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5. Peiretti E, Pozzoni MC, Fossarello M, Spaide RF: Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in association with choroidal nevus. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2009;3(1):12-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in association with choroidal nevus.
  • PURPOSE: To report an association between polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and choroidal nevus in two patients.
  • METHODS: Two patients with subretinal exudation associated with a choroidal nevus had a complete ophthalmologic examination, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICG).
  • RESULTS: In the two eyes of the two patients with choroidal nevus, choroidal neovascularization with PCV-like characteristics was detected by ICG angiography.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PCV-like vascular changes can be associated with choroidal nevus, and ICG can help delineate the nature of the neovascularization in patients with choroidal nevus.

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  • (PMID = 25390827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Gambrelle J, Mauget Faÿsse M, Quaranta El-Maftouhi M, Grange JD: [Outcome of photodynamic therapy for subretinal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevi]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2008 Jan;31(1):31-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Outcome of photodynamic therapy for subretinal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevi].
  • [Transliterated title] Résultats de la photothérapie dynamique dans le traitement des néovaisseaux sous-rétiniens secondaires aux naevi choroïdiens.
  • INTRODUCTION: Choroidal nevi are the most common benign intraocular tumors.
  • However, the occurrence of subretinal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus is very rare.
  • Our goal was to assess the efficacy and the safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of subretinal neovascularization related to choroidal nevi.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: We conducted a retrospective study including subretinal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevi treated by PDT from 1999 to 2005.
  • RESULTS: Six subretinal neovascularizations secondary to choroidal nevi were included in our study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Subretinal neovascularization is reassuring from the oncologist's point of view because it is considered a relative indicator of benignity of the nevus.
  • PDT appears to be a safe and effective procedure for the treatment subretinal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus, with results similar to those observed in ARMD.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / complications. Choroidal Neovascularization / drug therapy. Nevus / complications. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Fundus Oculi. Humans. Macular Degeneration / drug therapy. Nevus, Pigmented / complications. Nevus, Pigmented / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 18401296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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7. Levecq L, De Potter P, Guagnini AP: [Epidemiology of ocular and orbital lesions referred to an ocular oncology center]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2005 Oct;28(8):840-4
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  • The clinical diagnosis of 374 lesions (30%) was confirmed by histological examination.
  • The most frequent tumors were retinoblastoma in children and teenagers, conjunctival nevus young adults, choroidal melanoma in slightly older patients and posterior choroidal nevus in elderly people.
  • CONCLUSION: This study reviewed the epidemiological characteristics of ocular and orbital lesions referred to an ocular oncology center for their diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 16249763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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8. Materin MA, Raducu R, Bianciotto C, Shields CL: Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings in choroidal melanocytic lesions. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jul;17(3):201-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings in choroidal melanocytic lesions.
  • PURPOSE: To establish the characteristics of secondary retinal and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) changes associated with the presence of choroidal melanoma and choroidal nevus as documented by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed review of major English publications examining the correlation between clinical characteristics of choroidal melanoma and nevus with OCT and FAF findings.
  • RESULTS: The intrinsic properties of choroidal melanoma, as well as overlying RPE changes, drusen, and lipofuscin are best characterized by FAF, while OCT is more sensitive for the identification of subretinal and intraretinal fluid as well as atrophy, degeneration, and photoreceptor loss in the neurosensory retina.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Secondary retinal changes associated with choroidal melanocytic lesions can be documented by OCT and FAF.
  • OCT-evident changes are observed more often with choroidal melanoma than choroidal nevus.
  • FAF is most useful in documenting the presence of lipofuscin, a finding that represents one of the important criteria in differentiating small choroidal melanoma from benign choroidal nevus.

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  • (PMID = 20844674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-1599
  • [Journal-full-title] Middle East African journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2934710
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Autofluorescence / Choroid / Eye / Melanoma / Nevus / Optical Coherence Tomography
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9. Shields CL, Pirondini C, Bianciotto C, Materin MA, Harmon SA, Shields JA: Autofluorescence of choroidal nevus in 64 cases. Retina; 2008 Oct;28(8):1035-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Autofluorescence of choroidal nevus in 64 cases.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the autofluorescence features of choroidal nevi.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Autofluorescence features of choroidal nevus and overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
  • The choroidal nevus was a mean of 5 mm from the optic disk and foveola.
  • The choroidal nevus showed hypoautofluorescence in 56%, isoautofluorescence in 19%, and hyperautofluorescence in 25%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal nevus shows little intrinsic autofluorescence.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Fluorescence. Fundus Oculi. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Photography. Retina / pathology. Retinal Pigment Epithelium / pathology. Tomography, Optical Coherence. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18779708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-2864
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Guigui B, Souied EH, Cohen SY: Intravitreal ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2009;3(4):412-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intravitreal ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a patient treated with ranibizumab for juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus.
