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1. Lademann J, Meinke M, Sterry W, Patzelt A: [How safe are nanoparticles?]. Hautarzt; 2009 Apr;60(4):305-9
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  • As a component of sunscreens, the nanoparticles are supposed to remain on the skin surface or in the upper most layers of the stratum corneum to protect the skin against UV-radiation of the sun.

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  • (PMID = 19221705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Drug Carriers
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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2. Rüfer F, Sander S, Klettner A, Frimpong-Boateng A, Erb C: Characterization of the thinnest point of the cornea compared with the central corneal thickness in normal subjects. Cornea; 2009 Feb;28(2):177-80
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  • [Title] Characterization of the thinnest point of the cornea compared with the central corneal thickness in normal subjects.
  • INTRODUCTION: For ongoing progress in refractive surgery, exact knowledge about the anatomical properties of the cornea is useful.
  • Thus, the aim of the study was to characterize the thinnest point of the cornea compared with the central corneal thickness in normal subjects and to investigate with regard to influencing factors such as sex, age, refraction, and intraocular pressure.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The central corneal thickness and the thinnest point of the cornea were determined with the Orbscan II in 390 white normal subjects.
  • RESULTS: In the right eyes, the mean central corneal thickness was 548 +/- 37 microm and the thinnest point 537 +/- 37 microm.
  • In the left eyes, the mean central corneal thickness was 547 +/- 37 microm and the thinnest point 535 +/- 39 microm.
  • The difference between the central corneal thickness and the thinnest point was found to be significant in both eyes in paired t test (P > 0.001).
  • No influence of sex, refraction, and intraocular pressure on the thickness of the thinnest point of the cornea could be observed.
  • The difference between central corneal thickness and thickness at the thinnest point was not subject to a statistically significant influence of age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the calculation of the residual corneal layer thickness in laser refractive surgery, the thinnest point of the cornea should form the basis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / anatomy & histology. Corneal Topography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19158561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Coste R, Cornand E, Denis D: [Central corneal thickness in a pediatric population using a noncontact specular microscope: a study of 405 cases]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2008 Mar;31(3):273-8
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  • [Title] [Central corneal thickness in a pediatric population using a noncontact specular microscope: a study of 405 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Pachymétrie cornéenne centrale dans la population pédiatrique par microscopie spéculaire non-contact: à propos de 405 cas.
  • AIM: Central corneal thickness has become very important in the interpretation of intraocular pressure.
  • Exclusion criteria were a history of ocular surgery, lens wearers, and any disease that could alter the cornea.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / anatomy & histology. Cornea / cytology. Surgical Instruments

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  • (PMID = 18404120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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4. Thomas PB, Liu YH, Zhuang FF, Selvam S, Song SW, Smith RE, Trousdale MD, Yiu SC: Identification of Notch-1 expression in the limbal basal epithelium. Mol Vis; 2007 Mar 01;13:337-44
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  • The central cornea was almost devoid of Notch-1.
  • Further studies and characterization of the Notch pathway in corneal development will provide valuable clues for the identification of stem cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelium, Corneal / metabolism. Limbus Corneae / metabolism. Receptors, Notch / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Animals. Antibody Specificity / immunology. COS Cells. Cells, Cultured. Cercopithecus aethiops. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Integrin alpha6 / genetics. Integrin alpha6 / metabolism. Integrin beta1 / genetics. Integrin beta1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Protein Transport

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  • (PMID = 17392684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0535
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Vis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY003040; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R03 EY014392; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY014392; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY03040
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Integrin alpha6; 0 / Integrin beta1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Notch
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2633467
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5. Kim JY, Kim MJ, Kim TI, Choi HJ, Pak JH, Tchah H: A femtosecond laser creates a stronger flap than a mechanical microkeratome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Feb;47(2):599-604
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  • PURPOSE: To compare corneal flaps made with a femtosecond (FS) laser with those made with a mechanical microkeratome (MM) in rabbits, measuring early postoperative inflammation and apoptosis and late postoperative adhesion strength.
  • RESULTS: Study 1: Inflammatory cell infiltration in the central cornea was significantly greater in the FS group than in the MM group at 4 and 24 hours (P < 0.05) and was significantly greater in the FS+LASIK group than in the MM+LASIK group at 24 hours (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The FS laser produces greater corneal stromal inflammation than the MM early postoperatively without any increase in apoptosis and stronger flap adhesion late postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Corneal Stroma / physiopathology. Corneal Stroma / surgery. Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ / methods. Surgical Flaps. Wound Healing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16431956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Hicks CR, Macvie O, Crawford GJ, Constable IJ: A risk score as part of an evidence-based approach to the selection of corneal replacement surgery. Cornea; 2005 Jul;24(5):523-30
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  • [Title] A risk score as part of an evidence-based approach to the selection of corneal replacement surgery.
  • PURPOSE: There is currently no standardized methodology that permits preoperative prediction of the surgical technique or drug regimen for corneal grafting most likely to succeed for an individual patient.
  • METHODS: The Risk Score (RS) is based on factors shown to reduce the probability of 1-year survival of conventional PK in increments, using published Australian Corneal Graft Registry data.
  • To asses its validity, Kaplan-Meier survival curves from 156 corneal replacement surgeries, stratified by preoperative RS, were used to derive the probability of survival at 1 year for donor PK, with or without systemic immunosuppression, and for synthetic PK with the AlphaCor artificial cornea.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study was designed to test a method that allows objective comparison of outcomes of different methods of corneal replacement for different risk categories.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / physiology. Corneal Transplantation / methods. Graft Survival / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Artificial Organs. Corneal Diseases / surgery. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Probability. Prostheses and Implants. Risk Assessment. Tissue Donors

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  • (PMID = 15968155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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7. Mohan RR, Sharma A, Netto MV, Sinha S, Wilson SE: Gene therapy in the cornea. Prog Retin Eye Res; 2005 Sep;24(5):537-59
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  • [Title] Gene therapy in the cornea.
  • The cornea is an excellent candidate for gene therapy because of its accessibility and immune-privileged nature.
  • In the last two decades, various viral vectors, such as adeno, adeno-associated, retro, lenti, and herpes simplex, as well as non-viral methods, were examined for introducing DNA into corneal cells in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo.
  • Most of these studies used fluorescent or non-fluorescent marker genes to track the level and duration of transgene expression in corneal cells.
  • However, limited studies were directed to evaluate prospects of gene-based interventions for corneal diseases or disorders such as allograft rejection, laser-induced post-operative haze, herpes simplex keratitis, and wound healing in animal models.
  • We will review the successes and obstacles impeding gene therapy approaches used for delivering genes into the cornea.
  • [MeSH-major] Corneal Diseases / therapy. Genetic Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cornea / physiology. Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary / therapy. Corneal Opacity / therapy. Corneal Transplantation. Genetic Vectors. Graft Survival. Humans. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 15955719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-9462
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in retinal and eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Retin Eye Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY10056
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 167
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8. Piekutowska A, Pin D, Rème CA, Gatto H, Haftek M: Effects of a topically applied preparation of epidermal lipids on the stratum corneum barrier of atopic dogs. J Comp Pathol; 2008 May;138(4):197-203
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  • [Title] Effects of a topically applied preparation of epidermal lipids on the stratum corneum barrier of atopic dogs.
  • Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized ultrastructurally by disorganization of the lamellar lipids (LLs) in the stratum corneum (SC), similar to that seen in the human disease.

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  • (PMID = 18374938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9975
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids
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9. Cejka C, Pláteník J, Buchal R, Guryca V, Sirc J, Vejrazka M, Crkovská J, Ardan T, Michálek J, Brůnová B, Cejková J: Effect of two different UVA doses on the rabbit cornea and lens. Photochem Photobiol; 2009 May-Jun;85(3):794-800
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  • [Title] Effect of two different UVA doses on the rabbit cornea and lens.
  • The aim of the present paper was to examine the irradiation effect of two doses of UVA rays (365 nm) on the rabbit cornea and lens.
  • Absorption spectra of the whole corneal centers were recorded over the UV-VIS (visible) spectral range.
  • Levels of antioxidant and prooxidant enzymes, nitric oxide synthases and nitric oxide (indirectly measured as nitrate concentration) were investigated in the cornea.
  • Malondialdehyde, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, was examined in the cornea and lens.
  • Otherwise, UVA rays at either dose did not significantly change corneal light absorption properties and did not cause statistically significant metabolic changes in the cornea or lens.
  • In conclusion, UVA rays at the employed doses did not evoke harmful effects in the cornea or lens.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / radiation effects. Lens, Crystalline / radiation effects. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 19076313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-8655
  • [Journal-full-title] Photochemistry and photobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photochem. Photobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Sztramska A, Piwiński M, Chwirot BW: Quantitative measurements of formalin-induced fluorescence for differential diagnostics of melanomas and lesions of human skin. Melanoma Res; 2010 Oct;20(5):408-16
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  • Microscopic digital imaging was used to quantitatively determine the fluorescence intensity of 53 primary melanomas and 32 benign lesions.
  • Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis of the algorithm yielded area under the curve=0.84 +/- 0.05 for melanocytic cells present in the stratum corneum.
  • Our results clearly indicate that the FIF emitting molecules (most probably 5-S-cysteinyldopa) are present in melanomas at the concentration significantly higher than in benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Formaldehyde / pharmacology. Luminescent Measurements / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Feasibility Studies. Fluorescence. Humans. Paraffin Embedding. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20661163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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11. Rastogi R, Anand S, Dinda AK, Koul V: Investigation on the synergistic effect of a combination of chemical enhancers and modulated iontophoresis for transdermal delivery of insulin. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2010 Aug;36(8):993-1004
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  • In-depth analysis of infra-red spectra revealed that each of the enhancers acted differentially on lipid-protein domains of the stratum corneum thereby supporting the observed synergism.

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  • (PMID = 20334541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5762
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Cyclohexanols; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Monoterpenes; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 005990WHZZ / Deoxycholic Acid; 2UMI9U37CP / Oleic Acid; RV6J6604TK / eucalyptol
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12. Kim SK, Noh YH, Koo JR, Yun HS: Effect of expression of genes in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway on the biosynthesis of ceramide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Microbiol Biotechnol; 2010 Feb;20(2):356-62
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  • Ceramide is important not only for the maintenance of the barrier function of the skin but also for the water-binding capacity of the stratum corneum.

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  • (PMID = 20208441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1017-7825
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of microbiology and biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ceramides; 0 / Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; 0 / Sphingolipids
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13. Henning A, Neumann D, Kostka KH, Lehr CM, Schaefer UF: Influence of human skin specimens consisting of different skin layers on the result of in vitro permeation experiments. Skin Pharmacol Physiol; 2008;21(2):81-8
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  • FFA permeation across human (1) trypsin-isolated stratum corneum, (2) heat-separated epidermis and (3) dermis, (4) dermatomized skin and (5) full-thickness skin (FTS) from either a hydrophilic or lipophilic donor was investigated in Franz-type diffusion cells.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18187967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-5535
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin pharmacology and physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Pharmacol Physiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 60GCX7Y6BH / Flufenamic Acid
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14. Gunt HB, Miller MA, Kasting GB: Water diffusivity in human nail plate. J Pharm Sci; 2007 Dec;96(12):3352-62
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  • The diffusivity values, which may be understood in terms of the equilibrium water content of the nail and a free volume theory for diffusion in hydrophilic polymers, were consistent with water diffusivities measured in other keratinized tissues including wool, horn and the corneocyte phase of stratum corneum.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17786922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 059QF0KO0R / Water; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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15. Astner S, Burnett N, Rius-Díaz F, Doukas AG, González S, Gonzalez E: Irritant contact dermatitis induced by a common household irritant: a noninvasive evaluation of ethnic variability in skin response. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Mar;54(3):458-65
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  • Reflectance confocal microscopy showed stratum corneum disruption, parakeratosis, and spongiosis; these features were more severe in Caucasian participants (P < or = .002).

