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1. Bradshaw MJ, Folpe AL, Croghan GA: Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm of the uterine cervix: an unusual tumor in an unusual location. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(4):e56

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm of the uterine cervix: an unusual tumor in an unusual location.
  • A 46-year-old woman presented for a second opinion regarding a 3-4 cm mass of the uterine cervix.
  • A prior biopsy had been interpreted as a malignant melanoma of the cervix, resulting in a radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy.
  • This was to be followed by external beam irradiation and immunotherapy; however, given the rarity of this diagnosis, the patient sought a second opinion at our institution.
  • Further review of the pathological material from the hysterectomy revealed a morphologically benign perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm rather than a malignant melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 21234248.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019591
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gynecological neoplasms. / immunohistochemistry / melanoma / perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm
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2. Haberal A, Cil AP, Gunes M, Cavusoglu D: Papillary adenofibroma of the cervix: a case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Aug;26(2):186-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Papillary adenofibroma of the cervix: a case report.
  • Adenofibroma is an extremely rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group.
  • It typically affects the endometrium, but may occur in the cervix or in an extrauterine location.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is usually difficult.
  • We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman with papillary cervical adenofibroma, which appeared as a cervical mass containing multiple cystic components on transvaginal ultrasound.
  • This lesion appears to be clinically and histologically benign but must be differentiated from malignant lesions of the uterus, particularly from adenosarcoma, which can be suggestive of adenofibroma.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these benign tumors permits appropriate counseling of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / ultrasonography. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16041681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Fadare O, Yi X, Liang SX, Ma Y, Zheng W: Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation. Mod Pathol; 2007 Sep;20(9):1000-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation.
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is a premalignant (dysplastic) lesion that is characterized by abnormal cellular proliferation, maturation and nuclear atypia.
  • In this study, we evaluated the total mitotic indices of the cervical epithelia in hysterectomy specimens from patients with and without dysplastic lesions and investigated a possible relationship between mitotic index and hormonal status, using the endometrial maturation phase as a surrogate indicator of the latter.
  • Two hundred seventy-four cervices from hysterectomy specimens (135 cases without dysplasia, 33, 35 and 71 cases with grades 1, 2 and 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively) were analyzed.
  • A cervical mitotic index (total mitotic figures/10 high-power fields in the most proliferative area) was determined for each case.
  • For all three dysplasia grades, cases in the proliferative endometrium group always had a higher average mitotic index than those in the secretory and atrophic endometrium groups; this observation also held true for the benign cases.
  • Notably, the average mitotic index for our cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 cases with late proliferative endometrium was higher than our cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 cases with secretory and atrophic endometrium.
  • It is concluded that hormonal status, as reflected in endometrial maturation, can significantly affect the mitotic index of dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix.
  • Our findings confirm that the pathologic grading of dysplasia, especially in equivocal cases such as in metaplastic squamous epithelium, should not be solely dependent on the finding mitoses in the cervical squamous epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Menstrual Cycle. Mitotic Index. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies


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4. Li C, Rock KL, Woda BA, Jiang Z, Fraire AE, Dresser K: IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression. Mod Pathol; 2007 Feb;20(2):242-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix remains a diagnostic challenge in a small proportion of cases.
  • This suggests a need for biomarker that may be of help in establishing the diagnosis.
  • Forty-four samples of adenocarcinoma in situ from 40 patients and 23 control cases of benign uterine cervix were included in this study.
  • In addition to benign endocervical epithelium, 19 of these 23 control cases also showed focal tubal metaplasia.
  • Our findings demonstrate significant expression of insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 and p16(INK4a) in adenocarcinoma in situ as compared to benign endocervical glands, suggesting that expression of these biomarkers may be helpful in the distinction of adenocarcinoma in situ from benign endocervical glands, particularly in difficult borderline cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17192788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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5. Liao SY, Rodgers WH, Kauderer J, Bonfiglio TA, Walker JL, Darcy KM, Carter R, Hatae M, Levine L, Spirtos NM, Stanbridge EJ: Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States. Int J Cancer; 2009 Nov 15;125(10):2434-40
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States.
  • High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is strongly linked to cervical neoplasia, but its role in detecting glandular lesions (GLs) is unclear.
  • In the cervix, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is expressed in cervical neoplasia, but rarely in the benign cervix.
  • The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC).
  • Of 403 patients, 111 (28%) were positive for significant cervical lesions (SCLs) including CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma.
  • The combination of CA-IX with H-HPV testing does not improve the diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC diagnosis over that of H-HPV testing alone.