  • METHODS: A 71-year-old man presented with juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus.
  • Choroidal neovascularization was initially treated with a single intravitreal injection of ranibizumab.
  • CONCLUSION: Ranibizumab seems to be an effective treatment for choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus.

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  • (PMID = 25389863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Shields CL, Furuta M, Mashayekhi A, Berman EL, Zahler JD, Hoberman DM, Dinh DH, Shields JA: Visual acuity in 3422 consecutive eyes with choroidal nevus. Arch Ophthalmol; 2007 Nov;125(11):1501-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Visual acuity in 3422 consecutive eyes with choroidal nevus.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate visual acuity in eyes with choroidal nevus.
  • Of 3422 consecutive eyes with choroidal nevus, vision loss at 15 years occurred in 2% of eyes with extrafoveolar nevus and in 26% of eyes with subfoveolar nevus, particularly those with overlying retinal pigment epithelial detachment and foveal edema.
  • RESULTS: The median visual acuity at presentation was 20/20 for eyes with either extrafoveolar or subfoveolar choroidal nevus.
  • Using Kaplan-Meier estimates, vision loss of 3 or more logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) lines at 5, 10, and 15 years occurred in less than 1%, 1%, and 2% of eyes with extrafoveolar nevus compared with 15%, 20%, and 26% of eyes with subfoveolar choroidal nevus, respectively.
  • By multivariate analysis, factors predictive of visual loss of 3 or more logMAR lines included subfoveolar nevus location (relative risk [RR], 15.52), juxtapapillary nevus location (RR, 4.52), initial visual acuity of 20/50 or worse (RR, 15.40), overlying retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RR, 22.16), and foveal edema (RR, 9.02).
  • Factors predictive of poor final visual acuity of 20/200 or worse included subfoveolar nevus location (RR, 11.32), overlying orange pigment (RR, 3.68), overlying retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RR, 12.80), and foveal edema (RR, 18.72).
  • CONCLUSION: Mild vision loss over many years should be anticipated in patients with subfoveolar choroidal nevus, particularly those with overlying retinal pigment epithelial detachment, orange pigment, and foveal edema.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Nevus, Pigmented / physiopathology. Vision Disorders / physiopathology. Visual Acuity / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17998511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Parodi MB, Boscia F, Piermarocchi S, Ferrari TM, Furino C, Sborgia C: Variable outcome of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal nevus. Retina; 2005 Jun;25(4):438-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Variable outcome of photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal nevus.
  • PURPOSE: To report five cases of classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with choroidal nevus treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin.
  • CONCLUSION: Bearing in mind that both the natural history and the post-PDT outcome may be extremely variable, further studies are needed to assess the real benefit of PDT for classic CNV secondary to choroidal nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / complications. Choroidal Neovascularization / drug therapy. Choroidal Neovascularization / etiology. Nevus, Pigmented / complications. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15933589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-004X
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin; IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
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13. Querques G, Prascina F, Iaculli C: Focal laser photocoagulation for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with choroidal nevus. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2008;2(3):216-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Focal laser photocoagulation for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with choroidal nevus.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a patient treated with focal laser photocoagulation for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) secondary to choroidal nevus.
  • METHODS: A 62-year-old woman presented with PCV secondary to choroidal nevus in the right eye and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/100.
  • CONCLUSION: Focal laser photocoagulation seems to be an effective and safe treatment for PCV secondary to choroidal nevus.

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  • (PMID = 25390090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Shields CL, Mashayekhi A, Materin MA, Luo CK, Marr BP, Demirci H, Shields JA: Optical coherence tomography of choroidal nevus in 120 patients. Retina; 2005 Apr-May;25(3):243-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optical coherence tomography of choroidal nevus in 120 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of choroidal nevi.
  • METHODS: Retrospective, single-center case series of 120 eyes of 120 consecutive patients with choroidal nevi who were evaluated by OCT.
  • Diagnostic imaging was performed with a Zeiss StratusOCT Model 3000 (Carl Zeiss Ophthalmic Systems, Dublin, CA) using scan acquisition protocols of 6 radial lines and retinal thickness analysis overlying the nevus.
  • The choroidal nevus was a mean of 5.2 mm in basal dimension and 1.7 mm in thickness and was located a mean of 2.7 mm from the optic disk and 2.5 mm from the foveola.
  • In comparison, related retinal findings at the site of the nevus by OCT included overlying retina edema (15%), subretinal fluid (26%), retinal thinning (22%), drusen (41%), and RPE detachment (12%).
  • Specific OCT findings of the choroidal nevus were limited to its anterior surface with minimal penetration into the mass.
