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1. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • TREATMENT: She underwent surgical removal of the tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15902349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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2. Rosenkrantz AB, Do RK, Hajdu CH: Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e204-7
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  • [Title] Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour.
  • Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course.
  • Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • The distinction between these entities is important, as the current suggested management of an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is resection with subsequent imaging surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20846977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473746
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3. Markou A, Tsigou K, Papadogias D, Kossyvakis K, Vamvakidis K, Kounadi T, Piaditis G: A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor. Hormones (Athens); 2005 Oct-Dec;4(4):226-30
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  • [Title] A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • We present a 39-year old female with a benign adrenal tumor characterized by autonomous secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone.
  • CT of the adrenals revealed a 2.5 x 3.0 cm tumor with characteristics of an adenoma on the left adrenal gland.
  • Further investigations revealed suppressed basal ACTH levels, loss of diurnal rhythm of cortisol, and failure to suppress on low dose dexamethasone suppression test, suggesting autonomous cortisol secretion by the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Multiple Sclerosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aldosterone / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 16613821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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4. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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5. Slater EP, Diehl SM, Langer P, Samans B, Ramaswamy A, Zielke A, Bartsch DK: Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Apr;154(4):587-98
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  • OBJECTIVES: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm with extremely poor prognosis.
  • The comparative analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene-expression patterns of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors allows us to identify new tumor-suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes underlying adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Total RNA from fresh-frozen tissue of 10 ACC and 10 benign adrenocortical adenomas was isolated after histologic confirmation of neoplastic cellularity of at least 85%.
  • The reference consisted of pooled RNA of 10 normal adrenal cortex samples.
  • Amplified RNA of tumor and reference was used to synthesize Cy3- and Cy5-fluorescently labeled cDNA in a flip-color technique.
  • RESULTS: The comparative analysis of gene expression revealed many genes with more than fourfold expression difference between ACC and normal tissue (42 genes), cortical adenoma and normal tissue (11 genes), and ACC and cortical adenoma (21 genes) respectively.
  • As confirmed by real-time PCR, the IGF2 gene was significantly upregulated in ACCs versus cortical adenomas and normal cortical tissue.

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  • (PMID = 16556722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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6. Namour F, Ayav A, Lu X, Klein M, Muresan M, Bresler L, Tramoy D, Guéant JL, Brunaud L: Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors. World J Surg; 2006 Jul;30(7):1240-6
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  • [Title] Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The adrenal gland may give rise to pheochromocytomas, which are catecholamine-producing tumors originating from the adrenal medulla, or to adrenocortical tumors, which derive from the adrenocortical cortex and may be secreting or not.
  • Microsatellite loci were analyzed in 32 benign tumors, including 11 pheochromocytomas and 21 adrenocortical tumors, in patients with and without familial syndrome.
  • No microsatellite instability was detected in any tumor.
  • A second patient with a MEN-2A syndrome and a two-sided pheochromocytoma exhibited a loss of heterozygosity for D2S123 in the right tumor only and a retention of heterozygosity for all markers in the left tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microsatellite instability, evaluated by the five reference markers of the National Cancer Institute, is not a feature of benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alleles. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16715450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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7. Takehara K, Sakai H, Shono T, Irie J, Kanetake H: Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Urol; 2005 Feb;12(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine differences in biological features among different adrenal tumors, we investigated the DNA ploidy, numerical chromosomal aberration and proliferative activity in human adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Our study included six adrenal cortical adenomas with Cushing syndrome, 12 adenomas with hyperaldosteronism, three non-functioning adenomas and three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of adrenal cortical carcinomas was markedly higher than that of adrenal cortical adenomas (209.4 vs 8.7).
  • In functional adrenal cortical adenomas, the LI was significantly lower in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004), although FCM results indicated that tetraploid patterns were more frequently observed in the former type.
  • Tumor size was significantly smaller in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004).
  • Chromosome 17 showed disomy in all adrenal cortical adenomas, whereas chromosome 17 abnormalities were found in two of three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study characterized various biological features of benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The use of a combination of markers might provide additional information to assist our understanding of the clinical behavior of an individual adrenal cortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15733104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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8. Palazzo FF, Sebag F, Sierra M, Ippolito G, Souteyrand P, Henry JF: Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):893-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors.
