI)
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11. Godmann M, Kosan C, Behr R: Krüppel-like factor 4 is widely expressed in the mouse male and female reproductive tract and responds as an immediate early gene to activation of the protein kinase A in TM4 Sertoli cells. Reproduction; 2010 Apr;139(4):771-82
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  • In the male reproductive tract, we detected KLF4 in the epithelia of the epididymis, ductus deferens, coagulating gland, and the penis.

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  • (PMID = 20051481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7899
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GKLF protein; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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12. Sipilä P, Jalkanen J, Huhtaniemi IT, Poutanen M: Novel epididymal proteins as targets for the development of post-testicular male contraception. Reproduction; 2009 Mar;137(3):379-89
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel epididymal proteins as targets for the development of post-testicular male contraception.
  • Besides hormonal approaches to stop testicular sperm production, the post-meiotic blockage of epididymal sperm maturation carries lots of promise.
  • Microarray and proteomics techniques and libraries of expressed sequence tags, in combination with digital differential display tools and publicly available gene expression databases, are being currently used to identify and characterize novel epididymal proteins as putative targets for male contraception.
  • The data reported indicate that these technologies provide complementary information for the identification of novel highly expressed genes in the epididymis.
  • In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of several epididymal proteins shown either in vivo or in vitro to be involved in the epididymal sperm maturation.
  • Despite the progress made in recent years, further studies are needed to reveal further details in the epididymal sperm maturation process and the factors involved, in order to facilitate the development of new epididymal contraceptives.
  • [MeSH-major] Contraception / methods. Contraception / trends. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Epididymal Secretory Proteins

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  • (PMID = 19131560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7899
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Male; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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13. Marín-Briggiler CI, Veiga MF, Matos ML, Echeverría MF, Furlong LI, Vazquez-Levin MH: Expression of epithelial cadherin in the human male reproductive tract and gametes and evidence of its participation in fertilization. Mol Hum Reprod; 2008 Oct;14(10):561-71
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  • Our results have demonstrated expression of E-cadherin mRNA in the human male reproductive tract showing higher levels in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis than in the testis.
  • The mature 122 kDa E-cadherin was detected in epididymal protein extracts and was localized in the epithelial cells from the three epididymal regions.
  • Moreover, the 86 kDa E-cadherin ectodomain was found in cauda epididymal and seminal plasma.
  • The identification of proteins involved in gamete interaction will contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of fertilization and help in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrosome / metabolism. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cells, Cultured. Cricetinae. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Epididymis / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Oocytes / metabolism. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sperm-Ovum Interactions / genetics. Sperm-Ovum Interactions / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18829448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
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14. Miller DC, Koss MN: Wegener granulomatosis presenting as epididymitis. Urology; 2009 Jun;73(6):1225-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The retrospective pathologic review of the orchiectomy specimen confirmed the presence of WG in the epididymis; the testicular tissue was not involved.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymitis / etiology. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / complications. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19376569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Man XM, Qin H, Chen MJ, Zhang CX, Song L, Wang YB: [Effects of di-butyl phthalate on the reproductive system of adolescent male rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2010 Nov;16(11):973-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • After the exposure, the testis, epididymis, liver and pituitary of the rats were weighted and their ratios to the body weight obtained.
  • Histopathological changes of the testis and epididymis were examined by Hematoxylin-eosin staining, the levels of testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the serum were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the relative mRNA expressions of the steroidogenesis acute regulatory protein (StAR), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and scavenger receptor (SR) were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: DBP induced significant histopathological changes in the testicular tissue at 100 and 500 mg/(kg x d), and decreased the testicular and epididymal weights, inhibited the mRNA expressions of StAR and PCNA, reduced the levels of T and LH, and elevated the level of FSH at 500 mg/(kg x d).

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  • (PMID = 21218637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Scavenger; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 2286E5R2KE / Dibutyl Phthalate; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
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16. Mendive F, Laurent P, Van Schoore G, Skarnes W, Pochet R, Vassart G: Defective postnatal development of the male reproductive tract in LGR4 knockout mice. Dev Biol; 2006 Feb 15;290(2):421-34
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  • Here, we report that the orphan G protein-coupled receptor LGR4/GPR48 plays a role in the postnatal tissue remodeling needed for elongation and convolution of the efferent ducts and epididymis.
  • In the epididymis, the thin and highly convoluted duct is replaced by a large cystic tube which is surrounded by a thick condensation of mesenchymal cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alleles. Animals. Aquaporin 1 / metabolism. Biological Transport. Body Weight. Bromodeoxyuridine / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation. Epididymis / embryology. Epididymis / metabolism. Epithelium / embryology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Genetic Vectors. Genotype. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mutagenesis. Mutation. Phenotype. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter / metabolism. Spermatozoa / metabolism. Testis / embryology. Testis / metabolism. Trypan Blue / pharmacology


17. Suson K, Mathews R, Goldstein JD, Dehner LP: Juvenile xanthogranuloma presenting as a testicular mass in infancy: a clinical and pathologic study of three cases. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2010 Jan-Feb;13(1):39-45
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  • Juvenile xanthogranulomas (JXG) is a histiocytic disorder whose most common clinical presentation is a solitary cutaneous nodule in a child under 5 years of age, but it has come to be recognized that solitary extracutaneous lesions may present in a number of sites, including the soft tissues and various organs.
  • The masses were intratesticular and had an infiltrative pattern of interstitial growth by mononuclear, histiocyte-like cells with replacement of seminiferous tubules and involvement of the epididymis whose pattern resembled leukemic and lymphomatous involvement of the testis.
  • Because extracutaneous lesions of JXG may have few or no Touton giant cells, immunohistochemistry is an important adjunct to the histopathologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Male. Orchiectomy. Treatment Outcome


18. Zhang J, Gui Y, Yuan T, Bian C, Guo L: Expression of GAT1 in male reproductive system and its effects on reproduction in mice. Syst Biol Reprod Med; 2009 Dec;55(5-6):175-80
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  • Expression and location of GAT1 in testes, epididymis, and sperm of wild-type (WT) mice were identified by immunohistochemistry and western-blot.
  • Histological changes of testes, epididymis, and sperm of transgenic mice overexpressing GAT1 were detected by immunofluorenscent staining and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining.
  • GAT1 expression was detected in the testes, epididymis, and sperm of non-transgenic mice.
  • Vacuolization and deformity of spermatogenic cells were observed in the transgenic mice, but the epididymis was unremarkable.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / metabolism. GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / biosynthesis. Spermatozoa / metabolism. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19938951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-6376
  • [Journal-full-title] Systems biology in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Syst Biol Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Slc6a1 protein, mouse
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19. Schön J, Blottner S: Estrogens are involved in seasonal regulation of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2008 Nov-Dec;159(2-3):257-63
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  • We therefore explored the time and cell type specific expression of estrogen receptors and of enzymes involved in steroid biosynthesis in roe deer testicular parenchyma and in the epididymis.
  • Contrary to the enzyme required for androgen production (P450C17), which is expectedly located only in the Leydig cells and shows an expression increase towards rutting season, a seasonal expression difference of the enzyme required for the conversion into oestradiol (P450Aromatase) is visible only in the epididymis.
  • In the epididymis, expression of ERalpha is seasonally determined particularly in the ductuli efferentes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism. Epididymis / cytology. Epididymis / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Male. Receptors, Estrogen / genetics. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Testis / cytology. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18929565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6840
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
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20. Penna S, Pocino M, Marval MJ, Lloreta J, Gallardo L, Vila J: Modifications in rat testicular morphology and increases in IFN-gamma serum levels by the oral administration of subtoxic doses of mercuric chloride. Syst Biol Reprod Med; 2009 Mar-Apr;55(2):69-84
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  • In order to analyze testicular and epididymal morphological alterations and changes in IL-4 or IFN-gamma serum levels, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 microg/ml of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) in deionized water for 1 to 7 months by oral route.
  • Loss of peritubular cell aggregation was evidenced in the epididymis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drinking Behavior / drug effects. Epididymis / drug effects. Epididymis / pathology. Epididymis / ultrastructure. Feeding Behavior / drug effects. Interleukin-4 / blood. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 19462287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-6376
  • [Journal-full-title] Systems biology in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Syst Biol Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; 53GH7MZT1R / Mercuric Chloride; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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21. Reed DR, McDaniel AH, Li X, Tordoff MG, Bachmanov AA: Quantitative trait loci for individual adipose depot weights in C57BL/6ByJ x 129P3/J F2 mice. Mamm Genome; 2006 Nov;17(11):1065-77
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  • We measured the weight of the retroperitoneal adipose depot (near the kidney) and the gonadal adipose depot (near the epididymis in males and ovaries in females).

