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1. Lahiri S, Mitchell CH, Reigada D, Roy A, Cherniack NS: Purines, the carotid body and respiration. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):123-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Purines, the carotid body and respiration.
  • The carotid body is essential to detecting levels of oxygen in the blood and initiating the compensatory response.
  • Increasing evidence suggests that the purines ATP and adenosine make a key contribution to this signaling by the carotid body.
  • The glomus cells release ATP in response to hypoxia.
  • This released ATP can stimulate P2X receptors on the carotid body to elevate intracellular Ca(2+) and to produce an excitatory response.
  • Endogenous adenosine stimulates these receptors to increase the ventilation rate and may modulate the catecholamine release from the carotid sinus nerve.
  • This review discusses evidence for a key role of ATP and adenosine in the hypoxic response of the carotid body, and emphasizes areas of new contributions likely to be important in the future.

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  • (PMID = 17383945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL50180; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL43413; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R37 HL043413; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015537; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY015537; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY013434; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL050180; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY013434
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Purines
  • [Number-of-references] 97
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS23100; NLM/ PMC1975770
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2. Peng YJ, Nanduri J, Raghuraman G, Souvannakitti D, Gadalla MM, Kumar GK, Snyder SH, Prabhakar NR: H2S mediates O2 sensing in the carotid body. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2010 Jun 8;107(23):10719-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] H2S mediates O2 sensing in the carotid body.
  • Gaseousmessengers, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, have been implicated in O2 sensing by the carotid body, a sensory organ that monitors arterial blood O2 levels and stimulates breathing in response to hypoxia.
  • We now show that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a physiologic gasotransmitter of the carotid body, enhancing its sensory response to hypoxia.
  • Glomus cells, the site of O2 sensing in the carotid body, express cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), an H2S-generating enzyme, with hypoxia increasing H2S generation in a stimulus-dependent manner.
  • Mice with genetic deletion of CSE display severely impaired carotid body response and ventilatory stimulation to hypoxia, as well as a loss of hypoxia-evoked H2S generation.
  • Hypoxia-evoked H2S generation in the carotid body seems to require interaction of CSE with hemeoxygenase-2, which generates carbon monoxide.

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  • [CommentIn] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Sep 14;107(37):E141; author reply E142 [20807752.001]
  • (PMID = 20556885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL076537; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-86493; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 00074; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007309; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-7653; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-90554; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL086493; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / K05 DA000074; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 000226; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL090554
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.4.1.1 / Cystathionine gamma-Lyase; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; YY9FVM7NSN / Hydrogen Sulfide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2890835
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3. de Castro F: Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: hering, de castro and heymansdagger. Front Neuroanat; 2009;3:23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: hering, de castro and heymansdagger.
  • The carotid body or glomus caroticum is a chemosensory organ bilaterally located between the external and internal carotid arteries.
  • Hering studied the cardio-respiratory reflexes searched for the anatomical basis of this reflex in the carotid sinus, while the Ghent School leaded by the physio-pharmacologists Jean-François Heymans and his son Corneille focussed in the cardio-aortic reflexogenic region.
  • In 1925, Fernando De Castro, one of the youngest and more brilliant disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal at the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biológicas (Madrid, Spain), profited from some original novelties in histological procedures to study the fine structure and innervation of the carotid body.
  • De Castro unravelled them in a series of scientific papers published between 1926 and 1929, which became the basis to consider the carotid body as a sensory receptor (or chemoreceptor) to detect the chemical changes in the composition of the blood.
  • Impressed by the novelty and implications of the work of De Castro, Corneille Heymans invited the Spanish neurologist to visit Ghent on two occasions (1929 and 1932), where both performed experiences together.
  • Shortly after, Heymans visited De Castro at the Instituto Cajal (Madrid).
  • From 1932 to 1933, Corneille Heymans focused all his attention on the carotid body his physiological demonstration of De Castro's hypothesis regarding chemoreceptors was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1938, just when Spain was immersed in its catastrophic Civil War.

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  • (PMID = 20057927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1662-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in neuroanatomy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Neuroanat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2802533
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; baroreceptor / blood circulation / carotid body / chemoreceptor / history of neuroscience / nobel prize / physiology / respiratory reflex
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4. Eyzaguirre C: Chemical and electric transmission in the carotid body chemoreceptor complex. Biol Res; 2005;38(4):341-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemical and electric transmission in the carotid body chemoreceptor complex.
  • Carotid body chemoreceptors are complex secondary receptors.
  • There are chemical and electric connections between glomus cells (GC/GC) and between glomus cells and carotid nerve endings (GC/NE).
  • Chemical secretion of glomus cells is accompanied by GC/GC uncoupling.
  • Therefore, carotid body chemoreceptors use chemical and electric transmission mechanisms to trigger and change the sensory discharge in the carotid nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology. Chemoreceptor Cells / physiology. Neurotransmitter Agents / physiology. Synaptic Transmission / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16579515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0716-9760
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 07938
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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5. Prabhakar NR, Peng YJ, Kumar GK, Nanduri J, Di Giulio C, Lahiri S: Long-term regulation of carotid body function: acclimatization and adaptation--invited article. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;648:307-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term regulation of carotid body function: acclimatization and adaptation--invited article.
  • Physiological responses to hypoxia either continuous (CH) or intermittent (IH) depend on the O(2)-sensing ability of the peripheral arterial chemoreceptors, especially the carotid bodies, and the ensuing reflexes play important roles in maintaining homeostasis.
  • The purpose of this article is to summarize the effects of CH and IH on carotid body function and the underlying mechanisms.
  • CH increases baseline carotid body activity and sensitizes the response to acute hypoxia.
  • These effects are associated with hyperplasia of glomus cells and neovascularization.
  • Enhanced hypoxic sensitivity is due to alterations in ion current densities as well as changes in neurotransmitter dynamics and recruitment of additional neuromodulators (endothelin-1, ET-1) in glomus cells.
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a transcriptional activator might underlie the remodeling of carotid body structure and function by CH.
  • Two major effects of chronic IH on the adult carotid body are sensitization of the hypoxic sensory response and long-lasting increase in baseline activity i.e., sensory long-term facilitation (LTF) which involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) and HIF-1.
  • Chronic IH-induced sensitization of the carotid body response to hypoxia increases the likelihood of unstable breathing perpetuating in more number of apneas, whereas sensory LTF may contribute to increased sympathetic tone and systemic hypertension associated with recurrent apneas.

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  • (PMID = 19536494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL076537; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-90554; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL086493; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-76537; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL090554
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS523769; NLM/ PMC3893881
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6. Kumar P, Phil D: Translating blood-borne stimuli: chemotransduction in the carotid body. Sheng Li Xue Bao; 2007 Apr 25;59(2):128-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Translating blood-borne stimuli: chemotransduction in the carotid body.
  • The carotid body can transduce hypoxia and other blood-borne stimuli, perhaps including hypoglycaemia, into afferent neural discharge that is graded for intensity and which forms the afferent limb of a cardiorespiratory and neuroendocrine reflex loop.
  • Hypoxia inhibits a variety of K(+) channels in the type I cells of the carotid body, in a seemingly species-dependent manner, and the resultant membrane depolarisation is sufficient to activate voltage-gated Ca(2+) entry leading to neurosecretion and afferent discharge.
  • The ion channels that respond to hypoxia appear to do so indirectly and recent work has therefore focussed upon identification of other proteins in the type I cells of the carotid body that may play key roles in the oxygen sensing process.
  • Whilst a role for mitochondrial and/or NADPH-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been proposed, the evidence for their signalling hypoxia in the carotid body is presently less than compelling and two alternate hypotheses are currently being tested further.
  • The first implicates haemoxygenase 2 (HO-2), which may control specific K(+) channel activation through O(2)-dependent production of the signalling molecule, carbon monoxide.
  • [MeSH-major] AMP-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Anoxia. Carotid Body / physiology. Potassium Channels / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17437033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0371-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Li Xue Bao
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing); EC 1.14.99.3 / heme oxygenase-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
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7. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Parenti A, De Caro R: Trophic factors in the carotid body. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol; 2008;269:1-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trophic factors in the carotid body.
  • The aim of the present study is to provide a review of the expression and action of trophic factors in the carotid body.
  • Differential local expression of growth factors and corresponding receptors plays a role in pre- and postnatal development of the carotid body.
  • Neurotrophic factor production is also considered to play a key role in the therapeutic effects of intracerebral carotid body grafts in Parkinson's disease.
  • Future research should also focus on trophic actions on carotid body type I cells by peptide neuromodulators, which are known to be present in the carotid body and to show trophic effects on other cell populations, that is, angiotensin II, adrenomedullin, bombesin, calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, cholecystokinin, erythropoietin, galanin, opioids, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, atrial natriuretic peptide, somatostatin, tachykinins, neuropeptide Y, neurotensin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / biosynthesis. Receptors, Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18779056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-6448
  • [Journal-full-title] International review of cell and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Rev Cell Mol Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 399
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8. López-Barneo J, Ortega-Sáenz P, Pardal R, Pascual A, Piruat JI, Durán R, Gómez-Díaz R: Oxygen sensing in the carotid body. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2009 Oct;1177:119-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxygen sensing in the carotid body.
  • The carotid body (CB) is a neural crest-derived organ whose function is to elicit hyperventilation in response to hypoxemia.
  • The CB contains clusters of neuron-like glomus cells enveloped by glia-like sustentacular cells.
  • CB responsiveness to acute hypoxia relies on the inhibition of O2-sensitive K+ channels in glomus cells, which leads to depolarization, Ca2+ entry and release of transmitters that activate afferent nerve fibers.
  • Putative hypoxia-sensing mechanisms can be studied in detail using genetically modified mice in conjunction with a thin carotid body slice preparation.
  • In chronic hypoxia the CB grows with increase in glomus cell number.
  • We identified CB stem cells of glial lineage, which can differentiate into functionally normal glomus cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Oxygen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19845614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ion Channels; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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9. Matikainen J, Elo H: Does yawning increase arousal through mechanical stimulation of the carotid body? Med Hypotheses; 2008;70(3):488-92

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does yawning increase arousal through mechanical stimulation of the carotid body?
  • Whilst yawning has been speculated to have an important role in reversing hypoxia, there is a structure in the neck that is known to be intimately involved in the regulation of oxygen homeostasis, namely the carotid body.
  • In spite of this, a connection has never been proposed either between the carotid body and arousal, or between yawning and the carotid body.
  • We propose that yawning stimulates mechanically the carotid body (and possibly other structures in the neck).
  • We also propose that mechanical effects on the shunt system of the carotid body may be involved in this stimulation.
  • For example, yawning causes movements and compressions that may affect the carotid body that is situated strategically at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery.
  • Thus, yawning may stimulate the carotid body.
  • The carotid body is highly vascular and compressions may affect its shunt system and blood flow and for example give rise to release of hormones or other substances.
  • [MeSH-major] Arousal / physiology. Carotid Body / physiology. Yawning / physiology

