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1. Opolskiene G, Sladkevicius P, Jokubkiene L, Valentin L: Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness of at least 4.5 mm. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Jan;35(1):94-102
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vaginal Bleeding.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness of at least 4.5 mm.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether endometrial volume or power Doppler indices as measured by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging can discriminate between benign and malignant endometrium, to compare their diagnostic performance with that of endometrial thickness measurement using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound examination, and to determine whether power Doppler indices add any diagnostic information to endometrial thickness or volume.
  • METHODS: Sixty-two patients with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness > or = 4.5 mm underwent transvaginal 2D gray-scale and 3D power Doppler ultrasound examination of the corpus uteri.
  • The endometrial volume was calculated, along with the vascularization index (VI), flow index and vascularization flow index (VFI) in the endometrium and in a 2-mm 'shell' surrounding the endometrium.
  • The 'gold standard' was the histological diagnosis of the endometrium obtained by hysteroscopic resection of focal lesions, dilatation and curettage or hysterectomy.
  • Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were drawn for all measurements to evaluate their ability to distinguish between benign and malignant endometrium.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to create mathematical models to estimate the risk of endometrial malignancy.
  • RESULTS: There were 49 benign and 13 malignant endometria.
  • Endometrial thickness and volume were significantly larger in malignant than in benign endometria, and flow indices in the endometrium and endometrial shell were significantly higher.
  • The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of endometrial thickness was 0.82, that of endometrial volume 0.78, and that of the two best power Doppler variables (VI and VFI in the endometrium) 0.82 and 0.82.
  • The best logistic regression model for predicting malignancy contained the variables endometrial thickness (odds ratio 1.2; 95% CI, 1.04-1.30; P = 0.004) and VI in the endometrial 'shell' (odds ratio 1.1; 95% CI, 1.02-1.23; P = 0.01).
  • Using its mathematically optimal risk cut-off value (0.22), the model correctly classified seven more benign cases but two fewer malignant cases than the best endometrial thickness cut-off (11.8 mm).
  • Models containing endometrial volume and flow indices performed less well than did endometrial thickness alone (AUC, 0.79 vs. 0.82).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium of 3D ultrasound imaging was not superior to that of endometrial thickness as measured by 2D ultrasound examination, and 3D power Doppler imaging added little to endometrial thickness or volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endometrium / ultrasonography. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19902471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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2. Opolskiene G, Sladkevicius P, Valentin L: Two- and three-dimensional saline contrast sonohysterography: interobserver agreement, agreement with hysteroscopy and diagnosis of endometrial malignancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2009 May;33(5):574-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Two- and three-dimensional saline contrast sonohysterography: interobserver agreement, agreement with hysteroscopy and diagnosis of endometrial malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to compare the interobserver reproducibility of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) and agreement of these techniques with hysteroscopy, and to determine which SCSH findings best discriminate between benign and malignant endometrium.
  • METHODS: Consecutive women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness > or = 4.5 mm underwent 2D and 3D SCSH; the results were videotaped and stored electronically, respectively, for analysis by two independent experienced examiners who were blinded to each other's results.
  • A histological diagnosis was obtained by dilatation and curettage, hysteroscopic resection or hysterectomy.
  • RESULTS: Of 170 consecutive women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness > or = 4.5 mm, 84 (14 with endometrial malignancy) fulfilled our inclusion criteria.
  • Hysteroscopy findings in 54 women (one with endometrial malignancy) were used to determine agreement with SCSH.
  • The SCSH finding that best discriminated between benign and malignant endometrium was the presence of focal lesion(s) with irregular surface (for 2D SCSH: sensitivity 71%, specificity 97%, positive likelihood ratio 25, negative likelihood ratio 0.3; for 3D SCSH: sensitivity 43%, specificity 97%, positive likelihood ratio 15, negative likelihood ratio 0.6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: 3D SCSH does not seem to be superior to 2D SCSH when performed by experienced ultrasound examiners either with regard to reproducibility, agreement with hysteroscopy findings or diagnosis of endometrial malignancy.