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  • (PMID = 17103053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-8990
  • [Journal-full-title] Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mamm. Genome
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK094759; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01DK 058797; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01DC00882; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01AA12715; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK058797; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK046791; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01DK046791; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01AA011028; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK046791-12
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS14164; NLM/ PMC1702371
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22. Robaire B, Seenundun S, Hamzeh M, Lamour SA: Androgenic regulation of novel genes in the epididymis. Asian J Androl; 2007 Jul;9(4):545-53
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  • [Title] Androgenic regulation of novel genes in the epididymis.
  • The epididymis is critically dependent on the presence of the testis.
  • Although several hormones, such as retinoids and progestins, and factors secreted directly into the epididymal lumen, such as androgen binding protein and fibroblast growth factor, might play regulatory roles in epididymal function, testosterone (T) and its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2), are accepted as the primary regulators of epididymal structure and functions, with the former playing the greater role.
  • To ascertain the molecular action of androgens on the epididymis, three complementary approaches were pursued to monitor changes in gene expression in response to different hormonal milieux.
  • The first was to establish changes in gene expression along the epididymis as androgenic support is withdrawn.
  • Together, these results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of androgen regulation in epididymal principal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / physiology. Epididymis / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17589794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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23. El Gohary MA: Non-descent of the testis: An overlooked laparoscopic finding. J Pediatr Urol; 2008 Oct;4(5):364-6
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  • Eight abdominal testes were encountered in seven patients located in the sub-renal position; the vas was found to be looping in an upward direction to join the epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptorchidism / diagnosis. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18790421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Khol JL, Kralik P, Slana I, Beran V, Aurich C, Baumgartner W, Pavlik I: Consecutive excretion of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in semen of a breeding bull compared to the distribution in feces, tissue and blood by IS900 and F57 quantitative real-time PCR and culture examinations. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Oct;72(10):1283-8
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  • After the bull was euthanized, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from various parts of the small and large intestines, liver tissue and lymph nodes and from the epididymis and vesicular glands.

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  • (PMID = 20460836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Bacterial
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25. Al-Yahya AA, Al-Majed AA, Al-Bekairi AM, Al-Shabanah OA, Qureshi S: Studies on the reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity of Ginkgo Biloba in Swiss albino mice. J Ethnopharmacol; 2006 Sep 19;107(2):222-8
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  • The treatment caused significant changes in the weight of caudae epididymis, prostate, chromosomal aberrations, rate of pregnancy and pre-implantation loss.

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  • (PMID = 16624513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipid Peroxides; 0 / Nucleic Acids; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Sulfhydryl Compounds
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26. Li J, Liu F, Wang H, Liu X, Liu J, Li N, Wan F, Wang W, Zhang C, Jin S, Liu J, Zhu P, Liu Y: Systematic mapping and functional analysis of a family of human epididymal secretory sperm-located proteins. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2010 Nov;9(11):2517-28
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  • [Title] Systematic mapping and functional analysis of a family of human epididymal secretory sperm-located proteins.
  • It acquires this fertilizing potential during transit through the epididymis, which secretes proteins that coat different sperm domains.
  • As few human epididymal proteins have been characterized, this work was performed to generate a database of human epididymal sperm-located proteins involved in maturation.
  • Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of epididymal tissue and luminal fluid proteins, followed by identification using MALDI-TOF/MS or MALDI-TOF/TOF, revealed over a thousand spots in gels comprising 745 abundant nonstructural proteins, 408 in luminal fluids, of which 207 were present on spermatozoa.
  • Antibodies raised to 619 recombinant or synthetic peptides, used in Western blots, histological sections, and washed sperm preparations to confirm antibody quality and protein expression, indicated their regional location in the epididymal epithelium and highly specific locations on washed functional spermatozoa.
  • These novel, secreted human epididymal proteins are potential targets for a posttesticular contraceptive acting to provide rapid, reversible, functional sterility in men and they are also biomarkers that could be used in noninvasive assessments of male fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymal Secretory Proteins / metabolism. Spermatozoa / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Epididymis / metabolism. Epididymis / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Male. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization


27. Maschio LR, Cordeiro RS, Taboga SR, Góes RM: Short-term antiandrogen flutamide treatment causes structural alterations in somatic cells associated with premature detachment of spermatids in the testis of pubertal and adult guinea pigs. Reprod Domest Anim; 2010 Jun;45(3):516-24
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  • In pubertal animals, flutamide androgenic blockage induces spermatogonial differentiation and accelerates testes maturation, causing degeneration and detachment of primary spermatocytes and round spermatids, which are subsequently found in great quantities in the epididymis caput.

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  • (PMID = 19032435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0531
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Domest. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide
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28. Wang J, Wang J, Zhang HR, Shi HJ, Ma D, Zhao HX, Lin B, Li RS: Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients reveals proteins that affect oxidative stress responses and semen quality. Asian J Androl; 2009 Jul;11(4):484-91
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  • Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions from the testis, epididymis and several male accessory glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowper's gland.
  • Most of these proteins originated from the epididymis and prostate.
  • This study identified a rich source of biomarker candidates for male infertility and indicates that functional abnormalities of the epididymis and prostate can contribute to AS.

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  • (PMID = 19448646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-7262
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3735302
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29. Dykes TM, Stone AB, Canby-Hagino ED: Coccidioidomycosis of the epididymis and testis. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Feb;184(2):552-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Coccidioidomycosis of the epididymis and testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Coccidioidomycosis / diagnosis. Epididymitis / diagnosis. Testicular Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15671378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Zhang L, Hu Z, Zhu C, Liu Q, Zhou Y, Zhang Y: Identification and characterization of an epididymis-specific gene, Ces7. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai); 2009 Oct;41(10):809-15
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  • [Title] Identification and characterization of an epididymis-specific gene, Ces7.
  • Here, a novel rat epididymis-specific gene named Ces7 was cloned and characterized.
  • It was a novel member of CE family, which was mainly expressed and secreted to the lumens of the corpus and cauda epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carboxylesterase / genetics. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / genetics. Epididymis / enzymology. Sperm Maturation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19779645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-7270
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; EC 3.1.1.1 / Carboxylesterase
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31. Reineks EZ, MacLennan GT: Sarcoidosis of the testis and epididymis. J Urol; 2008 Mar;179(3):1147
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  • [Title] Sarcoidosis of the testis and epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / pathology. Genital Diseases, Male / pathology. Sarcoidosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18206954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 3
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32. Ito Y, Nishimoto K, Ogata K, Hasebe M, Uchida A: [Epididymal leiomyoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Oct;55(10):651-3
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  • [Title] [Epididymal leiomyoma: a case report].
  • Ultrasonography revealed a paratesticular tumor which showed enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Diffusion-weighted MRI showed decreased diffusion in the tumor, and malignant tumor could not be ruled out.
  • High inguinal orchiectomy was carried out and pathological diagnosis was benign leiomyoma of the epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis. Genital Diseases, Male / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19926954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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33. Martinez-Pastor F, Diaz-Corujo AR, Anel E, Herraez P, Anel L, de Paz P: Post mortem time and season alter subpopulation characteristics of Iberian red deer epididymal sperm. Theriogenology; 2005 Sep 1;64(4):958-74
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  • [Title] Post mortem time and season alter subpopulation characteristics of Iberian red deer epididymal sperm.
  • We used epididymal samples from free-ranging Iberian red deers harvested during the hunting season.
  • Sperm were extracted from the cauda epididymis and their motility was evaluated by means of a CASA system.
  • [MeSH-major] Deer. Epididymis / cytology. Postmortem Changes. Seasons. Spermatozoa / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16054499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] Theriogenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Theriogenology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Yudin AI, Treece CA, Tollner TL, Overstreet JW, Cherr GN: The carbohydrate structure of DEFB126, the major component of the cynomolgus Macaque sperm plasma membrane glycocalyx. J Membr Biol; 2005 Oct;207(3):119-29
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  • Based on the amino-acid sequence of the macaque epididymal secretory protein, ESP 13.2 (Q9BEE3/AJ236909), it has now been classified as beta-defensin DEFB126.
  • DEFB126 has been shown to coat the entire surface of cynomolgus macaque sperm as they move through the corpus/caudal region of the epididymis.
  • Western blots of neuraminidase-treated DEFB126 showed strong recognition with a number of lectins that identify beta-galactose and also lectins that recognize the N-acetylgalactosamine-serine/threonine, the proposed connection site of O-glycosylation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbohydrates / analysis. Carbohydrates / chemistry. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / analysis. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / chemistry. Glycocalyx / metabolism. Sequence Analysis, Protein. Spermatozoa / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16550483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2631
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of membrane biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Membr. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbohydrates; 0 / DEFB126 protein, human; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / beta-Defensins
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35. Neumann HP, Cybulla M, Gläsker S, Coulin C, Van Velthoven V, Berlis A, Hader C, Schäfer O, Treier M, Brink I, Schultze-Seemann W, Leiber C, Rückauer K, Junker B, Agostini FJ, Hetzel A, Boedeker CC: [Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Interdisciplinary patient care]. Ophthalmologe; 2007 Feb;104(2):119-26
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  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease is an important hereditary tumor syndrome with a clear option for effective treatment if diagnosed in time.
  • Major components of the disease are retinal capillary hemangioblastomas, hemangioblastomas of cerebellum, brain stem and spine, renal clear cell carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, multiple pancreatic cysts and islet cell carcinomas, tumors of the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear, and cystadenomas of the epididymis and broad ligament.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Germany. History, 19th Century. History, 20th Century. Humans. Interprofessional Relations. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pheochromocytoma / therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Referral and Consultation. Sweden