  • These findings included increased thickness of the RPE/choriocapillaris layer (68%) and optical qualities within the anterior portion of the nevus of hyporeflectivity (62%), isoreflectivity (29%), and hyperreflectivity (9%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: OCT is a useful diagnostic modality for imaging the retina overlying a choroidal nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods

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  • (PMID = 15805899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-004X
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Perez B, Shields CL, Shields JA: Large turbid retinal pigment epithelial detachment camouflaging an underlying choroidal nevus. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2009;3(2):147-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large turbid retinal pigment epithelial detachment camouflaging an underlying choroidal nevus.
  • PURPOSE: To report an unusual large turbid detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) overlying a hidden choroidal nevus.
  • RESULTS: A 51-year-old woman was referred with an asymptomatic yellow subretinal mass in the left eye presumed to represent a choroidal metastasis or melanoma.
  • After 6 years follow-up, the RPE detachment resolved, exposing an underlying chronic choroidal nevus as the etiology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal nevus can produce an overlying RPE detachment that completely obscures the underlying lesion.

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  • (PMID = 25391059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Levy J, Shneck M, Klemperer I, Lifshitz T: Treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus using photodynamic therapy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2005 Jul-Aug;36(4):343-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus using photodynamic therapy.
  • Examination revealed an elevated choroidal nevus at the posterior pole.
  • Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin could be an effective option for treating subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / complications. Choroidal Neovascularization / drug therapy. Choroidal Neovascularization / etiology. Nevus, Pigmented / complications. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16156155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin; IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
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17. Shields CL, Ramasubramanian A, Kunz WB, Aggarwal E, Shields JA: Choroidal vitiligo masquerading as large choroidal nevus: a report of four cases. Ophthalmology; 2010 Jan;117(1):109-113.e3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Choroidal vitiligo masquerading as large choroidal nevus: a report of four cases.
  • PURPOSE: To describe 4 patients with choroidal vitiligo masquerading as large choroidal nevus.
  • RESULTS: Four patients referred with the diagnosis of large choroidal nevus were found to have unilateral (n = 1) or bilateral (n = 3) extensive patchy choroidal depigmentation classified as choroidal vitiligo.
  • There was no evidence of choroidal nevus, and the pigmented "lesion" proved to be normal choroidal pigment surrounded by a region of pigment absence (vitiligo).
  • The choroidal vitiligo was clinically flat and measured 12 to 24 mm diameter, involving the post-equatorial fundus in all cases.
  • There was no documented progression of the choroidal or cutaneous vitiligo over a maximum 2-year follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal vitiligo is an idiopathic benign process that can involve large segments of the posterior choroid, leaving only patches of residual choroidal pigment, simulating, in reverse, a large choroidal nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Diseases / diagnosis. Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Vitiligo / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorescein Angiography. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, Optical Coherence

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19939456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Li HK, Shields CL, Mashayekhi A, Randolph JD, Bailey T, Burnbaum J, Shields JA: Giant choroidal nevus clinical features and natural course in 322 cases. Ophthalmology; 2010 Feb;117(2):324-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant choroidal nevus clinical features and natural course in 322 cases.
  • PURPOSE: Evaluation of clinical features and natural course of giant choroidal nevi (diameter >or=10 mm).
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess time to transformation into melanoma.
  • Cox proportional hazards regressions evaluated clinical factors predictive of nevus transformation into melanoma and nevus-related decreased vision (defined as <20/20 and unrelated to other eye pathology).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transformation of giant choroidal nevus into melanoma and nevus-related decreased vision.
  • RESULTS: A medical record review of 4100 patients diagnosed with choroidal nevus identified 322 (8%) giant choroidal nevi.
  • Median nevus basal diameter was 11 mm (range, 10-24).
  • Related retinal findings included drusen overlying nevus (n = 261 [81%]), subretinal fluid (n = 26 [8%]), orange pigment (n = 4 [1%]), retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment (n = 6 [2%]), hyperplasia (n = 48 [15%]), fibrous metaplasia (n = 48 [15%]), atrophy (n = 63 [20%]), or trough (n = 6 [2%]).
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated transformation into melanoma in 13% at 5 years and 18% at 10 years.
  • Multivariate analyses revealed factors predictive of transformation into melanoma including involvement or close proximity to the foveola (P = 0.017) and acoustic hollowness (P = 0.052).
  • Nevus-related decreased vision was found in 2.2% of eyes at initial visit and 3.7% at final visit (median 41 and mean 61 months follow-up).
  • Factors associated with nevus-related decreased vision at initial visit included subretinal fluid (P = 0.001), involvement or close proximity to foveola (P = 0.005), RPE detachment (P = 0.033), and nevus-related choroidal neovascular membrane (P = 0.044).
  • Factors predictive of nevus-related decreased vision at final visit included involvement or close proximity to the foveola (P = 0.001) and presence of symptoms at the initial visit (P = 0.032).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Giant choroidal nevi can clinically resemble choroidal melanoma but show features of chronicity, such as overlying drusen and RPE alterations.