  • The presence of focal lesion(s) with irregular surface is the best SCSH variable for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endometrium / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Endosonography / methods. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Hysteroscopy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Postmenopause. Reproducibility of Results. Uterine Hemorrhage / pathology. Uterine Hemorrhage / surgery. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19360790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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3. Opolskiene G, Sladkevicius P, Valentin L: Ultrasound assessment of endometrial morphology and vascularity to predict endometrial malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Sep;30(3):332-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound assessment of endometrial morphology and vascularity to predict endometrial malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine which endometrial morphology characteristics as assessed by gray-scale ultrasound and which endometrial vessel characteristics as assessed by power Doppler ultrasound are useful for discriminating between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm and to develop logistic regression models to calculate the individual risk of endometrial malignancy in women with PMB, endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm, good visibility of the endometrium and detectable Doppler signals in the endometrium.
  • METHODS: Of 223 consecutive patients with PMB and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm, 120 fulfilled our inclusion criteria.
  • They independently assessed endometrial morphology and vascularity using predetermined criteria.
  • Their agreed-upon description was compared with the histological diagnosis.
  • Inter-observer agreement for the description of endometrial morphology and vascularity was moderate to good (Kappa 0.49-0.78).
  • The best ultrasound variables to predict malignancy were heterogeneous endometrial echogenicity (AUC 0.83), endometrial thickness (AUC 0.80), and irregular branching of endometrial blood vessels (AUC 0.77).
  • A logistic regression model including endometrial thickness and heterogeneous endometrial echogenicity had an AUC of 0.91.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In selected high-risk women with PMB and an endometrial thickness of >or= 4.5 mm, calculation of the individual risk of endometrial malignancy using regression models including gray-scale and Doppler characteristics can be used to tailor management.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endometrium / ultrasonography. Postmenopause. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Vessels / pathology. Blood Vessels / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17688304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Fadare O, Yi X, Liang SX, Ma Y, Zheng W: Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation. Mod Pathol; 2007 Sep;20(9):1000-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation.
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is a premalignant (dysplastic) lesion that is characterized by abnormal cellular proliferation, maturation and nuclear atypia.
  • In this study, we evaluated the total mitotic indices of the cervical epithelia in hysterectomy specimens from patients with and without dysplastic lesions and investigated a possible relationship between mitotic index and hormonal status, using the endometrial maturation phase as a surrogate indicator of the latter.
  • Two hundred seventy-four cervices from hysterectomy specimens (135 cases without dysplasia, 33, 35 and 71 cases with grades 1, 2 and 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively) were analyzed.
  • The endometrium in each case was classified into atrophic, early proliferative, late proliferative and secretory.
  • For all three dysplasia grades, cases in the proliferative endometrium group always had a higher average mitotic index than those in the secretory and atrophic endometrium groups; this observation also held true for the benign cases.
  • Furthermore, in all three dysplasia grades, the average mitotic index was always lowest in the atrophic endometrium group.
  • Although the mitotic index showed expected patterns of increases with increasing dysplasia grades for most of the endometrial phases, this was not a universal finding.
  • Notably, the average mitotic index for our cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 cases with late proliferative endometrium was higher than our cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 cases with secretory and atrophic endometrium.
  • It is concluded that hormonal status, as reflected in endometrial maturation, can significantly affect the mitotic index of dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Menstrual Cycle. Mitotic Index. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies


5. Mandic A, Vujkov T, Novakovic P, Nincic D, Mihajlovic O, Ivkovic-Kapic T: Clinical-sonographic scoring system in noninvasive diagnosis of endometrial cancer. J BUON; 2006 Apr-Jun;11(2):197-204
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical-sonographic scoring system in noninvasive diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: In 90% of all endometrial cancers vaginal bleeding is the leading clinical symptom.
  • The main goal of this study was to examine the clinical-sonographic scoring system as a noninvasive diagnostic method for endometrial cancer.
  • In group A included were patients without endometrial malignancy and in group B were patients with endometrial cancer.