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  • [CommentIn] Med Hypotheses. 2008 Aug;71(2):307 [18434039.001]
  • (PMID = 17709210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-9877
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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10. Bairam A, Carroll JL: Neurotransmitters in carotid body development. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2005 Nov 15;149(1-3):217-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neurotransmitters in carotid body development.
  • This review examines the possible role of neurotransmitters present in the carotid body on the functional expression of chemosensory activity during postnatal development.
  • However, it remains unresolved whether these neurotransmitters, some of which are expressed in the carotid body before birth, are directly involved in the maturation of the functional properties of the carotid chemoreceptors in sensing oxygen or other stimuli during postnatal development.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / growth & development. Chemoreceptor Cells / growth & development. Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15919246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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11. Takahashi T, Osanai S, Nakano H, Ohsaki Y, Kikuchi K: Doxapram stimulates the carotid body via a different mechanism than hypoxic chemotransduction. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2005 May 12;147(1):1-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Doxapram stimulates the carotid body via a different mechanism than hypoxic chemotransduction.
  • To determine if doxapram stimulates the carotid body through the same mechanism as hypoxia, we compared the effects of doxapram and hypoxia on isolated-perfused carotid bodies in rabbits.
  • Doxapram stimulated the carotid body in a dose-dependent manner.
  • In Ca(2+)-free solution, neither doxapram nor hypoxia stimulated the carotid body.
  • Although, doxapram had an additive effect on the carotid body chemosensory response to hypercapnia, a synergistic effect was not observed.
  • We conclude that doxapram stimulates the carotid body via a different mechanism than hypoxic chemotransduction.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / physiopathology. Carotid Body / drug effects. Doxapram / pharmacology. Respiratory System Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anesthetics, Inhalation / pharmacology. Animals. Benzimidazoles / pharmacology. Carotid Sinus / drug effects. Carotid Sinus / innervation. Cromakalim / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Halothane / pharmacology. Male. Membrane Potentials / drug effects. Membrane Potentials / physiology. Organ Culture Techniques. Pinacidil / pharmacology. Potassium Channels / drug effects. Potassium Channels / physiology. Rabbits. Vasodilator Agents / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15848118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Inhalation; 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Respiratory System Agents; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 0G4X367WA3 / Cromakalim; 153587-01-0 / NS 1619; 7B0ZZH8P2W / Pinacidil; 94F3830Q73 / Doxapram; UQT9G45D1P / Halothane
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12. Carroll JL, Kim I: Postnatal development of carotid body glomus cell O2 sensitivity. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2005 Nov 15;149(1-3):201-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postnatal development of carotid body glomus cell O2 sensitivity.
  • In mammals, the main sensors of arterial oxygen level are the carotid chemoreceptors, which exhibit low sensitivity to hypoxia at birth and become more sensitive over the first few days or weeks of life.
  • In the carotid body, hypoxia is transduced by glomus cells, which are secretory sensory neurons that respond to hypoxia at higher P(O2) levels than non-chemoreceptor cell types.
  • Maturation or resetting of carotid body O2 sensitivity potentially involves numerous aspects of the O2 transduction cascade at the glomus cell level, including glomus cell neurotransmitter secretion, neuromodulator function, neurotransmitter receptor expression, glomus cell depolarization in response to hypoxia, [Ca2+]i responses to hypoxia, K+ and Ca2+ channel O2 sensitivity and K+ channel expression.
  • However, although progress has been made in the understanding of carotid body development, the precise mechanisms underlying postnatal maturation of these numerous aspects of chemotransduction remain obscure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / cytology. Carotid Body / growth & development. Oxygen / blood. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15886071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01-HL054621-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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13. Hu M, Zhang LH, Yang G, Chen LJ, Zhan X: [Selective embolization for surgical treatment of carotid body tumor]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;28(4):387-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Selective embolization for surgical treatment of carotid body tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of carotid arteriography and selective embolization in surgical treatment of carotid body tumor.
  • METHODS: Seven patients with carotid body tumor were operated, and four patients were performed with carotid arteriography and selective embolization before operation.
  • All patients were treated by stripping the carotid body tumor from the carotid artery.
  • The CT scan and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed the tumor lesion in the carotid bifurcation, and the tumor and its relation with the surrounding arteries were expressed by CT and three dimensional CT images.
  • All cases of carotid body tumor were resected without any carotid artery ligation.
  • Preoperatively high-selected embolization of the tumor-feeding artery could effectively reduce the intraoperative bleeding.
  • With 1.5-3 years follow-up, none of the carotid body tumor recurred in all the seven cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Carotid arteriography and embolization therapy may decrease blood loss and higher risk for operation in the patients with carotid body tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic

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  • (PMID = 20848931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-1182
  • [Journal-full-title] Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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14. Prabhakar NR, Peng YJ, Jacono FJ, Kumar GK, Dick TE: Cardiovascular alterations by chronic intermittent hypoxia: importance of carotid body chemoreflexes. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol; 2005 May-Jun;32(5-6):447-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cardiovascular alterations by chronic intermittent hypoxia: importance of carotid body chemoreflexes.
  • Enhanced hypoxic-sensing ability of the carotid bodies and the ensuing reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system have been suggested to play a critical role in cardiorespiratory alterations resulting from recurrent apnoeas.
  • 2. The purpose of the present review is to highlight recent studies demonstrating the effects of IH on carotid body sensory activity and its consequences on sympathetic activation in a rodent model of chronic IH.
  • Adult rats exposed to chronic IH (15 s of 5% O(2) followed by 5 min of 21% O(2), nine episodes per h, 8 h/day for 10 days) exhibited selective enhancement of carotid body sensory response to hypoxia.
  • In addition, chronic IH induced a novel form of sensory plasticity in the carotid body, manifested as sensory long-term facilitation (LTF).
  • Functional changes in the carotid body occurred in the absence of morphological changes in the chemoreceptor tissue.
  • Bilateral sectioning of the sinus nerves abolished these responses, suggesting chronic IH-induced alterations in carotid body sensitivity contribute to LTF in SNA and the subsequent cardiovascular alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Pressure / physiology. Carotid Body / physiology. Hypoxia, Brain / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 15854156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1870
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-25830; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-66448
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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15. Lemus M, Montero S, Cadenas JL, Lara JJ, Tejeda-Chávez HR, Alvarez-Buylla R, de Alvarez-Buylla ER: GabaB receptors activation in the NTS blocks the glycemic responses induced by carotid body receptor stimulation. Auton Neurosci; 2008 Aug 18;141(1-2):73-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] GabaB receptors activation in the NTS blocks the glycemic responses induced by carotid body receptor stimulation.
  • The carotid body receptors participate in glucose regulation sensing glucose levels in blood entering the cephalic circulation.
  • The carotid body receptors information, is initially processed within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and elicits changes in circulating glucose and brain glucose uptake.
  • When these GABAergic drugs were applied before carotid body receptors stimulation, again, only GABA(B) agonist or antagonist significantly affected glycemic responses; baclofen microinjection significantly reduced the hyperglycemic response and brain glucose retention observed after carotid body receptors stimulation, while phaclofen produced the opposite effect, increasing significantly hyperglycemia and brain glucose retention.
  • These results indicate that activation of GABA(B), but not GABA(A), receptors in the NTS modulates the glycemic responses after anoxic stimulation of the carotid body receptors, and suggest the presence of a tonic inhibitory mechanism in the NTS to avoid hyperglycemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / drug effects. Glucose / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-B / physiology. Solitary Nucleus / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18599364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1566-0702
  • [Journal-full-title] Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auton Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / GABA Agonists; 0 / GABA Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 0 / Receptors, GABA-B; 108351-35-5 / phaclofen; 2763-96-4 / Muscimol; H789N3FKE8 / Baclofen; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; Y37615DVKC / Bicuculline
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16. Peers C, Wyatt CN: The role of maxiK channels in carotid body chemotransduction. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):75-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of maxiK channels in carotid body chemotransduction.
  • In the carotid body, they have been proposed to contribute to the resting membrane potential of type I cells, and also to be O(2) sensitive.
  • We also consider different mechanisms proposed to account for hypoxic channel inhibition and suggest that, although our understanding of this important physiological process has advanced significantly in recent years, there remain important, unanswered questions as to the importance of maxiK in carotid body chemoreception.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology. Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels / physiology. Mechanotransduction, Cellular / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17157084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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17. Kumar P: Systemic effects resulting from carotid body stimulation-invited article. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;648:223-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systemic effects resulting from carotid body stimulation-invited article.
  • The carotid body is stimulated by a number of blood-borne stimuli, ranging from increasing intensities of hypoxia, hypercapnia or acidosis to less studied stimuli, including hyperthermia, hyperosmolarity and hyperkalaemia.
  • Although there exists heterogeneity in type I cell structure and function, there is no evidence to demonstrate that individual afferent fibres of the carotid sinus nerve subserve separate stimulus modalities.
  • The response to carotid body stimulation, therefore, is to produce a graded, stereotypic response that can broadly be defined as the primary respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes of hyperventilation, bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction, originating directly as a consequence of increased afferent traffic in the carotid sinus nerve leading to augmented discharge in phrenic and intercostals nerves and altered activity in sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents.
  • A role for the carotid body in mediating the hyperpnea of exercise, the aetiology of certain cardiovascular diseases, including sleep-apnoea derived hypertension and heart failure is supported by evidence but these complex situations generate reflex responses that can be mediated via a number of sensory and effector systems and the precise role of the carotid body is yet to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19536485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / British Heart Foundation / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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18. Fitzgerald RS, Eyzaguirre C, Zapata P: Fifty years of progress in carotid body physiology--invited article. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;648:19-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fifty years of progress in carotid body physiology--invited article.
  • Research on arterial chemoreceptors, particularly on the carotid body, has been fruitful in the last fifty years, to which this review is addressed.
  • The biophysical bases by which glomus cells transduce chemical changes in the milieu intérieur (hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis) into electrical and biochemical changes in glomus cells have received much attention.
  • Physical changes (in temperature, flow and osmolarity) are also detected by the carotid body.
  • Electrical coupling between glomus cells themselves appears as very extensive.
  • Sustentacular cells classically considered as ensheathing glia for glomus cells and nerve endings now appear to behave as stem cells precursors for glomus cells under chronic hypoxic conditions.
  • Many papers have been devoted to transmitters released from glomus cells (acetylcholine, dopamine, ATP) and well as to their effects upon chemosensory nerve activity.
  • The transient effects of sudden and brief withdrawal of chemosensory discharges by hyperoxia also provide clues on the role played by carotid bodies in the homeostasis of full organisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19536461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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19. Kerr JT, Eusterman VD, Yoest SM, Andersen CA: Pitfalls in imaging: differentiating intravagal and carotid body paragangliomas. Ear Nose Throat J; 2005 Jun;84(6):348-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pitfalls in imaging: differentiating intravagal and carotid body paragangliomas.
  • We report a case of an intravagal paraganglioma and a case of a carotid body tumor to illustrate a variable presentation of the former in which it mimicked the latter on preoperative imaging.
  • The atypical imaging features of the intravagal paraganglioma included inferior extension to the level of the carotid bifurcation and splaying of the internal and external carotid arteries, features that are similar to those seen in a case of carotid body paraganglioma.
  • When using magnetic resonance angiography rather than catheter angiography, we advocate the inclusion of gadolinium contrast and three-dimensional time-of-flight techniques to better demonstrate the position of the tumor relative to the carotid bifurcation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Arteries / physiopathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neck / physiopathology. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Male. Middle Aged. Otolaryngology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16075856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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20. Desmond TH, Christopher HK: Current concepts in the management of carotid body tumours. Med J Malaysia; 2010 Dec;65(4):268-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current concepts in the management of carotid body tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the current management of carotid body tumours and examine our own experience at the Singapore General Hospital.
  • CONCLUSION: Our series has shown that carotid body tumours can be safely removed surgically.
  • If the internal carotid artery needs to be resected, we prefer the use of a Pruitt-Inahara shunt.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Med J Malaysia. 2011 Jun;66(2):165 [22106708.001]
  • (PMID = 21901942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5283
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Malaysia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Malaysia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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21. Zhou Q, Zheng JW: [Research advances in molecular biology of carotid body tumor]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue; 2009 Apr;18(2):218-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Research advances in molecular biology of carotid body tumor].
  • The carotid body (CB) is a highly specialized small organ located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery in the neck and plays an important role in acute adaptation to hypoxia, which is the most common tumor site in head and neck paragangliomas.
  • Although carotid body tumors (CBTs) are mostly slow-growing and benign, they can cause significant morbidity because of their proximity to major arteries and nerves in the head and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor. Paraganglioma