  • Over time, 18% transformed into melanoma, underscoring the importance of life-long surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19969359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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19. Singh AD, Kalyani P, Topham A: Estimating the risk of malignant transformation of a choroidal nevus. Ophthalmology; 2005 Oct;112(10):1784-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estimating the risk of malignant transformation of a choroidal nevus.
  • PURPOSE: To estimate the risk of malignant transformation of a choroidal nevus in the white population.
  • METHODS: A literature review was performed to obtain data on the prevalence of choroidal nevi in the white population.
  • The estimate of annual incident choroidal melanoma cases in the corresponding age- and race-matched population was calculated using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database (1973-2000).
  • The ratio of numbers of affected individuals with choroidal melanoma and choroidal nevi gave the annual rate of malignant transformation of a choroidal nevus.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual rate of malignant transformation of a choroidal nevus in the white population of the U.S.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of choroidal nevus in the white U.S. population ranged from 4.6% to 7.9%.
  • It was estimated that, on average, 8864625 individuals in the U.S. had a choroidal nevus.
  • The number of individuals with choroidal melanoma in the corresponding age- and race-matched population ranged from 989 to 1008 (mean, 1002).
  • The annual rate of malignant transformation of a choroidal nevus was estimated to be 1 in 8845.
  • CONCLUSIONS: If it is assumed that all choroidal melanomas arise from preexisting nevi, then the published data suggest a low rate (1/8845) of malignant transformation of a choroidal nevus in the U.S. white population.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Nevus, Pigmented / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Ophthalmology. 2006 May;113(5):887-8.e1 [16650691.001]
  • (PMID = 16154197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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20. Shields CL, Maktabi AM, Jahnle E, Mashayekhi A, Lally SE, Shields JA: Halo nevus of the choroid in 150 patients: the 2010 Henry van Dyke Lecture. Arch Ophthalmol; 2010 Jul;128(7):859-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Halo nevus of the choroid in 150 patients: the 2010 Henry van Dyke Lecture.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate choroidal halo nevus.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective medical record review on all patients with a clinical diagnosis of choroidal halo nevus treated at the Ocular Oncology Service at Wills Eye Institute from April 1, 1974, through June 30, 2008.
  • RESULTS: The choroidal halo nevus showed 2 components, including a distinct central pigmented region surrounded by a yellow halo.
  • Preexistent cutaneous melanoma was found in 5 patients (3.3%), which was significantly more prevalent than the rate for the US population (3.3% vs 0.3%, P < .001).
  • The nevus location was superior in 31 patients (20.7%), temporal in 43 (28.7%), inferior in 29 (19.3%), nasal in 27 (18.0%), and macular in 20 (13.3%).
  • Of the 110 patients with nevi with follow-up, growth into melanoma occurred in 4 patients (3.6%) at a median interval of 41 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Halo nevus is a variant of choroidal nevus that has a brown center and yellow halo.
  • No relationship was found with autoimmune disorders, but a relationship with previous cutaneous melanoma is possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Halo / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis. Female. Fluorescein Angiography. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, Optical Coherence. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20625046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Lectures; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Romeo GF, Cirone M, Prantera ML: Photodynamic therapy in a case of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with choroidal nevus. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2010;4(4):381-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy in a case of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with choroidal nevus.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the clinical findings and management of a case of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with choroidal nevus.
  • METHODS: A 59-year-old woman with a subfoveal vascular network with polypoidal lesions associated with choroidal nevus was treated with photodynamic therapy.
  • Treatment was performed according to identical parameters to those used for choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration and was repeated 3 months after the first application.

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  • (PMID = 25390924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Shields CL, Furuta M, Berman EL, Zahler JD, Hoberman DM, Dinh DH, Mashayekhi A, Shields JA: Choroidal nevus transformation into melanoma: analysis of 2514 consecutive cases. Arch Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;127(8):981-7
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  • [Title] Choroidal nevus transformation into melanoma: analysis of 2514 consecutive cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine features that are predictive of growth of choroidal nevi into melanoma.
  • Nevus growth into melanoma occurred in 2%, 9%, and 13% of eyes at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively.
  • Factors predictive of growth into melanoma by multivariable analysis included tumor thickness greater than 2 mm (P < .001), subretinal fluid (P = .002), symptoms (P = .002), orange pigment (P < .001), tumor margin within 3 mm of the optic disc (P = .001), ultrasonographic hollowness (P < .001), and halo absence (P = .009).
  • A mnemonic device to recall risk factors of ocular melanoma is "To find small ocular melanoma using helpful hints," representing thickness, fluid, symptoms, orange pigment, margin, ultrasonographic hollowness, and halo absence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of 2514 choroidal nevi, factors predictive of growth into melanoma included greater thickness, subretinal fluid, symptoms, orange pigment, margin near disc, and 2 new features: ultrasonographic hollowness and absence of halo.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19667334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Rundle P, Rennie I: Management of symptomatic choroidal naevi with photodynamic therapy. Eye (Lond); 2007 Dec;21(12):1531-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of symptomatic choroidal naevi with photodynamic therapy.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the management of symptomatic serous retinal detachment associated with choroidal naevi.