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  • (PMID = 17235573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Comparative Study; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 27
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] von Hippel E; Lindau A
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36. Pacheco AJ, Torres JL, de la Guardia FV, Arrabal Polo MA, Gómez AZ: Intraparenchymatous adenomatoid tumor dependent on the rete testis: A case report and review of literature. Indian J Urol; 2009 Jan;25(1):126-8
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  • [Title] Intraparenchymatous adenomatoid tumor dependent on the rete testis: A case report and review of literature.
  • The adenomatoid tumor is the most frequent paratesticular tumor.
  • It is a benign tumor, which in women is mainly found in the uterus and the fallopian tubes, while in men it is most frequently found in the epididymis.
  • The clinical signs and imaging studies are, on many occasions, difficult to differentiate from malign intratesticular solid tumor, which can result in unnecessary orchidectomies.
  • We present a new case of intraparenchymatous adenomatoid tumor dependent on the rete testis.

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  • (PMID = 19468443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-1591
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2684313
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenomatoid tumor / diagnosis and ultrasound
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37. Serrano Frago P, Medrano Llorente P, Borque Fernando A, Pascual Llorente M, Allue López M: [Consults by scrotum mass: epididymo lesions]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Apr;31(4):420-2
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  • In this review we try to update the knowledge about the tumors of epididymis, describing problems in diagnosis and treatment.
  • We present a case of a 39 years old patient who consults by left testicular mass, before the sonogarphy suspect of tumor was made magnetic resonance imaging , wich aimed towards tumorlike injury.
  • Excision of the injury via inguinal was made and the pathologic diagnosis was of adenomatoid tumor.
  • Owing to the few series that appear in literature, and being the commentaries of these tumors about isolated cases, we expose the characteristics of this illustrated case to value the characteristics in diagnosis and treatment to compare them with other cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / diagnosis. Epididymis. Genital Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Scrotum

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  • (PMID = 17633931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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38. Shum WW, Da Silva N, Brown D, Breton S: Regulation of luminal acidification in the male reproductive tract via cell-cell crosstalk. J Exp Biol; 2009 Jun;212(Pt 11):1753-61
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  • In the epididymis, spermatozoa acquire their ability to become motile and to fertilize an egg.
  • Net proton secretion is crucial to maintain the acidity of the luminal fluid in the epididymis.
  • Thus, a complex interplay between the different cell types present in the epithelium leads to activation of the luminal acidifying capacity of the epididymis, a process that is crucial for sperm maturation and storage.

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  • (PMID = 19448084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0949
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK38452; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD045821; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43351; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD040793; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK57521; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD40793
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.1.- / Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases
  • [Number-of-references] 105
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2683015
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39. Jones CJ, Hamlett WC: Ultrastructure of the male genital ducts of the clearnose skate Raja eglanteria. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol; 2006 Dec 1;305(12):1018-29
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  • Tissues from the male genital ducts of six specimens of the clearnose skate Raja eglanteria, comprising the Leydig gland, upper and lower epididymis, ductus deferens and seminal vesicle, were fixed and embedded for ultrastructural examination.
  • The upper epididymis was composed of cuboidal cells with microvilli and cilia and irregular electron dense granules, some of which were basally situated and extremely large, often within cells resembling intraepithelial leucocytes; such cells were also seen in the stroma underlying the epithelium.
  • The lower epididymis cells also bore microvilli and cilia and were heavily vacuolated with fatty inclusions as well as the granule-laden leucocytes seen previously.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17068788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Comparative experimental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Zoolog. Part A Comp. Exp. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Yuan Q, Guo QS, Cornwall GA, Xu C, Wang YF: Age-dependent expression of the cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic (Cres) gene in mouse testis and epididymis. Asian J Androl; 2007 May;9(3):305-11
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  • [Title] Age-dependent expression of the cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic (Cres) gene in mouse testis and epididymis.
  • AIM: To investigate the spatial and temporal expression of the cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic (Cres) gene in mouse testis and epididymis during postnatal development.
  • METHODS: The QuantiGene assay and indirect immunofluorescence technique were used to examine the Cres mRNA and Cres protein level in mouse testis and epididymis on postnatal days 14, 20, 22, 28, 35, 49, 70 and 420. RESULTS:.
  • (1) In both the testis and epididymis, Cres mRNA was first detected on day 20, then it increased gradually from day 20 to day 70, and the high expression level maintained till day 420. (2) In the testis, the Cres protein was exclusively localized to the elongating spermatids and was first detected on day 22.
  • From day 49 to day 420, the number of Cres-positive cells was almost stable. (3) The Cres protein was first detected on day 20 in the proximal caput epididymal epithelium.
  • Moreover, the luminal fluid of the midcaput epididymis was also stained Cres-positive from day 35 on.
  • No Cres-positive staining was observed in distal caput, corpus and cauda epididymis throughout.
  • CONCLUSION: The Cres gene displays a specific age-dependent expression pattern in mouse testis and epididymis on both the mRNA and protein level.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / genetics. Cystatins / genetics. Epididymis / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17486270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cystatins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 149291-61-2 / Cst8 protein, mouse
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41. Holt WV: Is semen analysis useful to predict the odds that the sperm will meet the egg? Reprod Domest Anim; 2009 Sep;44 Suppl 3:31-8
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  • This implies that during formation in the testis and epididymis, the spermatozoa did not incur any morphological, metabolic, immunological or genetic abnormalities.

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  • (PMID = 19660078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0531
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Domest. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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42. Ruiz-Argüelles GJ, Gómez-Almaguer D, Vela-Ojeda J, Morales-Toquero A, Gómez-Rangel JD, García-Ruiz-Esparza MA, López-Martínez B, Cantú-Rodríguez OG, Gutiérrez-Aguirrec CH: Extramedullary leukemic relapses following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning. Int J Hematol; 2005 Oct;82(3):262-5
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  • One patient had both subcutaneous nodules and epididymis EMR.

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  • (PMID = 16207602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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43. Qiu YL, Wu DS, Zeng XG, Zhang H: [Adverse effects of nonylphenol on the reproductive development of F1 male SD rats in sexual maturation period]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2005 May;36(3):382-5
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  • The epididymis was subjected to the determination of sperm count and motility while the testis was submitted to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses.

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  • (PMID = 15931875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phenols; 25154-52-3 / nonylphenol; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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44. Suryavathi V, Sharma S, Sharma S, Saxena P, Pandey S, Grover R, Kumar S, Sharma KP: Acute toxicity of textile dye wastewaters (untreated and treated) of Sanganer on male reproductive systems of albino rats and mice. Reprod Toxicol; 2005 Mar-Apr;19(4):547-56
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  • Textile dye wastewaters decreased body weight (7-25%) and reproductive organ weight (testis, epididymis, prostate gland and seminal vesicle, 2-48%).