  • Large tumors are resectable laparoscopically, but the long-term outcome and therefore appropriateness of LA for cortical tumors > 6 cm is not known.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the LA experience in our institution since its introduction in June 1994.
  • Patients who underwent LA for solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter without preoperative or intraoperative evidence of malignancy were reviewed.
  • Among them, 19 were solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter with no overt malignant preoperative or intraoperative characteristics: 9 nonsecreting tumors, 8 Cushing's syndrome tumors (including 2 virilizing variants), 1 virilizing tumor, and 1 aldosteronoma.
  • The mean age of the patients was 49.9 years (range 22-77 years), and the mean tumor size was 69.0 mm (range 60-80 mm).
  • Histology confirmed a cortical adenoma in eight patients, malignant tumors in three, and indeterminate tumors in eight.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid cortical tumors without pre- or intraoperative evidence of malignancy is not contraindicated, and it is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on long-term outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16680605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Gruschwitz T, Breza J, Wunderlich H, Junker K: Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation. World J Urol; 2010 Jun;28(3):329-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation.
  • PURPOSE: There are often problems in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal gland tumors by imaging and histopathology.
  • On account of considerable differences in the therapy and aftercare of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, correct classification of tumor type is of greatest importance.
  • METHODS: DNA was isolated from tumor areas in paraffin sections and amplified by a modified protocol for DOP-PCR.
  • After labeling of tumor-DNA and normal DNA with biotin-dUTP and digoxigenin-dUTP, respectively, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried out according to standard protocols.
  • Retrospectively, 26 (16 adenomas and 10 carcinomas) tumors of the adrenal cortex were analyzed.
  • The mean number of genetic changes per tumor was 8.7 (range 6-12) in carcinomas.
  • The benign cortical tumors present 1.6 changes (range 0-3) per tumor.
  • Only a moderate correlation between number of alterations and size of tumor was seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evaluation facilitates differentiation between adrenal gland tumors.
  • Genetic tests should be used in routine diagnostics of adrenal specimens.
  • Potentially, fine-needle biopsy can be established as standard diagnostics of adrenal tumors with unknown genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Mapping. Cohort Studies. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20364258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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10. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
SciCrunch. OMIM: Data: Gene Annotation .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


11. Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1078-85; discussion 1085-6
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note.
  • BACKGROUND: While laparoscopic removal of small, benign, functioning adrenal tumors is accepted, laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumors that may be adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) remains controversial.
  • Open adrenalectomy remains the standard of care for patients presenting with an adrenal cortical tumor for which ACC is in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16360394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Tissier F: Classification of adrenal cortical tumors: what limits for the pathological approach? Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):877-85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Classification of adrenal cortical tumors: what limits for the pathological approach?
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and their therapeutics are sparse.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach in particular by Weiss system, brings sufficient elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor.
  • But some tumors of Weiss score of 2 or 3 can raise problems: are they benign, malignant or are they of uncertain malignant potential?
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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13. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • Tumor size was larger in ACC (12.0 +/- 5.6 versus 4.2 +/- 1.9 cm, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05).
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Dell'Avanzato R, Castaldi F, Giovannini C, Mercadante E, Cianciulli P, Carlini M: Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report. Chir Ital; 2009 Mar-Apr;61(2):231-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, usually unilateral, frequently associated with hypertension and obesity, with a benign biological behaviour and without hormonal activity, first described in 1905.
  • The neoplasm consists of adipose tissue and myelopoietic cells of the bone marrow.
  • In this report a case of a 43-year-old male with a 22 x 18 x 9 cm giant myelolipoma, weighing 3500 g and originating from the right adrenal gland is described.
  • The different aetiological hypotheses of this rare neoplasm and its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19536999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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15. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • RESULTS: SF-1 protein staining was detectable in 158 of 161 (98%) evaluable ACC samples including 49 (30%) with strong SF-1 staining and in all normal and benign steroidogenic tissues.
  • Strong SF-1 protein expression significantly correlated with poor clinical outcome: tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 2.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-4.64] and for recurrence 3.91 (95% CI = 1.71-8.94).
  • Similar results were obtained in the independent cohort using RNA analysis [tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 4.69 (95% CI = 1.44-15.30)].
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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16. Cham E, Watkin W, Goldschmidt R, Liu L: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jul-Aug;54(4):627-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm: a case report.