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  • (PMID = 19670419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027469-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 11479; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517; None / None / / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469-29
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS137629; NLM/ PMC2779726
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6. Jun JK, Choi KS, Jung KW, Lee HY, Gapstur SM, Park EC, Yoo KY: Effectiveness of an organized cervical cancer screening program in Korea: results from a cohort study. Int J Cancer; 2009 Jan 1;124(1):188-93
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Effectiveness of an organized cervical cancer screening program in Korea: results from a cohort study.
  • Although the value of cervical cancer screening is widely acknowledged, the effectiveness of an organized cervical cancer screening program in Korea has never been evaluated.
  • We investigated the associations of the frequency of cervical cancer screening with cervical cancer incidence using data from a large prospective cohort study.
  • In this analysis, 253,472 women without a hysterectomy or previous cancer diagnosis were included.
  • Using the Korean Central Cancer Registry, 248 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 346 cases of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix were identified.
  • Subjects screened 2 or more times showed a 71% (corrected reduction 60%) and a 66% (corrected reduction 53%) reduced risk of invasive cervical cancer and CIS of the cervix, respectively, as compared with unscreened subjects [relative risk (RR) = 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.20-0.45; RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, respectively].
  • Women with a normal or benign pap smear had a statistically significantly lower risk of invasive cervical cancer and CIS of cervix compared with those never screened.
  • In age-stratified analyses, there was a significant reduction in cervical cancer incidence among women aged 30 and over who were screened 2 or more times compared with women never screened.
  • The results of this prospective cohort study show that regular screening of cervical cancer reduces invasive cervical cancer incidence and CIS of the cervix among Korean women.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Body Mass Index. Cohort Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Korea. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papanicolaou Test. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 18785204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Gong L, Zhang WD, Liu XY, Han XJ, Yao L, Zhu SJ, Lan M, Li YH, Zhang W: Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:25
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  • [Title] Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the uterine cervix is defined as an extremely well differentiated variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with well-formed glands that resemble benign glands but show distinct nuclear anaplasia or evidence of stromal invasion.
  • Thus, MDA is difficult to differentiate from other cervical hyperplastic lesions.
  • Thus, our findings indicate that MDA is a true neoplasm but is not associated with high-risk HPV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of MDA depends mainly on its clinical manifestations, the pathological feature that MDA glands are located deeper than the lower level of normal endocervical glands, and immunostaining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromosomes, Human, X. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Case-Control Studies. Cell Proliferation. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Mosaicism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Genetic. Predictive Value of Tests. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20416098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2877003
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8. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Mesonephric remnants of the cervix are vestiges of the embryonic mesonephric system which typically regresses during female development.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • PAX2 encodes a transcription factor necessary in the development of the Wolffian duct system, and the protein is expressed in several tumors of mesonephric origin, including renal cell carcinoma, Wilm tumor, and nephrogenic adenoma.
  • We hypothesized that PAX2 may also be expressed in mesonephric lesions of the cervix and may distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • PAX2 was expressed in normal endocervical glands (including tunnel clusters and Nabothian cysts) (86 of 86), lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (5 of 5), tubal/tuboendometrioid metaplasia (8 of 8), and cervical endometriosis (13 of 14).
  • These results suggest that PAX2 immunoreactivity may be useful to (1) distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, (2) to distinguish lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, and (3) to distinguish endocervical tubal metaplasia or cervical endometriosis from endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human
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9. Hollowell ML, Goulart RA, Gang DL, Otis CN, Prior J, Sachs BF, Pantanowitz L: Cytologic features of müllerian papilloma of the cervix: mimic of malignancy. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Sep;35(9):607-11
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytologic features of müllerian papilloma of the cervix: mimic of malignancy.
  • Müllerian papilloma is a rare benign tumor of the cervix and/or vagina that occurs predominantly in young children.
  • The cytologic features of benign müllerian papilloma have never been described.
  • We report for the first time, to our knowledge, the cytologic findings of a benign müllerian papilloma from the vaginal fluid specimen of a 15-mo-old girl using touch prep, ThinPrep, and cell block preparations.
  • The deceptive cytologic features of a cellular specimen with complex papillary fronds composed of overlapping and crowded small hyperchromatic cells, with a high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, and feathering in this case resembled a malignant neoplasm.
  • The clinical findings and cytomorphology of a benign müllerian papilloma can mimic those of malignant lesions of the female lower genital tract such as sarcoma botryoides and adenocarcinoma.
  • An awareness of this entity and its potential to mimic these more aggressive neoplasms is essential for accurate diagnosis and to avoid over-treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Papilloma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology


10. Smith KB, Amdur RJ, Yeung AR, Morris CG, Kirwan J, Morgan LS: Postoperative radiotherapy for cervix cancer incidentally discovered after a simple hysterectomy for either benign conditions or noninvasive pathology. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun;33(3):229-32
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postoperative radiotherapy for cervix cancer incidentally discovered after a simple hysterectomy for either benign conditions or noninvasive pathology.
  • OBJECTIVE: Report the long-term outcome of patients who received postoperative radiotherapy for incidentally discovered cervix cancer following simple hysterectomy.
  • METHODS: We recorded tumor status, treatment complications, and survival of 25 patients treated at our institution from 1961 to 2004 with postoperative RT for invasive cervix cancer discovered following simple hysterectomy (median follow-up, 17 years).
  • All patients had stage IA2-II squamous cell carcinoma (76%) or adenocarcinoma (24%) of the cervix.
  • No patient died of cervix cancer.
  • The actuarial rate of tumor control and relapse-free survival at 5, 10, and 20 years was 96%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This series demonstrates the price we pay for adding comprehensive radiotherapy to simple hysterectomy for early-stage cervix cancer.
  • (1) Avoid postoperative radiotherapy by aggressively screening patients for invasive disease before performing simple hysterectomy. (2) Raise the threshold for delivering pelvic radiotherapy following simple hysterectomy with an incidental diagnosis of invasive cervix cancer.
  • We recommend vaginal brachytherapy alone in patients with negative postoperative imaging, negative surgical margins, and <10 mm tumor invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Hysterectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Enteritis / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemangiosarcoma / etiology. Humans. Incidental Findings. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Diseases / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19806037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Comunoğlu N, Comunoğlu C, Başsüllü N, Somunkiran A, Calay Z: Müllerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth of the cervix: unusual large polypoid mass. Ups J Med Sci; 2007;112(1):67-72
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Müllerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth of the cervix: unusual large polypoid mass.
  • Müllerian adenosarcoma (MS) is a rare neoplasm of uterine cervix composed of benign epithelial and malignant stromal components.
  • In this report we present a MASO case, derived from uterine cervix of a 60 year-old-female patient presenting as a cervical polypoid mass, to our knowledge the second case of the English literature.
  • In spite of sarcomatous overgrowth, high mitotic activity and huge tumor size of 12,5 cms, it displayed no myometrial invasion, vascular invasion and heterologous elements.
  • The difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of this entity will be evaluated in this report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


12. Triginelli SA, Silva-Filho AL, Traiman P, Silva FM, Chaves-Dias MC, Oliveira GC, Cunha-Melo JR: Telomerase activity in the vaginal margins of radical hysterectomy in patients with carcinoma of the cervix: correlation with histology and human papillomavirus. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1283-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Telomerase activity in the vaginal margins of radical hysterectomy in patients with carcinoma of the cervix: correlation with histology and human papillomavirus.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate the telomerase activity both in the tumor and in the vaginal margins of radical hysterectomy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix.
  • Thirty-three patients with SCC of the cervix (study group) and 13 patients with uterine myoma (control group) were prospectively studied.
  • Tissue samples were taken from the tumor or cervix, anterior vaginal margin (AVM), and posterior vaginal margin (PVM).
  • The telomerase activity was significantly higher in the tumor than in the benign cervix (P < 0.001).
  • There was no difference in telomerase activity in the AVM and PVM in patients with cervical carcinoma compared to the control group.
  • Telomerase activity is a marker of histologic malignancy in patients with SCC of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / enzymology. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Telomerase / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Vagina / enzymology. Vaginal Neoplasms / enzymology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods


13. Badr RE, Walts AE, Chung F, Bose S: BD ProEx C: a sensitive and specific marker of HPV-associated squamous lesions of the cervix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jun;32(6):899-906
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] BD ProEx C: a sensitive and specific marker of HPV-associated squamous lesions of the cervix.
  • BD ProEx C (ProEx C) is a recently developed immunocytochemical assay that targets the expression of topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein-2, 2 genes shown to be overexpressed in cervical cancers.
  • Recent studies validated this reagent in liquid-based cytology specimens and suggested its usefulness as an adjunct in the diagnosis of challenging cases.
  • This study aims to assess ProEx C expression patterns in benign, atypical, and dysplastic lesions of the cervix and to compare these patterns with p16 and Ki67 expression and with the presence of human papilloma virus DNA as determined by in situ hybridization.
  • ProEx C positivity was limited to the basal layers of the epithelium in 75% of benign cervices.
  • In 92% of high-grade dysplasias [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and III] strong positive staining for ProEx C involved the lower and upper halves of the epithelium.
  • To summarize, ProEx C is a reliable marker for high-grade CIN that can be applied to tissue sections to confirm the diagnosis of high-grade CIN and to triage cases of atypical squamous metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / virology

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  • (PMID = 18425044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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14. Fleming NA, Hopkins L, de Nanassy J, Senterman M, Black AY: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e45-51
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  • [Title] Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.
  • Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually found in postmenopausal women.
  • It is a biphasic tumor, composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant stromal component.
  • To date, this neoplasm has been reported in only 16 adolescent girls.
  • At the level of the cervix, there were 3 polypoid gelatinous structures arising from the endocervix and extruding past the exocervix.
  • Hysteroscopic inspection of the uterine cavity did not find any abnormalities.
  • Pathology confirmed a diagnosis of müllerian adenosarcoma originating from the endocervix.
  • Uterine curettings were negative for malignancy.
  • After a thorough evaluation of the available literature, review with the Regional Tumor Board and extensive discussions with the family, a decision was made to perform a radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, upper vaginectomy and preservation of ovaries.
  • CONCLUSION: Müllerian adenosarcoma of the endocervix is a very rare pediatric tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor in this age group, optimal therapy is uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


15. Hilfrich R, Hariri J: Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Apr;30(2):78-82
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  • [Title] Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker.
  • Fifty sections were derived from a benign group, 91 from low-grade (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN 1]) lesions and 50 from high-grade (CIN 2 and 3) lesions.

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  • International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .
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  • (PMID = 18561743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / HPV L1 protein, Human papillomavirus; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / P16 protein, human
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16. Dolezelova H, Slampa P, Ondrova B, Gombosova J, Sovadinova S, Novotny T, Bolcak K, Ruzickova J, Hynkova L, Forbelska M: The impact of PET with 18FDG in radiotherapy treatment planning and in the prediction in patients with cervix carcinoma: results of pilot study. Neoplasma; 2008;55(5):437-41
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of PET with 18FDG in radiotherapy treatment planning and in the prediction in patients with cervix carcinoma: results of pilot study.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) is used to distinguish between benign and malign tumors, to diagnose relapse or post-therapeutic changes.
  • Results of this pilot study show the role of PET with 8-F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) for staging of cervical carcinoma and in the radiotherapeutic planning.
  • Between March 2005 and May 2007, 51 patients with cervical carcinoma were treated with combination of external beam radiotherapy and HDR brachytherapy, with or without concomitant cisplatin.
  • The results of this study confirmed the important role of PET in diagnosis and treatment of cervical carcinoma and in determination of target volumes in radiotherapy.
  • PET was found to be a standard staging examination of cervical carcinoma in Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brachytherapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Care Planning. Pilot Projects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18665755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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17. Korach J, Machtinger R, Perri T, Vicus D, Segal J, Fridman E, Ben-Baruch G: Villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a diagnostic challenge. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2009;88(3):355-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a diagnostic challenge.
  • Villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma (VGA) is a rare subtype of cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the reliability of histological assessment for pre-treatment diagnosis of VGA.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 38.8 years (range 27-65).
  • Of these, only two had been correctly diagnosed preoperatively, while in three, the initial biopsies were benign or pre-malignant.
  • In four patients, the biopsy results had been interpreted as an invasive malignant tumor necessitating hysterectomy.
  • The final histological report on the remaining three patients was invasive cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • We conclude that pre-treatment diagnosis should not be based solely on a simple punch biopsy because of its low rate of diagnostic accuracy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging