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  • (PMID = 16488297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Gradisar H, Friedrich J, Krizaj I, Jerala R: Similarities and specificities of fungal keratinolytic proteases: comparison of keratinases of Paecilomyces marquandii and Doratomyces microsporus to some known proteases. Appl Environ Microbiol; 2005 Jul;71(7):3420-6
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  • Studies of substrate specificity revealed that skin constituents, such as the stratum corneum, and appendages such as nail but not hair, feather, and wool were efficiently hydrolyzed by the P. marquandii keratinase and about 40% less by the D. microsporus keratinase.

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  • (PMID = 16000744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0099-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied and environmental microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caseins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases; EC 3.4.- / keratinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1168971
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17. Chilcott RP, Dalton CH, Hill I, Davison CM, Blohm KL, Clarkson ED, Hamilton MG: Evaluation of a barrier cream against the chemical warfare agent VX using the domestic white pig. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol; 2005 Jul;97(1):35-8
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  • It was tentatively concluded that spreading was predominantly a surface phenomena (possibly mediated by capillary movement of the agent through the microrelief or between hair follicles) with little or no contribution from lateral diffusion within the stratum corneum.

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  • (PMID = 15943757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-7835
  • [Journal-full-title] Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemical Warfare Agents; 0 / Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Ointments; 0 / Organothiophosphorus Compounds; 50782-69-9 / VX
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18. Sieg A, Guy RH, Delgado-Charro MB: Noninvasive and minimally invasive methods for transdermal glucose monitoring. Diabetes Technol Ther; 2005 Feb;7(1):174-97
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  • The techniques involving transdermal fluid extraction circumvent and/or compromise the barrier function of skin's outermost and least permeable layer, the stratum corneum, by the application of physical energy.

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  • (PMID = 15738715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-9156
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes technology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes Technol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB 001420
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose
  • [Number-of-references] 152
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19. Nakamura T, Kelly JG, Trevisan J, Cooper LJ, Bentley AJ, Carmichael PL, Scott AD, Cotte M, Susini J, Martin-Hirsch PL, Kinoshita S, Fullwood NJ, Martin FL: Microspectroscopy of spectral biomarkers associated with human corneal stem cells. Mol Vis; 2010 Mar 06;16:359-68
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  • [Title] Microspectroscopy of spectral biomarkers associated with human corneal stem cells.
  • Because such imaging gives a "biochemical-cell fingerprint" through a cell-sized aperture, we set out to determine whether distinguishing chemical entities associated with putative stem cells (SCs), transit-amplifying (TA) cells, or terminally-differentiated (TD) cells could be identified in human corneal epithelium.
  • METHODS: Desiccated cryosections (10 microm thick) of cornea on barium fluoride infrared transparent windows were interrogated using SRS FTIR microspectroscopy.
  • Spectral image maps to highlight SCs, TA cells, and TD cells of the cornea were then generated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SRS FTIR microspectroscopy can be employed to identify differential spectral biomarkers of SCs, TA cells, and/or TD cells in human cornea.

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  • (PMID = 20520745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0535
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Vis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/D010055/1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2879290
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20. Dua HS, Miri A, Alomar T, Yeung AM, Said DG: The role of limbal stem cells in corneal epithelial maintenance: testing the dogma. Ophthalmology; 2009 May;116(5):856-63
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  • [Title] The role of limbal stem cells in corneal epithelial maintenance: testing the dogma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study and characterize the epithelial cells in patients with a central "island" of normal epithelial cells surrounded with 360 degrees of clinically apparent limbal stem cell (SC) deficiency with conjunctivalization of the limbus and peripheral cornea.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Five human subjects (8 eyes) who presented with total limbal SC deficiency in 1 or both eyes with a central area of normal corneal epithelial cells.
  • METHODS: Clinical slit-lamp examination, aided with fluorescein staining, for evidence of conjunctivalization and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the conjunctivalized limbus and peripheral cornea and the normal central corneal epithelium.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Long term survival of normal stratified corneal epithelial cell sheet in the presence of total limbal SC deficiency.
  • RESULTS: In all 8 eyes the diagnosis of limbal SC deficiency was confirmed by clinical and IVCM examination.
  • The central corneal epithelial cells had a normal appearance with polygonal superficial cells, well-defined wing cells, and smaller basal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The existence and survival of a healthy sheet of corneal epithelial cells over the follow-up period, in the presence of clinically apparent total limbal SC deficiency, suggests a limited role of limbal epithelial SC in physiologic homeostasis of the corneal epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / pathology. Corneal Diseases / pathology. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelium, Corneal / cytology. Limbus Corneae / pathology. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19410942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Birchall W, Wakely L, Wells AP: The influence of scleral flap position and dimensions on intraocular pressure control in experimental trabeculectomy. J Glaucoma; 2006 Aug;15(4):286-90
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  • The side incisions were extended sequentially in 0.5-mm steps up to the limbus, then each flap dissected 1 mm further into clear cornea.
  • In each size group, extending flap side incisions to the limbus produced a small nonsignificant fall in mean IOP, whereas flap extension 1 mm into clear cornea led to a significantly lower mean IOP relative to baseline of 43.2% (P<0.05) for large flaps and 35.4% for small flaps (P<0.01).
  • Excessive forward dissection of a scleral flap into the clear cornea, anterior to the sclerostomy may result in increased aqueous outflow and lower IOP.

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  • (PMID = 16865004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1057-0829
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of glaucoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Glaucoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Corazza M, Virgili A: Allergic contact dermatitis from ophthalmic products: can pre-treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate increase patch test sensitivity? Contact Dermatitis; 2005 May;52(5):239-41
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  • The irritant anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) may alter the stratum corneum and increase antigen penetration.

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  • (PMID = 15898995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-1873
  • [Journal-full-title] Contact dermatitis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Contact Derm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Allergens; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 368GB5141J / Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
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23. Cejková J, Ardan T, Cejka C, Kovaceva J, Zídek Z: Irradiation of the rabbit cornea with UVB rays stimulates the expression of nitric oxide synthases-generated nitric oxide and the formation of cytotoxic nitrogen-related oxidants. Histol Histopathol; 2005 04;20(2):467-73
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  • [Title] Irradiation of the rabbit cornea with UVB rays stimulates the expression of nitric oxide synthases-generated nitric oxide and the formation of cytotoxic nitrogen-related oxidants.
  • Until now, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cornea irradiated with UVB rays remains unknown.
  • Results show that in contrast to normal corneas, where of the NOS isomers only endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) was expressed in a significant amount (in the epithelium and endothelium), in irradiated corneas all NOS isomers (also brain nitric oxide synthase, NOS1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, NOS2) as well as an indirect measure of ONOO-formation and MDA were gradually expressed, first in the epithelium, the endothelium and the keratocytes beneath the epithelium and finally in the cells of all corneal layers and the inflammatory cells that invaded the corneal stroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / metabolism. Cornea / radiation effects. Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism. Reactive Nitrogen Species / biosynthesis. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15736051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Reactive Nitrogen Species; 14691-52-2 / Peroxynitrous Acid; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 3604-79-3 / 3-nitrotyrosine; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
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24. Li J, Tang H, Hu X, Chen M, Xie H: Aquaporin-3 gene and protein expression in sun-protected human skin decreases with skin ageing. Australas J Dermatol; 2010 May;51(2):106-12
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  • AQP3 null mice have relatively dry skin, reduced skin elasticity, and delayed recovery of barrier function after removal of the stratum corneum which is also present in skin of old people.

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  • (PMID = 20546216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aquaporins
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25. Kamata Y, Taniguchi A, Yamamoto M, Nomura J, Ishihara K, Takahara H, Hibino T, Takeda A: Neutral cysteine protease bleomycin hydrolase is essential for the breakdown of deiminated filaggrin into amino acids. J Biol Chem; 2009 May 8;284(19):12829-36
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  • Filaggrin is a component of the cornified cell envelope and the precursor of free amino acids acting as a natural moisturizing factor in the stratum corneum.

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  • (PMID = 19286660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Imines; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / filaggrin; 29VT07BGDA / Citrulline; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; EC 3.4.11.- / Aminopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.- / Calpain; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 14; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.40 / bleomycin hydrolase; EC 3.5.3.- / peptidylarginine deiminase type III
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676013
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26. Wiedersberg S, Naik A, Leopold CS, Guy RH: Pharmacodynamics and dermatopharmacokinetics of betamethasone 17-valerate: assessment of topical bioavailability. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Mar;160(3):676-86
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  • Recent research has examined the dermatopharmacokinetic (DPK) technique, which is based on stratum corneum (SC) tape-stripping.

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  • (PMID = 18782322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 9IFA5XM7R2 / Betamethasone Valerate
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27. Zheleznov EA, Fedorov AA, Sheludchenko VM: [Impact of a continuous electric field on corneal healing in an experiment]. Vestn Oftalmol; 2010 Jul-Aug;126(4):30-5
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  • [Title] [Impact of a continuous electric field on corneal healing in an experiment].
  • The impact of a continuous electric field on reepithelization of the standardized erosive wound surface of the cornea was studied in 54 rabbits.
  • Twenty corneal samples were histologically studied 1, 2, 3 days and 3-4 weeks after injury.
  • It has been shown that the use of a continuous electric field does not prevent and, in most cases, it accelerates corneal erosion epithelization.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / radiation effects. Corneal Diseases / radiotherapy. Electromagnetic Fields. Wound Healing / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 20873155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-465X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik oftalmologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn Oftalmol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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28. Ji RC: Lymphatic endothelial cells, inflammatory lymphangiogenesis, and prospective players. Curr Med Chem; 2007;14(22):2359-68
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  • De novo lymphangiogenesis influences different pathological courses via modulating tissue fluid homeostasis, macromolecule absorption, and leukocyte transmigration.
  • The role of lymphangiogenesis in the setting of the inflammatory processes observed in transplants, inflamed cornea, wound healing, acquired lymphedema and tumor invasion, however, remains to be elucidated.

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  • (PMID = 17896984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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29. Young AR: Acute effects of UVR on human eyes and skin. Prog Biophys Mol Biol; 2006 Sep;92(1):80-5
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  • The only effect on the eye is inflammation of the cornea (photokeratitis), which is caused by UVB (and non-solar UVC) and resolves without long-term consequences within 48 h.

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  • (PMID = 16600340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6107
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in biophysics and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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30. Mauldin EA, Credille KM, Dunstan RW, Casal ML: The clinical and morphologic features of nonepidermolytic ichthyosis in the golden retriever. Vet Pathol; 2008 Mar;45(2):174-80
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  • A scaling disorder specific to Golden Retriever dogs has been recognized by both dermatologists and pathologists, but to date has not been well characterized.
  • All affected dogs had retained and convoluted membranes with crystalline structures in the stratum corneum.
  • This unique hyperkeratotic/scaling disorder in Golden Retrievers has distinctive clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural features, which are consistent with a primary cornification defect.