  • RESULTS: Patients with endometrial cancer were older (median age in group B 64.49 years vs. 58.81 in group A), the length of corpus uteri was longer (6.41 cm in group B vs. 5.25 cm in group A), and the postmenopausal period was longer (13.67 years median in group B vs. 9.11 in group A).
  • CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal bleeding caused by endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed in older patients.
  • It was possible to distinguish high-risk patients with neoplasia from those with benign changes of the endometrium using the clinical-sonographic systems ONCO 1.
  • Nevertheless, histopathological examination is still unavoidable for the final diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Ultrasonography / methods. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17318971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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6. Haberal A, Cil AP, Gunes M, Cavusoglu D: Papillary adenofibroma of the cervix: a case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Aug;26(2):186-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adenofibroma is an extremely rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group.
  • It typically affects the endometrium, but may occur in the cervix or in an extrauterine location.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is usually difficult.
  • This lesion appears to be clinically and histologically benign but must be differentiated from malignant lesions of the uterus, particularly from adenosarcoma, which can be suggestive of adenofibroma.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these benign tumors permits appropriate counseling of patients.

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  • International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16041681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Konishi Y, Sato H, Fujimoto T, Tanaka H, Takahashi O, Tanaka T: Adenofibroma of the endometrium protruding into the vaginal cavity: findings on transvaginal ultrasonography, MRI and CT. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Dec;32(6):623-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenofibroma of the endometrium protruding into the vaginal cavity: findings on transvaginal ultrasonography, MRI and CT.
  • Adenofibroma is a rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group.
  • We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with adenofibroma of the endometrium protruding into the vagina.
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed the tumor as an intravaginal mass containing multiple cystic components.
  • Although preoperative diagnosis of this rare tumor is very difficult, the combination of MRI, CT, and ultrasonography offers a useful diagnostic tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / ultrasonography. Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Vagina / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17100829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Li C, Zota V, Woda BA, Rock KL, Fraire AE, Jiang Z, Lu D, Xu B, Dresser K, Lutman CV, Fischer AH: Expression of a novel oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IMP3 in endometrial carcinomas: diagnostic significance and clinicopathologic correlations. Mod Pathol; 2007 Dec;20(12):1263-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of a novel oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IMP3 in endometrial carcinomas: diagnostic significance and clinicopathologic correlations.
  • To investigate the diagnostic and clinicopathologic significance of this protein in endometrial carcinomas, we evaluated immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in the two most common forms of endometrial malignancies, endometrioid adenocarcinoma and serous carcinoma.
  • We selected 167 endometrial adenocarcinoma cases including 122 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and 45 cases of serous carcinoma.
  • Twenty samples of benign endometrium obtained from 20 patients with nonmalignant uterine lesions were used as controls.
  • Positive immunohistochemical stain for IMP3 was identified in all serous carcinoma cases, among which, 39 (86%) and 3 (7%) cases showed IMP3 immunoreactivity in >50%, and 21-50, or 6-20% of tumor cells, respectively.
  • Thirty (25%), 20 (16%), 10 (8%), and 8 (7%) cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for IMP3 in 1-5, 6-20, 21-50, and >50% of the tumor cells.
  • To compare p53 with IMP3 expressions, we found that 35 (78%) of the serous carcinoma cases showed strong p53 immunohistochemical activity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • In contrast, 11 of 112 (10%) endometrioid adenocarcinoma cases demonstrated strong p53 positivity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • Expression of IMP3 and p53 may be helpful biomarkers in the distinction of endometrial serous carcinoma from endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, expression of IMP3 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma correlates with higher nuclear and architecture grades of the tumor (P=0.0000 and P=0.0002, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17885673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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9. McKenney JK, Longacre TA: Low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma: a diagnostic algorithm for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia and other benign (and malignant) mimics. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Jan;16(1):1-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma: a diagnostic algorithm for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia and other benign (and malignant) mimics.
  • The distinction between endometrial hyperplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium continues to be a difficult differential diagnosis in surgical pathology.