  • The records of seven patients with choroidal naevus and associated serous retinal detachment, treated with PDT were reviewed retrospectively.
  • CONCLUSION: PDT appears to be effective in the management of serous retinal detachment associated with choroidal naevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nevus / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17024217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Romanowska-Dixon B, Kubicka-Trzaska A: [Small choroidal melanoma--a diagnostic problem]. Klin Oczna; 2008;110(7-9):308-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Small choroidal melanoma--a diagnostic problem].
  • The aim of this paper is to present the most common diagnostic problem associated with a small choroidal melanoma.
  • In some cases other lesions such as a choroidal naevus, an exudative type of age related macular degeneration (AMD) with the presence of subretinal haemmorrhage, retinal pigment hypertrophy, choroidal haemangioma and choroidal metastatic tumours may mimic small choroidal melanomas.
  • Based on the literature and on our own experience we present the basic clinical features of these lesions, their characteristic fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and ultrasonography pictures that can be helpful in differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Choroidal Neovascularization / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescein Angiography. Humans. Macular Degeneration / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19112868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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25. Kubicka-Trzaska A: [Differential diagnosis of exudative age-related macular degeneration with posterior pole choroidal tumours]. Klin Oczna; 2005;107(1-3):147-55
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  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis of exudative age-related macular degeneration with posterior pole choroidal tumours].
  • Many various lesions located in macular region can mimic exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), making serious problems in establishing the proper diagnosis.
  • From a practical point of view the most important significance has a differential diagnosis of AMD with posterior pole tumours: choroidal melanoma, choroidal naevus, choroidal hemangioma and metastatic tumors.
  • The aim of this study is to present, based on literature and our experience, the role of fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, standard A- and B-scan ultrasonography and colour Doppler ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of exudative AMD and posterior pole choroidal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Macular Degeneration / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescein Angiography. Humans. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color


26. Yang WL, Wei WB, Wang JZ: [Analysis of changes of color Doppler flow imaging in age-related macular degeneration]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Apr;41(4):300-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Routine CDFI was carried out in 98 cases of AMD to observe the character of blood flow in AMD, to establish the diagnosis criteria of different types of AMD and to different the AMD from malignant choroidal melanoma, metastatic carcinoma of the choroid, choroidal nevus and macular edema.
  • Choroidal excavation was not found.
  • CONCLUSION: CDFI is a simple and reliable method in the diagnosis of AMD.

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  • (PMID = 15924689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0412-4081
  • [Journal-full-title] [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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27. Lin SM, Ferrucci S: Primary acquired melanosis of the conjunctiva. Optometry; 2006 May;77(5):223-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The presence or absence of atypia is helpful in determining the potential for malignancy, because PAM without atypia is usually benign, whereas PAM with atypia may convert into a conjunctival melanoma.
  • His ocular history was remarkable for early cataracts and for a choroidal nevus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16651212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-1839
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optometry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Shields JA, Mashayekhi A, Ra S, Shields CL: Pseudomelanomas of the posterior uveal tract: the 2006 Taylor R. Smith Lecture. Retina; 2005 Sep;25(6):767-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the types and frequency of lesions that clinically simulate choroidal or ciliary body melanoma (posterior uveal melanoma; PUM).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A review was conducted on cases of patients referred to the ocular oncology service from October 1978 through September 2003 with the diagnosis of possible PUM but who were subsequently diagnosed by the authors to have a simulating lesion rather than PUM.
  • There were 54 different conditions that simulated melanoma.
  • The most frequent condition was choroidal nevus, accounting for 851 cases (49%) of the pseudomelanomas.
  • This was followed by peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (139 cases; 8%), congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (108 cases; 6%), hemorrhagic detachment of the retina or pigment epithelium (86 cases; 5%), circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (79 cases; 5%) and age-related macular degeneration (76 cases; 4%).
  • Compared with the 1980 report, the rate of pseudomelanomas diagnosed as choroidal nevus increased from 26% to 49%.
  • Suspicious choroidal nevus is still the lesion most difficult to differentiate from PUM.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Uveal Diseases / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16141866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-004X
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Shields CL, Materin MA, Shields JA: Review of optical coherence tomography for intraocular tumors. Curr Opin Ophthalmol; 2005 Jun;16(3):141-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • With regard to ocular oncology, optical coherence tomography can illustrate retinal changes overlying choroidal tumors.