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  • (PMID = 18424829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P40 RR002512; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P40 RR002512-27; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR 02512
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS368076; NLM/ PMC3334879
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31. Kessner D, Kiselev MA, Hauss T, Dante S, Wartewig S, Neubert RH: Localisation of partially deuterated cholesterol in quaternary SC lipid model membranes: a neutron diffraction study. Eur Biophys J; 2008 Jul;37(6):1051-7
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  • This letter presents our first results in using the benefit of selective deuteration in neutron diffraction studies on stratum corneum (SC) lipid model systems.

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  • (PMID = 18214463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0175-7571
  • [Journal-full-title] European biophysics journal : EBJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Biophys. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipid Bilayers; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; AR09D82C7G / Deuterium
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32. He J, Bazan NG, Bazan HE: Mapping the entire human corneal nerve architecture. Exp Eye Res; 2010 Oct;91(4):513-23
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  • [Title] Mapping the entire human corneal nerve architecture.
  • We developed an approach to generate a three-dimensional map that facilitates the assessment of epithelial nerve density in different corneal areas to define aging and gender influence on human corneal nerve architecture.
  • Corneal nerves were stained and consecutive images acquired with a fluorescence microscope, recorded at the same plane, and merged for viewing the complete epithelial and stromal nerve architecture.
  • After whole mount examination, the same cornea was also used for transection.
  • Stromal nerves entered the cornea in a radial pattern, subsequently dividing into smaller branches.
  • No differences were observed between nerve densities in the four corneal quadrants.
  • Epithelial nerve density and terminal numbers were higher in the center of the cornea, rather than the periphery.
  • The modified technique of tissue preparation used for this study allowed for observation of new nerve structure features and, for the first time, provided a complete view of the human corneal nerve architecture.

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  • (PMID = 20650270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0007
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY019465; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01EY019465
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS224437; NLM/ PMC2939211
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33. Ma X, Shimmura S, Miyashita H, Yoshida S, Kubota M, Kawakita T, Tsubota K: Long-term culture and growth kinetics of murine corneal epithelial cells expanded from single corneas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2009 Jun;50(6):2716-21
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  • [Title] Long-term culture and growth kinetics of murine corneal epithelial cells expanded from single corneas.
  • PURPOSE: To develop a reproducible procedure for the long-term culture of corneal epithelial cells from a single mouse cornea.
  • METHODS: Corneal limbal explants of C57BL6/J mice were cultured in serum-free, low-Ca(2+) medium supplemented with EGF and cholera toxin.
  • RESULTS: Thirty of 32 (93.8%) corneal explants were successfully subcultured to P1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With this procedure, corneal epithelial cells from a single cornea can be cultured long term and can retain the potential to differentiate and stratify.
  • This procedure can be a powerful tool for studies that require comparison of corneal epithelial cells from normal and transgenic mice in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Culture Techniques. Epithelium, Corneal / cytology

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  • (PMID = 19218612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0 / Keratins, Type I; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Trp63 protein, mouse; 60108-77-2 / involucrin
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34. Chastang P, Hoang-Xuan T: [Femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasties]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2008 Nov;31(9):921-35
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  • This is not surprising when one knows that femtosecond lasers can cut corneal tissue in all directions with micrometric accuracy.
  • Lamellar dissection of the cornea is very facilitated with femtosecond laser because it is quicker and more reproducible.
  • [MeSH-major] Corneal Transplantation / methods. Laser Therapy

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  • (PMID = 19107065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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35. van de Kraats J, van Norren D: Optical density of the aging human ocular media in the visible and the UV. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis; 2007 Jul;24(7):1842-57
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  • Five templates were derived to provide an adequate description of the spectra from 300 to 700 nm for the lens, cornea, aqueous, and vitreous.

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  • (PMID = 17728807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1084-7529
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Sheppard J, Hayes S, Boote C, Votruba M, Meek KM: Changes in corneal collagen architecture during mouse postnatal development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2010 Jun;51(6):2936-42
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  • [Title] Changes in corneal collagen architecture during mouse postnatal development.
  • PURPOSE: To characterize changes in corneal collagen arrangement during mouse postnatal development.
  • These were analyzed to produce measurements of the average separation distance between corneal collagen fibrils.
  • Changes in the predominant orientation of corneal collagen and its relative distribution during the same developmental period were determined using wide-angle X-ray scatter data collected at 0.2-mm intervals over the entire cornea and limbal region of each specimen.
  • After eye opening at day 12, collagen alignment gradually increased in the peripheral cornea and limbus.
  • By day 28, an annulus of highly aligned collagen surrounded the cornea.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Changes in corneal thickness before and after eye opening are not caused by widespread alterations in the collagen fibrillar array but are more likely caused by expansion and contraction of regions devoid of regularly arranged collagen.
  • The postnatal development of a corneal annulus of collagen, thought to play a role in stabilizing the curvature of the cornea, may be triggered by visual factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen / analysis. Cornea / chemistry. Cornea / growth & development

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  • (PMID = 20089872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0500790; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0600755
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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37. Estey T, Piatigorsky J, Lassen N, Vasiliou V: ALDH3A1: a corneal crystallin with diverse functions. Exp Eye Res; 2007 Jan;84(1):3-12
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  • [Title] ALDH3A1: a corneal crystallin with diverse functions.
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) comprises a surprisingly high proportion (5-50% depending on species) of the water-soluble protein of the mammalian cornea, but is present little if at all in the cornea of other species.
  • Mounting experimental evidence demonstrates that this abundant corneal protein plays an important role in the protection of ocular structures against oxidative damage.
  • Corneal ALDH3A1 appears to protect against UV-induced oxidative stress through a variety of biological functions such as the metabolism of toxic aldehydes produced during the peroxidation of cellular lipids, the generation of the antioxidant NADPH, the direct absorption of UV-light, the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the possession of chaperone-like activity.
  • With analogies to the abundant, multifunctional, and taxon-specific lens crystallins, mammalian ALDH3A1 has been considered a corneal crystallin, suggesting that it may contribute to the optical properties of the cornea as well.
  • Taken together, the multiple roles of ALDH3A1 against oxidative stress in addition to its contributions to the optical properties of the cornea are consistent with the idea that this specialized protein performs diverse biological functions as do the lens crystallins.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / physiology. Cornea / enzymology. Eye Proteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16797007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY11490
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RCC1 protein, human; EC 1.2.1.3 / ALDH3A1 protein, human; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
  • [Number-of-references] 141
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38. Wohlrab J, Klapperstück T, Reinhardt HW, Albrecht M: Interaction of epicutaneously applied lipids with stratum corneum depends on the presence of either emulsifiers or hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine. Skin Pharmacol Physiol; 2010;23(6):298-305
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  • [Title] Interaction of epicutaneously applied lipids with stratum corneum depends on the presence of either emulsifiers or hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine.
  • The barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) significantly determines the interaction of epicutaneously applied substances with the skin organ.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20523109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-5535
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin pharmacology and physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Pharmacol Physiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Emulsifying Agents; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Glycerides; 0 / Glycolipids; 0 / Lipid Bilayers; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Membrane Lipids; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines; 0 / Polysorbates; 0 / cetearyl glucoside; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 7QWM220FJH / Squalene
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39. Wu F, Lee S, Schumacher M, Jun A, Chakravarti S: Differential gene expression patterns of the developing and adult mouse cornea compared to the lens and tendon. Exp Eye Res; 2008 Sep;87(3):214-25
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  • [Title] Differential gene expression patterns of the developing and adult mouse cornea compared to the lens and tendon.
  • The cornea continues to mature after birth to develop a fully functional, refractive and protective barrier tissue.
  • Here we investigated the complex biological events underlying this process by profiling global genome-wide gene expression patterns of the immature postnatal day 10 and 7-week old adult mouse cornea.
  • The lens and tendon were included in the study to increase the specificity of genes identified as upregulated in the corneal samples.
  • Notable similarities in gene expression between the cornea and the tendon were in the mesenchymal extracellular matrix collagen (types I, III, V, VI) and proteoglycan (lumican, decorin and biglycan) genes.
  • Expression similarities in the cornea and lens were limited to certain epithelial genes and the crystallins.
  • Approximately 76 genes were over expressed in the cornea samples that showed basal expression levels in the lens and tendon.
  • Thirty-two of these were novel with no known functions in the cornea.
  • Direct comparison of the cornea of two ages showed selective upregulation of 50 and 12 genes in the P10 and adult cornea, respectively.
  • Of the upregulated P10 genes several encode extracellular matrix collagens and proteoglycans that are stable components of the adult cornea and their high transcriptional activity at P10 indicate a period of actie corneal growth and matrix deposition in the young cornea.
  • Much less is known about the genes selectively over expressed in the adult cornea; some relate to immune response and innervations (Npy), and possibly to electron transport (Cyp24a1, Cyp2f2) and others of yet unknown functions in the cornea (Rgs10, Psmb8, Xlr4).
  • This study detected expression of genes with known functions in the cornea, providing additional validation of the microarray experiments.
  • Importantly, it identified several novel genes whose functions have not been investigated in the cornea.

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  • (PMID = 18582462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0007
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY011654-11; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R56 EY011654; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011654; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY011654-14; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011654-11; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY11654; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011654-12A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011654-14; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY011654-12A1
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Eye Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS70424; NLM/ PMC3043597
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41. Tzu JH, Desai NR, Akpek EK: Use of a microvascular clip for iris fixation of an intraocular lens: a laboratory model. Arch Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan;128(1):114-6
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  • Also, this technique is easier than suturing and may potentially serve as another tool in a cornea surgeon's armamentarium.

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  • (PMID = 20065227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Messmer EM: [Ocular allergies]. Ophthalmologe; 2005 May;102(5):527-43; quiz 544
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  • Ocular allergy is a disease affecting the entire ocular surface including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, lacrimal gland and tear film.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Anti-Allergic Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Desensitization, Immunologic. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Plasmapheresis. Skin Tests