  • Computed tomography showed a 10-cm, solid, left adrenal mass and a 21-cm complex cystic mass in the pelvis.
  • FNA of the adrenal mass showed hypercellular smears with dyscohesive cells having pleomorphic nuclei and abundant, granular cytoplasm.
  • Resection of the adrenal mass demonstrated an AON without definite malignant features.
  • We review criteria to classify benign vs. malignant AONs and discuss the literature on this topic.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20715669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Korzeniewska M, Kołomecki K, Stepień H, Naze M, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Jan-Feb;56(1):39-44

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors].
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluation the value of serum VEGF and soluble forms of VEGF receptors concentration as a marker of malignancy in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven patients (18 female, 9 male; mean age 48+/-4.3 years) with adrenocortical carcinoma (N=8), adrenal metastases (N=4) and adrenocortical adenoma (N=15) were included in this study.
  • On the other hand the mean VEGF (334.2 pg/ml) concentration in patients with benign adrenocortical adenoma wasn't significant different than in control group (p>0.05) but mean sVEGFR-1 (21.7 pg/ml) and sVEGFR-2 (7106.4 pg/ml) concentrations were significantly lower than in the control (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that determination of VEGF and sVEGFR concentration in the serum of patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors may be applied as an additional marker of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood

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  • (PMID = 16335673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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18. Szabó PM, Tamási V, Molnár V, Andrásfalvy M, Tömböl Z, Farkas R, Kövesdi K, Patócs A, Tóth M, Szalai C, Falus A, Rácz K, Igaz P: Meta-analysis of adrenocortical tumour genomics data: novel pathogenic pathways revealed. Oncogene; 2010 May 27;29(21):3163-72

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Meta-analysis of adrenocortical tumour genomics data: novel pathogenic pathways revealed.
  • Data of whole genome microarray studies from altogether 164 tumours (97 benign, 67 malignant) and 18 normal tissues were reclassified and reanalysed.
  • Significant gene sets and cytogenetic changes from publications without available genomic data were also examined including 269 benign, 215 malignant tumour and 30 normal tissues.
  • In our experimental study, 11 tumour and four normal samples were analysed by parallel mRNA and CGH profiling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Genomics. Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosome Aberrations. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20305693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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19. Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Clinical review: Adrenocortical carcinoma: clinical update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2027-37
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Patients present with hormone excess (e.g. virilization, Cushing's syndrome) or a local mass effect (median tumor size at diagnosis > 10 cm).
  • The following search terms were used in varying combinations: adrenal, adrenocortical, cancer, carcinoma, tumor, diagnosis, imaging, treatment, radiotherapy, mitotane, cytotoxic, surgery.
  • EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Tumors typically appear inhomogeneous in both computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with necroses and irregular borders and differ from benign adenomas by their low fat content.
  • Hormonal analysis reveals evidence of steroid hormone secretion by the tumor in the majority of cases, even in seemingly hormonally inactive lesions.
  • Local recurrence is frequent, particularly after violation of the tumor capsule.
  • Surgery also plays a role in local tumor recurrence and metastatic disease.
  • Adjuvant treatment options after complete tumor removal (e.g. mitotane, radiotherapy) are urgently needed because postoperative disease-free survival at 5 yr is only around 30%, but options have still not been convincingly established.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16551738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 156
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20. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • GLUT1 and -3 were expressed in 33 and 17% of ACC samples respectively, but in none of the benign tumours or normal adrenals glands.
  • By contrast, TKTL1 and M2-PK were detectable in all benign tissues and the vast majority of ACCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GLUCOSE .
  • NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .
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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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21. Oller AR, Kirkpatrick DT, Radovsky A, Bates HK: Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2008 Dec 1;233(2):262-75
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NICKEL, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed.
  • Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure.
  • Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands.
  • The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemically induced. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemically induced. Adrenocortical Adenoma / chemically induced. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / chemically induced. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Male. Models, Animal. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Pheochromocytoma / chemically induced. Powders. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / epidemiology. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / etiology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18822311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0333
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Powders; 7OV03QG267 / Nickel
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22. Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Slater EP, Langer P, Buchholz M, Ramaswamy A, Saeger W, Rothmund M, Fendrich V: Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 2;99(11):1900-7
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Increasing evidence suggests that EMT plays a pivotal role in tumour progression and metastatic spread.