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  • (PMID = 19418004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1006-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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22. Jonsson MM, Lindahl SG, Eriksson LI: Effect of propofol on carotid body chemosensitivity and cholinergic chemotransduction. Anesthesiology; 2005 Jan;102(1):110-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of propofol on carotid body chemosensitivity and cholinergic chemotransduction.
  • BACKGROUND: Propofol decreases the acute hypoxic ventilatory response in humans and depresses in vivo carotid body chemosensitivity.
  • Cholinergic transmission is involved in oxygen signaling, and because general anesthetics such as propofol have affinity to neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the authors hypothesized that propofol depresses carotid body chemosensitivity and cholinergic signaling.
  • METHODS: An isolated rabbit carotid body preparation was used.
  • Chemoreceptor activity was recorded from the whole carotid sinus nerve.
  • The effect of propofol on carotid body chemosensitivity was tested at three different degrees of PO2 reduction.
  • RESULTS: Propofol reduced carotid body chemosensitivity; the magnitude of depression was dependent on the reduction in PO2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that propofol impairs carotid body chemosensitivity, the magnitude of depression being dependent on the severity of PO2 reduction, and that propofol causes a concentration-dependent block of cholinergic chemotransduction via the carotid sinus nerve, whereas it seems unlikely that an activation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor complex is involved in this interaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthetics, Intravenous / pharmacology. Carotid Body / drug effects. Parasympathetic Nervous System / drug effects. Propofol / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15618794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3022
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesthesiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; YI7VU623SF / Propofol
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23. Peng YJ, Nanduri J, Yuan G, Wang N, Deneris E, Pendyala S, Natarajan V, Kumar GK, Prabhakar NR: NADPH oxidase is required for the sensory plasticity of the carotid body by chronic intermittent hypoxia. J Neurosci; 2009 Apr 15;29(15):4903-10
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  • [Title] NADPH oxidase is required for the sensory plasticity of the carotid body by chronic intermittent hypoxia.
  • Respiratory motoneuron response to hypoxia is reflex in nature and carotid body sensory receptor constitutes the afferent limb of this reflex.
  • Recent studies showed that repetitive exposures to hypoxia evokes long term facilitation of sensory nerve discharge (sLTF) of the carotid body in rodents exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH).
  • Experiments were performed on ex vivo carotid bodies from rats and mice exposed either to 10 d of CIH or normoxia.
  • Acute repetitive hypoxia evoked a approximately 12-fold increase in NOX activity in CIH but not in control carotid bodies, and this effect was associated with upregulation of NOX2 mRNA and protein, which was primarily localized to glomus cells of the carotid body. sLTF was prevented by NOX inhibitors and was absent in mice deficient in NOX2.
  • Priming with H(2)O(2) elicited sLTF of carotid bodies from normoxic control rats and mice, similar to that seen in CIH-treated animals.
  • These observations reveal a novel role for NOX-induced ROS signaling in mediating sensory plasticity of the carotid body.

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  • [Cites] Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009 Apr;11(4):747-64 [18783311.001]
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  • (PMID = 19369559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL076537; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-86493; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL076537-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL076537-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-90554; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL086493; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-76537; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-08533; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL076537-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL025830; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL025830-240016; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL090554; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL025830-240016; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL076537-03
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT2; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; EC 1.6.3.1 / NADPH Oxidase; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS109796; NLM/ PMC2692682
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24. Pandit JJ, O'Gallagher K: Effects of volatile anesthetics on carotid body response to hypoxia in animals. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2008;605:46-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of volatile anesthetics on carotid body response to hypoxia in animals.
  • This study was a systematic review of the anesthetic effect on carotid body response to hypoxia.
  • We undertook a systematic literature search (electronic plus manual) for full-paper articles in English that used methodologies enabling any anesthetic effect to be located to the carotid body.
  • Anesthetic (mean dose +/- SD 0.70 +/- 0.33 MAC) significantly depressed carotid body response by 24% (p = 0.041).
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthetics, Inhalation / pharmacology. Carotid Body / physiopathology. Carotid Sinus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18085245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Inhalation; 91I69L5AY5 / Enflurane; CYS9AKD70P / Isoflurane; UQT9G45D1P / Halothane
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25. Ouyang C, Lai C, Jin B, Li Y, Hu G, Wang W: [Analysis of management on 23 cases of carotid body tumors]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;22(18):827-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Analysis of management on 23 cases of carotid body tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: By reviewing the clinical material in 23 cases (25 tumors) of carotid body tumors, we concluded our experience in selecting the appropriate diagnostic modality and surgical therapy to facilitate surgical maneuvers and decrease the incidence of postoperative complications.
  • METHOD: From 2003 to 2008, 23 cases of carotid body tumors were admitted and treated in Wuhan Union Hospital.
  • All the 23 cases were operated after determining diagnosis that was deterred by angiography and noninvasive examinations including color Doppler scan, computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative angiography is a appropriate diagnostic modality for carotid body tumor, which can shows the supply arteries of the tumor and estimate the structure of the Willis Circle, so that we can judge the possibility to temporarily clamp the carotid artery during the operation to control the hemorrhage and eliminate the postoperative nervous complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19166027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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26. Kumar P, Bin-Jaliah I: Adequate stimuli of the carotid body: more than an oxygen sensor? Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):12-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adequate stimuli of the carotid body: more than an oxygen sensor?
  • The past 10-20 years has seen a significant increase in the number of studies aimed at elucidating the mechanism of action of the carotid body and this has led to an increased knowledge of how this sensory organ transduces hypoxaemia into afferent chemodischarge.
  • Whilst hypoxia is often considered as the most significant, peripheral chemostimulus, the carotid body is able to transduce many other physico-chemical stimuli, including not only arterial P(CO2) and pH but also blood potassium concentration, temperature and osmolarity as well as, potentially, blood glucose levels and all with appropriate physiological sensitivity.
  • We suggest, therefore, that the carotid body might better be viewed as a polymodal receptor with its multiple adequate stimuli interacting to provide additive or greater than additive effects upon chemoafferent discharge for the purpose of cardiorespiratory homeostasis during periods of stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / metabolism. Carotid Body / physiology. Mechanotransduction, Cellular / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17291838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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27. Leitner ML, Wang LH, Osborne PA, Golden JP, Milbrandt J, Johnson EM Jr: Expression and function of GDNF family ligands and receptors in the carotid body. Exp Neurol; 2005 Feb;191 Suppl 1:S68-79
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression and function of GDNF family ligands and receptors in the carotid body.
  • The carotid body is a neural crest-derived neuroendocrine organ that detects the oxygen level in blood and regulates ventilation.
  • Unlike many other neural crest derivatives, the trophic factors mediating survival and differentiation of neuroendocrine cells of the carotid body are unknown.
  • Given that many neural crest derivatives rely on the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands (GFLs) for survival and function, we undertook an analysis of the carotid body as a potential site of GFL action.
  • RET and GDNF family receptor alphas (GFRalpha) 1-3 are expressed in the developing carotid body as detected by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. mRNA for GDNF, and artemin (ARTN) were also present.
  • In vitro, treatment with GDNF, neurturin (NRTN), or ARTN, individually or in combination, produced an increase in the number and length of processes of the Type-I glomus cells of the carotid body [embryonic day-17 (E17) rats].
  • However, GFLs alone or in combination had no effect on glomus cell survival in either postnatal day-1 (P1) or E17 carotid body cultures.
  • These results suggest that one or more GFLs may have a role in carotid body function.
  • In addition, the results of this study suggest that endogenous or exogenous GFLs may enhance target innervation by carotid body transplants.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Nerve Growth Factors / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15629763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4886
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG-13730; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG12947; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG13729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Artn protein, rat; 0 / Gdnf protein, rat; 0 / Gfra1 protein, rat; 0 / Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neurturin; 0 / Nrtn protein, rat; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Ret protein, rat
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28. Del Rio R, Moya EA, Iturriaga R: Carotid body and cardiorespiratory alterations in intermittent hypoxia: the oxidative link. Eur Respir J; 2010 Jul;36(1):143-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carotid body and cardiorespiratory alterations in intermittent hypoxia: the oxidative link.
  • Intermittent hypoxia, a feature of obstructive sleep apnoea, potentiates ventilatory hypoxic responses, alters heart rate variability and produces hypertension, partially owing to an enhanced carotid body responsiveness to hypoxia.
  • Accordingly, we studied the effects of ascorbic acid (1.25 g.L(-1) drinking water) on plasma lipid peroxidation, nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactivity in the carotid body, ventilatory and carotid chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia, heart rate variability and arterial blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 5% O(2); 12 episodes.h(-1); 8 h.day(-1) or sham condition for 21 days.
  • Intermittent hypoxia increased plasma lipid peroxidation, nitrotyrosine and iNOS expression in the carotid body, enhanced carotid chemosensory and ventilatory hypoxic responses, modified heart rate variability and produced hypertension.
  • Ascorbic acid prevented the increased plasma lipid peroxidation and nitrotyrosine formation within the carotid body, and the enhanced carotid chemosensory and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, as well as heart rate variability alterations and hypertension.
  • The present results support an essential role for oxidative stress in the generation of carotid body chemosensory potentiation and systemic cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / prevention & control. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Ascorbic Acid / therapeutic use. Carotid Body / drug effects. Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / complications

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  • (PMID = 19996187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-3003
  • [Journal-full-title] The European respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Respir. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Nitrosamines; 3604-79-3 / 3-nitrotyrosine; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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29. Milsom WK, Burleson ML: Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors and the evolution of the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):4-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors and the evolution of the carotid body.
  • In the process, the cells in the fish gill associated with O(2) chemosensing (5-HT containing neuroepithelial cells often found in association with ACh/catecholamine (CA) containing cells) are replaced by the glomus cells of the mammalian carotid body (which contain multiple putative neurotransmitter substances, including 5-HT, CA and ACh, all within the same cells), although this difference may be more superficial than first appears.
  • The net result is that those receptors associated with the first gill arch of fish (the third branchial arch) become the carotid body in higher vertebrates associated with the regulation of ventilation and ensuring oxygen supply to the gas exchange surface.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / anatomy & histology. Carotid Body / physiology. Chemoreceptor Cells / anatomy & histology. Chemoreceptor Cells / physiology. Phylogeny

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  • (PMID = 17353155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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30. Hu Y, Hua Q, Jiang Y: [Diagnosis and treatment of carotid body tumors]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Nov;24(21):961-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of carotid body tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the diagnosis and therapy of carotid body tumors.
  • METHOD: A total of 44 patients with carotid body tumors were received and cured in people's hospital of Wuhan University from 1990 to 2010.
  • Two of them were bilateral carotid body tumor patients.
  • Among these patients, 39 of them were undertaken only tumor resecting, 6 were performed resecting of both tumors and external carotid artery and 1 were subjected to tumor resecting including internal carotid artery.
  • CONCLUSION: The most effective way to cure carotid body tumor is surgical operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21261012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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31. Kumar P: Sensing hypoxia in the carotid body: from stimulus to response. Essays Biochem; 2007;43:43-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sensing hypoxia in the carotid body: from stimulus to response.
  • The carotid body is a peripheral sensory organ that can transduce modest falls in the arterial PO(2) (partial pressure of oxygen) into a neural signal that provides the afferent limb of a set of stereotypic cardiorespiratory reflexes that are graded according to the intensity of the stimulus.
  • Although the oxygen sensor has not been definitely identified, it is believed to reside within type I cells of the carotid body, and presently two major hypotheses have been put forward to account for the sensing mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia. Carotid Body / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17705792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0071-1365
  • [Journal-full-title] Essays in biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Essays Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium Channels; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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32. Pávai Z, Töro K, Keller E, Jung J: Morphometric investigation of carotid body in sudden infant death syndrome. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):93-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphometric investigation of carotid body in sudden infant death syndrome.
  • The high rate of early progenitor cells in carotid body has been reported as a pathognomic feature for SIDS.
  • SUBJECTS: This study was designed to investigate the structure and developmental state of carotid body in SIDS and non-SIDS cases.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In this study on Hungarian SIDS cases we confirmed the observation that infants who died suddenly have an underdeveloped carotid body.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / pathology. Sudden Infant Death / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16286992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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33. Wilson DF, Roy A, Lahiri S: Immediate and long-term responses of the carotid body to high altitude. High Alt Med Biol; 2005;6(2):97-111
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immediate and long-term responses of the carotid body to high altitude.
  • High altitude and the decreased environmental oxygen pressure have both immediate and chronic effects on the carotid body.
  • In the isolated carotid body preparation, the afferent nerve activity depends on the ratio of carbon monoxide (CO), an inhibitor of respiratory chain function, to oxygen.
  • Longer-term exposure to high altitude results in progressive changes in the carotid body that involve several mechanisms, including cellular energy metabolism and hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha).
  • These changes begin within minutes of exposure, but progress such that chronic exposure results in morphological and biochemical alterations in the carotid body, including enlarged cells, increased catecholamine levels, altered cellular appearance, and others.
  • In the chronically adapted carotid body, responses to acute changes in oxygen pressure are enhanced.

