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1. Jensen MP, Widerström-Noga E, Richards JS, Finnerup NB, Biering-Sørensen F, Cardenas DD: Reliability and validity of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set items as self-report measures. Spinal Cord; 2010 Mar;48(3):230-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reliability and validity of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set items as self-report measures.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials.
  • METHODS: A subset of the ISCIBPDS items and measures of two validity criteria were administered in a postal survey to 184 individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and pain.

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  • (PMID = 19786975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5624
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD033988-10; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD033988; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD033988-10; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD33988
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS136267; NLM/ PMC2832715
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2. Raichle KA, Hanley M, Jensen MP, Cardenas DD: Cognitions, coping, and social environment predict adjustment to pain in spinal cord injury. J Pain; 2007 Sep;8(9):718-29
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  • [Title] Cognitions, coping, and social environment predict adjustment to pain in spinal cord injury.
  • The current study examined the utility of a biopsychosocial model of chronic pain, and the associations between specific pain-related beliefs, coping, and social support and both mental health and pain interference, in persons with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) and pain.

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  • (PMID = 17611163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-5900
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pain
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD033988-10; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD033988; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD/NS33988; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD033988-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS30675; NLM/ PMC2045649
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3. Plemel JR, Duncan G, Chen KW, Shannon C, Park S, Sparling JS, Tetzlaff W: A graded forceps crush spinal cord injury model in mice. J Neurotrauma; 2008 Apr;25(4):350-70
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  • [Title] A graded forceps crush spinal cord injury model in mice.
  • Given the rising availability and use of genetically modified animals in basic science research, it has become increasingly important to develop clinically relevant models for spinal cord injury (SCI) for use in mice.
  • Briefly, each mouse was subjected to laminectomy of T5-T7, 15-second spinal cord crush using one of those forceps, behavioral assessments, and post-mortem neuroanatomical analyses.
  • Quantitative analysis of the lesion demonstrated that as injury severity increased, lesion size and GFAP negative area increased, and spared tissue, spinal cord cross-sectional area, spared grey matter and spared white matter decreased.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Nerve Crush / instrumentation. Spinal Cord Injuries / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18373484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0897-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurotrauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurotrauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Ruckdeschel JC: Early detection and treatment of spinal cord compression. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Jan;19(1):81-6; discussion 86, 89-92
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  • [Title] Early detection and treatment of spinal cord compression.
  • Several key areas must be considered in the diagnosis and management of spinal cord compression.
  • Because the outcome can be devastating, a diagnosis must be made early and treatment initiated promptly.
  • The current algorithm for early diagnosis of spinal cord compression involves neurologic assessment and magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spine.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Compression / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurologic Examination

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  • (PMID = 15743153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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5. Shiba S, Okawa H, Uenishi H, Koike Y, Yamauchi K, Asayama K, Nakamura T, Tajima F: Longitudinal changes in physical capacity over 20 years in athletes with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2010 Aug;91(8):1262-6
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  • [Title] Longitudinal changes in physical capacity over 20 years in athletes with spinal cord injury.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal changes in physical capacity over 20 years in athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • [MeSH-major] Athletes. Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology. Wheelchairs

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  • (PMID = 20684908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-821X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Phys Med Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Nadvornik P, Cierny G, Bernadic M: Considerations on physiological mechanisms of spinal cord movement performance according to cerebral stimuli. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2007;108(12):529-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Considerations on physiological mechanisms of spinal cord movement performance according to cerebral stimuli.
  • The process of communication between brain and spinal cord remains unclear.
  • Therefore an attempt supported by spinal cord stereotaxy was made to disclose the physiological mechanisms underlying the cooperation between the brain and spine as generated by the spinal cord.
  • The initializing stimulus was the discovery of motoneuron location in all spinal cord segments providing an organic substrate for spinal cord stereotaxy.
  • What remains to be clarified are the anatomical structures of spinal cord, participating in the feedback between brain and spinal cord.
  • In case of spinal cord another more probable mechanism should be considered: the process of analysis and synthesis between the participating spinal motoneurons.
  • The mutual neuronal spinal cord connections are capable of depicting the movement pattern, and the movement is transferred by means of the described spinal cord pathways to the memory of the brain as a concrete movement idea.
  • From here the ideas are transferred according to the individual needs backwards by means of another described spinal cord pathway back to the spinal cord, and the spinal cord is the final effector.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / physiology. Movement. Spinal Cord / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18309646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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7. Hu R, Zhou J, Luo C, Lin J, Wang X, Li X, Bian X, Li Y, Wan Q, Yu Y, Feng H: Glial scar and neuroregeneration: histological, functional, and magnetic resonance imaging analysis in chronic spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Aug;13(2):169-80
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  • [Title] Glial scar and neuroregeneration: histological, functional, and magnetic resonance imaging analysis in chronic spinal cord injury.
  • OBJECT: A glial scar is thought to be responsible for halting neuroregeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • The cavity in the spinal cord after SCI in dogs was observed using MR imaging.
  • The thickness of the glial scars in the injured rat spinal cords was also measured.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / pathology. Cicatrix / pathology. Nerve Regeneration / physiology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Aug;13(2):165-7; discussion 167-8 [20672951.001]
  • (PMID = 20672952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. McTigue DM, Tripathi R, Wei P: NG2 colocalizes with axons and is expressed by a mixed cell population in spinal cord lesions. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Apr;65(4):406-20
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  • [Title] NG2 colocalizes with axons and is expressed by a mixed cell population in spinal cord lesions.
  • The NG2 proteoglycan is of general interest after spinal cord injury because it is expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs), which contribute to central nervous system remyelination; however, NG2 may inhibit axon regeneration.
  • We and others have examined the spatiotemporal expression of NG2 after spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • Here, we extend those observations and provide a comprehensive analysis of the distribution, phenotype, and colocalization of NG2 cells with axons in a clinically relevant model of spinal contusion.
  • Thus, spinal contusion produces an NG2-rich environment into which axons grow and in which the source of NG2 appears considerably different from that in surrounding spared tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens / biosynthesis. Axons / metabolism. Nerve Regeneration / physiology. Proteoglycans / biosynthesis. Spinal Cord Injuries / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16691121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS043494; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS043494; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30-NS045758
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
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9. Felix ER, Cruz-Almeida Y, Widerström-Noga EG: Chronic pain after spinal cord injury: what characteristics make some pains more disturbing than others? J Rehabil Res Dev; 2007;44(5):703-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic pain after spinal cord injury: what characteristics make some pains more disturbing than others?
  • Different types of pain are often present in the same individual with spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • [MeSH-major] Pain / diagnosis. Pain Measurement / methods. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 17943682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-1352
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of rehabilitation research and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Rehabil Res Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS07492-06
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Cha MH, Bai SJ, Lee KH, Cho ZH, Kim YB, Lee HJ, Lee BH: Acute electroacupuncture inhibits nitric oxide synthase expression in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats. Neurol Res; 2010 Feb;32 Suppl 1:96-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute electroacupuncture inhibits nitric oxide synthase expression in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of electroacupuncture stimulation on behavioral changes and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the rat spinal cord after nerve injury.
  • Immunocytochemical staining was performed to investigate changes in the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive neurons in the L4-5 spinal cord.
  • Neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was also decreased in L4-5 spinal cord by electroacupuncture treatment.
  • DISCUSSION: These results suggest that electroacupuncture relieves mechanical allodynia in the neuropathic rats possibly by the inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Electroacupuncture / methods. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I / metabolism. Pain Management. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / therapy. Spinal Cord / metabolism. Tibial Neuropathy / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20034455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
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11. Ellingson BM, Ulmer JL, Schmit BD: Gray and white matter delineation in the human spinal cord using diffusion tensor imaging and fuzzy logic. Acad Radiol; 2007 Jul;14(7):847-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gray and white matter delineation in the human spinal cord using diffusion tensor imaging and fuzzy logic.
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used extensively in determining morphology and connectivity of the brain; however, similar analysis in the spinal cord has proven difficult.
  • The objective of this study was to improve the delineation of gray and white matter in the spinal cord by applying signal processing techniques to the eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor.
  • Our approach involved creating anisotropy indices based on the difference between eigenvalues and mean diffusivity then using a fuzzy inference system (FIS) to delineate between gray and white matter in the human cervical spinal cord.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI was performed on the cervical spinal cord in five neurologically intact subjects.
  • Reconstructed images from the FIS qualitatively showed a better anatomical representation of the spinal cord compared with traditionally used DTI indices.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diffusion tensor imaging using an FIS for tissue classification provides high contrast between spinal gray and white matter compared with traditional DTI indices and may provide a noninvasive technique to quantify the integrity and morphology of the human spinal cord following injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Fuzzy Logic. Spinal Cord / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 17574135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R24 HD 039627
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Salvador Álvarez E, Jiménez De La Peña M, Herraiz Hidalgo L, Pardo Moreno J: [Idiopathic spinal cord herniation: a rare condition]. Radiologia; 2010 Jul-Aug;52(4):353-6
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  • [Title] [Idiopathic spinal cord herniation: a rare condition].
  • Idiopathic spinal cord hernia, in which the reason that spinal cord protrudes through a defect in the dura mater is unknown, is a rare cause of progressive myelopathy.
  • Spinal cord herniation is a reversible cause of myelopathy: surgery to correct the defect in the dura mater has a high rate of functional recovery.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging is the technique of choice for the diagnosis.
  • We present two cases of idiopathic spinal cord herniation and show the imaging findings that make it possible to recognize and diagnose this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Hernia / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20382404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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13. Griffin RS, Costigan M, Brenner GJ, Ma CH, Scholz J, Moss A, Allchorne AJ, Stahl GL, Woolf CJ: Complement induction in spinal cord microglia results in anaphylatoxin C5a-mediated pain hypersensitivity. J Neurosci; 2007 Aug 8;27(32):8699-708
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  • [Title] Complement induction in spinal cord microglia results in anaphylatoxin C5a-mediated pain hypersensitivity.
  • Microarray expression profiles reveal substantial changes in gene expression in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of the spinal cord in response to three peripheral nerve injury models of neuropathic pain.
  • In addition, we find that the terminal complement component C5 and the C5a receptor (C5aR) are upregulated in spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury.
  • We conclude that induction of the complement cascade in spinal cord microglia after peripheral nerve injury contributes to neuropathic pain through the release and action of the C5a anaphylatoxin peptide.