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  • (PMID = 15749270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-6238
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Industrial Waste; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 30237-26-4 / Fructose; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase
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45. Chabory E, Damon C, Lenoir A, Henry-Berger J, Vernet P, Cadet R, Saez F, Drevet JR: Mammalian glutathione peroxidases control acquisition and maintenance of spermatozoa integrity. J Anim Sci; 2010 Apr;88(4):1321-31
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  • In mammals, posttesticular epididymal sperm maturation is considered an essential step in the transformation of immature testicular gametes to mature spermatozoa capable of fertilization.
  • However, during epididymal maturation and storage and until the onset of fertilization, oxidative damage is a threat spermatozoa must face more than any other cells.
  • To control the quantity of H(2)O(2) in the vicinity of male gametes, mammalian epididymis uses a panel of nonenzymatic and enzymatic scavengers, among which the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family is largely represented.
  • Among the various GPx proteins expressed in the mammalian epididymis, GPx4 and GPx5 occupy unique positions and functions that are reviewed in this paper.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Epididymis / physiology. Fertility / physiology. Humans. Male. Mitochondria / metabolism. Mitochondria / physiology. Oxidation-Reduction. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Sperm Maturation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20042549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-3163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of animal science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anim. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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46. Fernández-Santos MR, Domínguez-Rebolledo AE, Esteso MC, Garde JJ, Martínez-Pastor F: Refrigerated storage of red deer epididymal spermatozoa in the epididymis, diluted and with vitamin C supplementation. Reprod Domest Anim; 2009 Apr;44(2):212-20
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  • [Title] Refrigerated storage of red deer epididymal spermatozoa in the epididymis, diluted and with vitamin C supplementation.
  • We have approached the problem of refrigerated storage of epididymal sperm samples from red deer by comparing three options: storing the genital (testicles within the scrotum), diluting the semen in extender or diluting the semen in extender supplemented with an anti-oxidant.
  • Vitamin C supported progressive motility better at 24 h (median 42% vs 23% Control and 15% epididymis), reduced the incidence of tail abnormalities and protected chromatin.
  • Storing the semen in the epididymis slowed down motility loss, but slightly increased the occurrence of tail abnormalities and viability was lower at 192 h.
  • However, regarding chromatin status, sperm stored in the epididymis was protected similarly to those diluted in the medium supplemented with vitamin C.
  • Besides, refrigerating the epididymis may be a good option when immediate processing is not available.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage. Cold Temperature. Deer / physiology. Epididymis / cytology. Semen Preservation / veterinary. Spermatozoa / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18992076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0531
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Domest. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Solutions; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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47. Suganuma R, Yanagimachi R, Meistrich ML: Decline in fertility of mouse sperm with abnormal chromatin during epididymal passage as revealed by ICSI. Hum Reprod; 2005 Nov;20(11):3101-8
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  • [Title] Decline in fertility of mouse sperm with abnormal chromatin during epididymal passage as revealed by ICSI.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that ICSI with cauda epididymal or ejaculated sperm of infertile mice or men, respectively, was less effective in fertilization and normal embryo development than ICSI using sperm from the testes.
  • METHODS: We performed ICSI with testicular, caput, and cauda epididymal sperm from infertile Tnp1-/-Tnp2+/- mutant mice, which have a minimal level of transition nuclear proteins and are sterile by natural mating.
  • RESULTS: When the heads of motile sperm from the testis or caput epididymis of Tnp1-/-Tnp2+/- males were injected into enucleated mouse oocytes, sperm chromosomes showed no difference from those of wild-type mice, but the chromosomes from sperm taken from the cauda epididymis of mutant males showed increased abnormalities.
  • Injection of testicular or caput epididymal sperm from Tnp1-/-Tnp2+/- males into intact oocytes resulted in normal embryonic and fetal development and yields of liveborn equivalent to wild-type, but cauda sperm from Tnp1-/-Tnp2-/- mice produced lower implantation rates and yields of liveborn than did those from wild-type mice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that in mice with sperm chromatin abnormalities, the decline in fertility of sperm with ICSI occurs after the caput epididymis.
  • The advantage of using caput epididymal sperm for ICSI in certain situations may be considered as an approach to be tested in human assisted reproduction.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromatin / chemistry. Epididymis / cytology. Infertility, Male / genetics. Spermatozoa / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16037114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD-16843; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD-30284
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Protamines; 0 / Tnp2 protein, mouse; 0 / spermatid transition proteins
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48. Akhtar N, Srivastava MK, Raizada RB: Assessment of chlorpyrifos toxicity on certain organs in rat, Rattus norvegicus. J Environ Biol; 2009 Nov;30(6):1047-53
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  • Microscopic examination of different tissues of male rats showed minor histopathological changes in brain, liver testis, epididymis and adrenal.
  • While, total protein was decreased significantly at all the dose levels in testes and epididymis, glucose level showed a significant decrease at high dose.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellum / drug effects. Chlorpyrifos / toxicity. Epididymis / drug effects. Insecticides / toxicity. Spermatozoa / drug effects. Testis / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20329403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8704
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; JCS58I644W / Chlorpyrifos
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49. Hahn KL, Beres B, Rowton MJ, Skinner MK, Chang Y, Rawls A, Wilson-Rawls J: A deficiency of lunatic fringe is associated with cystic dilation of the rete testis. Reproduction; 2009 Jan;137(1):79-93
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  • Spermatogenesis was not impaired in the majority of the lunatic fringe null males; however, spermatozoa were unilaterally absent in the epididymis of many mice.

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  • (PMID = 18801836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7899
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES012974
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Notch; EC 2.4.- / Glycosyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.- / Lfng protein, mouse
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50. Vadnais ML, Foster DN, Roberts KP: Molecular cloning and expression of the CRISP family of proteins in the boar. Biol Reprod; 2008 Dec;79(6):1129-34
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  • RT-PCR confirmed the expression of these mRNAs in the boar reproductive tract, and real time RT-PCR showed CRISP1 to be highly expressed throughout the epididymis, with CRISP2 highly expressed in the testis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrosome Reaction / physiology. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Cloning, Molecular. Computational Biology. Culture Media. DNA, Complementary / biosynthesis. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Epididymis / cytology. Epididymis / metabolism. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. RNA / biosynthesis. RNA / isolation & purification. Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis. Recombinant Proteins / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Semen / physiology. Sperm Capacitation / physiology. Spermatozoa / metabolism. Swine. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18716287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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51. Bilińska B, Wiszniewska B, Kosiniak-Kamysz K, Kotula-Balak M, Gancarczyk M, Hejmej A, Sadowska J, Marchlewicz M, Kolasa A, Wenda-Rózewicka L: Hormonal status of male reproductive system: androgens and estrogens in the testis and epididymis. In vivo and in vitro approaches. Reprod Biol; 2006;6 Suppl 1:43-58
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  • [Title] Hormonal status of male reproductive system: androgens and estrogens in the testis and epididymis. In vivo and in vitro approaches.
  • Attempts were undertaken to discuss not only the role of aromatase and ERs in mediating the action of estrogens in the male, but also the importance of DHT in hormonal regulation of the epididymis.
  • Male reproductive function of the testis and epididymis reflected by the alterations in enzymatic activity, distribution of steroid hormone receptors, differences in steroid hormone levels and altered gene expression of antioxidant enzymes are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / metabolism. Epididymis / metabolism. Estrogens / metabolism. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16967089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1642-431X
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, LH
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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52. Santoro D, Savica V, Satta E, Scaffidi M, Mallamace A, Li Vecchi M, Bellinghieri G: Impotence in the 18th and 19th century: concepts of etiology and approaches to therapy. J Nephrol; 2009 Nov-Dec;22 Suppl 14:67-70
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  • In the 18th century, theories about the main factors inducing impotence saw it as an abnormal state of the fibers, a defect in the solid or liquid substances or a bad structure (tumor, inflammation, abscess, ulcer or foreign body).
  • In the 19th century, therapies regarding impotence included slight electric stimulation through the application of stimulators on the scrotum in the testis or epididymis areas, until pain was induced.

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  • (PMID = 20013735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Graham J
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53. Ren D, Xing Y, Lin M, Wu Y, Li K, Li W, Yang S, Guo T, Ren J, Ma J, Lan L, Huang L: Evaluations of boar gonad development, spermatogenesis with regard to semen characteristics, libido and serum testosterone levels based on large White Duroc x Chinese Erhualian crossbred boars. Reprod Domest Anim; 2009 Dec;44(6):913-9
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  • In this study, a four-generation intercross resource population was constructed using White Duroc boars and Chinese Erhualian sows as founder animals, and a total of 14 male reproductive traits were recorded in 411 F2/F3 boars including the testis and epididymis weights, the seminiferous tubular diameter and spermatogenesis at 60, 90 and 300 days of age, semen characteristics, serum testosterone concentration and libido level at 300 days of age.

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  • (PMID = 19000221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0531
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Domest. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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54. Yang JY, Wang GX, Liu JL, Fan JJ, Cui S: Toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol on male reproductive system in mice. Reprod Toxicol; 2007 Nov-Dec;24(3-4):381-7
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  • Male mice exposed to ZEA had significant reductions in b.w. and relative epididymis weights.
  • Testicular and cauda epididymal sperm counts, efficiency of sperm production and serum testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in mice treated with ZEA or alpha-ZOL at all doses in a dose-dependent manner.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Epididymis / drug effects. Epididymis / pathology. Female. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Organ Size / drug effects. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Rate. Semen / drug effects. Sperm Count. Spermatozoa / drug effects. Testis / drug effects. Testis / metabolism. Testis / pathology. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17628394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-6238
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / zearalenol; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 5W827M159J / Zearalenone; 76LO2L2V39 / Zeranol
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55. Cao XW, Zhao TD, Wang CH, Zhou Q, Li LQ, Yao HG, Zhang SQ, Tang JT, Wei W: [Alternating magnetic field damages the reproductive function of murine testes]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2009 Jun;15(6):530-3
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  • CONCLUSION: Magnetic field, either strong or weak, may damage the testis function by inducing injury to seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells, thickening of the basal membrane, derangement, exfoliation, massive apoptosis and necrosis of spermatogenic cells in the lumen, situation of the epididymis, and consequently the absence of sperm.