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  • (PMID = 16060845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-0297
  • [Journal-full-title] High altitude medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] High Alt. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS031465-11; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 31465; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS031465-10; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R37 HL 43413; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS031465; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R37 HL043413; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS031465-11; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS031465-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
  • [Number-of-references] 120
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS155186; NLM/ PMC2784888
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34. Peers C, Wyatt CN, Evans AM: Mechanisms for acute oxygen sensing in the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2010 Dec 31;174(3):292-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanisms for acute oxygen sensing in the carotid body.
  • Hypoxic chemotransduction in the carotid body requires release of excitatory transmitters from type I cells that activate afferent sensory neurones.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Oxygen / metabolism. Sensory Receptor Cells / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20736087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1519
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing); EC 1.14.99.3 / heme oxygenase-2; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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35. Shirahata M, Balbir A, Otsubo T, Fitzgerald RS: Role of acetylcholine in neurotransmission of the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):93-105
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of acetylcholine in neurotransmission of the carotid body.
  • Acetylcholine (ACh) has been considered an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the carotid body (CB).
  • Various nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors are present in both afferent nerve endings and glomus cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylcholine / metabolism. Carotid Body / physiology. Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17284361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL50712; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL72293; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL07534
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 0 / Receptors, Muscarinic; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
  • [Number-of-references] 156
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36. Singh D, Pinjala RK, Reddy RC, Satya Vani PV: Management for carotid body paragangliomas. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2006 Dec;5(6):692-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management for carotid body paragangliomas.
  • The carotid body tumor is a rare neoplasm that has generated much literature over the last century, and for which continued controversy exists regarding natural history, biologic behavior, proper technique of excision, and the risk of morbidity and mortality.
  • The present study reviewed a 16-year experience of managing carotid body paraganglioma (CBP) between 1988 and 2004.
  • In five patients the tumor excision was attempted before they were referred to our tertiary care hospital.

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  • (PMID = 17670685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Prabhakar NR, Jacono FJ: Cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with carotid body adaptations to chronic hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol; 2005;6(2):112-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with carotid body adaptations to chronic hypoxia.
  • Increased afferent nerve activity from carotid bodies and the ensuing reflex activation of ventilation are critical for eliciting VAH.
  • In this review we highlight recent information on the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with chronic hypoxia-induced functional and structural changes in the carotid body.
  • Chronic hypoxia leads to hypersensitivity of the carotid bodies and induces morphological changes, including enlargement of the organ, hyperplasia of glomus cells, and neovascularization.
  • Enhanced hypoxic sensitivity is due to alterations in ion current densities, as well as changes in neurotransmitter dynamics and recruitment of additional neuromodulators (endothelin- 1, ET-1) in glomus cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / blood. Carotid Body / blood supply. Carotid Body / metabolism. Oxygen / blood

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  • (PMID = 16060846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-0297
  • [Journal-full-title] High altitude medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] High Alt. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 25830; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 66448
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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38. Donnelly DF, Carroll JL: Mitochondrial function and carotid body transduction. High Alt Med Biol; 2005;6(2):121-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mitochondrial function and carotid body transduction.
  • Carotid body chemoreceptors respond to a decrease in arterial oxygen tension by increasing spiking activity on the sinus nerve.
  • This hypothesis is supported by studies demonstrating a loss of mitochondrial potential in carotid body cells at oxygen tensions that cause no change in cells from other tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / metabolism. Carotid Body / blood supply. Carotid Body / metabolism. Mitochondria / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16060847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-0297
  • [Journal-full-title] High altitude medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] High Alt. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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39. López-López JR, Pérez-García MT: Oxygen sensitive Kv channels in the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):65-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxygen sensitive Kv channels in the carotid body.
  • In the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, there is a general consensus regarding the facts that a decrease in P(O2) leads to membrane depolarization, increase of Ca(2+) entry trough voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-dependent release of neurotransmitters.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology. Chemoreceptor Cells / physiology. Mechanotransduction, Cellular / physiology. Potassium Channels / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17442633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium Channels
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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40. Dinger B, He L, Chen J, Liu X, Gonzalez C, Obeso A, Sanders K, Hoidal J, Stensaas L, Fidone S: The role of NADPH oxidase in carotid body arterial chemoreceptors. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):45-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of NADPH oxidase in carotid body arterial chemoreceptors.
  • O(2)-sensing in the carotid body occurs in neuroectoderm-derived type I glomus cells where hypoxia elicits a complex chemotransduction cascade involving membrane depolarization, Ca(2+) entry and the release of excitatory neurotransmitters.

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  • (PMID = 17223613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS012636-31; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL086508; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS007938; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS012636-31; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS007938-32; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS012636; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS007938-32
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; EC 1.6.3.1 / NADPH Oxidase
  • [Number-of-references] 78
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS23104; NLM/ PMC2570203
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41. Campanucci VA, Nurse CA: Autonomic innervation of the carotid body: role in efferent inhibition. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):83-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Autonomic innervation of the carotid body: role in efferent inhibition.
  • The carotid body (CB) is a chemosensory organ that monitors blood chemicals and initiates compensatory reflex adjustments to maintain homeostasis.
  • The 'afferent' sensory discharge induced by changes in blood chemicals, e.g. low PO(2) (hypoxia), is relayed by carotid sinus nerve (CSN) fibers and has been well studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Autonomic Pathways. Carotid Body / anatomy & histology. Carotid Body / physiology. Efferent Pathways. Models, Neurological