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  • (PMID = 15806370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Allergic Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 133
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43. Lorenzini PF, Picoli SU: [Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of cornea donors]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2007 Mar-Apr;70(2):229-34
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  • [Title] [Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of cornea donors].
  • [Transliterated title] Microbiota bacteriana aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea.
  • PURPOSE: To determine aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of cornea donors and its patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics; verify the number of corneas used for transplant and the average time of preservation in solutions with gentamicin and streptomycin; trace the profile of donors and receptors of cornea.
  • METHODS: Clinical specimens were collected from the inferior bag of the conjunctiva of both eyes of 40 cornea donors.
  • RESULTS: The frequency of positive cultures of the conjunctiva of cornea donors was 72.5%, with Gram-positive totalling 81.6% and only 18.4% of the samples were identified as Gram-negative.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Brazil. Corneal Transplantation / standards. Corneal Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Drug Resistance, Microbial. Gentamicins / pharmacology. Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects. Gram-Negative Bacteria / isolation & purification. Gram-Positive Bacteria / drug effects. Gram-Positive Bacteria / isolation & purification. Humans. Male. Microbial Sensitivity Tests / methods. Middle Aged. Streptomycin / pharmacology. Vancomycin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17589692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Gentamicins; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin; Y45QSO73OB / Streptomycin
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44. Sumioka T, Ikeda K, Okada Y, Yamanaka O, Kitano A, Saika S: Inhibitory effect of blocking TGF-beta/Smad signal on injury-induced fibrosis of corneal endothelium. Mol Vis; 2008;14:2272-81
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  • [Title] Inhibitory effect of blocking TGF-beta/Smad signal on injury-induced fibrosis of corneal endothelium.
  • PURPOSE: To understand the role of TGF-beta related signals in the repair of a corneal endothelium defect and also to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Smad7 gene transfer on injury induced fibrosis of the corneal endothelium in rats. METHODS:.
  • Blocks of central cornea (4 x 4 mm) were prepared.
  • The cornea was burned with topical 1 N NaOH (10 microl) three days later.
  • Inhibition of p38 and Erk but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and ALK5 signal (Smad) retarded such cell spreading. (2) Adenoviral Smad7 overexpression suppressed fibrogenic reaction of the endothelium of an alkali-burned cornea as evaluated by immunohistochemistry for phospho-Smad2, collagen I, and alpha-smooth muscle actin, a marker for endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT), and by electron microscopy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of Smad and JNK signals do not affect corneal endothelium defect repair.
  • Inhibition of Smad suppresses fibrogenic reaction via EnMT of corneal endothelium in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Endothelium, Corneal / drug effects. Endothelium, Corneal / pathology. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Smad Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19081766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0535
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Vis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Smad Proteins; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta2; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600488
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45. Mohan RR, Sharma A, Cebulko TC, Tandon A: Vector delivery technique affects gene transfer in the cornea in vivo. Mol Vis; 2010 Nov 27;16:2494-501
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  • [Title] Vector delivery technique affects gene transfer in the cornea in vivo.
  • PURPOSE: This study tested whether controlled drying of the cornea increases vector absorption in mouse and rabbit corneas in vivo and human cornea ex vivo, and studied the effects of corneal drying on gene transfer, structure and inflammatory reaction in the mouse cornea in vivo.
  • A hair dryer was used for drying the corneas after removing corneal epithelium by gentle scraping.
  • Thereafter, balanced salt solution (BSS) was topically applied immediately on the cornea for 2 min using a custom-cloning cylinder.
  • The adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8) vector (1.1×10(8) genomic copies/µl) expressing marker gene was used to study the effect of corneal drying on gene transfer.
  • RESULTS: Mice, rabbit or human corneas subjected to no or 10 s drying showed 6%-8% BSS absorption whereas 20, 30, or 50 s corneal drying showed significantly high 14%-19% (p<0.001), 21%-22% (p<0.001), and 25%-27% (p<0.001) BSS absorption, respectively.
  • The AAV8 application on mouse cornea after 50 s drying showed significantly higher transgene delivery (p<0.05) in vivo with mild-to-moderate changes in corneal morphology.
  • The 30 s of drying also showed significantly (p<0.05) high transgene delivery in mouse stroma in vivo without jeopardizing corneal morphology whereas 10 or 20 s drying showed moderate degree of gene transfer with no altered corneal morphology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Controlled corneal drying with hair dryer increases vector absorption significantly.
  • The dispensing of efficacious AAV serotype into cornea with optimized minimally invasive topical application technique could provide high and targeted expression of therapeutic genes in the stroma in vivo without causing significant side effects.

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  • (PMID = 21139995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0535
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Vis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01EY17294; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY017294; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY017294-03S2; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY017294-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY017294-03S2; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY017294-03; United States / BLRD VA / BX / I01 BX000357
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD11b; 0 / Solutions; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2997332
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46. Michaeli A, Rootman DS, Slomovic AR: [Corneal changes after phacoemulsification with a corneal versus a scleral tunnel incision]. Harefuah; 2006 Mar;145(3):191-3, 246
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  • [Title] [Corneal changes after phacoemulsification with a corneal versus a scleral tunnel incision].
  • AIM: To compare central corneal thickness and endothelial cell loss after phacoemulsification with clear cornea and scleral tunnel incisions.
  • All patients had central corneal thickness measured preoperatively and on post-op days 1, 7, 30 and 90.
  • For the scleral tunnel group it was 1.8% +/- 21.5%, and for the clear cornea group 0.13% +/- 18.3% (p>0.05).
  • Corneal thickness increased significantly in all measurements post-op, and returned to baseline by 3 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clear cornea and scleral tunnel incisions seem to result in no significant difference in endothelial cell loss and or central corneal thickness at 3 months post-op.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / physiology. Cornea / surgery. Phacoemulsification. Sclera / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16599314.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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47. el-Mansy A: Revision of Myxobolus heterosporus Baker, 1963 (syn. Myxosoma Heterospora) (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in African records. Dis Aquat Organ; 2005 Feb 28;63(2-3):205-14
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  • The present study revises the taxonomy, using specimens isolated from plasmodia situated in the infected cornea of Oreochromis aureus, O. niloticus or Tilapia zillii inhabiting the River Nile, Egypt.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weights and Measures. Cichlids. Cornea / parasitology. Egypt / epidemiology. Microscopy, Electron. Prevalence. Rivers. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15819436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0177-5103
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of aquatic organisms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Aquat. Org.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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48. Becht Ch: [Common immune mediated disorders of the conjunctiva in a general practice]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2009 Apr 15;98(8):429-32
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  • [Transliterated title] Allergische Augenerkrankungen in der Praxis.
  • The symptoms and signs help to diagnose an immune-mediated disorder of the conjunctiva in the general practice.
  • The non ophthalmologist should be cautious in cases of severe atopia, involvement of the cornea and suspicion of corneal infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctivitis, Allergic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Asthma / diagnosis. Asthma / etiology. Dermatitis, Atopic / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Atopic / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Patient Care Team. Referral and Consultation

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  • (PMID = 19373760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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49. Conrad AH, Albrecht M, Pettit-Scott M, Conrad GW: Embryonic corneal Schwann cells express some Schwann cell marker mRNAs, but no mature Schwann cell marker proteins. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2009 Sep;50(9):4173-84
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  • [Title] Embryonic corneal Schwann cells express some Schwann cell marker mRNAs, but no mature Schwann cell marker proteins.
  • PURPOSE: Embryonic chick nerves encircle the cornea in pericorneal tissue until embryonic day (E)9, then penetrate the anterior corneal stroma, invade the epithelium, and branch over the corneal surface through E20.
  • Adult corneal nerves, cut during transplantation or LASIK, never fully regenerate.
  • Other corneas were paraffin embedded, sectioned, and processed by in situ hybridization for corneal-, nerve-related, and SC marker gene expression.
  • Antibodies against the MPZ, MAG, S100, and SCMP proteins immunostained along pericorneal nerves, but not along corneal nerves.
  • In the cornea, SLIT2 and SOX10 mRNAs were expressed in anterior stroma and epithelium, whereas PAX3, S100, MBP, and MPZL1 mRNAs were expressed only in corneal epithelium.

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  • (PMID = 19387082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY000952-36; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / HHMI 52003734; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY000952; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY000952; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY000952-36
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Avian Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA Probes; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS143615; NLM/ PMC2771572
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51. Saelens IE, Bleyen I, Hillenaar T, Thiadens AA, Beekhuis WH, Remeijer L, Van Rij G: Long-term follow-up of hydrogel intracorneal lenses in 2 aphakic eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg; 2010 Dec;36(12):2200-3
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  • The lenses were implanted at approximately 50% depth in the cornea to correct high hyperopic refractive errors of 10.5 diopters (D) and 14.0 D, respectively.
  • Long-term patient monitoring is essential since corneal opacities can develop after many years.
  • Removing the implant is not necessary as the lens can easily be rinsed by lifting the corneal cap.
  • [MeSH-major] Aphakia, Postcataract / surgery. Corneal Opacity / etiology. Corneal Stroma / surgery. Hydrogel. Hyperopia / surgery. Lenses / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21111324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4502
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cataract and refractive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cataract Refract Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel
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52. Ergün SS, Kocabora MS, Su O, Demirkesen C: Surgical treatment of giant pyogenic granuloma of the upper eyelid. Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie); 2007;39(3):264-6
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  • Pyogenic granuloma (PG), also known as lobular capillary hemangioma, is a benign acquired vascular lesion of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Diagnosis is aided by history of surgery, trauma or inflammation and characteristic clinical appearance, whereas, definitive diagnosis is made by histopathologic findings.
  • From an ophthalmic perspective, a PG may be located on the eyelids, conjunctiva or rarely on the cornea.

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  • (PMID = 18025641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-9951
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of ophthalmology (Skokie, Ill.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Casiraghi A, Minghetti P, Cilurzo F, Selmin F, Gambaro V, Montanari L: The effects of excipients for topical preparations on the human skin permeability of terpinen-4-ol contained in Tea tree oil: infrared spectroscopic investigations. Pharm Dev Technol; 2010 Sep-Oct;15(5):545-52
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  • The effect of such excipients was determined by evaluating the absorption of T4OL using human epidermis and the perturbation of the organization of stratum corneum by ATR-FTIR.
  • Among the tested excipients OA enhanced the absorption of T4OL by perturbing the stratum corneum lipid barrier.

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  • (PMID = 19842911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-9867
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical development and technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm Dev Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excipients; 0 / Terpenes; 562-74-3 / terpinenol-4; 68647-73-4 / Tea Tree Oil
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54. Chiou AG, Kaufman SC, Kaufman HE, Beuerman RW: Clinical corneal confocal microscopy. Surv Ophthalmol; 2006 Sep-Oct;51(5):482-500
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  • [Title] Clinical corneal confocal microscopy.
  • Its unique physical properties enable microscopic examination of all layers of the cornea and have been used to investigate numerous corneal diseases: epithelial changes, numerous stromal degenerative or dystrophic diseases, endothelial pathologies, corneal deposits, infections, and traumatic lesions.
  • It offers a new approach to study the physiological reactions of the cornea to different stimuli and the pathophysiologic events leading to corneal dysfunction in certain diseases.
  • Confocal microscopy proves to be a powerful diagnostic tool and is especially of value in certain corneal diseases by allowing straightforward and non-invasive recognition of the pathologic conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / pathology. Corneal Diseases / diagnosis. Microscopy, Confocal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Corneal Stroma / pathology. Endothelium, Corneal / pathology. Epithelium, Corneal / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16950248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 229
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55. Bahar I, Kaiserman I, Livny E, Slomovic A, Slomovic A: Changes in corneal curvatures and anterior segment parameters after descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Curr Eye Res; 2010 Nov;35(11):961-6
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  • [Title] Changes in corneal curvatures and anterior segment parameters after descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) on corneal curvature and the anterior segment parameters obtained with the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera.
  • We compared preoperative and 1- and 3-month postoperative measurements of anterior and posterior corneal curvature, anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA) width, central corneal thickness (CCT), and the corneal volume (CV).
  • Anterior mean K reading of the cornea flattened from 43.3 ± 1.65 diopter before surgery to 42.7 ± 1.5 diopter at 3 months (p = 0.03).
  • Anterior corneal astigmatism did not change significantly.
  • Posterior mean K reading of the cornea steepened significantly from -5.6 ± 0.6 diopter preoperatively to -7.2 ± 0.4 diopter at 3 months (p = 0.007).
  • Posterior corneal astigmatism increased accordingly from 0.52 ± 0.17 diopter before surgery to 0.95 ± 0.57 diopter at 3 months (p = 0.07).
  • CONCLUSIONS: DSAEK significantly increased posterior corneal k-reading, posterior corneal astigmatism, and corneal volume, resulting in a mild hyperopic shift.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Eye Segment / pathology. Astigmatism / physiopathology. Cornea / pathology. Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty. Hyperopia / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 20958184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2202
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Rohini G, Murugeswari P, Prajna NV, Lalitha P, Muthukkaruppan V: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-8, MMP-9) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) in patients with fungal keratitis. Cornea; 2007 Feb;26(2):207-11
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  • PURPOSE: To study the infiltrating cells and quantify the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-8, MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) in the cornea, tear, and serum of patients with fungal keratitis.
  • Infected corneal tissue from 4 patients with fungal keratitis (group 1) scheduled to undergo therapeutic keratoplasty accounted for the histopathologic and cytospin smear analysis.
  • Corneal buttons obtained during keratoplasty, 15 to 20 microL of tears collected using the capillary flow method, and 3 mL of blood was obtained from patients with fungal keratitis and patients with keratoconus.
  • Corneal button sections from group 1 were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Grocott methenamine silver nitrate for the histopathologic studies and Giemsa staining for the cytospin smear analysis.
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the quantification of total MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in the corneal homogenates, tear, and serum samples of group 2.
  • RESULTS: Corneal sections from group 1 revealed dense fungal filaments and a large proportion (91.4% +/- 38%) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Infiltrating PMNs in the cornea of patients with fungal keratitis contributed to the increased activities of MMP-8 and MMP-9, thereby enhancing tissue destruction and derangement.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cornea / enzymology. Cornea / microbiology. Cornea / pathology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neutrophils / pathology. Severity of Illness Index. Tears / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17251814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; EC 3.4.24.34 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 8; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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57. Diridollou S, de Rigal J, Querleux B, Leroy F, Holloway Barbosa V: Comparative study of the hydration of the stratum corneum between four ethnic groups: influence of age. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Oct;46 Suppl 1:11-4
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  • [Title] Comparative study of the hydration of the stratum corneum between four ethnic groups: influence of age.
  • METHODS: The skin water content was evaluated taking advantage of the new skin capacitance imaging technique which allows to study stratum corneum hydration without suffering of the influence of the skin micro-relief and hair on the measurement.