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  • (PMID = 19593994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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56. Tani Y, Foster PM, Sills RC, Chan PC, Peddada SD, Nyska A: Epididymal sperm granuloma induced by chronic administration of 2-methylimidazole in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Pathol; 2005;33(3):313-9
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  • [Title] Epididymal sperm granuloma induced by chronic administration of 2-methylimidazole in B6C3F1 mice.
  • Two-year mouse and rat bioassay studies of 2-methylimidazole (2-MI) conducted by the National Toxicology Program revealed that epididymal sperm granuloma(SG)s occurred only in male B6C3F1 mice in a dose-related manner.
  • 2-Methylimidazole increased the incidence of epididymal SGs (0%, 0%, 6%, 12%, respectively).
  • Histologically, most of the SGs exhibited rupture of epididymal ducts with focal aggregations of macrophages in interstitia.
  • Lesions occurred in the proximal caput of the epididymis and/or efferent ducts, not in the corpus and cauda.
  • All mice with epididymal SG developed testicular GEA.
  • No epididymal SG or testicular GEA was observed in 6-month-interim-sacrificed mice.
  • The results imply that 2-year treatment of B6C3F1 mice with 2-MI can induce epididymal SGs, primarily followed by more severe testicular GEA.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / pathology. Granuloma / pathology. Imidazoles / toxicity. Spermatozoa / pathology. Testicular Diseases / pathology. Toxicity Tests, Chronic

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  • (PMID = 15814360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Imidazoles; 693-98-1 / 2-methylimidazole
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57. Oskooii AE, Gholizad LM, Zare S, Nejati V: A comparison of effects of ABVD and ChlVPP chemotherapeutic protocols for Hodgkin's disease on rats' epididiymal and testicular tissues. Pak J Biol Sci; 2010 Sep 15;13(18):884-90
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  • The goal of this study was to determine the effects of ABVD and ChlVPP chemotherapeutic protocols for Hodgkin's disease on the structure of testis and epididymis of male rat.
  • Testes and epididymis tissues were examined for structural changes and serum testosterone level was measured by Lission (chemiluminescence method).
  • Body weight, testis and epididymis weights, in treated rats were significantly less than their control groups specifically in ABVD group was less than ChlVPP group.
  • Decreasing of mean diameter of seminiferous tubules, height of spermatogenic cells and diameter of epididymis in caput, corpus and cauda in ABVD group were significantly more than ChlVPP and control group.
  • According to this study results, the ChlVPP had fewer impairment effects than ABVD on testis and epididymis tissue in tolerance doses on male rats' reproductive system.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Epididymis / drug effects. Testis / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 23350161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ABVD protocol; CHIVPP protocol
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58. Klimis T, Vlahos P, Kokotas N: Serous cystadenoma of the epididymis of common epithelial ovarian type: case report with an immunohistochemical study. J BUON; 2006 Apr-Jun;11(2):237-40
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  • [Title] Serous cystadenoma of the epididymis of common epithelial ovarian type: case report with an immunohistochemical study.
  • We report the clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical findings of a case with non-papillary serous cystadenoma of the epididymis.
  • The tumor was a unilocular cyst with a thin fibrous capsule, lined by cuboidal or columnar epithelium containing ciliated cells, mostly arranged in a single layer.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), strongly positive for CK7, progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), vimentin, CA-125 and S-100 protein.
  • This tumor is one of the rare benign lesions which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a swelling in the epididymal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Epididymis / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology


59. Matsuura I, Saitoh T, Ashina M, Wako Y, Iwata H, Toyota N, Ishizuka Y, Namiki M, Hoshino N, Tsuchitani M: Evaluation of a two-generation reproduction toxicity study adding endpoints to detect endocrine disrupting activity using vinclozolin. J Toxicol Sci; 2005 Dec;30 Spec No.:163-188
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  • The effects on parental males included increased pituitary and testis weights, and decreased epididymis weights at 1000 ppm in both generations, and decreased prostate and epididymis weights at 200 and 1000 ppm and seminal vesicle weights at 1000 ppm in F1 males.
  • In addition, decreased epididymis weights at weaning and morphological abnormalities of the external genitalia, including cleft prepuce, penile hypoplasia, and vaginal pouch, were seen in F1 and F2 males at 1000 ppm.

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  • (PMID = 16641540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0388-1350
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of toxicological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Toxicol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Oxazoles; 50471-44-8 / vinclozolin
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60. Chandra AK, Chatterjee A, Ghosh R, Sarkar M: Vitamin E-supplementation protect chromium (VI)-induced spermatogenic and steroidogenic disorders in testicular tissues of rats. Food Chem Toxicol; 2010 Mar;48(3):972-9
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  • Histological evaluation of testis revealed degeneration of stage VII spermatogenic cycle along with decrease in epithelial cell height in epididymis and seminiferous tubules; number of different germ cells per seminiferous tubule and seminiferous tubular diameter reduced after Cr exposure.
  • Epididymal sperm number was also restored in vitamin E-supplemented group than Cr induced rats.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20079796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; 0R0008Q3JB / Chromium; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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61. Nakamura N, Miranda-Vizuete A, Miki K, Mori C, Eddy EM: Cleavage of disulfide bonds in mouse spermatogenic cell-specific type 1 hexokinase isozyme is associated with increased hexokinase activity and initiation of sperm motility. Biol Reprod; 2008 Sep;79(3):537-45
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  • During epididymal transit, sperm acquire the ability to initiate rapid forward progressive motility on release into the female reproductive tract or physiological media.
  • Hexokinase activity was found to be lower in immotile sperm immediately after removal from the cauda epididymis (quiescent) than in sperm incubated in physiological medium for 5 min and showing rapid forward progressive motility (activated).

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  • (PMID = 18509164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Disulfides; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Sulfhydryl Compounds; 21820-51-9 / Phosphotyrosine; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; EC 2.7.1.1 / HK1 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.1.1 / Hexokinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2710537
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62. Lamb JC, Hentz KL: Toxicological review of male reproductive effects and trichloroethylene exposure: assessing the relevance to human male reproductive health. Reprod Toxicol; 2006 Nov;22(4):557-63
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  • Oxidative metabolites of TCE are formed in the mouse epididymis resulting in epididymal damage, and at systemically toxic high doses, TCE may adversely affect the maturation of sperm and decreasing sperm motility.

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  • (PMID = 16938429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-6238
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Inhalation; 290YE8AR51 / Trichloroethylene
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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63. Fernández-Aceñero MJ, Renedo G, Fortes J, Manzarbeitia F: Nonpapillary serous cystadenoma of the epididymis: report of 2 cases of a rare entity. Urology; 2010 Mar;75(3):563-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonpapillary serous cystadenoma of the epididymis: report of 2 cases of a rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Epididymis. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19942264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Artyukhin AA: Experimental model of autotransplantation of the deferent duct on an arterio-venous pedicle. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2007 Oct;144(4):591-5
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  • An obligatory condition to preparation of the graft to transplantation is the presence of the epididymis; under its capsule the arterial and venous arches of the testicle, anastomoses of the terminal portions of the epididymal main vessels (the testicular basin) with the terminal portions of the deferent duct, are located.

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  • (PMID = 18642720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Ghose A, Rodrigues G, Izawa J: Two primary seminomas in a patient with polyorchidism. Can Urol Assoc J; 2007 Sep;1(3):285-7
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  • Pathological analysis of the abdominal tumour revealed the existence of a classic seminoma bordered by a rim of non-tumour tissue and remnants of epididymis.

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  • (PMID = 18542808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1911-6470
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2422977
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66. Akbarsha MA, Tamilarasan V, Kadalmani B: Light and electron microscopic observations of fabrication, release, and fate of biphasic secretion granules produced by epididymal epithelial principal cells of the fan-throated lizard Sitana ponticeriana cuvier. J Morphol; 2006 Jun;267(6):713-29
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  • [Title] Light and electron microscopic observations of fabrication, release, and fate of biphasic secretion granules produced by epididymal epithelial principal cells of the fan-throated lizard Sitana ponticeriana cuvier.
  • The epididymis of the fan-throated lizard Sitana ponticeriana was examined with light and transmission electron microscopy to understand the cellular mechanisms of fabrication of secretion granules in epithelial principal cells, granule release into the lumen, and the fate of the dense structured granules after reaching the lumen.
  • Principal cells of the ductus epididymis, except at the cauda, secrete electron-dense biphasic granules copiously, which decrease in abundance from the initial segment to corpus.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / secretion. Epithelial Cells / secretion. Lizards. Secretory Vesicles / ultrastructure

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  • [Copyright] J. Morphol. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16526053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0362-2525
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Morphol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Kim HH, Goldstein M: History of vasectomy reversal. Urol Clin North Am; 2009 Aug;36(3):359-73
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  • Vasectomy reversal has come a long way since the first anastomosis of the vas deferens and epididymis.