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  • (PMID = 17353154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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42. Buckler KJ: TASK-like potassium channels and oxygen sensing in the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):55-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] TASK-like potassium channels and oxygen sensing in the carotid body.
  • Chemosensing by type-1 cells of the carotid body involves a series of events which culminate in the calcium-dependent secretion of neurotransmitter substances which then excite afferent nerves.
  • Metabolic poisons are known potent stimulants of the carotid body and cause membrane depolarisation of type-1 cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology. Chemoreceptor Cells / physiology. Mechanotransduction, Cellular / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17416212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain; 0 / potassium channel subfamily K member 3
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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43. Wyatt CN, Pearson SA, Kumar P, Peers C, Hardie DG, Evans AM: Key roles for AMP-activated protein kinase in the function of the carotid body? Adv Exp Med Biol; 2008;605:63-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Key roles for AMP-activated protein kinase in the function of the carotid body?
  • The carotid bodies play a critical role in initiating compensatory ventilatory responses to hypoxia.
  • However, the complete mechanism by which hypoxia excites the oxygen-sensing carotid body type 1 cells has not been fully defined.
  • We have previously proposed that the enzyme adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may couple hypoxic inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to carotid body type I cell excitation (Evans, Mustard, Wyatt, Peers, Dipp, Kumar, Kinnear and Hardie 2005).
  • Here we discuss evidence that AMPK is a key requirement for hypoxic chemotransduction by the carotid body.
  • In addition, we postulate upon a role for AMPK in the plasticity observed in the carotid body during both chronic and chronic intermittent hypoxia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology. Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18085248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 070772
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / Protein Subunits; EC 2.7.11.1 / AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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44. Makeieff M, Raingeard I, Alric P, Bonafe A, Guerrier B, Marty-Ane Ch: Surgical management of carotid body tumors. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;15(8):2180-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of carotid body tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumors (CBT) should be considered when evaluating every lateral neck mass.
  • Routine preoperative embolization of carotid body paragangliomas is not required.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18512105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Faustino EV, Donnelly DF: An important functional role of persistent Na+ current in carotid body hypoxia transduction. J Appl Physiol (1985); 2006 Oct;101(4):1076-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An important functional role of persistent Na+ current in carotid body hypoxia transduction.
  • Systemic hypoxia in mammals is sensed and transduced by the carotid body into increased action potential (AP) frequency on the sinus nerve, resulting in increased ventilation.
  • Using whole cell patch clamp recording of intact petrosal neurons with projections to the carotid body, we demonstrated that I(NaP) is present in chemoreceptor afferent neurons and is inhibited by riluzole.
  • The effect of both drugs appeared solely postsynaptic because hypoxia-induced catecholamine release in the carotid body was not altered by either drug.
  • The respiratory response of unanesthetized, unrestrained 2-wk-old rats to acute hypoxia (12% inspired O(2) fraction), which was measured with whole body plethysmography, was significantly reduced after treatment with riluzole (2 mg/kg ip) and phenytoin (20 mg/kg ip).
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / physiopathology. Carotid Body / physiopathology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Sodium Channels / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / drug effects. Action Potentials / physiology. Animals. Catecholamines / metabolism. Chemoreceptor Cells / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Nodose Ganglion / metabolism. Patch-Clamp Techniques. Phenytoin / pharmacology. Plethysmography, Whole Body. Pulmonary Ventilation / drug effects. Pulmonary Ventilation / physiology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Riluzole / pharmacology. Sodium Channel Blockers / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16778007.001).
  • [ISSN] 8750-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-073500
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Sodium Channel Blockers; 0 / Sodium Channels; 6158TKW0C5 / Phenytoin; 7LJ087RS6F / Riluzole
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46. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Guidolin D, Parenti A, Ferrara SD, De Caro R: Histopathology of carotid body in heroin addiction. Possible chemosensitive impairment. Histopathology; 2005 Mar;46(3):296-306
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathology of carotid body in heroin addiction. Possible chemosensitive impairment.
  • AIMS: To perform a morphometric analysis of carotid bodies in opiate addicts.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Carotid bodies were sampled at autopsy from 35 subjects who died of heroin intoxication (mean age 26 years), and from eight young (22 years) and eight older subjects (66.5 years) who died of trauma.
  • The histopathological changes in the carotid body, by impairing chemosensivity, may play a role in the fatal cardiorespiratory derangement of heroin addicts.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / pathology. Heroin Dependence / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15720415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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47. Yamamoto Y, Ishikawa R, Omoe K, Taniguchi K: Expression of inwardly rectifying K+ channels in the carotid body of rat. Histol Histopathol; 2008 07;23(7):799-806
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of inwardly rectifying K+ channels in the carotid body of rat.
  • Here, we determined the mRNA expression and immunohistochemical localization of these channels in the carotid body (CB) and petrosal ganglion (PG) of the rat.
  • Immunohistochemistry identified the glomus cells in CB to express both Kir4.1 and Kir5.1 protein, while the nerve fibers in CB were immunoreactive for Kir1.1, Kir4.1, and Kir5.1.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18437678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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48. Wang ZY, Bisgard GE: Postnatal growth of the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2005 Nov 15;149(1-3):181-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postnatal growth of the carotid body.
  • The size of the carotid body (CB) is increased significantly during the postnatal period.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / growth & development. Respiratory Mechanics / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15914098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 68255
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Growth Substances; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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49. Zapata P: Is ATP a suitable co-transmitter in carotid body arterial chemoreceptors? Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):106-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is ATP a suitable co-transmitter in carotid body arterial chemoreceptors?
  • A review is presented on carotid body ATP content, effects and release, receptors involved and results of their block by purinergic antagonists, and the possibility of cholinergic-purinergic co-transmission in the carotid body.
  • Glomus cells release ACh and ATP upon physiological stimulation.
  • Although a combined cholinergic-purinergic block suppresses the chemosensory activity in neurons co-cultured with glomus cells and some carotid body preparations in vitro, basal chemosensory activity and chemosensory responses to hypoxic stimuli persist in cat carotid body preparations in situ and in vitro.
  • Therefore, ATP is an effective excitatory agent for carotid body chemosensory activity, although less potent than ACh; their joint participation may contribute to -- but does not entirely explain -- the transfer of chemoreceptor excitation from glomus cells to sensory endings in carotid body.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Carotid Body / physiology. Chemoreceptor Cells / metabolism. Mechanotransduction, Cellular / physiology. Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17276149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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50. Wyatt CN, Evans AM: AMP-activated protein kinase and chemotransduction in the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):22-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AMP-activated protein kinase and chemotransduction in the carotid body.
  • Our recent research has raised the possibility that AMPK may also function to couple hypoxic inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to O(2)-sensitive K(+) channel inhibition and hence underpin carotid body type I cell excitation.
  • These findings provide a unifying link between two previously separate theories pertaining to O(2)-sensing in the carotid body, namely the 'membrane hypothesis' and the 'mitochondrial hypothesis'.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology. Mechanotransduction, Cellular / physiology. Models, Biological. Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17409030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / Potassium Channels; EC 2.7.11.1 / AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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51. Jacono FJ, Peng YJ, Kumar GK, Prabhakar NR: Modulation of the hypoxic sensory response of the carotid body by 5-hydroxytryptamine: role of the 5-HT2 receptor. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2005 Feb 15;145(2-3):135-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modulation of the hypoxic sensory response of the carotid body by 5-hydroxytryptamine: role of the 5-HT2 receptor.
  • Previous studies have shown that glomus cells of the carotid body express 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).
  • The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of 5-HT on the hypoxic sensory response (HSR) of the carotid body.
  • Sensory activity was recorded from multi-fiber (n=16) and single-fiber (n=8) preparations of ex vivo carotid bodies harvested from anesthetized, adult rats.
  • Carotid bodies expressed 5-HT, but hypoxia did not facilitate 5-HT release.
  • These observations suggest that 5-HT is not critical for the HSR of the rat carotid body, but it modulates the dynamics of the HSR via its action on 5-HT2 receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / physiopathology. Carotid Body / drug effects. Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology. Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT2 / physiology. Serotonin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15705529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 25830; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL 07887
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT2; 0 / Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 97F9DE4CT4 / Ketanserin; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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52. Grotemeyer D, Loghmanieh SM, Pourhassan S, Sagban TA, Iskandar F, Reinecke P, Sandmann W: [Dignity of carotid body tumors. Review of the literature and clinical experiences]. Chirurg; 2009 Sep;80(9):854-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Dignity of carotid body tumors. Review of the literature and clinical experiences].
  • [Transliterated title] Dignität von Glomus-caroticum-Tumoren. Literaturübersicht und klinische Erfahrungen.
  • INTRODUCTION: Tumors of the carotid body are rare paragangliomas (incidence 0.012%) originating from sympathetic fibres of the carotid bifurcation.
  • The aim of this study is to present the diagnosis, therapy and course in patients with a carotid body tumor treated at our department of the Düsseldorf University Hospital and to discuss rates of recurrence and also dignity during the long-term follow-up.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Included in this retrospective study were all patients treated for a carotid body tumor between January 1988 and June 2008.
  • A total of 22 tumors were found on the right side of the neck (52.38%), 20 were found on the left side (47.62%) and 6 patients showed a bilateral carotid body tumor (16.67%), 3 of which were bilaterally excised.
  • Altogether surgery of 39 carotid body tumors was performed in 36 patients.
  • In one patient a second operation was necessary and in the other patient there was a non-progressive swelling in the carotid bifurcation which had existed for 14 years and which was conservatively left untreated.
  • None of the patients showed evidence of local or remote metastasization of a carotid body tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical extirpation of carotid body tumors can be regarded as the only curative option with an overall mortality of 0%.
  • Due to a potentially infiltrating and disseminating growth, carotid body tumors should be regarded as semi-malignant and should therefore be indicated for surgery at the time of diagnosis.
  • Whether the incidence of carotid body tumors will rise due to increased routine diagnostic examination of the head and neck region using sonography and tomography remains to be seen.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carotid Body / pathology. Cranial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Ultrasonography. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19458915.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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53. Gonzalez C, Agapito MT, Rocher A, Gomez-Niño A, Rigual R, Castañeda J, Conde SV, Obeso A: A revisit to O2 sensing and transduction in the carotid body chemoreceptors in the context of reactive oxygen species biology. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2010 Dec 31;174(3):317-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A revisit to O2 sensing and transduction in the carotid body chemoreceptors in the context of reactive oxygen species biology.
  • In our article we define the concepts of sensors and transducers, the steps of the hypoxic transduction cascade in the carotid body chemoreceptor cells and also discuss current models of oxygen- sensing (bioenergetic, biosynthetic and conformational) with their supportive and unsupportive data from updated literature.
  • We envision oxygen-sensing in carotid body chemoreceptor cells as a process initiated at the level of plasma membrane and performed by a hemoprotein, which might be NOX4 or a hemoprotein not yet chemically identified.
  • Neurotransmitters would activate the nerve endings of the carotid body sensory nerve to convey the information of the hypoxic situation to the central nervous system that would command ventilation to fight hypoxia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / cytology. Chemoreceptor Cells / metabolism. Oxygen / metabolism. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20833275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1519
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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54. Pardal R, Ortega-Sáenz P, Durán R, Platero-Luengo A, López-Barneo J: The carotid body, a neurogenic niche in the adult peripheral nervous system. Arch Ital Biol; 2010 Jun;148(2):95-105

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The carotid body, a neurogenic niche in the adult peripheral nervous system.
  • We have described a new population of adult neural stem cells residing in the carotid body, a chemoreceptor organ in the peripheral nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / physiology. Carotid Body / cytology. Neurogenesis / physiology. Peripheral Nervous System / cytology

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  • (PMID = 20830972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9829
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives italiennes de biologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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55. Smadi T, Raza MA, Woodson BT, Franco RA: Obstructive sleep apnea caused by carotid body tumor: case report. J Clin Sleep Med; 2007 Aug 15;3(5):517-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Obstructive sleep apnea caused by carotid body tumor: case report.
  • We describe a case of a mass originating in the carotid body resulting in severe OSA with hypersomnia resistant to positive pressure ventilation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / complications. Carotid Body Tumor / radiography. Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / etiology