18. Sahdev A: Cervical tumors. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2010 Oct;31(5):399-413
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical tumors.
  • Imaging the cervix for benign and malignant disease can be achieved using transvaginal ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.
  • The best established role of imaging is in cervical carcinoma where magnetic resonance imaging, CT and increasingly positron emission tomography-CT are the most frequently used imaging modalities.
  • Histopathological diagnosis of cervical disorders cannot be made on the basis of imaging alone but certain imaging features may provide an indication as to the underlying diagnosis.
  • We describe the imaging features of some malignant tumor subtypes in which a preoperative diagnosis may alter management.
  • Benign lesions of the cervix are usually detected incidentally or during investigations for dysfunctional vaginal bleeding.
  • We describe the imaging features of the commonly encountered benign cervical lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / radiography. Cervix Uteri / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis


19. Rezvani M, Shaaban A: Imaging of cervical pathology. Clin Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Mar;52(1):94-111
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging of cervical pathology.
  • A variety of benign and malignant entities affect the uterine cervix.
  • Cross-sectional and functional imaging can improve the accuracy of traditional clinical cervical cancer staging.
  • The imaging appearance of benign cervical pathology is reviewed with ultrasonography as the first-line imaging modality and magnetic resonance imaging for problem solving in difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ultrasonography / methods. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


20. Chivukula M, Domfeh A, Carter G, Tseng G, Dabbs DJ: Characterization of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ with and without regressive changes: diagnostic and biologic implications. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 Dec;17(6):495-9
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  • Regressive changes (RC) have been described in malignant melanoma, carcinomas of the prostate and cervix.
  • The presence of RC in these neoplasms may signify some degree of host response to tumor and seems to be a sign of poor prognosis for some neoplasms.
  • It is also critically important to recognize HGDCIS-RC for diagnostic purposes, as the differential diagnosis of RC includes, benign associations such as papilloma, fibrocystic changes and periductal mastitis.

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  • (PMID = 19407654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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21. Huszar M, Moldenhauer G, Gschwend V, Ben-Arie A, Altevogt P, Fogel M: Expression profile analysis in multiple human tumors identifies L1 (CD171) as a molecular marker for differential diagnosis and targeted therapy. Hum Pathol; 2006 Aug;37(8):1000-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression profile analysis in multiple human tumors identifies L1 (CD171) as a molecular marker for differential diagnosis and targeted therapy.
  • Here we carried out an immunohistochemical survey of L1 expression in normal adults and in a broad range of benign and malignant tumors using monoclonal antibody L1-11A and the novel monoclonal antibody L1-14.10.
  • In tumors of the female genital tract, L1 was detected in adenocarcinomas of the cervix and fallopian tubes, in addition to ovarian and endometrial carcinomas.
  • Our results suggest that L1 expression in tumors is not ubiquitous but restricted to certain subtypes and may be a helpful molecular marker for differential diagnosis and target for antibody-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Genital Neoplasms, Female / metabolism. Isoantigens / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Cell Line, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. GPI-Linked Proteins. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neutrophils / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16867862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD177 protein, human; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoantigens; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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22. Stübinger SH, van der Horst Ch, Braun PM: [Pelvic tumors in the eyes of urologists]. Ther Umsch; 2007 Jul;64(7):395-8
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  • Benign tumors such as endometrial myoma, ovarian cyst and adenoma of the colon might lead to the development of urogenital symptoms.
  • This is also the case with malignant tumors of the uterus, ovaries, cervix and colon where infiltration of the urogenital organs might be noted.
  • These are the symptoms that lead to the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • It has to be kept in mind that urogenital tumors with such symptoms have to be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • The possibility of eradicating the tumor is then to be discussed after relieving the obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Neoplasms. Prostatic Hyperplasia. Prostatic Neoplasms. Urethral Neoplasms. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Cystectomy. Cystoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prostatectomy. Quality of Life. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17948757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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23. Ben Hmid R, Mourali M, Zghal D, Mahjoub S, Naceur C, Sbai N, Zouari F: [Usefulness of colposcopy in inflammatory cervico-vaginal smears: apropos of 140 cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jun;85(6):500-4
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Transliterated title] Apport de la colposcopie dans les frottis cervico-vaginaux inflammatoires: a propos de 140 cas.
  • BACKGROUND: The cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer of the woman in Tunisia.
  • AIM: The purpose of our study is to proove that an inflammatory cervical smear should be considered as a positive test and must lead to other investigations.
  • METHODS: It is a prospective study over 140 cases of inflammatory cervical smears (without atypical cells) diagnosed during a year period from june 2001 to june 2002.
  • It showed benign lesions such as: ectropion in 22.85%, colpitis in 14.28%, cervical polypus in 5%, normal transformation zone in 8.57%, but also suspicious lesions such as : atypical transformations grade I (ATGI) in 25.71% and atypical transformations grade II (ATGII) in 13.57%.
  • It makes a minutious study of the cervix and diminishes the rate of false negative made by the cervical smear.
  • [MeSH-major] Colposcopy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Polyps / pathology. Prospective Studies. Sexual Behavior. Uterine Cervical Diseases / pathology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervicitis / pathology. Vaginitis / pathology