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  • (PMID = 17919198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Giuliano EA: Feline ocular emergencies. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2005 May;20(2):135-41
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  • Common feline emergencies include proptosis, lid lacerations, corneal ulcers, and foreign bodies.
  • Complete ophthalmic examination including procurement of the minimal ophthalmic database (Schirmer tear test, fluorescein stain, and intraocular pressure measurement) should be obtained whenever possible to ensure that the complete and correct diagnosis is made.
  • This article reviews some of the more common feline ocular emergencies, including conditions affecting the orbit and globe, adnexa, conjunctiva, and cornea.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / therapy. Emergency Treatment / veterinary. Eye Diseases / veterinary. Eye Injuries / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15948429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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59. Kong F, Li W, Li X, Zheng Q, Dai X, Zhou X, Boye SL, Hauswirth WW, Qu J, Pang JJ: Self-complementary AAV5 vector facilitates quicker transgene expression in photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cells of normal mouse. Exp Eye Res; 2010 May;90(5):546-54
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  • To clarify whether transduction efficiency and cell type specificity of self-complementary (sc) AAV5 vectors are similar to those of standard, single-stranded AAV5 vectors in normal retina, one micro liter of scAAV5-smCBA-GFP vector (1 x 10(12) genome-containing particles/ml) and AAV5-smCBA-GFP vector (1 x 10(12) genome-containing particles/ml) were subretinally or intravitreally (in both cases through the cornea) injected into the right and left eyes of adult C57BL/6J mice, respectively.
  • GFP expression following trans-cornea subretinal injection of scAAV5-smCBA-GFP vector was first detected in RPE wholemounts around PID 1 and in neuroretinal wholemounts between PID 2 and 5; GFP expression peaked and stabilized between PID 10-14 in RPE wholemounts and between P14 and P21 in neuroretinal wholemounts with strong, homogeneous green fluorescence covering the entire wholemounts.
  • No GFP fluorescence was detected in any retinal cells (RPE wholemounts, neuroretinal wholemounts and retinal sections) after trans-cornea intravitreal delivery of either scAAV5-GFP or AAV5-GFP.
  • Neither scAAV5 nor AAV5 can transduce retinal cells following trans-cornea intravitreal injection.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20138034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0007
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY018331-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / N01AA21004; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R21 EY018331-01; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY021721; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY018331; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R21 EY018331
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS177507; NLM/ PMC2854182
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60. Takeda K, Takahashi NH, Shibahara S: Neuroendocrine functions of melanocytes: beyond the skin-deep melanin maker. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2007 Mar;211(3):201-21
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  • The skin is armored with "dead cells", the stratum corneum, and is continuously exposed to external stressful environments, such as atmospheric oxygen, solar radiations, and thermal and chemical insults.
  • Moreover, heterozygous mutations in the gene coding for microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, a key regulator for melanocyte development, are associated with Waardenburg syndrome type 2, an auditory-pigmentary disorder.


61. Fujita E, Teramura Y, Mitsugi K, Ninomiya S, Iwatsubo T, Kawamura A, Kamimura H: Absorption, distribution, and excretion of 14C-labeled tacrolimus (FK506) after a single or repeated ocular instillation in rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 2008 Jun;24(3):333-43
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  • In eyeball microautoradiograms, 15 min after dosing, the level of radioactivity in the cornea was the highest, followed by conjunctiva.
  • After 1 h, little specific distribution was detected in the corneal epithelium, stroma, or Descemet's membrane.
  • At 24 h, the level of radioactivity in the cornea decreased.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After the ocular instillation, FK506 is first absorbed in the cornea, conjunctiva, and nasolacrimal duct, and then the rest is distributed to digestive tract through the nasal meatus and esophagus, after which it is excreted mainly into the feces.

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  • (PMID = 18476802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-7683
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Suspensions; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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62. Bourghardt Peebo B, Gan L, Sun XF, Knutsen A, Rearden A, Fagerholm P: Expression of the focal adhesion protein PINCH in normal and alkali-injured corneas and the role of PMNs. Acta Ophthalmol Scand; 2007 Jun;85(4):395-400
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine-rich protein (PINCH) in corneal wound healing and early neovascularization and to assess the influence of granulocytes.
  • METHODS: A standardized corneal alkali wound was inflicted under general anaesthesia to the right eye of 14 New Zealand White rabbits.
  • RESULTS: In the normal cornea and limbus, PINCH was weakly expressed in the corneal epithelium and in a wedge of the conjunctival stroma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PINCH is only slightly expressed in the normal cornea.
  • A corneal wound induces PINCH expression in the repopulating cells, in the vascular endothelial cells of the limbus, in the limbal epithelium and in the granulocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Burns, Chemical / metabolism. Cornea / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Eye Burns / chemically induced. Focal Adhesions / metabolism. Neutrophils / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anticoagulants / pharmacology. Azepines. Corneal Injuries. Disease Models, Animal. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lidocaine / analogs & derivatives. Polysaccharides / pharmacology. Rabbits. Sodium Hydroxide / toxicity. Wound Healing. Zinc Fingers

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  • (PMID = 17559464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1395-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ophthalmol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Azepines; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Polysaccharides; 55X04QC32I / Sodium Hydroxide; 66803GMO3G / pincainide; 9072-19-9 / fucoidan; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine
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63. Gatinel D, Chaabouni S, Adam PA, Munck J, Puech M, Hoang-Xuan T: Corneal hysteresis, resistance factor, topography, and pachymetry after corneal lamellar flap. J Refract Surg; 2007 Jan;23(1):76-84
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  • [Title] Corneal hysteresis, resistance factor, topography, and pachymetry after corneal lamellar flap.
  • PURPOSE: To measure prospectively the early changes in corneal hysteresis, topography, and pachymetry after the creation of a stromal flap cut without laser photoablation.
  • A 159-microm-thick 8x8.5-mm superior hinged flap was created with a mechanical microkeratome in the left cornea.
  • Changes in the corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (lOP), corneal compensated IOP, anterior and posterior topography, and optical and ultrasound pachymetry were monitored prospectively before and at 1 hour, 1 day, 5 days, and 25 days after flap creation.
  • RESULTS: In the left eye, corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor decreased immediately after the flap cut and remained lower than preoperatively at 1 hour, 1 day, 5 days, and 25 days.
  • Corneal compensated IOP varied significantly less than Goldmann correlated IOP in both eyes.
  • Increased central corneal thickness occurred immediately after the flap cut and decreased over time without returning to its preoperative value.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The creation of a stromal flap can modify the biomechanical properties of the cornea, including a reduction in corneal hysteresis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anisometropia / surgery. Astigmatism / surgery. Cornea. Corneal Topography. Corneal Transplantation / methods. Intraocular Pressure / physiology. Myopia / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 17269247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1081-597X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J. : 1995)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Refract Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Alvord LA, Hall WJ, Keyes LD, Morgan CF, Winterton LC: Corneal oxygen distribution with contact lens wear. Cornea; 2007 Jul;26(6):654-64
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  • [Title] Corneal oxygen distribution with contact lens wear.
  • PURPOSE: Since 1991, multilayer mathematical in vivo oxygenation models have been created to predict normal corneal oxygenation with contact lens wear.
  • From these models, there have been assertions that most hydrogel contact lenses allow 97%-98% of normal corneal oxygenation compared to no contact lens wear.
  • This work seeks to validate or refute those preexisting models and estimate the impact of contact lens wear on the oxygen distribution profile across the cornea.
  • To this end, to estimate the impact of contact lens wear on the 3-dimensional (3-D) oxygen distribution profile within the cornea as a function of the oxygen permeability of the contact lens, a two-dimensional axisymetric finite element analysis (FEA) model was constructed for contact lenses, on the cornea, both having varying thickness profiles.
  • The model included the varying thickness profiles of the contact lens and cornea.
  • RESULTS: Profiles of the oxygen partial pressure, flux, and consumption were generated from the central cornea to the limbal junction.
  • CONCLUSION: This FEA model reproduced Brennan 8-layer model (BEL model) results at the central cornea.
  • However, BEL model parameters yielded regions of oxygen deficiency in the corneal periphery, even in the open eye with no contact lens.
  • If the BEL model cannot account for oxygenation across the whole cornea, it may be incorrect or incomplete.
  • [MeSH-major] Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic. Cornea / metabolism. Myopia / metabolism. Myopia / therapy. Oxygen / metabolism. Oxygen Consumption / physiology