  • Evidence-based diagnostic criteria for well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma focus on histologic features that predict myoinvasion in the hysterectomy specimen.
  • Application of these 2 criteria in problematic endometrial proliferations allows stratification of patients into 3 risk categories: very low risk (< 0.05% risk of myoinvasion at hysterectomy)=complex atypical hyperplasia; intermediate risk (5.5% risk of myoinvasion at hysterectomy)=complex atypical hyperplasia, cannot exclude well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (borderline); and high risk (20% risk of myoinvasion at hysterectomy)=well-differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, unusual morphologic patterns of low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma should be recognized, as they may cause confusion with other, higher grade (and therefore, more clinically aggressive) endometrial processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Uterine Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cell Division. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Kinetics. Metaplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 19098463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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10. Hever A, Roth RB, Hevezi PA, Lee J, Willhite D, White EC, Marin EM, Herrera R, Acosta HM, Acosta AJ, Zlotnik A: Molecular characterization of human adenomyosis. Mol Hum Reprod; 2006 Dec;12(12):737-48
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Endometriosis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adenomyosis is a common gynaecological disorder characterized by the abnormal growth of endometrium into the myometrium and myometrial hypertrophy/hyperplasia.
  • Uterine fibroids are benign neoplasms of the myometrium, and they represent a diagnostic pitfall for adenomyosis.
  • In this study, we have used the genome-wide Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarray platform to compare the gene expression patterns of adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, normal endometrium and myometrium.
  • Supervised cluster analysis based on these probe sets clustered adenomyosis most closely with endometrium and uterine fibroids with myometrium, consistent with the anatomic origin of these two diseases.
  • The Tukey means separation post hoc testing found 2073 probe sets altered between adenomyosis and normal endometrium or myometrium, and 2327 probe sets altered in expression when comparing uterine fibroids with myometrium.
  • Finally, we compared the gene expression profiles of adenomyosis and uterine fibroids and identified 471 differentially expressed probe sets that may represent potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of these diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / genetics. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Myometrium / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Principal Component Analysis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17020905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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11. Ma XX, Zhang SL, Gao S, Lu JM, Dong F: [Expressions of aromatase protein and sex hormone receptor in endometrial lesions]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;41(6):395-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expressions of aromatase protein and sex hormone receptor in endometrial lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of aromatase protein, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation Ki67 in endometrial diseases and their clinical significance in diagnosis and endocrine therapy of endometrial diseases.
  • METHOD: Expressions of aromatase, ER, PR and Ki-67 were detected with immunohistochemistry technic (streptavidin-peroxidase-biotin, SP) in 148 cases including 30 of endometrial hyperplasia, 30 of atypical proliferation and 88 of endometrial adenocarcinoma as observational group and 15 cases of proliferative endometrium and 15 cases of secretory endometrium as control group.
  • RESULTS: Expression of aromatase protein and ER, PR, Ki67 in endometrial hyperplasia, atypical proliferation had no significant difference comparing with the proliferative endometrium group (P > 0.05).
  • In endometrial adenocarcinoma, the expression of aromatase protein increased obviously (64%, 56/88), which was higher than in benign diseases [atypical proliferation group was 23% (7/30), endometrial hyperplasia group was 13% (4/30)] and control group significantly (P < 0.01).
  • The positive expression of ER, PR in endometrial adenocarcinoma decreased [22% (19/88), 19% (17/88)], and Ki67 increased (41%, 36/88) and there was a significant difference compared with control group (P < 0.01).
  • Aromatase was not consistent with ER, PR and Ki67 in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Aromatase protein is related to the incidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma, and the expression of proteins (aromatase, ER, PR and Ki67) provides theoretical basis for understanding biological behavior of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16831363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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12. Zheng W, Yi X, Fadare O, Liang SX, Martel M, Schwartz PE, Jiang Z: The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Feb;32(2):304-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma.
  • Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein highly expressed in fetal tissue and malignant tumors but rarely found in adult benign tissues.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the expression of IMP3 in benign endometrium, endometrial cancer, and its precursor lesions, trying to see whether IMP3 has any diagnostic usage.