24. Janssen J: [(E)US elastography: current status and perspectives]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Jun;46(6):572-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The relative stiffness of the tissues within this area is described by colours superimposing on the B-mode image.
  • Several studies have demonstrated that real-time elastography is feasible and improves the diagnostic accuracy for tumours of the breast, the prostate, the cervix, and the thyroid gland.
  • For the differentation between benign and malignant lymph nodes, the accuracy is reported to be 85 % to 90 %.
  • Therefore, the early diagnosis of cancer within chronic pancreatitis will probably not be improved by elastography.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Endosonography / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Pancreatitis / pathology. Pancreatitis / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18537085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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25. Sanati S, Huettner P, Ylagan LR: Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):79-87
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ProExC in dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • ProExC had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 89%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, for distinguishing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion from squamous metaplasia, and 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ from reactive benign endocervix.
  • ProExC is a valuable marker for distinguishing dysplastic squamous and endocervical lesions of the cervix from squamous metaplasia in histologic sections.
  • ProExC may eventually be used in conjunction with morphologic and human papillomavirus evaluation for better classification of indeterminate cervical lesions in Papanicolaou smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19952938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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26. Hayashi T, Horiuchi A, Sano K, Hiraoka N, Kanai Y, Shiozawa T, Tonegawa S, Konishi I: Mice-lacking LMP2, immuno-proteasome subunit, as an animal model of spontaneous uterine leiomyosarcoma. Protein Cell; 2010 Aug;1(8):711-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mice-lacking LMP2, immuno-proteasome subunit, as an animal model of spontaneous uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • Uterine tumors are the most common type of gynecologic neoplasm.
  • Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is rare, accounting for 2% to 5% of tumors of the uterine body.
  • Uterine LMS develops more often in the muscle tissue layer of the uterine body than in the uterine cervix.
  • The development of gynecologic tumors is often correlated with female hormone secretion; however, the development of uterine LMS is not substantially correlated with hormonal conditions, and the risk factors are not yet known.
  • Radiographic evaluation combined with PET/CT can be useless in the diagnosis and surveillance of uterine LMS.
  • Importantly, a diagnostic biomarker, which distinguishes malignant LMS and benign tumor leiomyoma (LMA) is yet to be established.
  • Accordingly, it is necessary to analyze risk factors associated with uterine LMS in order to establish a method of treatment.
  • LMP2-deficient mice spontaneously develop uterine LMS, with a disease prevalence of ∼40% by 14 months of age.
  • It is therefore of interest whether human uterine LMS shows a loss of LMP2 expression.
  • LMP2 is potentially a diagnostic biomarker for uterine LMS, and gene therapy with LMP2-encording DNA may be a new therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysteine Endopeptidases / genetics. Leiomyosarcoma / genetics. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Deletion. Humans. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 / biosynthesis. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 / genetics. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Knockout