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  • (PMID = 17687047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS044139; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052623; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS038253; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS038253; United States / PHS HHS / / RDE017821A; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS044139
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anaphylatoxins; 0 / C5AR1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a; 0 / Receptors, Complement; 80295-54-1 / Complement C5a
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14. Krause JS, Carter RE, Pickelsimer E: Behavioral risk factors of mortality after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2009 Jan;90(1):95-101
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  • [Title] Behavioral risk factors of mortality after spinal cord injury.
  • OBJECTIVE: To test hypothesized relationships between multiple behavioral indicators and mortality among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), while controlling for biographic and injury characteristics.

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  • [Cites] Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Nov;80(11):1411-9 [10569435.001]
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  • (PMID = 19154835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-821X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Phys Med Rehabil
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1R01 NS 48117-01 A1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048117-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048117-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048117-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048117-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048117; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048117-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS164874; NLM/ PMC2813690
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15. Arafa MM, Zohdy WA, Shamloul R: Prostatic massage: a simple method of semen retrieval in men with spinal cord injury. Int J Androl; 2007 Jun;30(3):170-3
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  • [Title] Prostatic massage: a simple method of semen retrieval in men with spinal cord injury.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prostatic massage (PM) as a method for obtaining semen in men with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to evaluate the semen parameters in the semen samples obtained by this method.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Asthenozoospermia / physiopathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sperm Motility. Spermatozoa / abnormalities. Spermatozoa / pathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • (PMID = 17298549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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16. Elliott KL, Fritzsch B: Transplantation of Xenopus laevis ears reveals the ability to form afferent and efferent connections with the spinal cord. Int J Dev Biol; 2010;54(10):1443-51
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  • [Title] Transplantation of Xenopus laevis ears reveals the ability to form afferent and efferent connections with the spinal cord.
  • Transplantation of Xenopus laevis ears into the path of spinal motor neuron axons could show whether spinal motor neurons could reroute to innervate the hair cells as efferent fibers.
  • Such transplantations could also reveal whether ear development could occur in a novel location including afferent and efferent connections with the spinal cord.
  • Injections of dyes ventral to the spinal cord revealed motor innervation of hair cells.
  • Also, injection of dyes into the spinal cord labeled vestibular ganglion cells in transplanted ears indicating that these ganglion cells connected to the spinal cord.
  • These nerves ran together with spinal nerves innervating the muscles, suggesting that fasciculation with existing fibers is necessary.
  • These results indicate that the ear can develop normally, in terms of histology, in a new location, complete with efferent and afferent innervations to and from the spinal cord.

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  • (PMID = 21302254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1696-3547
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / P30 DC010362; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01 DC055095590
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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17. Franssen EH, de Bree FM, Verhaagen J: Olfactory ensheathing glia: their contribution to primary olfactory nervous system regeneration and their regenerative potential following transplantation into the injured spinal cord. Brain Res Rev; 2007 Nov;56(1):236-58
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  • [Title] Olfactory ensheathing glia: their contribution to primary olfactory nervous system regeneration and their regenerative potential following transplantation into the injured spinal cord.
  • In the spinal cord, axons are not able to restore connections after an injury.
  • The effects of OEG transplants on the regeneration of the injured spinal cord have been studied for over a decade.
  • Second, their potential to stimulate regeneration in the injured spinal cord is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Tissue Transplantation / methods. Nerve Regeneration / physiology. Neuroglia / transplantation. Olfactory Bulb / cytology. Olfactory Bulb / transplantation. Spinal Cord Injuries / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17884174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-0173
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 230
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18. Akimov OV, Alekseev VF, Frolova IV: [Congenital spinal cord malformation concurrent with ependymoma of the third brain ventricle]. Arkh Patol; 2007 Mar-Apr;69(2):44-6
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  • [Title] [Congenital spinal cord malformation concurrent with ependymoma of the third brain ventricle].
  • This paper describes a very rare case of congenital spinal cord malformation as two tumoroid masses of spinal cord rudiments and located in the area of the cauda equina.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Diseases / pathology. Third Ventricle / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17642194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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19. Stevens SL, Caputo JL, Fuller DK, Morgan DW: Physical activity and quality of life in adults with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med; 2008;31(4):373-8
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  • [Title] Physical activity and quality of life in adults with spinal cord injury.
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To document the relationship between level of physical activity and quality of life in persons with spinal cord injury.
  • PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: Men (n = 32) and women (n = 30) with complete and incomplete spinal cord lesions below C6 volunteered to participate in this study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study show that a significant and moderately strong positive relationship exists between level of physical activity and quality of life in adults with spinal cord injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Motor Activity. Quality of Life. Spinal Cord Injuries / psychology. Spinal Cord Injuries / rehabilitation

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  • [Cites] J Neurosci. 2002 Feb 1;22(3):624-8 [11826090.001]
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  • (PMID = 18959354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-0268
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of spinal cord medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Spinal Cord Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2582427
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20. Rouleau C, Mersel M, de Weille J, Rakotoarivelo C, Fabre C, Privat A, Langley K, Petite D: A human spinal cord cell promotes motoneuron survival and maturation in vitro. J Neurosci Res; 2009 Jan;87(1):50-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A human spinal cord cell promotes motoneuron survival and maturation in vitro.
  • Primary cultures of motoneurons represent a good experimental model for studying mechanisms underlying certain spinal cord pathologies, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease).
  • This study employs a new approach, in which rat motoneurons are plated on a layer of cultured cells derived from newborn human spinal cord.
  • Data obtained using a system in which the spinal cord cultures were separated from motoneurons by a porous polycarbonate filter suggest that soluble factors released from the supporting cells are in part responsible for the beneficial effects on motoneurons.
  • [MeSH-major] Motor Neurons / physiology. Neurogenesis / physiology. Spinal Cord / cytology. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • [Copyright] 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18752296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4547
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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21. Jeffery ND, McBain SC, Dobson J, Chari DM: Uptake of systemically administered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in areas of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). J Tissue Eng Regen Med; 2009 Feb;3(2):153-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Uptake of systemically administered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in areas of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • We examined uptake of intravenously administered MNPs (diameter, 320 nm) into areas of experimental rodent spinal cord injury (SCI), using a transection model.
  • Our data suggest that there may be a 'therapeutic window of opportunity' during post-injury BBB compromise within which MNPs can be used to mediate gene transfer to sites of spinal cord trauma.
  • Taking into account the relatively superficial anatomical location of the spinal cord, these findings also raise the possibility that the spinal cord could be an attractive target for MNP-based delivery of biomolecules, particularly when combined with magnetic targeting strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetics. Nanoparticles. Spinal Cord Injuries / therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19051217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Tissue Eng Regen Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/F013884/1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Rodríguez JM: [Spinal cord ischemia after thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair]. Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc; 2005 Jan-Mar;12(1):47-54
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  • [Title] [Spinal cord ischemia after thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair].
  • [Transliterated title] Isquémia medular após cirurgia do aneurisma da aorta torácica e toraco-abdominal.
  • In this paper, the author reviews the problematic around the spinal cord ischemic disfunction that sometimes occurs following the surgical management of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm.
  • After an anatomical review of the spinal cord vascularization, the diverse pathogenic mechanisms involved are described together with its importance and clinical significance, as well as the multiple procedures, techniques and pharmacotherapy employed nowadays aimed at lowering the occurrence of this most dramatic complication of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
  • [MeSH-major] Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal / surgery. Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic / surgery. Spinal Cord Ischemia / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Spinal Cord / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 15895128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-7215
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-torácica e vascular : órgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Torácica e Vascular
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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23. Genovese T, Mazzon E, Di Paola R, Cannavò G, Muià C, Bramanti P, Cuzzocrea S: Role of endogenous ligands for the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors alpha in the secondary damage in experimental spinal cord trauma. Exp Neurol; 2005 Jul;194(1):267-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of endogenous ligands for the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors alpha in the secondary damage in experimental spinal cord trauma.
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of endogenous PPAR-alpha ligand in an experimental model of spinal cord trauma.
  • Spinal cord injury was induced in PPAR-alpha wild-type (WT) mice and PPAR-alpha knock out mice (PPAR-alpha KO) mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24 g) to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy.
  • Spinal cord injury in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration (measured as an increase in myeloperoxidase activity) and apoptosis (measured by Annexin 5 staining).
  • An increase of immunoreactivity to TNF-alpha was observed in the spinal cord of spinal cord-injured PPAR-alpha WT mice.
  • Thus, endogenous PPAR-alpha ligands reduce the degree of development of inflammation and tissue injury events associated with spinal cord trauma in the mice.
  • [MeSH-major] PPAR alpha / genetics. PPAR alpha / metabolism. Spinal Cord / metabolism. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Animals. Apoptosis. Disease Models, Animal. Ligands. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Myelin Sheath / metabolism. Myelin Sheath / pathology. Neutrophils / pathology. Peroxynitrous Acid / metabolism. Severity of Illness Index. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15899263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4886
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / PPAR alpha; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 14691-52-2 / Peroxynitrous Acid
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24. Genovese T, Mazzon E, Esposito E, Muià C, Di Paola R, Di Bella P, Bramanti P, Cuzzocrea S: Role of endogenous glutathione in the secondary damage in experimental spinal cord injury in mice. Neurosci Lett; 2007 Aug 9;423(1):41-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of endogenous glutathione in the secondary damage in experimental spinal cord injury in mice.
  • A lot of evidence suggests that GSH is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, like spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • This study was undertaken to determine if the inhibition of endogenous glutathione, by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), affords protection against peroxynitrite-mediated toxicity in response to the spinal cord injury in vivo.
  • The spinal cord of damaged animals showed a significant elevation of biochemical, immunohistochemical and functional parameters, increasing, respectively, neutrophils infiltration, lipid peroxidation, nitrotyrosine formation, PAR expression, apoptosis (measured by TUNEL staining) and loss of hind legs movement in SCI-operated mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Glutathione / physiology. Spinal Cord Injuries / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antimetabolites / pharmacology. Apoptosis / physiology. Buthionine Sulfoximine / pharmacology. DNA / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Kinetics. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Male. Malondialdehyde / metabolism. Mice. Neutrophil Infiltration / physiology. Peroxidase / metabolism. Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose / metabolism. RNA / biosynthesis. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives. Tyrosine / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MALONALDEHYDE .
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  • (PMID = 17669594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 26656-46-2 / Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose; 3604-79-3 / 3-nitrotyrosine; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 5072-26-4 / Buthionine Sulfoximine; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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25. DAGCI T, ARMAGAN G, KONYALIOGLU S, YALCIN A: Alterations in the expression of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE/ref-1) and DNA damage in the caudal region of acute and chronic spinal cord injured rats treated by embryonic neural stem cells. Physiol Res; 2009;58(3):427-34
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  • [Title] Alterations in the expression of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE/ref-1) and DNA damage in the caudal region of acute and chronic spinal cord injured rats treated by embryonic neural stem cells.
  • The oxidative mechanisms of injury-induced damage of neurons within the spinal cord are not very well understood.
  • We used a model of T8-T9 spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat to induce neuronal degeneration.
  • In this spinal cord injury model, unilateral avulsion of the spinal cord causes oxidative stress of neurons.
  • We tested the hypothesis that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (or redox effector factor-1, APE/Ref-1) regulates this neuronal oxidation mechanism in the spinal cord region caudal to the lesion, and that DNA damage is an early upstream signal.
  • Our data has demonstrated that an increase of APE/Ref-1 mRNA levels in the caudal region of spinal cord strongly correlated with DNA damage after traumatic spinal cord injury.