  • Seventeen of 26 (65%) ACC tumour samples expressed Snail when assessed by immunohistochemistry.
  • Snail expression was neither detected in normal adrenocortical tissue, nor in benign adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 19018264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600683
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23. Weismann D, Briese J, Niemann J, Grüneberger M, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Liu W, Ezzat S, Saeger W, Bamberger AM, Fassnacht M, Schulte HM, Asa SL, Allolio B, Bamberger CM: Osteopontin stimulates invasion of NCI-h295 cells but is not associated with survival in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):232-40
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study, we demonstrated OPN and integrin alphavbeta3 expression in normal adrenal glands and benign adenomas, with staining seen exclusively in adrenocortical cells as well as even stronger staining in ACC.
  • This relationship remains of relevance to our understanding of carcinogenesis, but further studies are needed to address the physiological and pathological function of OPN in adrenal tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Osteopontin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Blotting, Western / methods. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Integrin alphaVbeta3 / analysis. Integrin alphaVbeta3 / genetics. Integrin alphaVbeta3 / metabolism. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Statistics, Nonparametric. Transfection / methods

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Adrenocortical Carcinoma.
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  • (PMID = 19326399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alphaVbeta3; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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24. Geller JL, Azer PC, Weiss LM, Mertens RB: Pigmented adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):297-304
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Darkly pigmented adrenocortical neoplasms are rare tumors that are often referred to as "black adenomas," indicative of both their pigmented nature and their invariably benign clinical behavior in previously reported cases.
  • We herein describe an exceptional case of a malignant pigmented adrenocortical neoplasm, with late recurrence and metastasis.
  • At age 53, this female patient was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome and underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, revealing a 3 cm well-circumscribed, darkly pigmented adrenocortical tumor.
  • The tumor exhibited several atypical histologic features and was diagnosed as an atypical pigmented adrenal cortical neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential.
  • At subsequent exploratory laparotomy, three separate tumor nodules exhibiting varying degrees of pigmentation and ranging from 2.2 to 3.3 cm maximum dimension were excised.
  • Histologically, the tumor nodules were consistent with local recurrence/metastasis of the patient's previously excised pigmented adrenocortical neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Pigmentation. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17308367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Blanes A, Diaz-Cano SJ: DNA and kinetic heterogeneity during the clonal evolution of adrenocortical proliferative lesions. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1295-303

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Monoclonal adrenocortical lesions show inverse correlation between proliferation and apoptosis, with proliferation being the single most important criterion of malignancy in adrenal lesions.
  • Only tetraploid percentage (P = .0496) and 5cER (P = .0352) distinguished polyclonal (3.64 +/- 2.20 and 0.14 +/- 0.15) from monoclonal (7.25 +/- 7.52 and 1.00 +/- 1.74) benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16949934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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26. Tissier F: [Pathology of adrenocortical tumors: review and recent data]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Jun;70(3):179-85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Anatomie pathologique des tumeurs corticosurrénaliennes de l'adulte : état des lieux et données récentes.
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and their therapeutic is sparse.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach brings sufficient elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor but in few cases, it is insufficient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin E / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Mitosis. Mutation. Necrosis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19298951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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27. Montone KT, Rosen M, Siegelman ES, Fogt F, Livolsi VA: Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):128-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Two patients showed imaging findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • All 3 lesions contained myelolipomatous foci throughout the neoplasm, and 2 of the tumors contained several pure lipomatous foci.
  • Imaging studies may result in a false diagnosis of a benign adrenal myelolipoma and potential undertreatment in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19289323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Porpiglia F, Fiori C, Daffara F, Zaggia B, Bollito E, Volante M, Berruti A, Terzolo M: Retrospective evaluation of the outcome of open versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy for stage I and II adrenocortical cancer. Eur Urol; 2010 May;57(5):873-8
University of Turin Instituional Repository AperTO. Full Text from .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Although there is consensus that laparoscopy is the standard of care for the resection of benign adrenal tumours, there is controversy regarding the role of laparoscopy for the resection of adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the ACC database of the San Luigi Hospital to compare the oncologic effectiveness of open adrenalectomy (OA) versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the treatment of patients with stage I and II ACC.