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  • [CommentIn] Cornea. 2008 Feb;27(2):258-9; author reply 259-60 [18216593.001]
  • (PMID = 17592312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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65. Gealy EC, Kerr BC, Young RD, Tudor D, Hayes AJ, Hughes CE, Caterson B, Quantock AJ, Ralphs JR: Differential expression of the keratan sulphate proteoglycan, keratocan, during chick corneal embryogenesis. Histochem Cell Biol; 2007 Dec;128(6):551-5
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  • [Title] Differential expression of the keratan sulphate proteoglycan, keratocan, during chick corneal embryogenesis.
  • Keratan sulphate (KS) proteoglycans (PGs) are key molecules in the connective tissue matrix of the cornea of the eye, where they are believed to have functional roles in tissue organisation and transparency.
  • Keratocan, is one of the three KS PGs expressed in cornea, and is the only one that is primarily cornea-specific.
  • Work with the developing chick has shown that mRNA for keratocan is present in early corneal embryogenesis, but there is no evidence of protein synthesis and matrix deposition.
  • Here, we investigate the tissue distribution of keratocan in the developing chick cornea as it becomes compacted and transparent in the later stages of development.
  • By E14 when the cornea begins to become transparent, keratocan was located in elongate arrays, presumably associated along collagen fibrils in the stroma.
  • Thus, in embryonic chick cornea, keratocan, in common with sulphated KS chains in the E12-E14 developmental period, exhibits a preferential distribution in the anterior stroma.
  • It undergoes a striking reorganisation of structure and distribution consistent with a role in relation to stromal compaction and corneal transparency.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cornea / embryology. Embryonic Development. Immunohistochemistry. Keratan Sulfate / genetics. Keratan Sulfate / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17851677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / B18021; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BBS/B/10994; United Kingdom / Arthritis Research UK / / 13279; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / bbs/b/10994
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteoglycans; 9056-36-4 / Keratan Sulfate
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66. Lo W, Chang YL, Liu JS, Hseuh CM, Hovhannisyan V, Chen SJ, Tan HY, Dong CY: Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage. J Biomed Opt; 2009 Sep-Oct;14(5):054003
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  • [Title] Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage.
  • We used the combination of multiphoton autofluorescence (MAF), forward second-harmonic generation (FWSHG), and backward second-harmonic generation (BWSHG) imaging for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of thermal damage of ex vivo bovine cornea.
  • Our results show that while MAF and BWSHG intensities may be used as preliminary indicators of the extent of corneal thermal damage, the most sensitive measures are provided by the decay in FWSHG intensity and the convergence of FWSHG and BWSHG images.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / pathology. Corneal Injuries. Eye Burns / pathology. Image Enhancement / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton / methods. Subtraction Technique

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  • (PMID = 19895105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1560-2281
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Ku JY, Niederer RL, Patel DV, Sherwin T, McGhee CN: Laser scanning in vivo confocal analysis of keratocyte density in keratoconus. Ophthalmology; 2008 May;115(5):845-50
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  • PURPOSE: Keratoconus is a form of progressive noninflammatory corneal ectasia.
  • Although abnormalities have been documented at every level of the keratoconic cornea, the exact underlying pathophysiologic process remains unknown.
  • In subjects with keratoconus, anterior keratocyte density correlated with central corneal thickness (r = 0.426, P = 0.012) and inversely with steepest keratometry values (r = -0.383, P = 0.028).
  • In vivo confocal microscopy offers the opportunity to study early microstructural changes in the keratoconic cornea.
  • [MeSH-major] Corneal Stroma / pathology. Keratoconus / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal

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  • (PMID = 17825419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Wollensak G, Aurich H, Pham DT, Wirbelauer C: Hydration behavior of porcine cornea crosslinked with riboflavin and ultraviolet A. J Cataract Refract Surg; 2007 Mar;33(3):516-21
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  • [Title] Hydration behavior of porcine cornea crosslinked with riboflavin and ultraviolet A.
  • PURPOSE: To examine the influence of a new crosslinking treatment on corneal swelling properties that correlate with the degree of crosslinking.
  • RESULTS: Using light microscopy, a characteristic swelling pattern with 3 zones was identified in the crosslinked porcine cornea: an anterior intensely crosslinked zone of 242 microm, an intermediate partially crosslinked zone of 238 microm (hydration factor 2.2), and a noncrosslinked posterior zone of 1355 microm (hydration factor 2.7).
  • In the nonhydrated state of the crosslinked cornea, the anterior zone was deduced to be 242 microm; the intermediate zone, 109 microm; and the posterior zone, 501 microm.
  • Crosslinked cornea did not induce a specific signal on OCT, and OCT is therefore not suited for clinical controls of the crosslinking effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen / metabolism. Corneal Edema / metabolism. Corneal Stroma / drug effects. Cross-Linking Reagents / radiation effects. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Riboflavin / pharmacology. Ultraviolet Rays. Water / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008 Jun;34(6):879-80 [18498973.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007 Sep;33(9):1503 [17720054.001]
  • (PMID = 17321404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cataract and refractive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cataract Refract Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; TLM2976OFR / Riboflavin
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69. Holopainen J, Krootila K: [Keratoconus]. Duodecim; 2010;126(2):152-8
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  • Clinical manifestations of keratoconus include reduced visual acuity, increased astigmatism, thinning of the cornea and protrusion of the cornea, as observed in the shape of the corneal surface.
  • A corneal transplant operation is applied to a far-advanced keratoconus.
  • Photohardening of the cornea may serve as a suitable preventive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Contact Lenses. Corneal Transplantation. Eyeglasses. Keratoconus / pathology. Keratoconus / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Corneal Topography. Disease Progression. Humans. Visual Acuity / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20405600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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70. Cheong WK: Gentle cleansing and moisturizing for patients with atopic dermatitis and sensitive skin. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2009;10 Suppl 1:13-7
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  • Inflammation disrupts the barrier function of the stratum corneum, predisposing the skin to be dry, and increases susceptibility to irritants and secondary bacterial infection.
  • Moisturizers improve skin hydration, reduce susceptibility to irritation, restore the integrity of the stratum corneum, and enhance the efficacy of topical corticosteroids.

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  • (PMID = 19209949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1888
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Detergents; 0 / Emollients
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71. Lim LS, Aung HT, Aung T, Tan DT: Corneal imaging with anterior segment optical coherence tomography for lamellar keratoplasty procedures. Am J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan;145(1):81-90
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  • [Title] Corneal imaging with anterior segment optical coherence tomography for lamellar keratoplasty procedures.
  • PURPOSE: To assess and describe the uses of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the evaluation of the cornea before and after lamellar corneal transplantation procedures.
  • METHODS: Seven eyes of seven patients undergoing anterior and posterior lamellar corneal transplantation procedures at the Singapore National Eye Centre were included in the study.
  • High-resolution anterior segment OCT scans of the cornea and anterior segment were performed both before and after lamellar transplantation procedures on the cornea with the Visante anterior segment OCT system (Visante OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, California, USA), and the imaging findings were correlated with the clinical picture.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anterior segment OCT is a valuable imaging tool for assessing the feasibility of lamellar transplantation surgery in the diseased cornea and in the management of surgical complications after such procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Chamber / pathology. Cornea / pathology. Corneal Diseases / surgery. Corneal Transplantation / pathology. Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological. Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods

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  • (PMID = 18028862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Barboza AP, Pereira RC, Garcia CD, Garcia VD: Project of cornea donation in the hospital complex of Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Transplant Proc; 2007 Mar;39(2):341-3
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  • [Title] Project of cornea donation in the hospital complex of Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Brazil.
  • Up to 2000, there were 11 to 15 cornea donors and 70 to 80 transplantations yearly.
  • Whenever donation was authorized, the coordinator communicated with the Cornea Bank to perform a removal.
  • There was a major increase in the number of donations (220/y) with this project responsible for more than 70% of the cornea donors on cardiac arrest in the Rio Grande do Sul State.
  • This model was efficient, and must be implemented in other hospitals in the state, attempting to decrease both the list and the waiting time for a corneal transplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea. Corneal Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Tissue and Organ Procurement / methods

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  • (PMID = 17362724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Haque S, Jones L, Simpson T: Thickness mapping of the cornea and epithelium using optical coherence tomography. Optom Vis Sci; 2008 Oct;85(10):E963-76
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  • [Title] Thickness mapping of the cornea and epithelium using optical coherence tomography.
  • PURPOSE: To measure corneal and epithelial thickness across four meridians using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and to compare these measurements between normal non-lens wearers (NLW), rigid gas permeable (RGP) lens wearers, and RGP-wearing keratoconics (KC).
  • A customized fixation target employing LEDs in eight directions of gaze was attached to the OCT and corneal images obtained.
  • Raw OCT scans were analyzed to yield values for corneal and epithelial thickness and color-coded maps were compiled.
  • RESULTS: Central corneal thickness (CCT) was thinnest in KC (447 +/- 68 microm) and similar between RGP (518 +/- 32 microm; pKC < 0.001) and NLW (517 +/- 21 microm) (p(KC) < 0.001 NLW pRGP > 0.05).
  • Peripheral corneal thickness in NLW was thickest in the superior temporal and thinnest in the inferior (I) regions (superior temporal(thickest) vs. I(thinnest) p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thickness of the normal cornea and epithelium was greatest in the superior region.
  • In all groups, the inferior cornea and epithelium was thinnest, and to a greater extent in the KC group.
  • [MeSH-major] Contact Lenses. Cornea / pathology. Corneal Topography / methods. Epithelium, Corneal / pathology. Keratoconus / pathology. Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Corneal Stroma / pathology. Equipment Design. Female. Humans. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18832971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9235
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optom Vis Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Sonoda KH, Nakao S, Nakamura T, Oshima T, Qiao H, Hisatomi T, Kinoshita S, Ishibashi T: Cellular events in the normal and inflamed cornea. Cornea; 2005 Nov;24(8 Suppl):S50-S54
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  • [Title] Cellular events in the normal and inflamed cornea.
  • PURPOSE: Although normal cornea is an avascular transparent structure, bone marrow (BM)-derived cells exist in situ even in noninflamed conditions.
  • We evaluated constitutive cellular trafficking into the cornea in the naive state and investigated how corneal inflammation may be initiated by various stimuli.
  • To analyze initiation of cellular events in corneal immune response, we cauterized the center of the cornea or inoculated IL-1 beta into the corneal micropocket.
  • RESULTS: At 2 weeks after BM transplantation, GFP cells gradually migrated into the cornea from the limbal area and were distributed over the entire cornea at 6 months.
  • Depletion of neutrophils by anti-Gr-1 Ab significantly reduced corneal edema/opacity induced by cauterization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BM-derived cells are recruited into the normal cornea and may be essential to maintain corneal clarity.
  • In the inflamed cornea, neutrophils might be responsible for acute corneal edema/opacity and macrophages for corneal angiogenesis and chronic inflammation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cautery. Cell Lineage. Cell Movement. Chemokine CCL2 / deficiency. Chimera. Corneal Neovascularization / chemically induced. Drug Implants. Female. Immunity, Cellular. Interleukin-1 / administration & dosage. Macrophages / pathology. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mice, Transgenic. Neutrophils

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  • (PMID = 16227824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ccl2 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Interleukin-1
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75. Zhivov A, Stave J, Vollmar B, Guthoff R: In vivo confocal microscopic evaluation of langerhans cell density and distribution in the corneal epithelium of healthy volunteers and contact lens wearers. Cornea; 2007 Jan;26(1):47-54
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  • [Title] In vivo confocal microscopic evaluation of langerhans cell density and distribution in the corneal epithelium of healthy volunteers and contact lens wearers.
  • PURPOSE: To examine and compare the density and distribution of Langerhans cells (LCs) in the corneal epithelium of healthy volunteers and contact lens wearers.
  • METHODS: A total of 225 eyes of 130 healthy volunteers (age, 17-81 years) without history of ocular inflammation, trauma, or surgery and 98 eyes of 55 contact lens wearers (age, 13-76 years) were examined in vivo with the combination of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II and in-house-invented Rostock Cornea Module.
  • RESULTS: In healthy volunteers, in vivo confocal microscopy revealed LCs in 31% of all volunteers, with 37 of these 43 volunteers presenting LCs both in the center and the periphery of the cornea with densities of 34 +/- 3 and 98 +/- 8 cells/mm, respectively.
  • Although LC densities were markedly higher in both the central (78 +/- 25 cells/mm) and the peripheral cornea (210 +/- 24 cells/mm) of contact lens wearers, the gradient of LC density from peripheral to central cornea was found almost identical in both groups.
  • In the central cornea, LC density decreased with duration of contact lens wear.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In vivo confocal microscopy enables evaluation of LC density and distribution in corneal epithelium.
  • LCs were found present both in the center and the periphery of the cornea without difference in distribution between healthy volunteers and contact lens wearers.
  • However, contact lens wearers revealed almost twofold higher LC densities in both locations, implying chronic mechanical irritation of the cornea in response to the contact lens as foreign body.
  • [MeSH-major] Contact Lenses / utilization. Epithelium, Corneal / cytology. Langerhans Cells / cytology. Microscopy, Confocal

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  • (PMID = 17198013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Leiper LJ, Walczysko P, Kucerova R, Ou J, Shanley LJ, Lawson D, Forrester JV, McCaig CD, Zhao M, Collinson JM: The roles of calcium signaling and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a Pax6+/- mouse model of epithelial wound-healing delay. BMC Biol; 2006 Aug 16;4:27
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  • It is not clear whether the keratopathy is a direct result of reduced PAX6 gene dosage in the cornea itself, or due to recurrent corneal trauma secondary to defects such as dry eye caused by loss of PAX6 in other tissues.
  • We investigated the hypothesis that reducing Pax6 gene dosage leads to corneal wound-healing defects. and assayed the immediate molecular responses to wounding in wild-type and mutant corneal epithelial cells.
  • RESULTS: Pax6+/- mouse corneal epithelia exhibited a 2-hour delay in their response to wounding, but subsequently the cells migrated normally to repair the wound.
  • A model is presented whereby minor abrasions, which are quickly healed in normal corneas, transiently persist in aniridic patients, compromising the corneal stroma.