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  • [CommentIn] Physiol Res. 2010;59(1):145; author reply 145 [20345191.001]
  • (PMID = 18637713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-8408
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol Res
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 4.2.99.18 / Apex1 protein, rat; EC 4.2.99.18 / DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase
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26. Frisbie JH: Diabetes mellitus and preventable spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med; 2005;28(1):60-3
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  • [Title] Diabetes mellitus and preventable spinal cord injury.
  • PURPOSE: A high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among spinal cord injury (SCI) populations has been noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Complications / complications. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications


27. Haddadan K, Krames ES: The effect of spinal cord stimulation, overall, and the effect of differing spinal cord stimulation technologies on pain, reduction in pain medication, sleep, and function. Neuromodulation; 2007 Apr;10(2):156-63
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  • [Title] The effect of spinal cord stimulation, overall, and the effect of differing spinal cord stimulation technologies on pain, reduction in pain medication, sleep, and function.
  • Background.   Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is effective in reducing pain from a number of differing medical conditions that are refractory to other, more conservative treatments.
  • Conclusions.  Spinal cord stimulation improves pain, sleep, and function in patients with intractable pain.

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  • (PMID = 22151865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuromodulation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Ditor DS, Hicks AL: Exercise therapy after spinal cord injury: the effects on heath and function. Crit Rev Biomed Eng; 2009;37(1-2):165-91
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  • [Title] Exercise therapy after spinal cord injury: the effects on heath and function.
  • Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to an array of secondary health complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Exercise Therapy / methods. Models, Biological. Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology. Physical Exertion. Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / rehabilitation

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  • (PMID = 20201774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-940X
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in biomedical engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit Rev Biomed Eng
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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29. Pombal MA, Ruiz Y, Rodríguez-Alonso M, de Arriba MC, Costas V, Alvarez R, Megías M: Developmental changes of the GABA-immunoreactive fibers in the lamprey spinal cord. Brain Res Bull; 2005 Sep 15;66(4-6):371-5
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  • [Title] Developmental changes of the GABA-immunoreactive fibers in the lamprey spinal cord.
  • The changes in distribution and number of GABA immunoreactive (GABA-ir) fibers from postembryonic stages to adulthood in the lamprey spinal cord white matter were studied by using immunocytochemical techniques.
  • These observations, joined to the changes previously reported in the GABA-ir neurons, indicate that at least parts of the GABA inhibitory component of the spinal locomotor network is reorganized during the lamprey life cycle and it may indicate different inhibitory requirements in the locomotor network.
  • [MeSH-major] Larva / growth & development. Spinal Cord / growth & development

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  • (PMID = 16144617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-9230
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
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30. Huijssen-Huisman EJ, Sluis TA, den Besten H: [Decubitus ulcers in spinal cord lesion: proactive inspection]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2009;153:B318
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  • [Title] [Decubitus ulcers in spinal cord lesion: proactive inspection].
  • Two patients, a 23-year-old and a 70-year-old man, were admitted to a hospital with a spinal cord lesion.
  • These cases show that all parties involved with patients with spinal cord lesions should be aware of the high risk of decubitus ulcers.
  • [MeSH-major] Pressure Ulcer / etiology. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications. Spinal Stenosis / complications. Wound Infection / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19785791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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31. Sugimoto T, Kasai Y, Takegami K, Morimoto R, Maeda M, Uchida A: A case of idiopathic spinal cord herniation with duplicated dura mater. J Spinal Disord Tech; 2005 Feb;18(1):106-11
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  • [Title] A case of idiopathic spinal cord herniation with duplicated dura mater.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography myelography (CTM) revealed duplicated dura mater from T1 to T12 and spinal cord herniation in the inner layer of the dura at the T4-T5 level.
  • Idiopathic spinal cord herniation with duplicated dura mater was diagnosed, and surgery was performed.
  • Intraoperative findings were of an elliptical defect of about 1 cm in the inner layer of the dura at the T4-T5 level, into which the spinal cord was herniated.
  • A 1.5-cm cephalocaudal incision was created in the inner layer of the dura, and the incarcerated spinal cord was released, resulting in resolution of gait disturbance and an excellent postoperative clinical course.
  • We reviewed the reports of 11 cases of idiopathic spinal cord herniation with duplicated dura mater and summarized the clinical and imaging characteristics as follows:.
  • 1) A hernial orifice was found at the T4-T6 level, 2) cross-sectional MRI or CTM showed a "snowman-like" deformation of the spinal cord, and 3) symptoms were often improved by widening the hernia orifice.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Spinal Cord Diseases / radiography

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  • (PMID = 15687862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of spinal disorders & techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Spinal Disord Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Vaidyanathan S, Soni BM, Hughes PL, Singh G: Possible role of large fluid intake in delaying formation of encrustations and, thereby, prolonging working life of Memokath stent for nearly 14 years in a spinal cord injury patient. ScientificWorldJournal; 2007;7:1663-9
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  • [Title] Possible role of large fluid intake in delaying formation of encrustations and, thereby, prolonging working life of Memokath stent for nearly 14 years in a spinal cord injury patient.
  • The Memokath stent has been used in spinal cord injury patients as a reversible alternative to external urethral sphincterotomy, but the stent has a finite lifetime of <2 years before failure in the majority of patients.
  • We report an unusual case of a spinal cord injury patient in whom memokath stent was functioning for almost 14 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Drinking Behavior / physiology. Spinal Cord Injuries / radiography. Stents

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  • (PMID = 17982601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Satoh K, Takano S, Onogi T, Ohtsuki K, Kobayashi T: Serotonin syndrome caused by minimum doses of SSRIS in a patient with spinal cord injury. Fukushima J Med Sci; 2006 Jun;52(1):29-33
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  • [Title] Serotonin syndrome caused by minimum doses of SSRIS in a patient with spinal cord injury.
  • An 18-year-old man with spinal cord injury (SCI) at thoracic level 2-3 presented with onset of serotonin syndrome after taking fluvoxamine (50 mg per day) for 8 weeks prior to treatment with paroxetine (10 mg per day) for 6 days.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / adverse effects. Paroxetine / adverse effects. Serotonin Syndrome / chemically induced. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects. Spinal Cord Injuries / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16995352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-2590
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukushima journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukushima J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation; 0 / Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors; 41VRH5220H / Paroxetine; O4L1XPO44W / Fluvoxamine
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34. Overland AC, Kitto KF, Chabot-Doré AJ, Rothwell PE, Fairbanks CA, Stone LS, Wilcox GL: Protein kinase C mediates the synergistic interaction between agonists acting at alpha2-adrenergic and delta-opioid receptors in spinal cord. J Neurosci; 2009 Oct 21;29(42):13264-73
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  • [Title] Protein kinase C mediates the synergistic interaction between agonists acting at alpha2-adrenergic and delta-opioid receptors in spinal cord.
  • Coactivation of spinal alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (ARs) and opioid receptors produces antinociceptive synergy.
  • The delta-opioid receptor (DOP) and the alpha(2A)ARs are coexpressed on the terminals of primary afferent fibers in the spinal cord where they may mediate this phenomenon.
  • We evaluated the ability of the DOP-selective agonist deltorphin II (DELT), the alpha(2)AR agonist clonidine (CLON) or their combination to inhibit calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from spinal cord slices.
  • Potassium-evoked depolarization of spinal cord slices caused concentration-dependent release of CGRP.
  • That inhibition of CGRP release by the combination was maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin in spinal cord slices suggests that synergy does not rely on interneuronal signaling and may occur within single subcellular compartments.
  • The present study reveals a novel signaling pathway underlying the synergistic analgesic interaction between DOP and alpha(2)AR agonists in the spinal cord.

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  • (PMID = 19846714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32 DA007234-22; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA007234-19; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA015438-05; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32 DA007234-19; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01DA015438; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA015438; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32 DA007234-21; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32 DA007234; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA007234-22; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA007234-20; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32 DA007234-20; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32DA07234; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015438-05; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA007234-21
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2; 0 / Receptors, Opioid, delta; 122752-16-3 / deltorphin II, Ala(2)-; 33507-63-0 / Substance P; 4368-28-9 / Tetrodotoxin; 83652-28-2 / Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; MN3L5RMN02 / Clonidine; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS159473; NLM/ PMC2819727
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35. Klawiter EC, Benzinger T, Roy A, Naismith RT, Parks BJ, Cross AH: Spinal cord ring enhancement in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol; 2010 Nov;67(11):1395-8
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  • [Title] Spinal cord ring enhancement in multiple sclerosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of spinal cord ring enhancement in multiple sclerosis (MS).
  • PATIENTS: Twenty patients with MS who had spinal cord ring enhancement were retrospectively identified from 322 cervical and thoracic spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging studies during a 3-year period.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographics, disability, and pattern of enhancement on spinal cord and concomitant brain magnetic resonance imaging results.
  • RESULTS: Ring enhancement was seen in 20 patients with spinal cord enhancement, most commonly in the cervical cord.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ring enhancement is not an uncommon pattern for spinal cord lesions in MS, occurring with a prevalence of 6.2% (20 of 322 imaging studies).
  • The most common pattern is incomplete ring enhancement in the cervical spinal cord.
  • Recognition of this pattern may improve and expedite the diagnosis of MS and preclude the need for invasive diagnostic interventions.