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  • (PMID = 21203912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1674-8018
  • [Journal-full-title] Protein & cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Protein Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factor-1; 144416-78-4 / LMP-2 protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4875197
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27. Agur W, Hassan M, Laban M, Morsi H, Abou-Senna I: The relationship between bcl-2 oncogene expression and clinicopathological criteria in various stages of cervical neoplasia in Egyptian women. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(5):536-8
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  • [Title] The relationship between bcl-2 oncogene expression and clinicopathological criteria in various stages of cervical neoplasia in Egyptian women.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the degree of bcl-2 expression in the various stages of cervical neoplasia in a sample population of Egyptian women and relate the findings to clinicopathological criteria of invasive cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: Bcl-2 protein expression was assessed by immuno-histochemistry in 40 patients with cervical neoplasia (intraepithelial and invasive) in comparison to 20 patients with benign changes.
  • Patients with invasive disease were followed up 2 years later and the outcome was correlated to the bcl-2 status at the time of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Bcl-2 expression increased from 20% in normal cervical tissue to 42.9% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II then dropped to 33% in invasive disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Bcl-2 expression is reduced along the spectrum from benign towards invasive disease of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Egypt. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 21061795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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28. Newsom-Davis T, Poulter D, Gray R, Ameen M, Lindsay I, Papanikolaou K, Butler-Manuel S, Christmas T, Townsend P, Seckl M: Case report: malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:195
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case report: malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus.
  • Uterine teratomas are extremely rare with only a few previous case reports, usually involving mature teratomas of the uterine cervix.
  • Initial investigations revealed a benign teratoma of the uterus which was removed.
  • Her symptoms persisted and a recurrent, now malignant, teratoma of the uterine corpus was resected at hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19538751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2709639
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29. Metser U, You J, McSweeney S, Freeman M, Hendler A: Assessment of tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer and elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level: FDG PET/CT versus contrast-enhanced 64-MDCT of the chest and abdomen. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Mar;194(3):766-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer and elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level: FDG PET/CT versus contrast-enhanced 64-MDCT of the chest and abdomen.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced 64-MDCT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis in the detection of tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer and an elevated level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis included 50 patients (31 men, 19 women; mean age, 61 years; range, 28-89 years) with 55 clinical events of elevated or increasing CEA level who underwent FDG PET/CT and MDCT for suspected tumor recurrence.
  • Fifty-four of 61 tumor sites suspected as tumor recurrence with any imaging technique were found to be local recurrence or metastatic colorectal cancer at final analysis.
  • The other seven sites were one separate malignant tumor (small lymphocytic lymphoma) and six benign lesions.
  • Diagnosis was based on histopathologic findings (n = 27) or clinical and imaging findings (n = 35) during a median follow-up period of 12 months (range, 6-31 months).
  • One site of tumor recurrence was missed prospectively at both MDCT and PET/CT.
  • In a tumor site-based analysis, the sensitivities of PET/CT and MDCT were 98.1% and 66.7% (p < 0.0001), and the specificities were 75% and 62.5% (p = 0.56).
  • Tumors correctly identified with PET/CT and missed with MDCT were local recurrence in the presacral space (n = 5), metastatic subcentimeter lymph nodes (n = 4), peritoneal deposits (n = 3), and recurrences at the periphery of radiofrequency ablated metastatic lesions of the liver (n = 2) and in the abdominal wall (n = 1), liver (n = 1), and uterine cervix (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / radiography. Colorectal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Radiography, Abdominal. Radiography, Thoracic. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20173157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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30. Ko ML, Lin HW, Chen SC, Pan HS: Should cystoscopy be routinely performed after laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy? Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol; 2008;17(3):195-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • There were eighty patients who underwent LAVH for benign tumors of the uterus (adenomyosis and myoma), uterine prolapse, persistent intraepithelial neoplasm of the cervix (CIN3) and cervical carcinoma in situ (CIS).
  • From among the 80 patients who underwent LAVH, 52 had myoma, 19 had adenomyosis, six patients had uterine prolapse, one had CIS and seven patients were diagnosed to have CIN3.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystoscopy / methods. Hysterectomy, Vaginal / adverse effects. Intraoperative Complications / diagnosis. Laparoscopy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Stents. Ureter / injuries. Ureter / surgery. Ureteral Obstruction / diagnosis. Ureteral Obstruction / etiology. Ureteral Obstruction / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18608998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2931
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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