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  • (PMID = 19643238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-318X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Gatti JL, Métayer S, Belghazi M, Dacheux F, Dacheux JL: Identification, proteomic profiling, and origin of ram epididymal fluid exosome-like vesicles. Biol Reprod; 2005 Jun;72(6):1452-65
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  • [Title] Identification, proteomic profiling, and origin of ram epididymal fluid exosome-like vesicles.
  • Small membranous vesicles, between 25- and 75-nm diameter, were collected by high-speed centrifugation from the ram cauda epididymal fluid and were found to be normal constituents of this fluid and of the seminal plasma.
  • The presence of some of these proteins as well as several different hydrophobic proteins secreted by the epididymis was further confirmed by immunoblotting.
  • These markers showed that the majority of the vesicles originated from the cauda epididymal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids / cytology. Epididymis / physiology. Proteomics / methods. Transport Vesicles / chemistry. Transport Vesicles / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15635128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Mfge8 protein, mouse; 0 / Milk Proteins; 0 / Proteins; EC 3.1.4.1 / Phosphodiesterase I; EC 3.4.14.5 / Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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69. Shang XJ, Wang XL, Huang YF: [Carnitines and male reproduction]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2006 Aug;12(8):726-9
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  • Carnitines are important conditionally essential nutrients in the organism, with extensive physiological functions, and highly concentrated in the epididymis and sperm.

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  • (PMID = 16970166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S7UI8SM58A / Carnitine
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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70. Linge HM, Collin M, Giwercman A, Malm J, Bjartell A, Egesten A: The antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9 is constitutively expressed in epithelial cells of the male urogenital tract and is present in seminal plasma. J Interferon Cytokine Res; 2008 Mar;28(3):191-6
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  • In vasectomized donors, significantly lower levels of MIG/CXCL9 (mean 14.7 nM, range 6.6-21.8) were found, suggesting that the testis and epididymis, in addition to the prostate, significantly contribute to the MIG/CXCL9 content of seminal plasma.
  • Strong expression of MIG/CXCL9 was found in the epithelium of testis, epididymis, and prostate, as detected by immunohistochemistry.

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  • (PMID = 18338951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-9907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CXCL10; 0 / Chemokine CXCL11; 0 / Chemokine CXCL9; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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71. Guan X, Inai T, Shibata Y: Segment-specific expression of tight junction proteins, claudin-2 and -10, in the rat epididymal epithelium. Arch Histol Cytol; 2005 Sep;68(3):213-25
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  • [Title] Segment-specific expression of tight junction proteins, claudin-2 and -10, in the rat epididymal epithelium.
  • Tight junctions are known to be related to the variance by segment of the luminal fluid microenvironment of the epididymis.
  • We examined the expression of claudins that regulate the paracellular permeability of ions, solutes, and water through tight junctions in the rat epididymis.
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that both claudins showed developmental stage- and segment-specific subcellular localizations in the epididymal epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Tight Junctions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16276027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-9465
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of histology and cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Histol. Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Claudins; 0 / Cldn2 protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / claudin 10; 33A856C3T7 / lanthanide nitrate; 6I3K30563S / Lanthanum
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72. Lytras A, Tolis G: Reproductive disturbances in multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Dec;16(4):1125-38
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  • [Title] Reproductive disturbances in multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes.
  • In the context of multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes, reproductive abnormalities may occur via a number of different mechanisms, such as hyperprolactinemia, increased GH/IGF-1 levels, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, hyperandrogenism, hyperthyroidism, gonadotropin hypersecretion, as well as, tumorigenesis or functional disturbances in gonads or other reproductive organs.
  • Although tumorigenesis of reproductive organs due to a multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndrome is very rare, certain lesions are characteristic and very unusual in the general population.
  • Lesions such as certain types of ovarian cysts (MAS, CNC), pseudogynecomastia due to neurofibromas of the nipple-areola area (NF1), breast disease (CNC and Cowden disease (CD)), cysts and 'hypernephroid' tumors of the epididymis or bilateral papillary cystadenomas (mesosalpinx cysts) and endometrioid cystadenomas of the broad ligament (von Hippel-Lindau disease), testicular Sertoli calcifying tumors (CNC, PJS) monolateral or bilateral macroochidism and microlithiasis (MAS) may offer diagnostic clues.
  • In addition, multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes may be complicated by reproductive malignancies including ovarian cancer in CNC, breast and endometrial cancer in CD, breast malignancies in NF1, and malignant sex-cord stromal tumors in PJS.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / etiology. Genital Diseases, Male / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / complications. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / complications. Neuroendocrine Tumors / complications

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  • (PMID = 19737912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 137
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73. Feng S, Ferlin A, Truong A, Bathgate R, Wade JD, Corbett S, Han S, Tannour-Louet M, Lamb DJ, Foresta C, Agoulnik AI: INSL3/RXFP2 signaling in testicular descent. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2009 Apr;1160:197-204
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  • Specific RXFP2 expression in mouse gubernacula was detected at embryonic day 14.5 and markedly increased after birth in the developing cremaster muscle, as well as in the epididymis and testicular Leydig and germ cells.

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  • (PMID = 19416188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54HD007495-31; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD037067-09; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK078121-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK078121-04; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD036289-10; None / None / / T32 DK007634-09; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 5P01HD36289; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007634-09; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 5R01HD03706; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA118362; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA118362-02; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD007495-310007; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD037067; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21CA118362; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK078121; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA118362-02; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD007495; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 1R01DK078121; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD036289-10; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 5T32DK00763; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD036289; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD007495-310007; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007634; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD037067-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Leydig insulin-like protein; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RXFP2 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • [Number-of-references] 30
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS231262; NLM/ PMC2970567
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74. Khaira HS, Schuster TG, Zhang WX, Dunn R, Smith GD, Ohl DA: Epididymal obstruction results in isolated sperm heads in post-vasectomy rats. Int J Androl; 2007 Feb;30(1):56-60
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  • [Title] Epididymal obstruction results in isolated sperm heads in post-vasectomy rats.
  • The aim of this study was to determine if, following vasectomy, epididymal obstruction resulted in changes in vasal stump fluid using a rat vasectomy model.
  • One hundred and twenty-two mature male rats underwent bilateral surgical vasectomy and subsequent unilateral epididymal obstruction.
  • On the obstructed epididymis side, percentage of whole sperm dropped from 36.9% to less than 1% and sperm heads increased from 63.2 to 99.7% at 12 weeks post-obstruction (p < 0.05 at each time interval).
  • In this rat model, following vasectomy and subsequent epididymal obstruction, testicular vasal stump fluid will contain progressively diminishing numbers of whole sperm and increases in the percentage and absolute numbers of sperm heads.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis. Sperm Head. Testicular Diseases / surgery. Vasectomy

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  • (PMID = 17014534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Aruldhas MM, Subramanian S, Sekhar P, Vengatesh G, Govindarajulu P, Akbarsha MA: In vivo spermatotoxic effect of chromium as reflected in the epididymal epithelial principal cells, basal cells, and intraepithelial macrophages of a nonhuman primate (Macaca radiata Geoffroy). Fertil Steril; 2006 Oct;86(4 Suppl):1097-105
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  • [Title] In vivo spermatotoxic effect of chromium as reflected in the epididymal epithelial principal cells, basal cells, and intraepithelial macrophages of a nonhuman primate (Macaca radiata Geoffroy).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Examination of epididymis with a transmission electron microscope and assessment of the effect of CrVI in terms of accumulation of sperm-derived lipofuscin (LF) material in the principal cells, basal cells, and intraepithelial macrophages of the epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinogens, Environmental / poisoning. Chromium / poisoning. Epididymis / drug effects. Epididymis / pathology. Macrophages / pathology. Spermatozoa / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16949592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental; 0 / Lipofuscin; 0R0008Q3JB / Chromium; 18540-29-9 / chromium hexavalent ion
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76. Hegarty PK, Mushtaq I, Sebire NJ: Natural history of testicular regression syndrome and consequences for clinical management. J Pediatr Urol; 2007 Jun;3(3):206-8
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  • Features such as haemosiderin-laden macrophages, calcification, the presence of a nodule, vas or epididymis were less prevalent amongst specimens from older boys.
  • If the laparoscopic findings suggest a diagnosis of vanishing testis, we contend that a groin exploration may be no longer indicated.

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  • (PMID = 18947736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Taepongsorat L, Tangpraprutgul P, Kitana N, Malaivijitnond S: Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats. Asian J Androl; 2008 Mar;10(2):249-58
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  • After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0.

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  • (PMID = 18097532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 9IKM0I5T1E / Quercetin
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78. Tzvetkov D, Tzvetkova P: Tuberculosis of male genital system--myth or reality in 21st century. Arch Androl; 2006 Sep-Oct;52(5):375-81
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  • Time to set up of the diagnosis was 1 day to 19 years (median 26.82 +/- 6.76 months).
  • TBC of the epididymis was found to be present in 78.26% of all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Tuberculosis, Male Genital / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16873138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5016
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Peterson RL, Tkatchenko TV, Pruett ND, Potter CS, Jacobs DF, Awgulewitsch A: Epididymal cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 encoding gene is expressed in murine hair follicles and downregulated in mice overexpressing Hoxc13. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc; 2005 Dec;10(3):238-42
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  • [Title] Epididymal cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 encoding gene is expressed in murine hair follicles and downregulated in mice overexpressing Hoxc13.
  • A surprising result of these experiments was the identification of the epididymal cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 (Crisp1) gene as one of the genes with the greatest expression differential, in this case with greater than 20-fold downregulation in skin from GC13 mice.
  • Crisp1 encodes a secreted protein that has originally been found to be abundantly expressed in the epididymis, where it plays a role in sperm maturation.