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  • (PMID = 21060017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024992-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K23NS052430-01A1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1RR024992; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024992; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K23 NS052430; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K23 NS052430-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS214183; NLM/ PMC3057685
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36. Huang WL, George KJ, Ibba V, Liu MC, Averill S, Quartu M, Hamlyn PJ, Priestley JV: The characteristics of neuronal injury in a static compression model of spinal cord injury in adult rats. Eur J Neurosci; 2007 Jan;25(2):362-72
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  • [Title] The characteristics of neuronal injury in a static compression model of spinal cord injury in adult rats.
  • Studies of spinal cord injury using contusion (impact) injury paradigms have shown that neuronal death is an acute event that is largely over within 24 h.
  • However, much less is known about cell death following compression injury, despite compression being a key component of natural spinal injuries.
  • This study is also the first indication of ATF3 involvement in spinal cord injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Spinal Cord Compression / metabolism. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17284176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-816X
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Activating Transcription Factor 3; 0 / Atf3 protein, rat; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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37. Vaquero C, Arce N, Agudo J, Martinez R, Garjal C, Diago MV: [Evaluation of ischemic injury of the spinal cord following endoprosthesis implantation in the thoraco-abdominal aorta on a rat model]. Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc; 2007 Jan-Mar;14(1):33-7
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of ischemic injury of the spinal cord following endoprosthesis implantation in the thoraco-abdominal aorta on a rat model].
  • [Transliterated title] Avliação da isquémia medular após implantação de endoprótese na aorta toraco-abdominal do rato.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord ischemia is one of the most dreaded complication which may occur after conventional surgery of the thoraco-abdominal aorta, as well as following endoprostheses implantation.
  • Thirty-six animals were employed to assess the spinal cord consequences following the implantation of PTFE endoprosthesis in the thoraco-abdominal aorta.
  • To evaluate the neurologic repercussions, a sensor was placed in the spinal cord aimed at the registry of the bioelectric potentials, every two hours, until a limit of eight hours, in subgroups of six animals.
  • Finally, the spinal cord was removed for histological examination.
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The collected data revealed that significant ischemic alterations occurred eight hours after the implantation of the endoprostheses and that 48 hours later some signs of recovery could be observed, probably by means of collateral blood flow arising from the spinal cord itself or from branches of the thoraco-abdominal vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Aorta, Abdominal / surgery. Aorta, Thoracic / surgery. Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation / adverse effects. Spinal Cord Ischemia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17530056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-7215
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-torácica e vascular : órgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Torácica e Vascular
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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38. Garstang SV, Miller-Smith SA: Autonomic nervous system dysfunction after spinal cord injury. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am; 2007 May;18(2):275-96, vi-vii
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  • [Title] Autonomic nervous system dysfunction after spinal cord injury.
  • The role of autonomic dysfunction in persons with spinal cord injuries is crucial to understand because many aspects of the altered physiology seen in these individuals are directly caused by ANS dysregulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Autonomic Nervous System / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17543773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1047-9651
  • [Journal-full-title] Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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39. Ma C, Li CX, Yi JL, Yan LP: [Effects of electroacupuncture on glutamate and aspartic acid contents in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu; 2008 Aug;33(4):250-4
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  • [Title] [Effects of electroacupuncture on glutamate and aspartic acid contents in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on pain threshold and contents of excitatory amino acids (EAA) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain.
  • On the 15th day, the rats were sacrificed for sampling right L4-L6 DRG and spinal cord.
  • The contents of neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glu) and aspartic acid (Asp) in DRG and spinal cord were detected with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
  • Micro-dialysis technique was used to collect the dialysate from the spinal cord, homogenated for measuring EAA by HPLC.
  • Compared with control group, the contents of Glu and Asp in the spinal cord tissue and micro-dialysate in model group increased significantly after SNI (P < 0.01).
  • In comparison with model group, the contents of Glu in DRG and spinal cord tissue and micro-dialysate, and Asp in the spinal cord tissue and micro-dialysate in both sham-EA and EA groups decreased considerably (P < 0.05, 0.01).
  • Dialysate Glu and spinal cord tissue Asp contents in EA were remarkably lower than those in sham-EA group (P < 0.01, 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: EA has a significant analgesic effect in SNI rats, which is closely related with its effect in inhibiting the release of Glu and Asp from dorsal horns of the spinal cord and lowering contents of EAAs.

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  • (PMID = 18928117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0607
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid
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40. Schopp LH, Clark M, Mazurek MO, Hagglund KJ, Acuff ME, Sherman AK, Childers MK: Testosterone levels among men with spinal cord injury admitted to inpatient rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil; 2006 Aug;85(8):678-84; quiz 685-7
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  • [Title] Testosterone levels among men with spinal cord injury admitted to inpatient rehabilitation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Although previous research has shown an association between spinal cord injury (SCI) and testosterone production, these studies have yielded inconsistent results.
  • Data included total serum testosterone level, demographic and injury information, neurologic level and degree of incomplete function, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade, and additional laboratory values, including prealbumin, albumin, hematocrit, and aspartate aminotransferase.

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  • (PMID = 16865023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-9115
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Phys Med Rehabil
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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41. Sandridge L, Kern JA: Acute descending aortic dissections: management of visceral, spinal cord, and extremity malperfusion. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005;17(3):256-61
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  • [Title] Acute descending aortic dissections: management of visceral, spinal cord, and extremity malperfusion.
  • The goal of this article was to review the pathogenesis of malperfusion syndromes in aortic dissection, discuss the current modalities to treat malperfusion of the spinal cord, viscera, and extremities, and examine the results of the treatments used today.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Humans. Spinal Cord Ischemia / etiology. Spinal Cord Ischemia / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16253830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0679
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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42. Kokotilo KJ, Eng JJ, Curt A: Reorganization and preservation of motor control of the brain in spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Neurotrauma; 2009 Nov;26(11):2113-26
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  • [Title] Reorganization and preservation of motor control of the brain in spinal cord injury: a systematic review.
  • Spinal cord injury (SCI) brain mapping studies during motor tasks aim for assessing the reorganization and preservation of brain networks involved in motor control.
  • These findings imply that therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring spinal cord function, even in people with chronic SCI, can build on preserved competent brain control.

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  • (PMID = 19604097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurotrauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurotrauma
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / 63617; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 63617; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / CGR-86829; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MSH-63617
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ CAMS1872; NLM/ PMC3167869
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43. Lynch JL, Alley JF, Wellman L, Beitz AJ: Decreased spinal cord opioid receptor mRNA expression and antinociception in a Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus model of multiple sclerosis. Brain Res; 2008 Jan 29;1191:180-91
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  • [Title] Decreased spinal cord opioid receptor mRNA expression and antinociception in a Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus model of multiple sclerosis.
  • In the present study, we utilized the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) model of MS to examine possible changes in spinal cord opioid receptor mRNA over the course of disease progression.
  • The novel finding that opioid receptor expression is significantly decreased in the spinal cord of TMEV mice could explain the increased nociception and loss of opiate analgesia observed in both TMEV mice and multiple sclerosis patients.