  • Some of these features include photoreceptor loss, intraretinal edema, and retinal thinning overlying choroidal nevus; fresh subretinal fluid with preservation of photoreceptors overlying choroidal melanoma; and intraretinal edema, retinoschisis, and retinal thinning overlying irradiated choroidal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods

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  • (PMID = 15870570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8738
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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30. Shpak AA, Iarovoĭ AA, Magaramov DA, Bulgakova ES: [Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of retinal alterations in the presence of pigmented choroidal tumors]. Vestn Oftalmol; 2009 Nov-Dec;125(6):8-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of retinal alterations in the presence of pigmented choroidal tumors].
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to examine 33 patients (33 eyes) with choroidal melanoma and 39 patients (39 eyes) with choroidal nevus.
  • The magnitude of changes in the retina and its pigment epithelium above the pigmented choroidal neoplasms was found to be largely in proportion to their sizes.
  • When primarily detected, choroidal melanomas had larger sizes and were significantly more frequently attended by neuroepithelial detachment, retinal edema, and evident impairments in the normal architectonics of the retina and its pigment epithelium above the tumor, neuroepithelial detachment in the foveal area, and these tumors tended to show a higher rate of pigment epithelial detachments above the tumor and foveal edema.
  • However, in the presence of small neoplasm sizes (from 1 mm, but less than 2 mm), the patients with choroidal melanomas were observed to have more frequently neuroepithelial detachment and to tend to have a higher rate of retinal edema above the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Papilledema / diagnosis. Retina / pathology. Retinal Detachment / diagnosis. Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 20143532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-465X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik oftalmologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn Oftalmol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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31. Shields CL, Eagle RC, Ip MS, Marr BP, Shields JA: Two discrete uveal melanomas in a child with ocular melanocytosis. Retina; 2006 Jul-Aug;26(6):684-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A 6-year-old girl was followed for 5 years with an ill-defined, slowly enlarging presumed choroidal nevus in the postequatorial fundus.
  • Tumor 1 was a mixed, predominantly epithelioid cell melanoma with active mitotic figures, and tumor 2 was a mixed, predominantly spindle cell melanoma.
  • The choroid between the melanomas showed only benign, dendritic melanocytes consistent with melanocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanosis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16829813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-004X
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Tomlins PJ, Benskin S, Tahhan M, Tyagi AK: Dilated examination of patients referred with minor lid complaints--is it necessary? Eye (Lond); 2007 Jul;21(7):941-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Posterior segment findings were early cataracts in five cases (eight eyes), macular drusen in three cases (five eyes), peripheral retinal lattice degeneration in two cases (three eyes), retinal pigment epithelial changes in one case (two eyes), a choroidal naevus in one eye, choroidal atrophy in one eye, and one case with asymmetric disc cupping.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Diseases / complications. Retinal Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16645629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mydriatics
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33. Shields CL, Furuta M, Mashayekhi A, Berman EL, Zahler JD, Hoberman DM, Dinh DH, Shields JA: Clinical spectrum of choroidal nevi based on age at presentation in 3422 consecutive eyes. Ophthalmology; 2008 Mar;115(3):546-552.e2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical spectrum of choroidal nevi based on age at presentation in 3422 consecutive eyes.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical features of choroidal nevi based on patient age at presentation and to investigate features of the nevi that are predictive of patient symptoms.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nevus features as related to patient age group at diagnosis (young [< or =20 years], mid-adult [21-50 years], older adult [>50 years]) and factors predictive of patient symptoms secondary to the nevus.
  • RESULTS: Of the 3422 eyes with choroidal nevus, 63 (2%) were in young patients, 795 (23%) in mid-adults, and 2564 (75%) in older adults.
  • The following factors showed no substantial increase or decrease by age category (young, mid-adult, older adult) at presentation: symptoms (14%, 12%, 13%), mean nevus base (5.6, 4.7, 5.2 mm), intrinsic nevus pigmentation (89%, 74%, 77%), related subretinal fluid (SRF) (11%, 15%, 9%), overlying orange pigment (6%, 10%, 6%), retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia (0%, 9%, 7%), and retinal pigment epithelial atrophy (2%, 13%, 10%).
  • The following factors statistically increased with age category: multiple nevi per eye (2%, 8%, 10%) (P = 0.0001), mean nevus thickness (1.2, 1.5, 1.6 mm) (P<0.0001), and overlying drusen (11%, 40%, 58%) (P<0.0001).
  • Using multivariate analysis of the entire group, factors predictive of any symptom included nonpigmented nevus (P<0.001), location < or = 3 mm to foveola (P = 0.001), subfoveolar fluid (P = 0.002), any SRF (P = 0.02), and subfoveolar nevus (P = 0.027).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal nevi show similar clinical features regardless of age of presentation, with the exception of increasing number of nevi per eye, slightly increasing thickness, and increasing drusen in adults versus younger patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18067966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Lane AM, Egan KM, Kim IK, Gragoudas ES: Mortality after diagnosis of small melanocytic lesions of the choroid. Arch Ophthalmol; 2010 Aug;128(8):996-1000
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mortality after diagnosis of small melanocytic lesions of the choroid.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of dying of metastatic choroidal melanoma in patients with small, indeterminate, pigmented lesions of the uveal tract.