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  • (PMID = 16914058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7007
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 068012; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 068932; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 074127
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1563477
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77. Das S, Ramamurthy B, Sangwan VS: Deep lamellar keratoplasty for recurrent advanced pterygium. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2009 Jan-Feb;40(1):43-5
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  • A woman presented with bilateral recurrent advanced pterygium (more prevalent in the left eye) associated with corneal thinning in the left eye.
  • Two-thirds of the cornea was covered by pterygia.
  • Clarity, state of corneal graft, and postoperative visual acuity were noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Corneal Transplantation. Pterygium / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19205495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Papaioannou IT, Melachrinou MP, Drimtzias EG, Gartaganis SP: Corneal-conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. Cornea; 2008 Sep;27(8):957-8
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  • [Title] Corneal-conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report an extremely rare case of an extensive conjunctival-corneal invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The lesion was completely covering the corneal surface and involved the temporal limbus with bulbar conjunctiva.
  • Surgical excision was performed with 2-mm tumor-free margins documented histologically and double-freeze cryotherapy was applied 360 degrees for inhibition of tumor recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case points out the potential for a total covering of the cornea by squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Corneal Diseases / pathology. Eye Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness


79. Allali B, Hamdani M, Lamari H, Rais L, Benhaddou M, Kettani A, Lahbil D, Amraoui A, Zaghloul K: [Fraser syndrome. A case report]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Feb;29(2):184-7
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  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome de Fraser.
  • Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder; the most consistent features are cryptophthalmos, syndactyly of fingers and toes, laryngeal stenosis, and urogenital abnormalities.
  • Right eye surgery showed a reduced cornea to an opaque thin plate clinging to the iris without an anterior chamber and a nonindividualized eyeball.
  • The authors discuss the morphological abnormalities, the clinical and paraclinical aspects of this syndrome, its multispecialized clinical management, and the importance of prenatal diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis. Eyelids / abnormalities. Laryngostenosis / diagnosis. Syndactyly / diagnosis. Urogenital Abnormalities / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16523162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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80. Naoun OK, Dorr VL, Allé P, Sablon JC, Benoit AM: Exploration of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by measurement of the linear dichroism. Appl Opt; 2005 Nov 20;44(33):7074-82
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  • The asymmetric structure of the retinal nerve's fiber layer possesses a linear-form dichroism and will partially polarize an unpolarized light beam that is scattered at the fundus of the eye and has double passed the ocular media (cornea, lens, retina).
  • Experimental conditions allow us to neglect corneal dichroism.

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  • (PMID = 16318177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-6935
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Kohlhaas M: [Collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and UVA-light in keratoconus]. Ophthalmologe; 2008 Aug;105(8):785-93; quiz 794
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  • Reduced corneal mechanical stability in keratoconus and similar corneal diseases can be treated by photooxidative crosslinking of the corneal collagen.
  • To achieve high absorption of the irradiation energy in the cornea, riboflavin at a concentration of 0.1% and UVA light at a wavelength of 370 nm corresponding to the relative maximum of absorption of riboflavin (vitamin B2) is used.
  • In all, 80% of the published cases show a decrease in corneal curvature of about 2 D, which leads not only to stabilisation but also to an increase in visual acuity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cornea / pathology. Cornea / radiation effects. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Swine. Visual Acuity / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18670782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; TLM2976OFR / Riboflavin
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82. Lupp A, Karge E, Dahse T, Glassl P, Jung B, Listing M, Seeling A, Wange J, Wennek-Klose J, Oelschläger H, Fleck C: A synopsis on different homologous series of fomocaine derivatives. In vitro interactions with the cytochrome P450 system, toxicity, and local anaesthetic effects in rats--Part 1. Arzneimittelforschung; 2007;57(9):562-7
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  • The present paper provides a survey of the investigations undertaken with all the different series of fomocaine derivatives synthesized so far with respect to their in vitro interaction capacity at the cytochrome P450 system, in vivo toxicity (LD50; paresis of the N. ischiadicus) and local anaesthetic effects (conduction anaesthesia at the N. ischiadicus; surface anaesthesia of the cornea) in rats.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chemistry, Physical. Cornea / drug effects. Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / metabolism. Female. Lethal Dose 50. Luminescence. Male. Microsomes, Liver / drug effects. Microsomes, Liver / metabolism. Neural Conduction / drug effects. Neutrophils / physiology. Paralysis / chemically induced. Physicochemical Phenomena. Procaine / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Structure-Activity Relationship. Tetracaine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17966754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4172
  • [Journal-full-title] Arzneimittel-Forschung
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arzneimittelforschung
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Phenyl Ethers; 0619F35CGV / Tetracaine; 4XO7A09HQM / fomocain; 4Z8Y51M438 / Procaine; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
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83. Biswas PS, Rouse BT: Early events in HSV keratitis--setting the stage for a blinding disease. Microbes Infect; 2005 Apr;7(4):799-810
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  • These include virus replication, the production of key cytokines and chemokines, neovascularization of the avascular cornea and the influx of certain inflammatory cell types.

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  • (PMID = 15857807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1286-4579
  • [Journal-full-title] Microbes and infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microbes Infect.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY05093
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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84. Sensoy D, Cevher E, Sarici A, Yilmaz M, Ozdamar A, Bergişadi N: Bioadhesive sulfacetamide sodium microspheres: evaluation of their effectiveness in the treatment of bacterial keratitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rabbit model. Eur J Pharm Biopharm; 2009 Aug;72(3):487-95
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  • On 3rd and 6th days of the antimicrobial therapy, the eyes were examined in respect to clinical signs of infection (blepharitis, conjunctivitis, iritis, corneal oedema and corneal infiltrates) which are the main symptoms of bacterial keratitis and then cornea samples were counted microbiologically.

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  • The Lens. Cited by Patents in .
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  • (PMID = 19223014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Biopharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adhesives; 4965G3J0F5 / Sulfacetamide
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85. Jacobi U, Gautier J, Sterry W, Lademann J: Gender-related differences in the physiology of the stratum corneum. Dermatology; 2005;211(4):312-7
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  • [Title] Gender-related differences in the physiology of the stratum corneum.
  • OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the effect of gender on the physiology of the stratum corneum was studied.
  • In addition, stratum corneum samples, removed by tape stripping, were studied for amount, spectroscopic properties, protein content, and mass.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16286738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins
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86. Henriksson JT, McDermott AM, Bergmanson JP: Dimensions and morphology of the cornea in three strains of mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2009 Aug;50(8):3648-54
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  • [Title] Dimensions and morphology of the cornea in three strains of mice.
  • PURPOSE: To use a histologic approach to obtain dimensional and morphologic information on the cornea in three commonly used strains of mice.
  • The full corneal, epithelial, stromal, and posterior limiting lamina (PLL) with endothelium thicknesses were measured at the same location centrally and peripherally.
  • RESULTS: All three strains showed a statistically significant (P < 0.001) decrease in overall thickness in the peripheral compared with the central cornea.
  • The stroma and epithelium contributed to approximately two thirds and one third of the total corneal thickness, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that in the three strains of mice examined, the cornea becomes significantly thinner toward the periphery.

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  • (PMID = 19264894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY007551-22; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY007551; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY007551-22
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS137094; NLM/ PMC2752418
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87. Uy E, Go R: Pseudoaccommodative cornea treatment using the NIDEK EC-5000 CXIII excimer laser in myopic and hyperopic presbyopes. J Refract Surg; 2009 Jan;25(1 Suppl):S148-55
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  • [Title] Pseudoaccommodative cornea treatment using the NIDEK EC-5000 CXIII excimer laser in myopic and hyperopic presbyopes.
  • All eyes underwent the pseudoaccommodative cornea (PAC) treatment using aspheric ablation profiles and wavefront correction with the NIDEK CXIII excimer laser.
  • [MeSH-major] Accommodation, Ocular / physiology. Cornea / physiopathology. Hyperopia / surgery. Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ / methods. Lasers, Excimer / therapeutic use. Myopia / surgery. Presbyopia / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Sensitivity / physiology. Corneal Topography. Distance Perception / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Visual Acuity / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19248545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1081-597X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J. : 1995)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Refract Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Eeman M, Francius G, Dufrêne YF, Nott K, Paquot M, Deleu M: Effect of cholesterol and fatty acids on the molecular interactions of fengycin with Stratum corneum mimicking lipid monolayers. Langmuir; 2009 Mar 3;25(5):3029-39
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  • [Title] Effect of cholesterol and fatty acids on the molecular interactions of fengycin with Stratum corneum mimicking lipid monolayers.
  • The combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the Langmuir trough technique was used in this work to investigate the molecular interactions of fengycin with lipid monolayers constituted of the major lipid classes found in human stratum corneum (SC).