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  • [Cites] Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2001 Nov;7(6):391-8 [11706314.001]
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  • (PMID = 17803016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9389
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Sleep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1978329
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56. Fitzgerald RS, Shirahata M, Balbir A, Grossman CE: Oxygen sensing in the carotid body and its relation to heart failure. Antioxid Redox Signal; 2007 Jun;9(6):745-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxygen sensing in the carotid body and its relation to heart failure.
  • It then identifies and locates the principal oxygen sensor in vertebrates, the carotid body (CB).
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Heart Diseases / metabolism. Oxygen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17511590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-0864
  • [Journal-full-title] Antioxidants & redox signaling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antioxid. Redox Signal.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 50712; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 72293
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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57. Buckler KJ, Williams BA, Orozco RV, Wyatt CN: The role of TASK-like K+ channels in oxygen sensing in the carotid body. Novartis Found Symp; 2006;272:73-85; discussion 85-94, 131-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of TASK-like K+ channels in oxygen sensing in the carotid body.
  • The carotid body plays an important role in initiating protective responses to hypoxemia.
  • The primary oxygen sensing cells are the glomus or type 1 cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology. Oxygen / metabolism. Potassium Channels / physiology. Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16686430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-2511
  • [Journal-full-title] Novartis Foundation symposium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Novartis Found. Symp.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain; 0 / TASK protein, rat; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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58. Gil-Carcedo E, Gil-Carcedo LM, Vallejo LA, Herrero D, Ortega C: [Diagnosis and treatment of carotid body paragangliomas. Presentation of 9 cases and review of the literature]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2006 Nov;57(9):412-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of carotid body paragangliomas. Presentation of 9 cases and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnóstico y tratamiento de los paragangliomas carotídeos. Presentación de nueve casos y revisión de la literatura.
  • Carotid body paragangliomas (CBP) are relatively rare tumors arising from the carotid body paraganglion.
  • Clinical signs and images are necessary to establish the diagnosis.
  • Surgery is the preferred method of treatment, paying special attention to the carotid artery.
  • Nine patients with carotid body tumors were identified, three of them with complicated diagnosis.
  • Out of the eight surgical patients, three preserved the whole arterial structure, the external carotid artery is resected in two patients, the carotid artery is replaced (safen graft, gore tex prosthesis) in other two patients, and the common carotid was tied in the remaining patient.
  • We conclude that the diagnosis may be deceptive, and that the attitude forward the carotid is variable, always being prepared to do arterial replacement techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 17184010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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59. Yu G, Fournier C, Hess DC, Borlongan CV: Transplantation of carotid body cells in the treatment of neurological disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev; 2005 Jan;28(8):803-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transplantation of carotid body cells in the treatment of neurological disorders.
  • Laboratory and clinical studies have shown that intracerebral transplantation of carotid body (CB) cells ameliorate Parkinsonian deficits.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology. Carotid Body / transplantation. Cell Transplantation / methods. Nervous System Diseases / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15642622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-7634
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci Biobehav Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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60. Iturriaga R, Varas R, Alcayaga J: Electrical and pharmacological properties of petrosal ganglion neurons that innervate the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2007 Jul 1;157(1):130-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Electrical and pharmacological properties of petrosal ganglion neurons that innervate the carotid body.
  • The petrosal ganglion (PG) contains the somata of primary afferent neurons that innervate the chemoreceptor (glomus) cells in the carotid body (CB).
  • The most accepted model of CB chemoreception states that natural stimuli trigger the release of one or more transmitters from glomus cells, which in turn acting on specific post-synaptic receptors increases the rate of discharge in the nerve endings of PG neurons.
  • However, PG neurons that project to the CB represent only small fraction (roughly 20%) of the whole PG and their identification is not simple since their electrophysiological and pharmacological properties are not strikingly different as compared with other PG neurons, which project to the carotid sinus or the tongue.
  • The evidences suggest that ACh and ATP play a major role in the fast excitatory transmission between glomus cells and chemosensory nerve endings in the cat, rat and rabbit.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / anatomy & histology. Carotid Body / physiology. Mechanotransduction, Cellular / physiology. Neurons / physiology. Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17234461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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61. Muñoz-Cabello AM, Villadiego J, Toledo-Aral JJ, López-Barneo J, Echevarría M: AQP1 mediates water transport in the carotid body. Pflugers Arch; 2010 Apr;459(5):775-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AQP1 mediates water transport in the carotid body.
  • In this study, we explored the presence of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane water channel proteins, in carotid body (CB) type I chemoreceptor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Aquaporin 1 / metabolism. Biological Transport / physiology. Carotid Body / physiology. Water / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20049482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2013
  • [Journal-full-title] Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pflugers Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aqp1 protein, rat; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 146410-94-8 / Aquaporin 1
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62. Iturriaga R, Alcayaga J, Gonzalez C: Neurotransmitters in carotid body function: the case of dopamine--invited article. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;648:137-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neurotransmitters in carotid body function: the case of dopamine--invited article.
  • The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral chemoreceptor.
  • The present model of CB chemoreception states that glomus (type I) cells are the primary receptors, which are synaptically connected to the nerve terminals of the petrosal ganglion neurons.
  • In response to hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidosis, glomus cells release one (or more) transmitter(s) which, acting on the nerve terminals of chemosensory neurons, increases the afferent discharge.
  • Among several molecules present in glomus cells, dopamine, acetylcholine and 5'-adenosine-triphosphate have been proposed to be the excitatory transmitters in the CB.
  • Beside these putative excitatory transmitters, other molecules modulate the chemosensory process through direct actions on glomus cells and/or by producing tonic effects on CB blood vessels.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / cytology. Carotid Body / metabolism. Dopamine / metabolism. Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19536475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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63. Joseph V, Doan VD, Morency CE, Lajeunesse Y, Bairam A: Expression of sex-steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in the carotid body of adult and newborn male rats. Brain Res; 2006 Feb 16;1073-1074:71-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of sex-steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in the carotid body of adult and newborn male rats.
  • P450 side-chain-cleavage--P450scc, and P450 aromatase--P450Aro) in the carotid body (CB) and superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of adult, newborn and late fetal male rats, using immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR.
  • We conclude that the carotid body shows a constitutive expression of Erbeta and PR and may be able to synthesize steroids, including estradiol during late fetal life.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Carotid Body / metabolism. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16443195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Estradiol; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
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64. López-Barneo J, Pardal R, Ortega-Sáenz P, Durán R, Villadiego J, Toledo-Aral JJ: The neurogenic niche in the carotid body and its applicability to antiparkinsonian cell therapy. J Neural Transm (Vienna); 2009 Aug;116(8):975-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The neurogenic niche in the carotid body and its applicability to antiparkinsonian cell therapy.
  • The carotid body (CB) is a neural crest-derived organ whose major function is to sense changes in arterial O(2) tension to elicit hyperventilation during hypoxia.
  • The CB is composed of clusters of neuron-like glomus, or type I, cells that are highly dopaminergic and contain large amounts of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).
  • Glomus cells are enveloped by glia-like sustentacular, or type II, cells.
  • In chronic hypoxia the CB grows with increase in glomus cell number.
  • CB neurospheres contain numerous newly differentiated glomus cells, which maintain their functional properties and the ability to synthesize dopamine and GDNF.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / physiology. Carotid Body / transplantation. Neurogenesis. Neurons / physiology. Parkinsonian Disorders / surgery. Stem Cell Niche / physiology. Stem Cell Transplantation. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19263191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1463
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neural Transm (Vienna)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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65. San Sebastián W, Guillén J, Manrique M, Belzunegui S, Ciordia E, Izal-Azcárate A, Garrido-Gil P, Vázquez-Claverie M, Luquin MR: Modification of the number and phenotype of striatal dopaminergic cells by carotid body graft. Brain; 2007 May;130(Pt 5):1306-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modification of the number and phenotype of striatal dopaminergic cells by carotid body graft.
  • As carotid body cells contain the dopaminotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), we evaluated the number, morphology and neurochemistry of these TH-ir cells, in the anterior and posterior striatum of five monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) which received a graft of carotid body cell aggregates (CBCA) (n = 3) or sham surgery (n = 2), and six MPTP-monkeys that were sacrificed 6 months and 3 years after the last MPTP dose [MPTP I (n = 3) and MPTP II (n = 3), respectively].
  • Our data confirm and extend previous studies demonstrating that striatal CBCA grafts produce a long-lasting motor recovery of MPTP-monkeys along with an increase in the number and phenotype changes of the striatal TH-ir interneurons, probably by the action of the trophic factors contained in carotid body cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / transplantation. Corpus Striatum / metabolism. Corpus Striatum / pathology. Dopamine / metabolism. Parkinsonian Disorders / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17439984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 9P21XSP91P / 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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66. Morton RP, Stewart T, Dray MS, Farmilo W: A role for ipsilateral, selective neck dissection in carotid body tumours. J Laryngol Otol; 2009 Aug;123(8):934-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A role for ipsilateral, selective neck dissection in carotid body tumours.
  • INTRODUCTION: A reliable diagnosis of malignant carotid body tumour can only be made in the presence of metastatic disease, because the histological features of the primary tumour do not correlate with clinical behaviour.
  • CASE REPORT: We report two cases of malignant carotid body tumour in which regional nodal biopsy at the time of excision of the primary tumour revealed unsuspected metastatic disease.
  • DISCUSSION: Reoperation in the neck for recurrent metastatic carotid body tumour is difficult and potentially hazardous.
  • The presence of occult metastatic disease is easily identified if a selective - or sentinel - nodal dissection is performed routinely in cases of carotid body tumour excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neck Dissection / methods

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  • (PMID = 19250592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Xiao Z, Yang X, He X, Wu W, Yin T, Yang S, Ren J, Xie D: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of the carotid body tumors]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May;21(9):400-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of the carotid body tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To enhance the cure rate and lower the complication rate and the mortality rate through summarizing the clinical features and experiences in diagnosis and therapy of carotid body tumor (CBT).
  • RESULT: The accurate diagnosis rates hy using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were 100%.
  • The tumors of 8 cases were simplex isolated from the carotid artery.
  • Both the tumour and the external carotid artery were resected in 9 cases.
  • One case underwent resection of both the internal and external carotid artery and the tumour without carotid reconstruction.
  • One case underwent resection of the internal, external carotid artery and the tumor with reconstruction of the internal carotid artery.
  • One case had hoarseness and completely recovered in one week. and 1 case without carotid reconstruction had a frequent headache and gradually recovered in 5 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17634022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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68. van der Bogt KE, Vrancken Peeters MP, van Baalen JM, Hamming JF: Resection of carotid body tumors: results of an evolving surgical technique. Ann Surg; 2008 May;247(5):877-84

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Resection of carotid body tumors: results of an evolving surgical technique.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a modified technique for carotid body tumor (CBT) resection.
  • After 1992, most tumors were resected using an alternative technique, working in a craniocaudal fashion from skull base to carotid bifurcation.
  • Persistent cranial nerve damage was encountered after 26 (23%) of 111 operations; 21 after the standard operations (30% within this group, including 3 preexistent nonresolved cranial nerve deficits); and 5 (12%, including 2 due to additional vagal body resections) after the craniocaudal operations (P = 0.025).
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / surgery. Dissection / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures. Vascular Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18438127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Li SQ, Ye CS, Hu ZJ, Lin YJ, Li XX, Lü WM, Wang SM: [Experience of surgical treatment of carotid body tumor after preoperative embolization of feeding vessels]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Apr 7;89(13):894-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Experience of surgical treatment of carotid body tumor after preoperative embolization of feeding vessels].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of preoperative embolization of the feeding vessels of carotid body tumor in the treatment thereof.
  • METHODS: 33 patients with carotid body tumors not less than 3 cm in diameter were examined by color Doppler ultrasound.
  • External carotid artery to internal carotid artery bypass was performed on 1 case, anastomosis of common carotid to internal carotid artery with auto-saphenous vein interposition on 3 cases, and repair of internal carotid artery on 1 case.
  • CONCLUSION: An important adjunct in treating large carotid body tumor, preoperative embolization makes the surgical exploration proceed much smoother, blood loss become less, and morbidity lower.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / surgery. Vascular Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 19671289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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70. Ozay B, Kurc E, Orhan G, Yucel O, Senay S, Tasdemir M, Gorur A, Aka SA: Surgery of carotid body tumour: 14 cases in 7 years. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Jan-Feb;108(1):107-11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery of carotid body tumour: 14 cases in 7 years.
  • OBJECTIVE: The goal was to review our experience in the management of carotid body tumours.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of patients in whom carotid body tumour was diagnosed between 1998 and 2005.
  • The internal carotid artery was injured in two patients and the external carotid artery was injured in three patients (36%).
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for carotid body tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Loss, Surgical / statistics & numerical data. Carotid Arteries / radiography. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • (PMID = 18411584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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71. Rio RD, Moya EA, Alcayaga J, Iturriaga R: Evidence for histamine as a new modulator of carotid body chemoreception. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;648:177-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence for histamine as a new modulator of carotid body chemoreception.
  • It has been proposed that histamine is an excitatory transmitter between the glomus cells of the carotid body (CB) and the nerve endings of the petrosal ganglion (PG) neurons.
  • However, there is no evidence that glomus cells contain histamine, or whether its application produces chemosensory excitation.
  • We found the presence of histamine immunoreactivity in dense-core vesicles in glomus cells.
  • The application of histamine hydrochloride (0.5-1,000 microg) to the CB produces a dose-dependent increase in the carotid sinus nerve activity.
  • Antagonism of the H3 receptor results in an increase in carotid body chemosensory activity.
  • On the other hand, application of histamine to the isolated PG had no effect on the carotid nerve discharge.
  • Our results suggest that histamine is a modulator of the carotid body chemoreception through H1 and H3 receptor activation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / drug effects. Carotid Body / metabolism. Histamine / metabolism. Histamine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19536479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histamine Antagonists; 820484N8I3 / Histamine; HPE317O9TL / Pyrilamine
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72. Lim JY, Kim J, Kim SH, Lee S, Lim YC, Kim JW, Choi EC: Surgical treatment of carotid body paragangliomas: outcomes and complications according to the shamblin classification. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol; 2010 Jun;3(2):91-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of carotid body paragangliomas: outcomes and complications according to the shamblin classification.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to review our experience in the surgical management of carotid body paragangliomas and evaluate the outcomes and complications according to the Shamblin classification.
  • METHODS: Thirteen patients who had been diagnosed and surgically treated for carotid body tumors (CBTs) were enrolled in this study.
  • Selective preoperative tumor embolization was performed on six patients.
  • The median tumor size was 2.3 cm in Shamblin I and II and 4 cm in Shamblin III.
  • Internal carotid artery ligation with reconstruction was accomplished on three patients (23%), and they all belonged to Shamblin III (38%).