  • METHODS: A cohort of 1063 consecutive patients were evaluated in the Ocular Oncology Clinic of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between January 1976 and June 1996 with definite choroidal nevus (n = 256), indeterminate lesions (n = 334), or small melanoma (n = 373).
  • A total of 15 deaths due to ocular melanoma were ascertained (median follow-up of survivors, 8.2 years), 13 in the melanoma group and 2 in the indeterminate lesion group; actuarial tumor-specific death rates at 10 years after evaluation were 5% (95% confidence interval, 3%-8%) and 1% (95% confidence interval 0%-3%), respectively.
  • No deaths due to ocular melanoma occurred in the nevus group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data document the very low malignant potential of most indeterminate melanocytic lesions of the choroid and support the current practice of monitoring these tumors, with treatment provided when growth and other signs of malignant transformation are observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / mortality. Melanoma / mortality. Nevus, Pigmented / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cause of Death. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20696999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Khan J, Damato BE: Accuracy of choroidal melanoma diagnosis by general ophthalmologists: a prospective study. Eye (Lond); 2007 May;21(5):595-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy of choroidal melanoma diagnosis by general ophthalmologists: a prospective study.
  • PURPOSE: To estimate the proportion of 'false positives' in patients referred with a diagnosis of suspected choroidal melanoma by general ophthalmologists to an ocular oncology centre.
  • The diagnosis was made clinically in patients receiving radiotherapy or phototherapy and was confirmed by histopathology in patients requiring fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) or enucleation.
  • Among the 83 suspected malignant posterior segment lesions, the suspected diagnosis included choroidal melanoma (73), choroidal metastasis (6), 'choroidal tumour' (3), and 'Solid retinal detachment' (1).
  • Only 50 of the 73 suspected melanomas were confirmed (68.5%; 95% CI, 57-78%), the oncologist's diagnosis in the remaining 23 being choroidal naevus (10), choroidal metastasis (1), circumscribed choroidal haemangioma (2) and others (10).
  • Only one of six patients with suspected metastases had this condition, the remainder having melanoma (1), lymphoma (1), circumscribed choroidal haemangioma (1), and others (2).
  • The 'choroidal tumours' and 'solid detachments' were found to be chorio-retinal disciform scar (1), varix of vortex vein (1), eccentric CNV (1), and subretinal haemorrhage (1) CONCLUSION: Approximately 30% of patients referred to an ocular oncology service with the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma have an incorrect diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Clinical Competence. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. England. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Referral and Consultation

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  • (PMID = 16470216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Gündüz K, Pulido JS, Pulido JE, Link T: Correlation of fundus autofluorescence with fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography in choroidal melanocytic lesions. Retina; 2008 Oct;28(9):1257-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation of fundus autofluorescence with fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography in choroidal melanocytic lesions.
  • PURPOSE: To correlate fundus autofluorescence (FAF) patterns with fluorescein/indocyanine green angiographic (FA/ICGA) features in choroidal melanocytic lesions.
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 30 consecutive patients with choroidal nevi and melanoma who underwent FAF photography and FA/ICGA.
  • The fluorescence within the tumor was classified as hyperfluorescent, pinpoint hyperfluorescent, isofluorescent, or hypofluorescent with respect to the surrounding retina or choroid.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen of 30 tumors (63.3%) were choroidal melanoma and 11 (36.7%) were choroidal nevus.
  • Thirteen choroidal melanomas had a diffuse FAF pattern.
  • Six choroidal melanomas and 11 choroidal nevi had a patchy FAF pattern.
  • The diffuse FAF pattern was significantly associated with the clinical diagnosis of choroidal melanoma versus choroidal nevus (P = 0.00001), increased tumor thickness (P = 0.00001), and increased tumor base diameter (P = 0.001), partially pigmented or amelanotic versus pigmented lesion color (P = 0.006), early venous hyperfluorescence on FA (P = 0.015), and late hyperfluorescence on FA (P = 0.018).
  • CONCLUSION: Diffuse FAF is more often associated with larger choroidal melanomas as well as early venous and late hyperfluorescence on FA angiography.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorescein Angiography. Fundus Oculi. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Organic Chemicals
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorescence. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pigmentation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18626422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-2864
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organic Chemicals; 84133-51-7 / iodocyanine green
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37. Saari JM, Kivelä T, Summanen P, Nummelin K, Saari KM: Digital imaging in differential diagnosis of small choroidal melanoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Dec;244(12):1581-90
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  • [Title] Digital imaging in differential diagnosis of small choroidal melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: To assess the role of digital imaging and a new subtraction method for differential diagnosis of choroidal nevus and small choroidal melanoma.
  • METHODS: Of 241 consecutive patients referred to a tertiary referral center for suspected choroidal melanoma, 110 who underwent digital imaging of the ocular fundus were eligible for this study.