  • The "open group" consisted of patients treated with OA; the "lap group" consisted of patients treated with LA.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Oncologic effectiveness of the procedures was tested comparing the recurrence-free survival of patients treated with OA versus LA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide interesting evidence that OA and LA may be comparable in terms of recurrence-free survival for patients with stage I and II ACC when the principles of surgical oncology are respected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20137850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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29. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The third was a pediatric patient with a tumor showing a nodule-in-nodule pattern with insulin-like growth factor II expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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30. de Reyniès A, Assié G, Rickman DS, Tissier F, Groussin L, René-Corail F, Dousset B, Bertagna X, Clauser E, Bertherat J: Gene expression profiling reveals a new classification of adrenocortical tumors and identifies molecular predictors of malignancy and survival. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1108-15
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering analysis discriminated robustly the malignant and benign tumors, and identified two groups of malignant tumors with very different outcome.
  • The molecular predictors of malignancy and of survival are reliable and provide valuable independent information in addition to pathology and tumor staging.
  • These original tools should provide important improvements for adrenal tumors management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Protein Kinases / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19139432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DLGAP5 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Bub1 spindle checkpoint protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / PTEN-induced putative kinase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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31. Gołkowski F, Buziak-Bereza M, Huszno B, Bałdys-Waligórska A, Stefańska A, Budzyński A, Okoń K, Chrzan R, Urbanik A: The unique case of adrenocortical malignant and functioning oncocytic tumour. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Jun;115(6):401-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The unique case of adrenocortical malignant and functioning oncocytic tumour.
  • Only a little more than thirty cases of adrenal oncocytoma, mainly nonfunctioning and benign, have been reported in the literature.
  • Adrenal mass 150 x 160 x 172 mm in size and enlarged periarterial lymph nodes were found in CT examination performed in 51-year-old male.
  • On laparotomy, the lesion was considered unresectable because of evident - confirmed by intraoperative ultrasound - tumour infiltration of the inferior caval vein.
  • The large biopsy specimen was obtained for histological examination in which tumour fulfilled criteria proposed by Bisceglia et al. for adrenocortical oncocytic borderline tumour.
  • The presented case appears to be the first malignant and functioning adrenocortical oncocytic tumour reported and confirms the complexity of its biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Venae Cavae / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17701888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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32. Lanuza García A, López Ramos AL, Pinto Bonilla JC, Rodríguez Pereira C, Cortés Vizcaíno V: [Management of lymphoid hyperplasia of the ocular adnexa]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2005 Jun;80(6):353-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Eye Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Manejo de las hiperplasias linfoides orbitarias.
  • OBJECTIVE: Lymphoid Hyperplasia (LH) is a benign proliferative lymphocyte-rich process.
  • LH of the ocular adnexae may be the first stage of a much more serious disease, and a benign hyperplasia at this site must lead to suspicion of lymphoma, which can then be diagnosed or excluded by the improved diagnostic procedures.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Aged. Child. Corneal Opacity / complications. Corneal Opacity / congenital. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15986276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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33. Zhang C, Mattern J, Haferkamp A, Pfitzenmaier J, Hohenfellner M, Rittgen W, Edler L, Debatin KM, Groene E, Herr I: Corticosteroid-induced chemotherapy resistance in urological cancers. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Jan;5(1):59-64
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DEXAMETHASONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone are widely used for medication of urological diseases, e.g., as cotreatment of advanced prostate cancer, to improve appetite, weight loss, fatigue, relieve bone pain, diminish ureteric obstruction, to reduce the production of adrenal androgens, as an antiemetic in patients undergoing chemo- and/or radiotherapy together with serving as "standard" therapy arm in randomized studies.
  • While the potent pro-apoptotic properties and the supportive effects of glucocorticoids to tumor therapy in lymphoid cells are well studied, the impact to growth of prostate and other urological carcinomas is unknown.
  • No difference in dexamethasone-mediated protection was found in normal, benign and malignant prostate tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Dexamethasone / adverse effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Urologic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16294015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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34. Schlosser KA: Infantile hemangioma: how to treat this benign neoplasm of childhood. JAAPA; 2009 May;22(5):46-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile hemangioma: how to treat this benign neoplasm of childhood.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Laser Therapy. Male

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  • (PMID = 19469391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-1896
  • [Journal-full-title] JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAAPA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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