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  • [Cites] Ann Surg Oncol. 2008 Aug;15(8):2180-6 [18512105.001]
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  • (PMID = 20607078.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2896739
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carotid body tumor / Paraganglioma
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73. Akada S, Fagerlund MJ, Lindahl SG, Sakamoto A, Prabhakar NR, Eriksson LI: Pronounced depression by propofol on carotid body response to CO2 and K+-induced carotid body activation. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2008 Feb 29;160(3):284-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pronounced depression by propofol on carotid body response to CO2 and K+-induced carotid body activation.
  • Propofol reduce in vivo and in vitro carotid body responses to hypoxia as well as to nicotine in experimental animals.
  • In the present study we examined the effects of propofol on carotid body responses to hypercapnia and K(+)-induced carotid body activation and compared these effects with hypoxia in an in vitro rabbit carotid body preparation.
  • Hypoxia, hypercapnia and potassium increased the carotid sinus nerve activity and propofol attenuated the chemoreceptor responses to all three stimuli.
  • However, the magnitude of propofol-induced attenuation was greater for hypercapnic and K(+)-induced carotid body activation compared to the hypoxic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthetics, Intravenous / pharmacology. Carotid Body / drug effects. Chemoreceptor Cells / physiology. Propofol / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18054527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; RWP5GA015D / Potassium; YI7VU623SF / Propofol
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74. Zeitler DM, Glick J, Har-El G: Preoperative embolization in carotid body tumor surgery: is it required? Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2010 May;119(5):279-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative embolization in carotid body tumor surgery: is it required?
  • OBJECTIVES: We compared estimated blood loss (EBL) in patients who underwent surgical excision of carotid body tumors (CBTs) after preoperative superselective angiography with embolization (PSE) with that in patients who underwent excision of CBTs without PSE.
  • Demographic data including age, sex, and tumor size were collected.
  • Tumor size was based on preoperative radiographic measurements by a senior radiologist and the surgeon.
  • RESULTS: In the 10 patients with PSE, the mean age was 41 years (range, 22 to 72 years) and the mean tumor size was 4.8 cm (range, 2.9 to 8.3 cm).
  • In the 15 patients without PSE, the mean age was 43.7 years (range, 20 to 75 years) and the mean tumor size was 4.4 cm (range, 2.8 to 7.9 cm).
  • There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to age, tumor size, or EBL.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Loss, Surgical / prevention & control. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic

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  • (PMID = 20524570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Smith CA, Chenuel BJ, Henderson KS, Dempsey JA: The apneic threshold during non-REM sleep in dogs: sensitivity of carotid body vs. central chemoreceptors. J Appl Physiol (1985); 2007 Aug;103(2):578-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The apneic threshold during non-REM sleep in dogs: sensitivity of carotid body vs. central chemoreceptors.
  • This has never been tested in an unanesthetized preparation with intact carotid bodies.
  • We studied three unanesthetized dogs during normal sleep in a preparation in which intact carotid body chemoreceptors could be reversibly isolated from the systemic circulation and perfused.
  • Dogs were studied when both central and peripheral chemoreceptors sensed transient hypocapnia induced by the pressure support ventilation and again with carotid body isolation such that only the central chemoreceptors sensed the hypocapnia.
  • We observed that the CO(2) reserve was congruent with4.5 Torr when the carotid chemoreceptors sensed the transient hypocapnia but more than doubled (>9 Torr) when only the central chemoreceptors sensed hypocapnia.
  • These findings agree with those previously obtained using an identical pressure support ventilation protocol in carotid body-denervated sleeping dogs (Nakayama H, Smith CA, Rodman JR, Skatrud JB, Dempsey JA.
  • We conclude that hypocapnia sensed at the carotid body chemoreceptor is required for the initiation of apnea following a transient ventilatory overshoot in non-rapid eye movement sleep.
  • [MeSH-major] Apnea / physiopathology. Carotid Body / physiology. Chemoreceptor Cells / physiology. Sleep, REM / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17495123.001).
  • [ISSN] 8750-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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76. Cummings KJ, Wilson RJ: Time-dependent modulation of carotid body afferent activity during and after intermittent hypoxia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2005 Jun;288(6):R1571-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Time-dependent modulation of carotid body afferent activity during and after intermittent hypoxia.
  • We tested the hypothesis that carotid body afferent activity undergoes time-dependent modulation, consistent with a direct role in these ventilatory phenomena.
  • Using an in vitro rat carotid body preparation, we found that 1) afferent activity declined during the first 5 min of severe (40 Torr Po(2)), moderate (60 Torr Po(2)), or mild (80 Torr Po(2)) hypoxia;.
  • We suggest time-dependent carotid body activity acts in parallel with central mechanisms to shape the dynamics of ventilatory responses to respiratory chemostimuli.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / physiopathology. Carotid Body / physiopathology. Neurons, Afferent / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Gas Analysis. Carbon Dioxide / blood. Carotid Sinus / physiology. Hypercapnia / physiopathology. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Respiratory Mechanics / physiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15677524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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77. Luna-Ortiz K, Rascon-Ortiz M, Villavicencio-Valencia V, Herrera-Gomez A: Does Shamblin's classification predict postoperative morbidity in carotid body tumors? A proposal to modify Shamblin's classification. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Feb;263(2):171-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does Shamblin's classification predict postoperative morbidity in carotid body tumors? A proposal to modify Shamblin's classification.
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the possible correlation between Shamblin's classification and post-surgical morbidity in the treatment of carotid body tumors (CBTs).
  • Seventy-two patients with carotid body tumors were seen over a 22-year period.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / surgery. Postoperative Complications / classification. Vascular Surgical Procedures

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Dec;263(12):1161
  • (PMID = 16010570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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78. Virkki A, Polo O, Gyllenberg M, Aittokallio T: Can carotid body perfusion act as a respiratory controller? J Theor Biol; 2007 Dec 21;249(4):737-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Can carotid body perfusion act as a respiratory controller?
  • The carotid bodies contain chemoreceptor cells that respond to hypoxia and hypercapnia/acidosis of the arterial blood.
  • Since the carotid bodies receive exceptionally high blood perfusion through branches of the external carotid artery, their impulse activity to the respiratory center is thought to be determined mainly by the arterial partial pressures of oxygen (O(2)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)).
  • The objective of the work was to test whether physiologically feasible reductions in carotid body perfusion could explain such respiratory overdrive using a flow-sensitive mathematical model of the carotid body chemoreception.
  • An example is given in which relatively small changes in blood flow significantly modify the carotid body sensitivity to CO(2).
  • These results suggest that limiting perfusion of the carotid bodies through vasoconstriction can offer a powerful mechanism to drive breathing beyond metabolic needs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / blood supply. Models, Biological. Respiratory Physiological Phenomena

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  • (PMID = 17936799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5193
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of theoretical biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Theor. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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79. Kameda Y, Ito M, Nishimaki T, Gotoh N: FRS2 alpha 2F/2F mice lack carotid body and exhibit abnormalities of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and carotid sinus nerve. Dev Biol; 2008 Feb 1;314(1):236-47
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  • [Title] FRS2 alpha 2F/2F mice lack carotid body and exhibit abnormalities of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and carotid sinus nerve.
  • We show that the carotid body is absent in FRS2 alpha(2F/2F) mice, in which the Shp2-binding sites of FRS2 alpha are disrupted.
  • We also show that the carotid body rudiment is not formed in the wall of the third arch artery in mutant embryos.
  • In wild-type mice, the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk connects to the carotid body in the carotid bifurcation region, and extends thick nerve bundles into the carotid body.
  • In addition, few neuronal processes extended from the ganglion into the carotid bifurcation region.
  • The number of carotid sinus nerve fibers that reached the carotid bifurcation region was markedly decreased, and baroreceptor fibers belonging to the glossopharyngeal nerve were absent from the basal part of the internal carotid artery in FRS2 alpha(2F/2F) mutant mice.
  • In some of the mutant mice (5 out of 14), baroreceptors and some glomus cells were distributed in the wall of the common carotid artery, onto which the sympathetic ganglion abutted.
  • We propose that the sympathetic ganglion provides glomus cell precursors into the third arch artery derivative in the presence of sensory fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / abnormalities. Carotid Sinus / abnormalities. Membrane Proteins / physiology. Superior Cervical Ganglion / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carotid Artery, Common / embryology. Carotid Artery, Common / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Mutant Strains. Mutation. Nerve Fibers / physiology. Pressoreceptors / embryology. Pressoreceptors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18177855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-564X
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FRS2alpha protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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80. Rey S, Del Rio R, Alcayaga J, Iturriaga R: Endothelins in the cat petrosal ganglion and carotid body: effects and immunolocalization. Brain Res; 2006 Jan 19;1069(1):154-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endothelins in the cat petrosal ganglion and carotid body: effects and immunolocalization.
  • In response to hypoxia, chemoreceptor cells of the carotid body (CB) release transmitters, which acting on the petrosal ganglion (PG) neuron terminals, increase the chemoafferent discharge.
  • Thus, our data indicate that the excitatory effect of ET-1 in the carotid chemoreceptor system appears to be mainly due to a vasoconstrictor effect in the CB blood vessels.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / pharmacology. Endothelins / metabolism. Ganglia, Sensory / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16364257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Endothelins
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81. Antonello M, Piazza M, Menegolo M, Opocher G, Deriu GP, Grego F: Role of the genetic study in the management of carotid body tumor in paraganglioma syndrome. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg; 2008 Nov;36(5):517-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of the genetic study in the management of carotid body tumor in paraganglioma syndrome.
  • Diagnosis of carotid body tumor (CBT) was made in a 36 years old woman.
  • Subsequently a thoraco-abdominal CT and indium(111) octreotide body scan were performed and another paraganglioma was detected in the anterior mediastinum.
  • CBT was surgically removed; differently the thoracic lesion due to his benign genetic profile was not treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mediastinal Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18692411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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82. Montero S, Mendoza H, Valles V, Lemus M, Alvarez-Buylla R, de Alvarez-Buylla ER: Arginine-vasopressin mediates central and peripheral glucose regulation in response to carotid body receptor stimulation with Na-cyanide. J Appl Physiol (1985); 2006 Jun;100(6):1902-9
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  • [Title] Arginine-vasopressin mediates central and peripheral glucose regulation in response to carotid body receptor stimulation with Na-cyanide.
  • Hypoxic stimulation of the carotid body receptors (CBR) results in a rapid hyperglycemia with an increase in brain glucose retention.
  • [MeSH-major] Arginine Vasopressin / physiology. Carotid Body / physiology. Chemoreceptor Cells / drug effects. Chemoreceptor Cells / physiology. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Glucose / metabolism. Sodium Cyanide / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16497839.001).
  • [ISSN] 8750-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin; 130155-44-1 / oxytocin, beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionic acid-Trp(2)-Phe(3)-Ile(4)-Arg(8)-; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; O5DDB9Z95G / Sodium Cyanide
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83. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Parenti A, De Caro R: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT signalling pathways in the human carotid body and peripheral ganglia. Acta Histochem; 2010 Jul;112(4):305-16
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  • [Title] Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT signalling pathways in the human carotid body and peripheral ganglia.
  • Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling pathways are involved in various cell functions, but their developmental regulation in the carotid body and peripheral ganglia has not yet been fully investigated.
  • ERK and AKT immunolocalisation and activation were studied by anti-ERK, -pERK, -AKT and -pAKT immunohistochemistry in carotid bodies and peripheral (sympathetic and sensory) ganglia, sampled at autopsy from 4 foetuses (mean gestational age 177 days), 8 infants (mean age 10 months), 8 young adults (mean age 38 years) and 6 aged adults (mean age 72.4 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Ganglia / metabolism. Peripheral Nervous System / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19232686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta histochemica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Histochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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84. Zhu J, Han D, Zhou J: [Retrospective analysis of the diagnosis and surgical treatment of carotid body tumor]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;19(18):817-9
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  • [Title] [Retrospective analysis of the diagnosis and surgical treatment of carotid body tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic methods and the surgical treatment in carotid body tumor (CBT).
  • METHOD: In retrospect of clinical data in 11 cases with CBT including CT, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), operation and its curative effect, the clinical experience in diagnosis and surgical treatment of CBT was summarized.
  • The cervical CT scan showed a tumorous lesion in the carotid bifurcation.
  • Preoperatively high selected embolization of the tumor- feeding artery could effectively reduce the intraoperative bleeding.
  • All cases of CBT were resected without any carotid artery ligation.
  • The utilization of DSA could facilitate the diagnosis and the treatment of the CBT.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / radiography. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16375108.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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85. López-Barneo J, Ortega-Sáenz P, Piruat JI, García-Fernández M: Oxygen-sensing by ion channels and mitochondrial function in carotid body glomus cells. Novartis Found Symp; 2006;272:54-64; discussion 64-72, 131-40
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  • [Title] Oxygen-sensing by ion channels and mitochondrial function in carotid body glomus cells.
  • Carotid body glomus cells release transmitters in response to hypoxia due to the increase of excitability resulting from inhibition of O2-regulated K+ channels.
  • However, rotenone, a complex I blocker, selectively occludes the responsiveness to hypoxia of glomus cells in a dose-dependent manner.
  • Heterozygous Sdhd(+/-) mice show a general, non-compensated, deficiency of complex II activity, and abnormal enhancement of resting carotid body secretion rate due to decrease of K+ conductance and persistent Ca2+ influx into glomus cells.
  • However, responsiveness to hypoxia of carotid bodies from Sdhd(+/-) mice remains intact.
  • These data strongly suggest that sensitivity to hypoxia of carotid body glomus cells is not linked in a simple way to mitochondrial electron flow.
  • Nevertheless, it is possible that a rotenone-sensitive molecule critically participates in acute carotid body oxygen sensing.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / cytology. Carotid Body / physiology. Ion Channels / physiology. Mitochondria / physiology. Oxygen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16686429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-2511
  • [Journal-full-title] Novartis Foundation symposium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Novartis Found. Symp.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ion Channels; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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86. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Amagliani A, Castagliuolo I, Parenti A, De Caro R: Neurotensin receptor 1 immunoreactivity in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body. Eur J Histochem; 2009 Jul-Sep;53(3):135-42
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  • [Title] Neurotensin receptor 1 immunoreactivity in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body.
  • In the present study we investigated, through immunohistochemistry, the presence and location of neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body of 16 humans and 5 rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Ganglia / metabolism. Receptors, Neurotensin / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19864207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Histochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Neurotensin; 0 / neurotensin type 1 receptor
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87. Wang ZY, Olson EB Jr, Bjorling DE, Mitchell GS, Bisgard GE: Sustained hypoxia-induced proliferation of carotid body type I cells in rats. J Appl Physiol (1985); 2008 Mar;104(3):803-8
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  • [Title] Sustained hypoxia-induced proliferation of carotid body type I cells in rats.
  • Sustained hypoxia (SH) has been shown to cause profound morphological and cellular changes in carotid body (CB).
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / pathology. Carotid Body / pathology. Cell Proliferation