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  • (PMID = 18096140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32 DA007097; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA084233-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA084233; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32 DA07097; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA084233-05
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptors, CCR1; 0 / Receptors, Opioid; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS39443; NLM/ PMC2258219
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44. Nejat F, Radmanesh F, Ansari S, Tajik P, Kajbafzadeh A, El Khashab M: Spina bifida occulta: is it a predictor of underlying spinal cord abnormality in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction? J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2008 Feb;1(2):114-7
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  • [Title] Spina bifida occulta: is it a predictor of underlying spinal cord abnormality in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction?
  • METHODS: The authors prospectively investigated the presence of spinal cord abnormalities in 176 patients with functional urinary and bowel problems: 88 children with radiographic evidence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and 88 age-and sex-matched controls.
  • Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in all patients and evaluated for spinal cord abnormalities.
  • Abnormalities included tethered spinal cord in 5 children, syringomyelia in 4, and club-shaped conus in 2.
  • No significant association was found between the presence of SBO and spinal cord abnormalities identified on MR images (p=0.13, paired t-test).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among children with functional bowel and urinary problems, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of abnormal spinal MR imaging findings in those with radiographic SBO and an age- and sex-matched control group.
  • Spina bifida occulta was not shown to be a reliable indicator of spinal cord structural abnormalities.
  • Its probable role as a finding associated with spinal cord dysfunction remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Spina Bifida Occulta / diagnosis. Spinal Cord / abnormalities. Urologic Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Constipation / diagnosis. Diurnal Enuresis / diagnosis. Fecal Incontinence / diagnosis. Female. Forecasting. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Nocturnal Enuresis / diagnosis. Prospective Studies. Radiography, Abdominal. Sacrum / abnormalities. Sacrum / pathology. Syringomyelia / diagnosis. Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis. Urination Disorders / diagnosis. Vesico-Ureteral Reflux / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008 Feb;1(2):113; discussion 113 [18352777.001]
  • (PMID = 18352778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Akram H, Allibone J: Spinal surgery for palliation in malignant spinal cord compression. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2010 Nov;22(9):792-800
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  • [Title] Spinal surgery for palliation in malignant spinal cord compression.
  • Malignant spinal cord compression is an important neuro-oncological emergency, the management of which has been changing throughout the last 30 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Palliative Care. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2011 Mar;23(2):161 [21216573.001]
  • [CommentIn] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2011 Mar;23(2):160 [21146965.001]
  • (PMID = 20702075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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46. Ellis RC, O'Steen WA, Hayes RL, Nick HS, Wang KK, Anderson DK: Cellular localization and enzymatic activity of cathepsin B after spinal cord injury in the rat. Exp Neurol; 2005 May;193(1):19-28
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  • [Title] Cellular localization and enzymatic activity of cathepsin B after spinal cord injury in the rat.
  • Mechanical spinal cord injury (SCI) initiates a cascade of pathochemical and pathophysiological events, collectively known as the secondary injury.
  • Several proteases including the calpains, caspases and matrix metalloproteinases are activated by perturbations to the spinal cord and have been linked to cell death following SCI and in other models of CNS disease and insult.
  • [MeSH-major] Cathepsin B / metabolism. Spinal Cord Injuries / enzymology. Spinal Cord Injuries / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Fractionation. Enzyme Activation / physiology. Female. Neurons / cytology. Neurons / enzymology. Neurons / pathology. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans. Spinal Cord / cytology. Spinal Cord / enzymology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • (PMID = 15817261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4886
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B
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47. Morota S, Hansson MJ, Ishii N, Kudo Y, Elmér E, Uchino H: Spinal cord mitochondria display lower calcium retention capacity compared with brain mitochondria without inherent differences in sensitivity to cyclophilin D inhibition. J Neurochem; 2007 Dec;103(5):2066-76
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  • [Title] Spinal cord mitochondria display lower calcium retention capacity compared with brain mitochondria without inherent differences in sensitivity to cyclophilin D inhibition.
  • The spinal cord is selectively vulnerable in e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and increased mPT sensitivity of mitochondria derived from the spinal cord has previously been demonstrated.
  • In this study, we introduce whole-body hypothermia prior to removal of CNS tissue to minimize the effects of differential tissue extraction prior to isolation of spinal cord and cortical brain mitochondria.
  • Spinal cord mitochondria were able to retain considerably less calcium when administered as continuous infusion, which was not related to a general increased sensitivity of the mPT to calcium, its desensitization to calcium by the cyclophilin D inhibitor cyclosporin-A, or to differences in respiratory parameters.
  • Spinal cord mitochondria maintained a higher concentration of extramitochondrial calcium during infusion than brain mitochondria possibly related to an increased set-point concentration for calcium uptake.
  • A hampered transport and retention capacity of calcium may translate into an increased susceptibility of the spinal cord to neurodegenerative processes involving calcium-mediated damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / ultrastructure. Calcium / metabolism. Cyclophilins / pharmacology. Mitochondria / drug effects. Mitochondria / metabolism. Spinal Cord / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17868326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-4159
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ionophores; 27061-78-5 / Alamethicin; 555-60-2 / Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone; EC 5.2.1.- / Cyclophilins; EC 5.2.1.8 / cyclophilin D; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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48. Timoszyk WK, Nessler JA, Acosta C, Roy RR, Edgerton VR, Reinkensmeyer DJ, de Leon R: Hindlimb loading determines stepping quantity and quality following spinal cord transection. Brain Res; 2005 Jul 19;1050(1-2):180-9
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  • [Title] Hindlimb loading determines stepping quantity and quality following spinal cord transection.
  • We compared the bipedal hindlimb stepping ability of untrained and trained (step-trained 6 min/day) spinal rats (mid-thoracic spinal cord transection at post-natal day 5) at different levels of body weight support on a treadmill over a 40-day period, starting at 69 days of age.
  • Furthermore, the relationship between stepping ability and loading conditions changes with time after spinal cord transection and is unaltered by small amounts of step training.
  • Finally, load-bearing failure point can be a quantitative measure of locomotor recovery following spinal cord injury, especially for severely impaired animals that cannot step unassisted.
  • [MeSH-major] Gait / physiology. Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology. Weight-Bearing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15979592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS42951
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Keywords] NASA ; Non-programmatic
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49. Wong LF, Yip PK, Battaglia A, Grist J, Corcoran J, Maden M, Azzouz M, Kingsman SM, Kingsman AJ, Mazarakis ND, McMahon SB: Retinoic acid receptor beta2 promotes functional regeneration of sensory axons in the spinal cord. Nat Neurosci; 2006 Feb;9(2):243-50
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  • [Title] Retinoic acid receptor beta2 promotes functional regeneration of sensory axons in the spinal cord.
  • Stable RARbeta2 expression in DRG neurons in vitro and in vivo enabled their axons to regenerate across the inhibitory dorsal root entry zone and project into the gray matter of the spinal cord.
  • The regenerated neurons enhanced second-order neuronal activity in the spinal cord, and RARbeta2-treated rats showed highly significant improvement in sensorimotor tasks.
  • [MeSH-major] Nerve Regeneration / physiology. Neurons, Afferent / metabolism. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism. Spinal Cord / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cells, Cultured. Ganglia, Spinal / injuries. Ganglia, Spinal / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Recovery of Function / physiology


50. Miyakoshi N, Hongo M, Kasukawa Y, Misawa A, Shimada Y: Bilateral and symmetric C1-C2 dumbbell ganglioneuromas associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 causing severe spinal cord compression. Spine J; 2010 Apr;10(4):e11-5
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  • [Title] Bilateral and symmetric C1-C2 dumbbell ganglioneuromas associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 causing severe spinal cord compression.
  • BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Ganglioneuromas are rarely located in the cervical region compressing the spinal cord.
  • Only two cases of bilateral and symmetric dumbbell tumor have been reported previously.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed voluminous bilateral and symmetric dumbbell masses at the C1-C2 level severely compressing the spinal cord.
  • The spinal cord was also indented by a dumbbell mass at the left C3-C4 level.
  • RESULTS: The result was found to be surgical decompression of the spinal cord by subtotal resections of bilateral tumors at the C1-C2 level and unilateral tumor at the left C3-C4 level alleviated patient symptoms.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was ganglioneuroma for all resected tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioneuroma / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology


51. Levene HB, Mohamed FB, Faro SH, Seshadri AB, Loftus CM, Tuma RF, Jallo JI: Small mammal MRI imaging in spinal cord injury: a novel practical technique for using a 1.5 T MRI. J Neurosci Methods; 2008 Jul 30;172(2):245-9
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  • [Title] Small mammal MRI imaging in spinal cord injury: a novel practical technique for using a 1.5 T MRI.
  • The field of spinal cord injury research is an active one.
  • The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the injured and normal area of the spinal cord showed a three-fold increase in the contrast between these two regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / instrumentation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / pathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18579212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-0270
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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52. Deng XY, Zhou RP, Lu KW, Jin DD: [Lithium chloride combined with human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury in rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2010 Nov;30(11):2436-9
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  • [Title] [Lithium chloride combined with human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury in rats].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of lithium chloride combined with human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (hUCB-SCs) transplantation in the treatment of spinal cord injury in rats.
  • METHODS: Eighty female SD rats with complete T9 spinal cord transaction were randomized into 4 groups (n=20), namely the control group (group A), lithium chloride group (group B), hUCB-SCs group (group C) and hUCB-SCs(+) lithium chloride group (group D).
  • At 8 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed and the spinal cords were taken for morphological observation.
  • The spinal cord tissues at the injury site were observed with Brdu nuclear labeling to identify the survival and migration of the transplanted SCs.
  • The regeneration and distribution of the spinal nerve fibers were observed with fluorescent-gold (FG) spinal cord retrograde tracing.
  • RESULTS: Brdu labeling showed that the transplanted hUCB-SCs survived and migrated in the spinal cord 8 weeks postoperatively in groups C and D.
  • Lithium chloride combined with hUCB-SCs transplantation may accelerate functional recovery of the hindlimbs in rats with complete transection of the spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Lithium Chloride / therapeutic use. Spinal Cord Injuries / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21097398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] G4962QA067 / Lithium Chloride
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53. Filippidis AS, Kalani MY, Theodore N, Rekate HL: Spinal cord traction, vascular compromise, hypoxia, and metabolic derangements in the pathophysiology of tethered cord syndrome. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Jul;29(1):E9
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  • [Title] Spinal cord traction, vascular compromise, hypoxia, and metabolic derangements in the pathophysiology of tethered cord syndrome.
  • OBJECT: The definition of tethered cord syndrome (TCS) relies mainly on radiological criteria and clinical picture.
  • METHODS: The authors performed a MEDLINE search using the terms "tethered cord" and "pathophysiology."
  • The studies were further filtered to identify mostly basic research studies in animal models or studies related to the biomechanics of the filum terminale and spinal cord.
  • RESULTS: Spinal cord traction and the loss of filum terminale elasticity are the triggers that start a cascade of events occurring at the metabolic and vascular levels leading to symptoms of the disease.
  • Traction on the caudal cord results in decreased blood flow causing metabolic derangements that culminate in motor, sensory, and urinary neurological deficits.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina / physiopathology. Neural Tube Defects / physiopathology. Spinal Cord / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 20594007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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54. Turhan N, Başaran O, Haberal M: Delayed spinal cord injury after high-voltage electrical injury. J Burn Care Res; 2006 Nov-Dec;27(6):910-3
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  • [Title] Delayed spinal cord injury after high-voltage electrical injury.
  • Delayed spinal cord injury is a rare complication of high-voltage injury.
  • The diagnosis of this scenario is difficult because radiologic imaging techniques lack sensitivity.
  • Frequent neurologic assessments, although difficult to perform in the early stages of such multisystem traumas, are required for accurate diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Electric Injuries / complications. Spinal Cord Injuries / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17091092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-047X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Burn Care Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Lammertse D, Tuszynski MH, Steeves JD, Curt A, Fawcett JW, Rask C, Ditunno JF, Fehlings MG, Guest JD, Ellaway PH, Kleitman N, Blight AR, Dobkin BH, Grossman R, Katoh H, Privat A, Kalichman M, International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis: Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury as developed by the ICCP panel: clinical trial design. Spinal Cord; 2007 Mar;45(3):232-42
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  • [Title] Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury as developed by the ICCP panel: clinical trial design.
  • The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic / standards. Research Design / standards. Spinal Cord Injuries / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17179970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01 HD037439
  • [Publication-type] Guideline; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS599682; NLM/ PMC4106695
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56. Zeman RJ, Wen X, Ouyang N, Rocchio R, Shih L, Alfieri A, Moorthy C, Etlinger JD: Stereotactic radiosurgery improves locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury in rats. Neurosurgery; 2008 Nov;63(5):981-7; discussion 987-8
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery improves locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury in rats.
  • Although conventional x-irradiation has been shown to improve recovery from spinal cord injury in animals, the efficacy of targeted irradiation of the injured spinal cord has not been demonstrated previously.
  • The purpose of these studies was to determine whether stereotactic x-irradiation of the injured spinal cord can enhance locomotor function and spare spinal cord tissue after contusion injury in a standard experimental model of spinal cord injury.
  • The target volume was a 4 x 15-mm cylinder along the axis of the spinal cord, with the isocenter positioned at the contusion epicenter.
  • Locomotor function was determined for 6 weeks after injury with the 21-point Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale and tissue sparing in histological sections of the spinal cord.
  • The extent of locomotor recovery after treatment with x-irradiation correlated with measurements of spared spinal cord tissue at the contusion epicenter.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest a beneficial role for stereotactic radiosurgery in a rat model of acute spinal cord contusion injury and raise hopes for human treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Radiosurgery. Recovery of Function. Spinal Cord / radiation effects. Spinal Cord Injuries / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19005390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R43 NS047760
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Rukskul P: Lumbo-peritoneal shunting improved spinal cord compression due to a large anterior sacral meningocele. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Feb;88(2):265-8
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  • [Title] Lumbo-peritoneal shunting improved spinal cord compression due to a large anterior sacral meningocele.
  • She came to Thammmasat Hospital with an episode of spinal cord compression for 2 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts / methods. Meningocele / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15962681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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58. Yuan XC, Song JL, Tian GH, Shi SH, Li ZG: [Proteome analysis on the mechanism of electroacupuncture in relieving acute spinal cord injury at different time courses in rats]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu; 2009 Apr;34(2):75-82
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  • [Title] [Proteome analysis on the mechanism of electroacupuncture in relieving acute spinal cord injury at different time courses in rats].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the differentially expressed proteins in the spinal cord at different time courses after acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) in the rat, so as to study its underlying mechanism in im-proving spinal traumatic injury.
  • The injured spinal cord tissue (T10 -T11) was collected 6 h, 24 hand 48 h after ASCI and EA treatment, weighted and stored under -80 degrees D till detection.
  • Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to separate total proteins of the spinal tissue, followed by protein extraction and quantitation, 2-D gel image analysis, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and databases-searching for identification of the differentially-expressed proteins.
  • At 6 h, compared with control group, of the 5 types of spinal differential proteins, 4 were upregulated in the expression after ASCI, and the rest one was downregulated; while after EA, ASCI-induced expression changes in 4 of the 5 differential proteins were reversed.
  • CONCLUSION: Proteome analysis indicates that in ASCI rats, some differentially expressed proteins involving energy metabolism, neuronal apoptosis reduction, protein-degradation inhibition may contribute to the effect of EA in repairing the traumatic spinal tissue.