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  • (PMID = 16382673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-0024
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of investigative dermatology. Symposium proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR47204-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Crisp1 protein, mouse; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Hoxc13 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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80. Kaya M, Boleken ME, Zeyrek F, Ozardali I, Kanmaz T, Erel O, Yücesan S: Oxidative and antioxidative status in the testes of rats with acute epididymitis. Urol Int; 2006;76(4):353-8
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  • INTRODUCTION: Epididymitis is an inflammation or infection of the epididymis, a convoluted duct that lies on the posterior surface of the testicle.
  • Rats were sacrificed after 24 h and the epididymis and testes removed.

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  • [Copyright] 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16679840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase
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81. Lin YQ, Li JY, Wang HY, Liu J, Zhang CL, Wang WT, Liu J, Li N, Jin SH: Cloning and identification of a novel sperm binding protein, HEL-75, with antibacterial activity and expressed in the human epididymis. Hum Reprod; 2008 Sep;23(9):2086-94
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  • [Title] Cloning and identification of a novel sperm binding protein, HEL-75, with antibacterial activity and expressed in the human epididymis.
  • BACKGROUND: The HEL-75 protein is a beta-defensin that was identified by analyzing a human epididymis cDNA library.
  • At the transcriptional level, HEL-75 was expressed in the epididymis and lung, but only in the epididymis at the translational level.
  • Immunofluorescent staining showed that HEL-75 protein bound spermatozoa in the epididymis.
  • CONCLUSION: HEL-75 is a new beta-defensin expressed in the epididymis and on sperm; it may play an important role in host defense.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / metabolism. Seminal Plasma Proteins / physiology. Spermatozoa / metabolism. beta-Defensins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18343807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2350
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HEL-75 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Seminal Plasma Proteins; 0 / beta-Defensins
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82. Koziorowski M, Seremak B, Gizejewski Z, Gilun P, Kozioł K, Kowal E, Jagusztyn B, Sulik M, Szeleszczuk O, Olech W, Söderquist L, Glogowski J: Season controlled reproduction of undomesticated animals. Reprod Biol; 2006;6 Suppl 1:137-49
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  • The results presented below show: a/ an annual hormonal profile of domestic pig and wild boar crossbreed and the antioxidant blood system in the different seasons, b/ the possibility of gonadptropic hormone stimulation in chinchillas which are in diestrus or infertile, c/ the possibility of using bison's semen (collected post mortem from the epididymis) for cryoconservation.

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  • (PMID = 16967095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1642-431X
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Gonadotropins
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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83. Marconi M, Pilatz A, Wagenlehner F, Diemer T, Weidner W: Impact of infection on the secretory capacity of the male accessory glands. Int Braz J Urol; 2009 May-Jun;35(3):299-308; discussion 308-9
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  • Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their diagnosis: chronic prostatitis NIH type II (n = 38), chronic epididymitis (n = 12), and chronic urethritis (n = 21).
  • CONCLUSION: Proven bacterial infections of the MRT impact negatively on all the accessory gland function parameters evaluated in semen, suggesting impairment of the secretory capacity of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Infections / complications. Genital Diseases, Male / diagnosis. Genitalia, Male / secretion. Semen
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / analysis. Case-Control Studies. Chronic Disease. Citric Acid / analysis. Ejaculation / physiology. Epididymitis / diagnosis. Epididymitis / physiopathology. Fructose / analysis. Humans. Infertility, Male / microbiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate / physiopathology. Prostate / secretion. Prostatitis / diagnosis. Prostatitis / physiopathology. Seminal Vesicles / secretion. Urethritis / diagnosis. Young Adult. alpha-Glucosidases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19538765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Braz J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 2968PHW8QP / Citric Acid; 30237-26-4 / Fructose; EC 3.2.1.20 / alpha-Glucosidases
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84. Cooper TG, Yeung CH: Involvement of potassium and chloride channels and other transporters in volume regulation by spermatozoa. Curr Pharm Des; 2007;13(31):3222-30
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  • Spermatozoa produced in the testis undergo maturation in the epididymis which secretes an osmolyte-rich fluid that bathes the sperm cells.
  • This is a cause of male infertility in domestic species and certain infertile transgenic mice in which flagellar angulation has been shown to indicate cell swelling as a consequence of reduced epididymal provision of osmolytes.

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  • (PMID = 18045171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chloride Channels; 0 / Contraceptive Agents; 0 / Potassium Channel Blockers; 0 / Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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85. Xie JX, Liu XM, Li P, Li SQ: [Effects of Calotes versicolor on adenohypophysis androgen receptor level in mature castrated male rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi; 2007 Jun;32(11):1081-3
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  • METHOD: All the rats in experiment were anesthetized for bilateral testicular and epididymis removal under sterile condition.

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  • (PMID = 17672349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-5302
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Materia Medica; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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86. Anastasi E, Marchei GG, Viggiani V, Gennarini G, Frati L, Reale MG: HE4: a new potential early biomarker for the recurrence of ovarian cancer. Tumour Biol; 2010 Apr;31(2):113-9
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  • Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has recently been described as a new marker for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC).
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate (a) the expression of HE4 vs. OC mucin CA125 in 32 patients with OC compared to 163 patients with other malignant or benign pathologies (b) HE4 as indicator of the recurrence of the disease in eight patients followed-up for 20 months after OC diagnosis.
  • At diagnosis, the patients with OC demonstrated high levels of both biomarkers with 96.9% sensitivity for HE4 and 85.7% for CA125.
  • In conclusion, this study showed that HE4, compared to CA125, potentially is a better marker for the diagnosis of OC and could be an important early indicator of the recurrence of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20358424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Srivastava S, Desai P, Coutinho E, Govil G: Mechanism of action of L-arginine on the vitality of spermatozoa is primarily through increased biosynthesis of nitric oxide. Biol Reprod; 2006 May;74(5):954-8
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  • The aim of the present study is to determine the mechanism by which L-arginine confers a protective action on spermatozoa obtained from the goat epididymis.
  • NO is synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide-synthase (NOS) present in spermatozoa.
  • A possible participation of NO and NOS in arginine action has been suggested.

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  • (PMID = 16436531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine
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88. Boretto JM, Ibargüengoytía NR, Jahn GA, Acosta JC, Vincenti AE, Fornés MW: Asynchronic steroid activity of Leydig and Sertoli cells related to spermatogenic and testosterone cycle in Phymaturus antofagastensis. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2010 May 1;166(3):556-64
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  • Active Sertoli cells and inactive Leydig cells were observed in spring and autumn, while in mid-summer their steroid activity was synchronic in coincidence with maximal abundance of spermatozoa in epididymis.

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20152839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6840
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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89. Xia Y, Sidis Y, Mukherjee A, Samad TA, Brenner G, Woolf CJ, Lin HY, Schneyer A: Localization and action of Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b), a novel bone morphogenetic protein coreceptor, throughout the reproductive axis. Endocrinology; 2005 Aug;146(8):3614-21
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  • Among reproductive organs, Dragon was expressed in testis, epididymis, ovary, uterus, and pituitary.

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  • (PMID = 15890774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK071837; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD039777; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK069533; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD038533; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM075267; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD038533; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK055838; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD039777; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS038253; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS038253; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK069533; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK055838; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK071837
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DRAGON protein, mouse; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS2950; NLM/ PMC1351303
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90. Hihnala S, Kujala M, Toppari J, Kere J, Holmberg C, Höglund P: Expression of SLC26A3, CFTR and NHE3 in the human male reproductive tract: role in male subfertility caused by congenital chloride diarrhoea. Mol Hum Reprod; 2006 Feb;12(2):107-11
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  • Expression of SLC26A3, together with interacting proteins cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), was studied using immunohistochemistry in the testis (n = 2) and efferent ducts (ED) (n = 1) of patients with CLD (V317del genotype) and in the testis and epididymis (n = 11), seminal vesicle (n = 9) and prostate (n = 4) of the controls.
  • In the non-ciliated cells of the ED, apical expression of all three proteins was observed, but only SLC26A3 and CFTR were detected on the luminal border of the apical mitochondria-rich cells (AMRC) of the ductus epididymis and in the epithelium of the seminal vesicle.