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  • (PMID = 19437771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-7463
  • [Journal-full-title] Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langmuir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ceramides; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Lipopeptides; 102577-03-7 / fengycin; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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89. Seomun Y, Joo CK: Lumican induces human corneal epithelial cell migration and integrin expression via ERK 1/2 signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2008 Jul 18;372(1):221-5
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  • [Title] Lumican induces human corneal epithelial cell migration and integrin expression via ERK 1/2 signaling.
  • Lumican is a major proteoglycans of the human cornea.
  • Lumican knock-out mice have been shown to lose corneal transparency and to display delayed wound healing.
  • The purpose of this study was to define the role of lumican in corneal epithelial cell migration.
  • Over-expression of lumican in human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells increased both cell migration and proliferation, and increased levels of integrins alpha2 and beta1.
  • These data provide evidence that lumican stimulates cell migration in the corneal epithelium by activating ERK 1/2, and point to a novel signaling pathway implicated in corneal epithelial cell migration.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD29 / metabolism. Cell Movement. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans / metabolism. Epithelium, Corneal / cytology. Epithelium, Corneal / physiology. Keratan Sulfate / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18477477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD29; 0 / Butadienes; 0 / Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans; 0 / Integrin alpha2; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / U 0126; 0 / lumican; 9056-36-4 / Keratan Sulfate; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
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90. Stillitano I, Maidana E, Lui M, Lipener C, Höfling-Lima AL: Bubble and corneal dimple formation after the first overnight wear of an orthokeratology lens: a case series. Eye Contact Lens; 2007 Sep;33(5):253-8
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  • [Title] Bubble and corneal dimple formation after the first overnight wear of an orthokeratology lens: a case series.
  • PURPOSE: To report the first documented case series of bubbles and corneal dimples associated with corneal reshaping after the first overnight wear of an orthokeratology lens.
  • METHODS: Three cases of transient corneal dimples are described after the first overnight use of the Be Free orthokeratology lens (BE; Ultravision Pty.
  • RESULTS: The corneal dimples were located most centrally and peripherally in correspondence to the reverse curve and did not produce a significant change in best-corrected visual acuity except in one patient, who had many bubbles in the central cornea.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that the precorneal tear film between the corneal surface and the posterior orthokeratology contact lens surface plays a role in the development of bubbles and corneal dimples.
  • [MeSH-major] Contact Lenses / adverse effects. Cornea / pathology. Cornea / physiopathology. Refractive Errors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17873629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye & contact lens
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye Contact Lens
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; TPY09G7XIR / Fluorescein
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91. Bala AD, Takahashi TT: Learned modification of the nictitating membrane reflex by auditory stimuli in the barn owl. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol; 2005 Jul;191(7):627-37
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  • The barn owl, Tyto alba, extends its nictitating membrane (NM) in response to an air puff to the cornea or a mild para-orbital electrodermal shock.

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  • (PMID = 15981011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-7594
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural. Behav. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / DC03925
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Zhivov A, Kraak R, Bergter H, Kundt G, Beck R, Guthoff RF: Influence of benzalkonium chloride on langerhans cells in corneal epithelium and development of dry eye in healthy volunteers. Curr Eye Res; 2010 Aug;35(8):762-9
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  • [Title] Influence of benzalkonium chloride on langerhans cells in corneal epithelium and development of dry eye in healthy volunteers.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on corneal Langerhans cells (LCs) and on the development of dry eye.
  • The distribution and density of LCs in the central and peripheral corneal epithelium were evaluated by in-vivo confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM).
  • RESULTS: In the BAC group, compared with placebo, a marked increase in LC density was found in the central cornea at Week 6 and in the central and peripheral cornea at Week 12.
  • Significant changes in the LC count relative to baseline were found at Week 12 in the central and peripheral cornea in the BAC group as well as in the peripheral cornea in the placebo group.
  • LC density in the BAC group increased more rapidly in the central than in the peripheral cornea.
  • CONCLUSION: 12-week application of a 0.01% BAC solution in healthy volunteers induces a significant increase in LCs in the central cornea at Week 12 without dry-eye changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzalkonium Compounds / administration & dosage. Dry Eye Syndromes / prevention & control. Epithelium, Corneal / drug effects. Langerhans Cells / drug effects. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20673054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2202
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical
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93. Jordan JF, Neuburger M, Reinhard T: [Minimally invasive angle surgery. The Trabectome]. Ophthalmologe; 2010 Sep;107(9):855-60
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  • Through a 1.7 mm clear cornea tunnel, the juxtacanalicular meshwork is electroablated under gonioscopic control.

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  • (PMID = 20798947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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94. Bianco SD, Peng JB, Takanaga H, Suzuki Y, Crescenzi A, Kos CH, Zhuang L, Freeman MR, Gouveia CH, Wu J, Luo H, Mauro T, Brown EM, Hediger MA: Marked disturbance of calcium homeostasis in mice with targeted disruption of the Trpv6 calcium channel gene. J Bone Miner Res; 2007 Feb;22(2):274-85
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  • In addition to their deranged Ca(2+) homeostasis, the skin of Trpv6 KO mice has fewer and thinner layers of stratum corneum, decreased total Ca(2+) content, and loss of the normal Ca(2+) gradient.

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  • (PMID = 17129178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-0431
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR051930; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK67155; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52005; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P01AR39488; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK052005; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK067155; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA101075; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA101075
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TRPV Cation Channels; 0 / Trpv6 protein, mouse; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS657887; NLM/ PMC4548943
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95. Esquenazi S, Esquenazi I, Grunstein L, He J, Bazan H: Immunohistological evaluation of the healing response at the flap interface in patients with LASIK ectasia requiring penetrating keratoplasty. J Refract Surg; 2009 Aug;25(8):739-46
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  • METHODS: Corneas of five patients who developed corneal ectasia after LASIK (range: 2.5 to 5 years postoperative) were collected after corneal transplant surgery.
  • RESULTS: Light microscopy showed a hypocellular fibrotic scar at the wound margin compared with the adjacent corneal stroma in all eyes.
  • Type III collagen was minimal or absent in the central zone and wound margin of all corneas except for the cornea with epithelial ingrowth present in the hypercellular fibrotic scar region.
  • However, changes in the composition of collagen and the presence of MMP-9 at the wound edge several years after LASIK indicates active wound remodeling that may explain the ongoing loss of tissue and tendency of the cornea to bulge.

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  • (PMID = 19714799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1081-597X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J. : 1995)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Refract Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY004928-27; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20RR021970; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY004928-27; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY004928; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR021970
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Collagen Type III; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates; 9056-36-4 / Keratan Sulfate; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS243349; NLM/ PMC2954614
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96. Tay E, Utine CA, Akpek EK: Crescenteric amniotic membrane grafting in keratoprosthesis-associated corneal melt. Arch Ophthalmol; 2010 Jun;128(6):779-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Crescenteric amniotic membrane grafting in keratoprosthesis-associated corneal melt.
  • We herein present a surgical technique for the management of corneal melt following Boston type I keratoprosthesis implantation.
  • The membrane was fashioned in the shape of 2 crescentic patches using disposable corneal trephines.
  • Rapid healing with corneal epithelization and vascularization was noted within days.
  • It is also readily available with a long shelf life and does not require a lamellar dissection unlike a donor corneal patch.
  • This surgical technique may potentially serve as another tool in a cornea surgeon's armamentarium.
  • [MeSH-major] Amnion / transplantation. Artificial Organs / adverse effects. Cornea. Corneal Diseases / surgery. Prostheses and Implants / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20547957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Huang YH, Chu HS, Hu FR, Wang IJ, Hou YC, Chen WL: Recurrent advancing wavelike epitheliopathy from the opposite side of the initial presentation. Cornea; 2008 Jan;27(1):111-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed wavy, coarse, irregular epithelium extending from the upper limbus to the central cornea.
  • [MeSH-major] Corneal Diseases / diagnosis. Epithelium, Corneal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18245978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 95IT3W8JZE / Silver Nitrate
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98. Spelsberg H, Sundmacher R: [Significance of immediate affixation of a hard contact lens in the emergency treatment of severe alkali burns of the cornea (case report)]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2005 Nov;222(11):905-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Significance of immediate affixation of a hard contact lens in the emergency treatment of severe alkali burns of the cornea (case report)].
  • [Transliterated title] Die Bedeutung der frühzeitigen Aufklebung harter Kontaktlinsen in der Notfallbehandlung schwerer Alkaliverätzungen der Hornhaut (Fallbericht).
  • A glued-on hard contact lens may serve as an "artificial epithelium" and protect the cornea from these complications.
  • The right eye showed a totally denuded cornea and conjunctiva with circular paralimbic ischemia.
  • In the left eye "only" two thirds of the cornea and adjacent conjunctiva and limbus were affected with less ischemia.
  • The cornea perforated 4 weeks later necessitating a mini-keratoplasty plus a glued-on contact lens, and correctable vision never became better than 1/35.
  • CONCLUSION: The clinical course confirms former observations that a glued-on hard contact lens is an effective treatment early after alkali burn and prevents the cornea from infiltration and melting.
  • Moreover, two aspects merit consideration: first, with proper technique and timing of the gluing-on a patient may retain useful vision throughout the period of wearing the contact lens; second, for the long period during which the cornea was sealed by the contact lens, improper repopulation by conjunctival epithelium was inhibited, and proper corneal epithelium was given a chance for repopulation after recovery of the limbal area resulting in a stable surface and useful vision without additional keratoplasty measures.

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  • (PMID = 16308824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Compounds; 0 / Oxides; C7X2M0VVNH / lime
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99. Yao WJ, Sun KX, Liu Y, Liang N, Mu HJ, Yao C, Liang RC, Wang AP: Effect of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers on corneal penetration of puerarin. Biol Pharm Bull; 2010;33(8):1371-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers on corneal penetration of puerarin.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers on corneal permeation of puerarin (PUE).
  • Permeation studies were performed using excised cornea of rabbits by a Valia-Chien diffusion apparatus.
  • Drug-treatment studies were carried out by measuring the penetration of puerarin on cornea in PAMAM-PUE physical mixture or PAMAM-PUE complex, and cornea-treatment studies were carried out by measuring the penetration of puerarin on PAMAM dendrimer pretreated cornea in puerarin solution.
  • Cornea-treatment studies showed that the lag time of puerarin was decreased, while the cumulative amount within 2.5 h (Q(2.5)) and the permeability coefficient of puerarin increased compared to control.
  • This indicates that higher generation of PAMAM dendrimer more easily interact with cornea or loosen the epithelium cell junctions than lower generation to increase the flux of puerarin.
  • Overall, the study showed that PAMAM dendrimer increased the corneal permeation of puerarin mainly by altering the corneal barrier.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / metabolism. Dendrimers / pharmacology. Drug Carriers / pharmacology. Isoflavones / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 20686234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-5215
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dendrimers; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / PAMAM Starburst; Z9W8997416 / puerarin
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100. Spörl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Pillunat LE: [Biophysical principles of collagen cross-linking]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2008 Feb;225(2):131-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Biophysikalische Grundlagen der Kollagenvernetzung.
  • BACKGROUND: The reduced mechanical stability of the cornea in keratoconus or in keratectasia after Lasik may be increased by photooxidative cross-linking of corneal collagen.
  • METHODS: The setting of the therapy parameters should be elucidated from the absorption behaviour of the cornea.
  • The induced cross-links are shown to be the result of changes in the physico-chemical properties of the cornea.
  • RESULTS: To reach a high absorption of the irradiation energy in the cornea, riboflavin of a concentration of 0.1% and UV light of a wavelength of 370 nm, corresponding to the relative maximum of absorption of riboflavin, were used.
  • The endothelium cells will be protected due to the high absorption within the cornea, that means the damaging threshold of the endothelium cells will not be reached in a 400 microm thick stroma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The therapy parameters were tested experimentally and have been proven clinically in the corneal collagen cross-linking.
  • [MeSH-major] Biophysics. Collagen / metabolism. Corneal Diseases / physiopathology. Corneal Diseases / radiotherapy. Corneal Stroma / physiopathology. Cross-Linking Reagents. Keratoconus / physiopathology. Keratoconus / radiotherapy. Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / radiotherapy. Riboflavin / administration & dosage. Ultraviolet Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomechanical Phenomena. Biophysical Phenomena. Dilatation, Pathologic / physiopathology. Dilatation, Pathologic / radiotherapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Endothelium, Corneal / physiopathology. Humans. Lens, Crystalline / physiopathology. Ophthalmic Solutions. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 18293264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; TLM2976OFR / Riboflavin
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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