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  • (PMID = 19685718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0607
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteome
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59. Sparrey CJ, Manley GT, Keaveny TM: Effects of white, grey, and pia mater properties on tissue level stresses and strains in the compressed spinal cord. J Neurotrauma; 2009 Apr;26(4):585-95
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  • [Title] Effects of white, grey, and pia mater properties on tissue level stresses and strains in the compressed spinal cord.
  • Recent demographics demonstrate an increase in the number of elderly spinal cord injury patients, motivating the desire for a better understanding of age effects on injury susceptibility.
  • Knowing that age and disease affect neurological tissue, there is a need to better understand the sensitivity of spinal cord injury mechanics to variations in tissue behavior.
  • To address this issue, a plane-strain, geometrically nonlinear, finite element model of a section of a generic human thoracic spinal cord was constructed to model the response to dorsal compression.
  • Pressure measurements in both the grey and white matter were particularly sensitive to white matter properties, suggesting that degenerative changes in white matter may influence perfusion in a compressed spinal cord.
  • Our results suggest that the mechanics of spinal cord compression are likely to be affected by changes in tissue resulting from aging and disease, indicating a need to study the biomechanical aspects of spinal cord injury in these specific populations.

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  • (PMID = 19292657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurotrauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurotrauma
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / SC / UCSF-3915SC
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2877118
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60. Kim HA, Kim JH, Won JH, Suh CH: An unusual clinical manifestation of Takayasu's arteritis: spinal cord compression. Joint Bone Spine; 2009 Mar;76(2):209-12
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  • [Title] An unusual clinical manifestation of Takayasu's arteritis: spinal cord compression.
  • However, spinal cord compression has never been described as a complication of Takayasu's arteritis.
  • We describe a case of Takayasu's arteritis complicated by spinal cord compression due to thoracolumbar inflammatory epiduritis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidural Space / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / diagnosis. Takayasu Arteritis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Lumbar Vertebrae. Middle Aged. Neurosyphilis / complications. Neurosyphilis / drug therapy. Neurosyphilis / pathology. Penicillins / therapeutic use. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Thoracic Vertebrae. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19070527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Penicillins; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
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61. Chen YY, Zhang W, Chen YL, Chen SJ, Dong H, Zeng YS: Electro-acupuncture improves survival and migration of transplanted neural stem cells in injured spinal cord in rats. Acupunct Electrother Res; 2008;33(1-2):19-31
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  • [Title] Electro-acupuncture improves survival and migration of transplanted neural stem cells in injured spinal cord in rats.
  • This study investigated whether electro-acupuncture (EA) would improve the survival and migration of neural stem cells (NSCs) transplanted in injured spinal cord as well as the potential mechanisms.
  • T10 spinal cord segments of 50 adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were completely transected, and then NSCs were immediately transplanted into the transected site of the experimental animals, while control animals were sham operated without transplantation.
  • Also NT-3 in injured spinal cord tissue was 23% increased in the EA+NSCs14d group.
  • These results suggest that the combination of EA and NSCs improves the survival and migration of NSCs in injured spinal cord in rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Acupuncture Therapy / instrumentation. Cell Movement. Electric Stimulation Therapy / instrumentation. Neurons / cytology. Neurons / transplantation. Spinal Cord Injuries / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Tissue Survival

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  • (PMID = 18672742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-1293
  • [Journal-full-title] Acupuncture & electro-therapeutics research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acupunct Electrother Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Ward RE, Huang W, Curran OE, Priestley JV, Michael-Titus AT: Docosahexaenoic acid prevents white matter damage after spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma; 2010 Oct;27(10):1769-80
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  • [Title] Docosahexaenoic acid prevents white matter damage after spinal cord injury.
  • We have previously shown that the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly improves several histological and behavioral measures after spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • [MeSH-major] Docosahexaenoic Acids / pharmacology. Myelin Sheath / drug effects. Nerve Fibers, Myelinated / drug effects. Spinal Cord / drug effects. Spinal Cord Injuries / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20698757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurotrauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurotrauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 25167-62-8 / Docosahexaenoic Acids
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63. Ku JH, Jung TY, Lee JK, Park WH, Shim HB: Risk factors for urinary stone formation in men with spinal cord injury: a 17-year follow-up study. BJU Int; 2006 Apr;97(4):790-3
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  • [Title] Risk factors for urinary stone formation in men with spinal cord injury: a 17-year follow-up study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish hazard ratios for risk of urinary stone formation in men with chronic spinal cord injury.
  • CONCLUSION: Injury characteristics are important for the development of urinary stone in chronic traumatic spinal cord injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Calculi / etiology. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications. Urinary Bladder Calculi / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16536775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Guidetti S, Asaba E, Tham K: Meaning of context in recapturing self-care after stroke or spinal cord injury. Am J Occup Ther; 2009 May-Jun;63(3):323-32
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  • [Title] Meaning of context in recapturing self-care after stroke or spinal cord injury.
  • This study identifies the meaning of context in recapturing self-care after a stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • [MeSH-major] Self Care. Spinal Cord Injuries / rehabilitation. Stroke / rehabilitation

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  • (PMID = 19522141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0272-9490
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Occup Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Nagatomi J, DeMiguel F, Torimoto K, Chancellor MB, Getzenberg RH, Sacks MS: Early molecular-level changes in rat bladder wall tissue following spinal cord injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2005 Sep 9;334(4):1159-64
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  • [Title] Early molecular-level changes in rat bladder wall tissue following spinal cord injury.
  • Previously, we demonstrated using a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) that bladder wall tissue compliance significantly increased within the first 2 weeks following injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation. Growth Substances / metabolism. Spinal Cord Injuries / metabolism. Urinary Bladder / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16038877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01-HD39768
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Growth Substances
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66. Shi S, Cheng C, Zhao J, Chen M, Qin J, Gao S, Shen A: Expression of p27kip1 and Skp2 in the adult spinal cord following sciatic nerve injury. J Mol Neurosci; 2007;32(1):64-71
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  • [Title] Expression of p27kip1 and Skp2 in the adult spinal cord following sciatic nerve injury.
  • In this study, we examined expression and relationship of p27kip1 and Skp2 in adult rat spinal cord following sciatic nerve injury.
  • It was illustrated that they localized mainly in neurons and astrocytes of spinal cord, and might also expressed in other glial cells according to the results of immunohistochemistry.
  • Sciatic nerve crush and transection resulted in a significant up-regulation of Skp2 and a down-regulation of p27kip1 in spinal cord.
  • Thus, p27kip1 and Skp2 likely play an important role in spinal cord regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Sciatic Neuropathy / metabolism. Spinal Cord / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17873289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0895-8696
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Lowey SE: Spinal cord compression: an oncologic emergency associated with metastatic cancer: evaluation and management for the home health clinician. Home Healthc Nurse; 2006 Jul-Aug;24(7):439-46; quiz 447-8
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  • [Title] Spinal cord compression: an oncologic emergency associated with metastatic cancer: evaluation and management for the home health clinician.
  • Spinal cord compression is an oncologic emergency that needs to be identified, evaluated, and treated promptly for favorable patient outcomes.
  • Although there are nonmalignant types of spinal cord compression, this article focuses on patients presenting with metastatic cancer.
  • Using an assessment tool could assist clinicians with early detection of spinal cord compression, which could improve the overall quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Community Health Nursing / organization & administration. Emergencies / nursing. Home Care Services / organization & administration. Nursing Assessment / methods. Spinal Cord Compression. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Nurse's Role. Pain / etiology. Pain / prevention & control. Quality of Life. Skin Care. Social Support

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  • (PMID = 16936522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-741X
  • [Journal-full-title] Home healthcare nurse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Home Healthc Nurse
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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68. Li HF, Mochly-Rosen D, Kendig JJ: Protein kinase Cgamma mediates ethanol withdrawal hyper-responsiveness of NMDA receptor currents in spinal cord motor neurons. Br J Pharmacol; 2005 Feb;144(3):301-7
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  • [Title] Protein kinase Cgamma mediates ethanol withdrawal hyper-responsiveness of NMDA receptor currents in spinal cord motor neurons.
  • The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that neuronal-specific protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma) plays a critical role in acute ethanol withdrawal hyper-responsiveness in spinal cord.
  • Patch-clamp studies were carried out in motor neurons in neonatal rat spinal cord slices.
  • Immunohistochemistry studies revealed that neonatal spinal cord motor neurons contain an abundance of nuclear PKCgamma.
  • The results show that PKCgamma mediates ethanol withdrawal hyper-responsiveness in spinal motor neurons; the results may be relevant to some symptoms of ethanol withdrawal in vivo.