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  • (PMID = 16421216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiporters; 0 / CFTR protein, human; 0 / Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / SLC26A3 protein, human; 0 / Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter; 0 / sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3; 126880-72-6 / Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
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91. Ai QY, Tian H, Zhang J, Ma L, Miao NZ, Huo YW, Wang LR, Qiu SD, Zhang QY: [Expressions of VEGF and Flt-1 in the testis, epididymis and epididymal sperm of adolescent rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2008 Oct;14(10):871-5
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  • [Title] [Expressions of VEGF and Flt-1 in the testis, epididymis and epididymal sperm of adolescent rats].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expressions of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1) in the testis, epididymis and epididymal sperm of adolescent rats and explore the functions of both the proteins in the male reproductive system.
  • METHODS: The expressions of VEGF and Flt-1 were detected in 20 adolescent SD rats, immunohistochemical staining used for both the testis and the epididymis and immunofluorescent staining for sperm.
  • RESULTS: VEGF and Flt-1 proteins were specifically present in the testis, epididymis and sperm.
  • In the epididymis, the cell-specific and region-specific expressions of VEGF and Flt-1 proteins were observed in the principal cells of epididymal epithelia, VEGF in the whole epididymis, while Flt-1 only in the caput and cauda segments.
  • CONCLUSION: The specific expression patterns of VEGF and Flt-1 in the rat testis, epididymis and sperm indicate that they may independently or collectively affect spermatogenesis and spermiotelcosis in either an autocrinological or a
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / metabolism. Spermatozoa / metabolism. Testis / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19157092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1
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92. Zhang L, Liu Q, Zhou Y, Zhang Y: Baculo-expression and enzymatic characterization of CES7 esterase. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai); 2009 Sep;41(9):731-6
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  • Recently, a novel epididymis-specific gene named Ces7 was cloned and characterized, which belongs to the carboxylesterase family.
  • [MeSH-major] Baculoviridae / genetics. Baculoviridae / metabolism. Carboxylesterase / chemistry. Carboxylesterase / metabolism. Epididymis / enzymology. Protein Engineering / methods. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19727521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-7270
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 3.1.1.1 / Carboxylesterase
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93. Lessard C, Danielson J, Rajapaksha K, Adams GP, McCorkell R: Banking North American buffalo semen. Theriogenology; 2009 Apr 15;71(7):1112-9
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  • In addition, sperm was collected from the cauda epididymis of seven plains bison.
  • Interestingly, post-thawed epididymal spermatozoa had higher total motility (P<0.05) than post-thawed electroejaculated sperm when cryopreserved with a medium free of products of animal origin (Andromed; 35% vs 9%, respectively).

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  • (PMID = 19181375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] Theriogenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Theriogenology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Memon MA: Common causes of male dog infertility. Theriogenology; 2007 Aug;68(3):322-8
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  • Both carnitine and alkaline phosphatase (AP) are produced in the epididymis; seminal plasma AP concentrations>5000 U/L indicate a normal ejaculate, whereas <5000 U/L is associated with incomplete ejaculation.
  • Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), the most common age-related condition in intact male dogs, is characterized by a sanguineous urethral discharge, hematuria, or hemospermia; diagnosis is based on prostatic enlargement and confirmed by a transabdominal biopsy.
  • Approximately, 5-7% of dogs with prostatic disease have prostatic neoplasia, most commonly adenocarcinoma (it occurs in both intact and castrated dogs), which often metastasizes and has a very poor prognosis.
  • Although a specific diagnosis can be made in many cases of male dog infertility, not all causes are amenable to treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Azoospermia / diagnosis. Azoospermia / etiology. Azoospermia / veterinary. Breeding. Cryptorchidism / diagnosis. Cryptorchidism / therapy. Cryptorchidism / veterinary. Dogs. Male. Prostatic Diseases / diagnosis. Prostatic Diseases / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17512045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] Theriogenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Theriogenology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Saito K, Kawakami S, Okada Y, Takazawa R, Koga F, Kageyama Y, Kihara K: Spatial and isoform specific p63 expression in the male human urogenital tract. J Urol; 2006 Nov;176(5):2268-73
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  • At the mRNA level DeltaNp63 was predominant in the urothelium, prostate, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens, and cauda and corpus epididymis, while TAp63 was predominant in testicular tissues.

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  • (PMID = 17070310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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96. Sipilä P, Pujianto DA, Shariatmadari R, Nikkilä J, Lehtoranta M, Huhtaniemi IT, Poutanen M: Differential endocrine regulation of genes enriched in initial segment and distal caput of the mouse epididymis as revealed by genome-wide expression profiling. Biol Reprod; 2006 Aug;75(2):240-51
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  • [Title] Differential endocrine regulation of genes enriched in initial segment and distal caput of the mouse epididymis as revealed by genome-wide expression profiling.
  • We have performed genome-wide expression profiling of endocrine regulation of genes expressed in the mouse initial segment (IS) and distal caput of the epididymis by using Affymetrix microarrays.
  • The data revealed that of the 15 020 genes expressed in the epididymis, 35% were enriched in one of the two regions studied, indicating that differential functions can be attributed to the IS and the more distal caput regions.
  • This is in line with the high testis dependency of epididymal physiology.
  • Identical data were obtained by independent clustering analyses performed for the expression data of 3626 epididymal genes.
  • Several novel genes with putative involvement in epididymal sperm maturation, such as a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 28 (Adam28) and a solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 4C1 (Slco4c1), were identified, indicating that this approach is successful for identifying novel epididymal genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine System / physiology. Epididymis / physiology. Gene Expression Profiling / methods

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  • (PMID = 16641146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Organic Anion Transporters; 0 / organic anion transporting polypeptide 4C1, mouse; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / Adam28 protein, mouse
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97. Suzuki K, Yu X, Chaurand P, Araki Y, Lareyre JJ, Caprioli RM, Orgebin-Crist MC, Matusik RJ: Epididymis-specific lipocalin promoters. Asian J Androl; 2007 Jul;9(4):515-21
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  • [Title] Epididymis-specific lipocalin promoters.
  • Our goal is to decipher which DNA sequences are required for tissue-specific expression of epididymal genes.
  • At least 6 epididymis-specific lipocalin genes are known.
  • These are differently regulated and regionalized in the epididymis.
  • Lipocalin 5 (Lcn5 or mE-RABP) and Lipocalin 8 (Lcn8 or mEP17) are homologous genes belonging to the epididymis-specific lipocalin gene cluster.
  • Both the 5 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene and the 5.3 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn8 gene can direct transgene expression in the epididymis (Lcn5 to the distal caput and Lcn8 to the initial segment), indicating that these promoter fragments contain important cis-regulatory element(s) for epididymis-specific gene expression.
  • To define further the fragments regulating gene expression, the Lcn5 promoter was examined in transgenic mice and immortalized epididymal cell lines.
  • Immunohistochemistry indicated a restricted expression of Foxa2 in the epididymis where endogenous Lcn5 gene expression is suppressed and that the Foxa2 inhibition of the Lcn5 promoter is consistent with the lack of expression of Lcn5 in the corpus and cauda.
  • Our approach provides a basic strategy for further analysis of the epididymal lipocalin gene regulation and flexible control of epididymal function.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / physiology. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17589789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK55748; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD36900
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / FOXA2 protein, human; 0 / LCN8 protein, human; 0 / Lcn5 protein, mouse; 0 / Lipocalins; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma; 135845-92-0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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98. Kafetsoulis A, Ibrahim E, Aballa TC, Goetz LL, Lynne CM, Brackett NL: Abdominal electrical stimulation rescues failures to penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injury: a report of two cases. Urology; 2006 Jul;68(1):204.e9-11
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  • Use of this safe, easy, and inexpensive method may prevent some patients from undergoing more expensive, more invasive sperm retrieval methods such as electroejaculation or surgical sperm retrieval from the testis or epididymis.

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  • (PMID = 16808965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Frenette G, Thabet M, Sullivan R: Polyol pathway in human epididymis and semen. J Androl; 2006 Mar-Apr;27(2):233-9
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  • [Title] Polyol pathway in human epididymis and semen.
  • It has been previously shown that both enzymes are presented in the bovine epididymis, where they are associated with membranous vesicles called epididymosomes.
  • Based on the distribution of these enzymes, it has been hypothesized that the polyol pathway can modulate sperm motility during the epididymal transit.
  • In the present study, polyol pathway was investigated in semen and along the epididymis in humans in order to determine if sperm maturation can be associated with this sugar pathway.
  • Western blot, Northern blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis show that aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase are expressed at the transcriptional and translational levels along the human epididymis.
  • Immunohistological studies together with Western blot analysis performed on epididymosomes preparations indicate that the polyol pathway enzymes are secreted by the epididymal epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / metabolism. Polymers / metabolism. Semen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16278369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-3635
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polymers; 0 / polyol; 30237-26-4 / Fructose; 506T60A25R / Sorbitol; EC 1.1.1.14 / L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.21 / Aldehyde Reductase; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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100. Shetty AJ, Narayana K, Bairy KL, Bhat P, D'Souza U: The effect of carbamazepine on sperm counts in Wistar rats--reflecting upon its mitogenic potential. Reprod Biol; 2007 Jul;7(2):177-81
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  • Following the last exposure, on days 14 and 35, spermatozoa were collected from epididymis and counted.

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  • (PMID = 17873967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1642-431X
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Mitogens; 33CM23913M / Carbamazepine
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