  • Two hundred ninety-eight endometrial samples were examined for IMP3 expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • These included benign endometrium (n=68), atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (n=35), endometrial glandular dysplasia (n=21), endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (n=18), endometrioid carcinoma (n=70), mucinous carcinoma (n=8), serous carcinoma (n=51), clear cell carcinoma (n=12), and other malignancies (n=15).
  • Maturational patterns in the 68 benign endometrial samples included atrophic (n=12), proliferative (n=18), secretory (n=14), menstrual (n=8), and gestational (n=16).
  • Most of the carcinomas were histologically pure; where mixed, the second component constituted <10% of the total tumor volume.
  • Among the malignant cases, IMP3 expression was predominantly found in endometrial serous carcinoma and its putative precursor lesions, with 3 (14%) of 21 endometrial glandular dysplasia, 16 (89%) of 18 serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, and 48 (94%) of 51 serous carcinomas (P<0.001).
  • In contrast, the frequency of IMP3 expression was significantly lesser in nonserous malignancies with 0 (0%) of 35, 5 (7%) of 70, 0 (0%) of 8, 3 (25%) of 12, and 5 (33%) of 15 positive expression rates in atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell carcinomas, and other malignancies, respectively.
  • Among the benign endometrial samples, decidualized endometrial stroma showed 100% positivity for IMP3.
  • We conclude that expression of IMP3, a newly identified cytoplasmic marker, is closely associated with type II endometrial cancer.
  • It seems that IMP3 expression is associated with an aggressive histologic phenotype among endometrial neoplastic lesions.
  • Strong and diffuse IMP3 expression is highly sensitive for endometrial serous and clear cell carcinomas including their putative precursor lesions.
  • Therefore, IMP3 may be a useful diagnostic marker in the assessment of endometrial cancers and their precursor lesions, particularly when the amount of available tissue material is limited and a concern of type II cancer arises.
  • High frequency of IMP3 expression is present in decidualized endometrial stroma of gestational endometrium and chorionic villi in early pregnancy.
  • Although the significance of the latter finding remains unclear, the differential diagnosis between decidual changes and endometrial serous carcinoma is rarely problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Cytoplasm / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18223334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA23074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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13. Takeuchi M, Matsuzaki K, Uehara H, Yoshida S, Nishitani H, Shimazu H: Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol; 2005 Nov;15(11):2244-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • The endometrial cavity may demonstrate various imaging manifestations such as normal, reactive, inflammatory, and benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • We evaluated usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the uterine endometrial cavity, and described the diagnostic clues to differential diagnoses.
  • Surgically proven pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity were evaluated retrospectively with pathologic correlation.
  • The pathologies included benign endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial hyperplasia and polyp, malignant endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial carcinoma and carcinosarcoma, endometrial-myometrial neoplasm such as endometrial stromal sarcoma, pregnancy-related lesions in the endometrial cavity such as gestational trophoblastic diseases (hydatidiform mole, invasive mole and choriocarcinoma) and placental polyp, myometrial lesions simulating endometrial lesions such as submucosal leiomyoma and some adenomyosis, endometrial neoplasms simulating myometrial lesions such as adenomyomatous polyp and endometrial lesions arising in the hemicavity of a septate/bicornate uterus, and fluid collections in the uterine cavity (hydro/hemato/pyometra).
  • It is important to recognize various imaging findings in these diseases, in order to make a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 Sep;173(3):767-72 [10470920.001]
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  • (PMID = 16228215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Koviazin VA, Shchelokova EE, Kostanian IA, Dranitsyna SM, Frolova II, Babichenko II: [The proapoptotic factor HLDF in the normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium]. Arkh Patol; 2007 May-Jun;69(3):23-6

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  • [Title] [The proapoptotic factor HLDF in the normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium].
  • Antibodies to the factor HLDF are shown to be specific markers of apoptosis and permit the estimation of the rate of programmed cell death in the course of a normal menstrual cycle and in pathologic endometrial processes.