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  • (PMID = 15655532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1188
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 47818; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA011147; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R37 AA011147; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 13108; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA 11147
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; EC 2.7.1.- / protein kinase C gamma; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1576006
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69. Kuczkowski KM: Labor analgesia for the parturient with spinal cord injury: what does an obstetrician need to know? Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2006 May;274(2):108-12
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  • [Title] Labor analgesia for the parturient with spinal cord injury: what does an obstetrician need to know?
  • Each year more than 2,000 women of childbearing age in the United States alone sustain a spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesia, Obstetrical. Delivery, Obstetric. Pregnancy / physiology. Spinal Cord Injuries

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  • (PMID = 16496169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics
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70. Yang JY, Kim HS, Lee JK: Changes in nitric oxide synthase expression in young and adult rats after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord; 2007 Nov;45(11):731-8
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  • [Title] Changes in nitric oxide synthase expression in young and adult rats after spinal cord injury.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical meaning of the changes in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and activity after spinal cord injury (SCI) according to the age of the experiment animal.
  • NOS isoforms (nNOS, neuronal NOS; iNOS, inducible NOS; and eNOS, endothelial NOS) were also immunolocalized in sections of control and spinal cord injury in the two sample groups using specific monoclonal antibodies.
  • RESULT: As the expression of nNOS on the spinal gray matter of the adult rat decreased, eNOS activity increased.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. Spinal Cord Injuries / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17353913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
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71. Chan SC, Chan AP: The validity and applicability of the Chinese version of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction With Assistive Technology for people with spinal cord injury. Assist Technol; 2006;18(1):25-33
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  • [Title] The validity and applicability of the Chinese version of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction With Assistive Technology for people with spinal cord injury.
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the QUEST 2.0 (C-QUEST) in terms of content and substantive and factor validity and to explore its applicability on user satisfaction on mobility and equipment among Chinese people with spinal cord injury.
  • The revised version, along with the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF [HK]), was administered on user satisfaction of people with spinal cord injury in the community.
  • The 12-item C-QUEST was shown to be a valid and relevant instrument to capture the user satisfaction among Chinese people with spinal cord injury in the context of mobility and seating equipment.
  • [MeSH-major] Disabled Persons / psychology. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Patient Satisfaction. Psychometrics / instrumentation. Self-Help Devices. Spinal Cord Injuries / rehabilitation. Surveys and Questionnaires


72. Navas-García M, Pedrosa-Sánchez M, Carrasco-Moro R, Pascual-Garvi JM, Sola RG: [Cystic hemangioblastoma of the junction of the medulla and upper spinal cord associated to von Hippel-Lindau disease. Two case reports and a review of the literature]. Rev Neurol; 2009 May 1-15;48(9):463-8
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  • [Title] [Cystic hemangioblastoma of the junction of the medulla and upper spinal cord associated to von Hippel-Lindau disease. Two case reports and a review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Hemangioblastoma quistico de la union bulbomedular asociado a enfermedad de von Hippel-Lindau. Presentacion de dos casos y revision de la bibliografia.
  • INTRODUCTION: Hemangioblastomas are very highly vascularised benign tumours that can present either sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome in 20% of cases.
  • Only 5-20% of hemangioblastomas are located in the brainstem, and those that occur at the junction of the medulla and upper spinal cord are the ones that are less commonly diagnosed.
  • CASE REPORTS: Two young patients were diagnosed with von Hippel-Lindau disease after beginning with a cystic hemangioblastoma at the junction of the medulla and upper spinal cord as the first pathological manifestation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of cystic hemangioblastomas of the junction of the medulla and upper spinal cord associated to von Hippel-Lindau disease is very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / pathology. Hemangioblastoma. Medulla Oblongata. Spinal Cord. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / pathology. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19396763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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73. Zhang FE, Cao JL, Zhang LC, Zeng YM: Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal cord contributes to chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. Sheng Li Xue Bao; 2005 Oct 25;57(5):545-51
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  • [Title] Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal cord contributes to chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain.
  • The present study aimed to investigate the role of spinal p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation in chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain.
  • The results showed that CCI significantly increased the expressions of cytosolic and nuclear p-p38 MAPK in the spinal cord.
  • Correlated with behavior results, SB203580 dose-dependently inhibited the CCI-induced increase of the expressions of cytosolic and nuclear p-p38 MAPK and nuclear pCREB in the spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuralgia / enzymology. Neuralgia / physiopathology. Sciatic Nerve / injuries. Spinal Cord / enzymology. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16220191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0371-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Li Xue Bao
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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74. Dong HW, Wang LH, Zhang M, Han JS: Decreased dynorphin A (1-17) in the spinal cord of spastic rats after the compressive injury. Brain Res Bull; 2005 Oct 15;67(3):189-95
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  • [Title] Decreased dynorphin A (1-17) in the spinal cord of spastic rats after the compressive injury.
  • Spasticity in rat hindlimbs was induced by compressing cervical spinal cord with a wax ball.
  • (1) muscle spasm was detected in the hindlimbs a week after the operation and maintained at least 8 weeks, (2) in the spastic animals, dynorphin A (1-17)-ir decreased significantly in thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord and (3) peripheral administration of kappa receptor agonist U50488H and electrical stimulation at 100 Hz effectively relieved the muscle spasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Dynorphins / metabolism. Spinal Cord / metabolism. Spinal Cord Compression / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16144654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-9230
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic; 0 / Narcotic Antagonists; 36B82AMQ7N / Naloxone; 67198-13-4 / 3,4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer; 74913-18-1 / Dynorphins
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75. Jiang S, Bendjelloul F, Ballerini P, D'Alimonte I, Nargi E, Jiang C, Huang X, Rathbone MP: Guanosine reduces apoptosis and inflammation associated with restoration of function in rats with acute spinal cord injury. Purinergic Signal; 2007 Sep;3(4):411-21
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  • [Title] Guanosine reduces apoptosis and inflammation associated with restoration of function in rats with acute spinal cord injury.
  • Spinal cord injury results in progressive waves of secondary injuries, cascades of noxious pathological mechanisms that substantially exacerbate the primary injury and the resultant permanent functional deficits.
  • Therefore, we determined whether systemic administration of guanosine could protect rats from some of the secondary effects of spinal cord injury, thereby reducing neurological deficits.
  • Systemic administration of guanosine (8 mg/kg per day, i.p.) for 14 consecutive days, starting 4 h after moderate spinal cord injury in rats, significantly improved not only motor and sensory functions, but also recovery of bladder function.
  • These data raise the intriguing possibility that guanosine may also be able to reduce secondary pathological events and thus improve functional outcome after traumatic spinal cord injury in humans.

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  • (PMID = 18404454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-9538
  • [Journal-full-title] Purinergic signalling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Purinergic Signal.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2072916
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76. De Laporte L, Yang Y, Zelivyanskaya ML, Cummings BJ, Anderson AJ, Shea LD: Plasmid releasing multiple channel bridges for transgene expression after spinal cord injury. Mol Ther; 2009 Feb;17(2):318-26
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  • [Title] Plasmid releasing multiple channel bridges for transgene expression after spinal cord injury.
  • Plasmid-loaded multiple channel bridges were engineered for spinal cord regeneration with the ability to support and direct cellular processes and promote gene transfer at the injury site.
  • In the rat spinal cord, bridges implanted into a lateral hemisection supported substantial cell infiltration, aligned cells within the channels, axon growth across the channels, and high levels of transgene expression at the implant site with decreasing levels rostral and caudal.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Therapy / methods. Plasmids / genetics. Spinal Cord Injuries / therapy. Tissue Engineering / methods. Transgenes / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19050701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-0024
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB003806; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB005678; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006520; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB 003806
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2835056
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77. Cadotte DW, Singh A, Fehlings MG: The timing of surgical decompression for spinal cord injury. F1000 Med Rep; 2010;2:67
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  • [Title] The timing of surgical decompression for spinal cord injury.
  • Research into the pathophysiological mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI) has resulted in a classification scheme of primary and secondary injury.
  • Emerging evidence and a growing consensus among surgeons are in support of early surgical intervention to help minimize the secondary damage caused by compression of the spinal cord after trauma.

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  • (PMID = 21173861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-5931
  • [Journal-full-title] F1000 medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] F1000 Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2990468
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78. Siddall PJ, Middleton JW: A proposed algorithm for the management of pain following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord; 2006 Feb;44(2):67-77
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  • [Title] A proposed algorithm for the management of pain following spinal cord injury.
  • OBJECTIVES: To review published articles on the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) and to synthesise evidence from these materials to formulate and propose a systematic approach to management.
  • METHODS: Relevant articles regarding the treatment of pain were identified from electronic databases using the search terms (('spinal cord injury' or 'spinal cord injuries') and 'pain') and both ('treatment') and ('randomised controlled trials').
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Pain / diagnosis. Pain Management. Pain Measurement / methods. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 16116488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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79. El-Osta B, Ghoz A, Singh VK, Saed E, Abdunabi M: Spontaneous spinal cord infarction secondary to embolism from an aortic aneurysm mimicking as cauda equina due to disc prolapse: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7460
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  • [Title] Spontaneous spinal cord infarction secondary to embolism from an aortic aneurysm mimicking as cauda equina due to disc prolapse: a case report.
  • Spinal "stroke" is an uncommon cause of paraplegia.
  • Spinal cord infarction from unruptured aortic aneurysm is rare.
  • When encountered it poses diagnostic challenge to the clinician due to its rarity, which may lead to incorrect or delayed diagnosis.
  • We report a case of 62-year-old man presenting to casualty as caudaequina syndrome due to spinal cord infarction secondary to emboli from an infra renal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