  • Digital color, red-free and red light retinal images were evaluated in a randomized and masked manner and by the subtraction method for diagnosis of the fundus lesion.
  • RESULTS: Comparative use of digital color, red-free and red light imaging had 85.7% (95%CI 42.1-99.6) sensitivity, 99.0% (95%CI 94.7-99.9) specificity and 98.2% (95%CI 93.6-99.8) exact agreement versus reference standard in differentiation of small choroidal melanoma from pseudomelanoma.
  • Direct comparison between use of digital images and the reference standard showed excellent agreement in detecting small choroidal melanoma from suspected choroidal lesions (K 0.847; 95%CI 0.639-1.0).
  • The subtraction method was useful to show growth in four of 94 melanocytic choroidal tumors.
  • The mean annual incidence of choroidal melanoma in Southwest Finland was 0.80 per 100.000 population.
  • The most frequent choroidal pseudomelanomas were choroidal melanotic and amelanotic nevi, disciform lesions, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, and circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combined use of digital color, red-free and red light imaging was a suitable adjunct in differentiation of small choroidal melanoma from different pseudomelanomas.
  • The subtraction method may reveal early growth of the melanotic choroidal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma, Amelanotic / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Double-Blind Method. Female. Finland / epidemiology. Fluorescein Angiography. Fundus Oculi. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmoscopy. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Subtraction Technique

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  • (PMID = 16636839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Shields CL, Thangappan A, Hartzell K, Valente P, Pirondini C, Shields JA: Combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in 77 consecutive patients visual outcome based on macular versus extramacular tumor location. Ophthalmology; 2008 Dec;115(12):2246-2252.e3
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  • Referring diagnosis was unknown (n = 40; 51%) or incorrect (n = 19; 24%) as retinoblastoma (n = 4), astrocytoma (n = 1), toxocariasis (n = 2), choroidal nevus (n = 5), melanoma (n = 6), and hemangioma (n = 1).

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  • (PMID = 18995912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Kato K, Kubota T, Ikeda M, Tadokoro M, Abe S, Nakano S, Nishino M, Kobayashi H, Ishigaki T: Low efficacy of 18F-FDG PET for detection of uveal malignant melanoma compared with 123I-IMP SPECT. J Nucl Med; 2006 Mar;47(3):404-9
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  • [Title] Low efficacy of 18F-FDG PET for detection of uveal malignant melanoma compared with 123I-IMP SPECT.
  • Earlier investigations showed that N-isopropyl-p-123I-iodoamphetamine SPECT (123I-IMP SPECT) is useful for the diagnosis of uveal malignant melanoma, whereas the feasibility and usefulness of 18F-FDG PET in uveal malignant melanoma have not yet been established.
  • We compared the usefulness of 123I-IMP SPECT and 18F-FDG PET for the detection of uveal malignant melanoma on the same subjects.
  • METHODS: Nineteen patients (10 men, 9 women) with suspected uveal malignant melanoma were examined by 123I-IMP SPECT.
  • RESULTS: In 12 of 19 study patients, 123I-IMP SPECT obtained at 24 h after intravenous administration of 123I-IMP delineated an area of increased uptake in the site corresponding to the ocular tumor.
  • All of the ocular tumors in the 12 123I-IMP SPECT-positive patients were confirmed histopathologically and clinically to be uveal malignant melanoma.
  • The other 7 123I-IMP-SPECT-negative patients have been monitored under the diagnosis of choroidal nevus, choroidal hemangioma, hyperplasia of the pigment epithelium of the retina, or idiopathic inflammatory lesions without any complications.
  • In a total of 13 patients examined by 18F-FDG PET, 9 of whom were 123I-IMP SPECT positive and 4 were negative, only 1 patient showed abnormal uptake of 18F-FDG PET in the site corresponding to the ocular tumor.
  • Therefore, 8 of 9 patients with uveal malignant melanoma showed false-negative results in 18F-FDG PET.
  • The 18F-FDG PET-positive patient with uveal malignant melanoma had the largest tumor mass with a short diameter of 12 mm, a long diameter of 17 mm, and a height of 7 mm.
  • CONCLUSION: 123I-IMP SPECT is a sensitive and accurate method for the detection of uveal malignant melanoma, whereas the efficacy of 18F-FDG PET for this purpose is low because of a high incidence of false-negative results.
  • 123I-IMP SPECT is far more superior in comparison with 18F-FDG PET in detecting uveal malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Iofetamine. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Uveal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16513608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; C2A5X08042 / Iofetamine
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40. Moon SJ, Wirostko WJ: Photodynamic therapy for extrafoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal nevus. Retina; 2006 Apr;26(4):477-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for extrafoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Choroidal Neovascularization / drug therapy. Nevus, Pigmented / blood supply. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16603973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-004X
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
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