  • Antibodies to the HLDF factor may be used as a new immunohistochemical marker for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant endometrial processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies / immunology. Apoptosis. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17722590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / cell differentiation factor 8.2-kDa
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15. Yilmaz I, Baloglu H, Haholu A, Berber U, Yildirim S, Ergur AR: Objective risk definition for endometrial lesion spectrum: a diagnostic algorithm. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 May;105(2):451-6
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  • [Title] Objective risk definition for endometrial lesion spectrum: a diagnostic algorithm.
  • OBJECTIVE: Investigations for risk definition in endometrial lesion spectrum still go on.
  • In this study, molecular, morphometric, immunohistochemical techniques were combined with conventional morphology to realize whether an algorithm is definable for risk assessment to progress an invasive carcinoma in endometrial glandular lesion spectrum is possible.
  • METHODS: The study was carried out on 20 benign endometria, 35 hyperplasias, and 20 adenocarcinoma cases.
  • Clonality of glandular cells, the volume percent of endometrial stroma (VPS), PTEN inactivation, and proliferative index (PI) were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: All benign tissues had polyclonal (PC), whereas all malignant tissues had monoclonal (MC) glandular epithelium.
  • CONCLUSION: Clonality and VPS values were found to be significant in differential of endometrial lesions.
  • With this rationale, a diagnostic algorithm for endometrial risk lesions was set.
  • This algorithm is based on HE morphology, VPS and clonality findings, and has 100% sensitivity and specificity to discriminate neoplastic endometrium from hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / biosynthesis. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Array Analysis


16. Kefeli M, Gonullu G, Can B, Malatyalioglu E, Kandemir B: Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):343-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature.
  • SUMMARY: Polyps are the most common benign lesions in the endometrium.
  • Metastasis to the endometrial polyp from a distant primary tumor is rare.
  • Breast carcinoma is the most frequent extragenital cancer that metastasizes to the endometrial polyp.
  • We report the case of a 63-year-old with metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma involving endometrial polyps detected by endometrial curetting.
  • After this diagnosis, bone metastases were detected during radiologic screening.
  • Gastrointestinal tumor metastasis to an endometrial polyp is a very rare event, but if a patient with a known primary extragenital tumor has abnormal vaginal bleeding, the possibility of metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19483630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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17. Dietz NK, Rehn M, Thanner F, Dietl J: [Diagnostic and preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma with transvaginal sonography--a review]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2006 Oct;128(5):246-54
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic and preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma with transvaginal sonography--a review].
  • Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract.
  • Endometrial thickness (double layer) is measured by transvaginal sonography.
  • The cut-off value in patients with postmenopausal bleeding is still controversial, although in patients with endometrial thickness below 4 mm (or 5 mm respectively), malignancy can be excluded with high probability.
  • If the endometrium measures more than 4 mm (or more than 5 mm respectively) or the patient presents with continuous bleeding, hysteroscopy and curettage should be performed in order to obtain histologic diagnosis.
  • Sonographic findings like structure and demarcation of the endometrium increase diagnostic specificity only when combined with the measurement of endometrial thickness.
  • Measuring the fluid within the uterine cavity does not seem to be useful in differentiating malignant from benign disorders.
  • The extent of surgery depends on the preoperative estimation of the tumor stage which is particularly important for elder patients with increased morbidity.
  • This article on transvaginal ultrasound reviews current data on the method's capacity to identify endometrial cancer and to diagnose the depth of invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17001559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4197
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Gynakol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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18. Fleming NA, Hopkins L, de Nanassy J, Senterman M, Black AY: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e45-51
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  • Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually found in postmenopausal women.
  • It usually presents as a polypoid mass within the endometrium.
  • It is a biphasic tumor, composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant stromal component.
  • To date, this neoplasm has been reported in only 16 adolescent girls.
  • An endometrial curettage was performed.
  • Pathology confirmed a diagnosis of müllerian adenosarcoma originating from the endocervix.