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  • (PMID = 18096755.001).
  • [ISSN] 8750-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-68255
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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88. Jia MY, Wang HF, Sun J, Li NY, Zhao BD, Shang W: [Resection of carotid body tumor under interrupted block of common carotid artery]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue; 2005 Apr;14(2):200-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Resection of carotid body tumor under interrupted block of common carotid artery].
  • 7 patients with carotid body tumor (CBT) were evaluated by DSA preoperatively.
  • Carotid artery (CA) blocking test was carried out under local anesthesia before operation.
  • DSA is of important value in the diagnosis and treatments of CBT.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Artery, Common / surgery. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15886851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1006-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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89. Rey S, Corthorn J, Chacón C, Iturriaga R: Expression and immunolocalization of endothelin peptides and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in the carotid body exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. J Histochem Cytochem; 2007 Feb;55(2):167-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression and immunolocalization of endothelin peptides and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in the carotid body exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia.
  • Increased levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the carotid body (CB) contribute to the enhancement of chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia in cats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH).
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / metabolism. Carotid Body / metabolism. Endothelins / metabolism. Receptor, Endothelin A / metabolism. Receptor, Endothelin B / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17046837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Endothelins; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
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90. Pawar A, Nanduri J, Yuan G, Khan SA, Wang N, Kumar GK, Prabhakar NR: Reactive oxygen species-dependent endothelin signaling is required for augmented hypoxic sensory response of the neonatal carotid body by intermittent hypoxia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2009 Mar;296(3):R735-42
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  • [Title] Reactive oxygen species-dependent endothelin signaling is required for augmented hypoxic sensory response of the neonatal carotid body by intermittent hypoxia.
  • We previously reported that intermittent hypoxia (IH) augments hypoxic sensory response (HSR) and increases the number of glomus cells in neonatal carotid bodies.
  • In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that recruitment of endothelin-1 (ET-1) signaling by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in IH-evoked changes in neonatal carotid bodies.
  • IH augmented HSR of the carotid bodies ex vivo and resulted in hyperplasia of glomus cells.
  • The effects of IH were associated with enhanced basal release of ET-1 under normoxia, sensitization of carotid body response to exogenous ET-1, and upregulation of ET(A) but not an ET(B) receptor mRNA without altering the ET-1 content.
  • ROS levels were elevated in carotid bodies from IH-treated rat pups as evidenced by increased levels of malondialdehyde.
  • In striking contrast, MnTMPyP treatment had no significant effect on IH-induced hyperplasia of glomus cells.

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  • (PMID = 19109370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-076537; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-086493; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-090554
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Endothelins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2665844
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91. Lam SY, Tipoe GL, Liong EC, Fung ML: Differential expressions and roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, -2alpha and -3alpha in the rat carotid body during chronic and intermittent hypoxia. Histol Histopathol; 2008 03;23(3):271-80
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  • [Title] Differential expressions and roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, -2alpha and -3alpha in the rat carotid body during chronic and intermittent hypoxia.
  • The HIF-1alpha expression in the carotid body (CB) is central to the transcriptional regulation of the CB structural and functional changes in chronic hypoxia (CH).
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Carotid Body / metabolism. Hypoxia / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18072084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Hif1a protein, rat; 0 / Hif3a protein, rat; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
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92. Pecorari G, Roccia F, Nadalin J, Giordano C, Garzaro M: Combined endovascular and surgical treatment of carotid body tumor in a patient with thoracic situs solitus. Head Neck; 2008 Nov;30(11):1523-6
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  • [Title] Combined endovascular and surgical treatment of carotid body tumor in a patient with thoracic situs solitus.
  • The authors report a case of carotid body tumor with chronic hypoxia secondary to congenital cyanogenic cardiac malformation, radiologically and surgically treated.
  • Radiologic examination led to a suspicion of carotid body tumor.
  • Twenty-four hours later, the tumor was completely removed under local anesthesia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The choice of surgical resection with selective preoperative embolization, which induced the obliteration of the feeder vessels, devascularizing the tumor and avoiding significant intraoperative bleeding, was successful.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / therapy. Heart Defects, Congenital / therapy. Situs Inversus / therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18302255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Evans AM: AMP-activated protein kinase underpins hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and carotid body excitation by hypoxia in mammals. Exp Physiol; 2006 Sep;91(5):821-7
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  • [Title] AMP-activated protein kinase underpins hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and carotid body excitation by hypoxia in mammals.
  • Two systems that are key to this process in the acute phase are the pulmonary arteries and the carotid bodies.
  • By contrast, a fall in arterial P(O(2)) precipitates excitation-secretion coupling in carotid body type I cells, increases sensory afferent discharge from the carotid body and thereby elicits corrective changes in breathing patterns via the brainstem.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / physiopathology. Carotid Body / physiology. Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Pulmonary Circulation / physiology. Vasoconstriction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16740641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0958-0670
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; EC 2.7.11.1 / AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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94. Ganfornina MD, Pérez-García MT, Gutiérrez G, Miguel-Velado E, López-López JR, Marín A, Sánchez D, González C: Comparative gene expression profile of mouse carotid body and adrenal medulla under physiological hypoxia. J Physiol; 2005 Jul 15;566(Pt 2):491-503

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative gene expression profile of mouse carotid body and adrenal medulla under physiological hypoxia.
  • The carotid body (CB) is an arterial chemoreceptor, bearing specialized type I cells that respond to hypoxia by closing specific K+ channels and releasing neurotransmitters to activate sensory axons.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Anoxia / metabolism. Carotid Body / metabolism. Gene Expression / physiology

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  • [Cites] Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;536:583-91 [14635716.001]
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  • (PMID = 15890701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3751
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1464746
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95. Kim JH, Kim I, Carroll JL: Modification of relative gene expression ratio obtained from real time qPCR with whole carotid body by using mathematical equations. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;648:125-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modification of relative gene expression ratio obtained from real time qPCR with whole carotid body by using mathematical equations.
  • The carotid body (CB) is mainly composed of three types of cells: type I (chemoreceptor) cells, type II cells, and other types of cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Models, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19536474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Ma D, Liu M, Yang H, Ma X, Zhang C: Diagnosis and surgical treatment of carotid body tumor: A report of 18 cases. J Cardiovasc Dis Res; 2010 Jul;1(3):122-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and surgical treatment of carotid body tumor: A report of 18 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in the diagnosis and treatment of carotid body tumor (CBT).
  • Resection of the tumor under the carotid adventitial plane was performed in 10 cases, the tumor with the external carotid artery in five cases, and the tumor with the internal and external arteries at the same time in three cases.
  • CONCLUSION: DSA is the gold standard for the diagnosis of CBT.

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  • (PMID = 21187865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0976-2833
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiovascular disease research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiovasc Dis Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2982199
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carotid body tumor / diagnosis / treatment
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97. Deng Y, Wang XM, Wu LB, Sun C, Duan YH, Cheng ZP, Wu DW: Significance of the preoperative guidance of dual-source CT in carotid body tumor. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Oct;123(20):2816-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Significance of the preoperative guidance of dual-source CT in carotid body tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Accurate views of the head and neck vessels, tumor angiogenesis and the relationship of tumor and the surrounding blood vessels are especially crucial to carotid body tumor (CBT) patients.
  • The aim of this study was to explore the value of dual-source CT (DSCT) cerebral and carotid angiography in CBT diagnosis.
  • METHODS: DSCT cerebral and carotid angiography was performed on nine patients with CBT.
  • All patients had clearly demonstrated head and neck vessels, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor relationship with the surrounding blood vessels.
  • The internal and external carotid artery (ICA, ECA) were involved in 2 cases.
  • CDFI could demonstrate the nearby blood vessels and tumor structure, instead of tumor angiogenesis.
  • However, DSCT can display both the tumor and the peripheral vascular tumor angiogenesis consistent with surgical findings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DSCT cerebral and carotid angiography can provide reliable information for the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Arteries / radiography. Carotid Body Tumor / radiography. Cerebral Angiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 21034589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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98. Kotelis D, Rizos T, Geisbüsch P, Attigah N, Ringleb P, Hacke W, Allenberg JR, Böckler D: Late outcome after surgical management of carotid body tumors from a 20-year single-center experience. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2009 Mar;394(2):339-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late outcome after surgical management of carotid body tumors from a 20-year single-center experience.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for carotid body tumors.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: All patients that were operated on a carotid body tumor at our institution between 1986 and 2006 were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients (11 female, six male) with 17 carotid body tumors (12 right, five left sided) were identified.
  • Complete tumor resection was achieved in 16 of 17 cases (94.1%).
  • One patient (5.6%) died of local tumor recurrence 3 years after a R1 resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The surgical therapy of carotid body tumors shows low long-term morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rates.

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  • (PMID = 18633637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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99. Lam SY, Tipoe GL, Fung ML: Upregulation of erythropoietin and its receptor expression in the rat carotid body during chronic and intermittent hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;648:207-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Upregulation of erythropoietin and its receptor expression in the rat carotid body during chronic and intermittent hypoxia.
  • The carotid body (CB) plays important roles in cardiorespiratory changes in intermittent hypoxia (IH).
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / metabolism. Carotid Body / metabolism. Erythropoietin / metabolism. Receptors, Erythropoietin / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19536483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hif1a protein, rat; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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100. Tomita T, Ozawa H, Tagawa T, Sakamoto K, Ogawa K: [A multidisciplinary approach to carotid body tumors. Report of five cases]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2007 Dec;110(12):743-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A multidisciplinary approach to carotid body tumors. Report of five cases].
  • We performed a retrospective review of five patients with carotid body tumors at our institution between 1997 and 2005.
  • Out of the five patients, three patients were treated by surgical resection of the tumor, and 2 patients were observed.
  • Imaging tests are important for establishment of the diagnosis.
  • Delayed cerebral infarction was caused in one patient postoperatively, although the carotid artery was preserved.
  • The dissection in a tumor-adventitial plane using the bipolar coagulation technique under the microscope was performed in the other two cases.
  • Histological examination of the specimen revealed no tumor cells in the excision stump.
  • Dissection in the tumor-adventitial plane using bipolar coagulation under the microscope is important for carotid artery preservation and radical resection of Shamblin's group I and II tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18186291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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