  • After a thorough evaluation of the available literature, review with the Regional Tumor Board and extensive discussions with the family, a decision was made to perform a radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, upper vaginectomy and preservation of ovaries.
  • CONCLUSION: Müllerian adenosarcoma of the endocervix is a very rare pediatric tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor in this age group, optimal therapy is uncertain.


19. Sobczuk A, Wrona M, Pertyński T: [New views on hyperplastic endometrial lesions classification--endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 Dec;78(12):986-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [New views on hyperplastic endometrial lesions classification--endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)].
  • The aim of the study was to present a new EIN classification of premalignant endometrial lesions.
  • The diagnosis of precancerous disease of the endometrium remains non-standardized because the most widely used World Health Organisation classification is a poorly reproducible system, which does not specify objective architectural criteria for each category of hyperplasia and does not correspond to an appropriate clinical management (undertreatment, overtreatment of the lesions).
  • The new proposed EIN diagnostic schema, based on integrated morphological, genetic molecular, objective histomorphometric (D-score) and clinical outcome studies, divides endometrial lesions into three categories: benign hyperplasia, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Endometrial Hyperplasia / classification. Endometrial Neoplasms / classification. Precancerous Conditions / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18411925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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20. Grammatikakis I, Ivanov S, Evangelinakis N, Zevoudis S, Tziortzioti V: [Incidence of synchronous primary neoplasms of the female reproductive tract in women with ovarian endometriosis: a retrospective analysis of 811 cases]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2009;48(3):26-30
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  • PURPOSE: Although endometriosis is a benign disorder recent studies suggest endometriosis could be viewed as a neoplastic process.
  • The medical records and pathology were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and stage of tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Women with synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary have distinct clinical characteristics including younger age, premenopausal status, and nulliparity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bulgaria / epidemiology. Female. Greece / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Uterine Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20198760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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21. Powell JL, Cunill ES, Gajewski WH, Novotny DB: Sarcoidosis mimicking recurrent endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):770-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sarcoidosis mimicking recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease and can be confused with benign or malignant tumors.
  • CASE: A 67 year old woman had a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and periaortic lymphadenectomy, and peritoneal cytology in 2001 for Stage I B grade 1 adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16168469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Duan H, Li W, Zhang Y, Zhao X, Xia EL: [Study on the peritoneal dissemination of endometrial cells during hysteroscopy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;42(2):99-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Study on the peritoneal dissemination of endometrial cells during hysteroscopy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study prospectively the likelihood and the affecting factors of endometrial cell dissemination into the peritoneal cavity during hysteroscopic procedures.
  • METHODS: A total of 121 patients with benign endometrial pathology underwent hysteroscopy combined with laparoscopy.
  • We collected the peritoneal washings and analyzed the peritoneal cytology changes in both groups pre- and post-hysteroscopy, as well as the dissemination rate related to the time of hysteroscopy, the intrauterine distention pressure, the volume of distention media, and the feature of endometrial conditions.
  • RESULTS: The ratio of positive endometrial cells in the peritoneal washings of post-hysteroscopy group was 51.2% (62/121), which was significantly higher than pre-hysteroscopy group, 38.0% (46/121) (P < 0.01).
  • However, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the total volume of distention media, the distention pressure, and the endometrial feature (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hysteroscopic procedures may have a risk of disseminating the endometrial cells into peritoneal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / pathology. Hysteroscopy / adverse effects. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / adverse effects. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Seeding. Peritoneal Cavity / cytology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Therapeutic Irrigation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17442183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Lax S: [Mesenchymal uterine tumors. Stromal tumors and other rare mesenchymal neoplasms]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):284-91
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  • Uterine stromal neoplasms are classified into endometrial stromal nodules and stromal sarcomas, as well as undifferentiated sarcomas.
  • Undifferentiated sarcomas consist of polymorphic cells and lack any cytological similarity to the stroma of normal proliferative endometrium.
  • Adenosarcomas are mixed neoplasms with a low grade stromal sarcoma component containing benign glands, which are surrounded by condensed neoplastic stroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Arterioles / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sarcoma / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19495764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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