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  • (PMID = 19829969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740033
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80. Wang Y, Jiang X, Liu Y, Gu X, Huan Y, Ren L, Ding F, Gu X: Molecular cloning and altered expression of Pbx4 in the spinal cord during tail regeneration of Gekko japonicus. Brain Res Bull; 2009 Dec 16;80(6):414-21
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  • [Title] Molecular cloning and altered expression of Pbx4 in the spinal cord during tail regeneration of Gekko japonicus.
  • We characterized a Pbx4 cDNA isolated from a Gekko japonicus brain and spinal cord cDNA library.
  • In the spinal cord after tail amputation, in situ hybridization results showed that Pbx4 mRNA staining was present in the gray matter and ependymal cells of the spinal cord but that additional staining was seen in the white matter in regions close to the amputation stump.
  • Both in situ hybridization and real-time PCR methods detected no obvious changes in Pbx4 expression in segment of the cord farthest from the amputation site, however, Pbx4 mRNA expression increased by 2 fold in segment close to the amputation site after 2 wks.
  • These results suggest that gecko Pbx4 is possibly involved in spinal cord regeneration at sites of proximal amputation, and that the expression of Pbx4 in the spinal cord is regulated by retinoic acid in a manner different from that of Pbx1, Pbx2 and Pbx3.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / physiology. Regeneration / physiology. Reptilian Proteins / metabolism. Spinal Cord / physiology. Tail / physiology. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19712730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2747
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Agents; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Reptilian Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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81. Xing ST, Wang D, Wen XH, Wu ZQ, Sun Q, Zhang DW, Cheng Y, Yan D, Yu F: [Clinical research of electroacupuncture combined with acupoint-injection of botulinum toxin A in treating the muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury]. Zhongguo Gu Shang; 2010 May;23(5):350-3
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  • [Title] [Clinical research of electroacupuncture combined with acupoint-injection of botulinum toxin A in treating the muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore clinical safety and efficiency of electroacupuncture combined with acupoint-injection of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury.
  • METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury were treated from December 2006 to December 2009 including 26 males and 12 females, with an average age of 45.4 years old ranging from 21 to 68 years.
  • The electroacupuncture combined with acupoint-inject botulinum toxin A is a noval safe and effective technique for the treatment of muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Acupuncture Points. Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage. Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use. Electroacupuncture / methods. Muscle Spasticity / complications. Muscle Spasticity / therapy. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 20575288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-0034
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Gu Shang
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
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82. Rintala DH, Holmes SA, Fiess RN, Courtade D, Loubser PG: Prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in veterans with spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev; 2005 Sep-Oct;42(5):573-84
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  • [Title] Prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in veterans with spinal cord injury.
  • To assess prevalence and characteristics of individual chronic (>6 mo) pain components in the veteran spinal cord injury (SCI) population, we conducted a telephone survey with 348 (66%) of 530 veterans with SCI who received care from one regional Department of Veterans Affairs SCI center during a 3 yr period.
  • [MeSH-major] Pain, Intractable / diagnosis. Pain, Intractable / epidemiology. Spinal Cord Injuries / epidemiology. Veterans / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 16586183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-1352
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of rehabilitation research and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Rehabil Res Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Parizel PM, van der Zijden T, Gaudino S, Spaepen M, Voormolen MH, Venstermans C, De Belder F, van den Hauwe L, Van Goethem J: Trauma of the spine and spinal cord: imaging strategies. Eur Spine J; 2010 Mar;19 Suppl 1:S8-17
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  • [Title] Trauma of the spine and spinal cord: imaging strategies.
  • Traumatic injuries of the spine and spinal cord are common and potentially devastating lesions.
  • There is growing evidence that state-of-the-art imaging techniques provide answers to some of the key questions in the management of patients with spine and spinal cord trauma: is the fracture stable or unstable?
  • Is the fracture benign or malignant?
  • In summary, we show that high-quality radiological investigations are essential in the diagnosis and management of patients with spinal trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord Injuries / diagnosis. Spinal Fractures / diagnosis. Spinal Injuries / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / standards. Prognosis. Radiography / methods. Radiography / standards. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / standards. Trauma Severity Indices. Wounds and Injuries / classification. Wounds and Injuries / diagnosis. Wounds and Injuries / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19727855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899721
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84. Wirz M, van Hedel HJ, Rupp R, Curt A, Dietz V: Muscle force and gait performance: relationships after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2006 Sep;87(9):1218-22
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  • [Title] Muscle force and gait performance: relationships after spinal cord injury.
  • OBJECTIVES: To relate locomotor function improvement, within the first 6 months after spinal cord injury (SCI), to an increase in Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS) and to assess the extent to which the level of lesion influenced the outcome of ambulatory capacity.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI), gait speed, and LEMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Gait. Motor Activity. Paraplegia / physiopathology. Quadriplegia / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16935058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9993
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Phys Med Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Yu Q, Zhou Q, Huang H, Wang Y, Tian S, Duan D: Protective effect of etomidate on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by aortic occlusion in rabbits. Ann Vasc Surg; 2010 Feb;24(2):225-32
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  • [Title] Protective effect of etomidate on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by aortic occlusion in rabbits.
  • Rabbits in groups II and III were subjected to 45 min of infrarenal aortic cross-clamping to induce spinal cord ischemia, while group I rabbits received the sham operation as a control.
  • CONCLUSION: Etomidate displayed a potent neuroprotective effect against IR-induced spinal cord injuries.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Etomidate / pharmacology. Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology. Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control. Spinal Cord / blood supply. Spinal Cord / drug effects. Spinal Cord Ischemia / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19748211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-5947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of vascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Vasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 789U1901C5 / Copper; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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86. Matsuda R, Yoshikawa M, Kimura H, Ouji Y, Nakase H, Nishimura F, Nonaka J, Toriumi H, Yamada S, Nishiofuku M, Moriya K, Ishizaka S, Nakamura M, Sakaki T: Cotransplantation of mouse embryonic stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells following spinal cord injury suppresses tumor development. Cell Transplant; 2009;18(1):39-54
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  • [Title] Cotransplantation of mouse embryonic stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells following spinal cord injury suppresses tumor development.
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a potential source for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • Although one of the main problems of ES cell-based cell therapy is tumor formation, there is no ideal method to suppress tumor development.
  • In this study, we examined whether transplantation with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) prevented tumor formation in SCI model mice that received ES cell-derived grafts containing both undifferentiated ES cells and neural stem cells.
  • In contrast, no tumor development was observed in mice cotransplanted with BMSCs, which also showed sustained behavioral improvement.
  • These results suggest that BMSCs induce undifferentiated ES cells to differentiate into a neuronal lineage by neurotrophic factor production, resulting in suppression of tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Bone Marrow Transplantation / methods. Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Embryonic Stem Cells. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Nerve Growth Factors / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stromal Cells / cytology. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19476208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-6897
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Transplant
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Growth Factors
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87. Kato Y, Kanchiku T, Imajo Y, Ichinara K, Kawano S, Hamanama D, Yaji K, Taguchi T: Flexion model simulating spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in patients with ossification of the longitudinal ligament: the influence of flexion speed on the cervical spine. J Spinal Cord Med; 2009;32(5):555-9
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  • [Title] Flexion model simulating spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in patients with ossification of the longitudinal ligament: the influence of flexion speed on the cervical spine.
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: It is suspected that the speed of the motion of the spinal cord under static compression may be the cause of spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • However, little is known about the relationship between the speed of the motion of the spinal cord and its stress distributions.
  • METHODS: A 3-dimensional finite element spinal cord model was established.
  • Stress distributions inside of the spinal cord were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Stresses on the spinal cord increased slightly after the application of 5 degrees of flexion at a speed of 0.5 degrees/s.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The stress distribution of the spinal cord under static compression increased with faster flexion speed of the spinal cord.
  • High-speed motion of the spinal cord under static compression may be one of the causes of SCI in the absence of radiologic abnormality.
  • [MeSH-major] Computer Simulation. Models, Anatomic. Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament / complications. Spinal Cord Injuries / etiology. Spine / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20025151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-0268
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of spinal cord medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Spinal Cord Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792461
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88. Kalincík T, Choi EA, Féron F, Bianco J, Sutharsan R, Hayward I, Mackay-Sim A, Carrive P, Waite PM: Olfactory ensheathing cells reduce duration of autonomic dysreflexia in rats with high spinal cord injury. Auton Neurosci; 2010 Apr 19;154(1-2):20-9
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  • [Title] Olfactory ensheathing cells reduce duration of autonomic dysreflexia in rats with high spinal cord injury.
  • Autonomic dysreflexia is a common complication in high spinal cord injury and can result in serious consequences and death.
  • It has been proposed that changes in sympathetic preganglionic neurons following spinal cord transection may be related to the development of autonomic dysreflexia.
  • [MeSH-major] Autonomic Dysreflexia / etiology. Autonomic Dysreflexia / surgery. Neuroglia / physiology. Olfactory Bulb / cytology. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic / metabolism. Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic / pathology. Blood Pressure / physiology. Cell Count / methods. Cell Survival / physiology. Cell Transplantation / methods. Disease Models, Animal. Gastrointestinal Tract / physiopathology. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Heart Rate / physiology. Male. NADPH Dehydrogenase. Neurons / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Spinal Cord / metabolism. Spinal Cord / pathology. Sympathetic Nervous System / pathology. Telemetry / methods. Time Factors. Tubulin / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19896908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7484
  • [Journal-full-title] Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auton Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tubulin; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 1.6.99.1 / NADPH Dehydrogenase
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89. O'Connor RJ, Murray PC: Review of spinal cord injuries in Ireland. Spinal Cord; 2006 Jul;44(7):445-8
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  • [Title] Review of spinal cord injuries in Ireland.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Prospective data collection on all patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) admitted for a comprehensive management programme.
  • SETTING: Ireland's National Spinal Cord Injury Centre.
  • In all, 18 patients had complete injuries (American spinal injuries association (ASIA)).
  • [MeSH-major] Accidental Falls / statistics & numerical data. Accidents, Traffic / statistics & numerical data. Athletic Injuries / epidemiology. Risk Assessment / methods. Spinal Cord Injuries / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16304563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Nishio Y, Koda M, Kamada T, Someya Y, Kadota R, Mannoji C, Miyashita T, Okada S, Okawa A, Moriya H, Yamazaki M: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor attenuates neuronal death and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury in mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2007 Aug;66(8):724-31
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  • [Title] Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor attenuates neuronal death and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury in mice.
  • The aim of the present study was to elucidate the potential therapeutic effect of G-CSF for spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice.
  • Histologic assessment with cresyl violet staining revealed that the number of surviving neurons in the injured spinal cord was significantly increased in G-CSF-treated mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Neurons / drug effects. Recovery of Function / drug effects. Spinal Cord Injuries

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  • (PMID = 17882016.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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91. Shin JC, Chang WH, Jung TH, Yoo JH, Park SN: The determination of sensation-dependent bladder emptying time in patients with complete spinal cord injury above T11. Spinal Cord; 2008 Mar;46(3):210-5
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  • [Title] The determination of sensation-dependent bladder emptying time in patients with complete spinal cord injury above T11.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of sensation-dependent bladder emptying in complete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, based on the preservation of the desire to void.
  • SETTING: Spinal Cord Injury Unit, Yonsei Rehabilitation Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Cord Injuries / complications. Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology. Thoracic Vertebrae / injuries. Urination Disorders / etiology. Urination Disorders / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17646839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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92. Dickson A, Allan D, O'carroll R: Biographical disruption and the experience of loss following a spinal cord injury: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Psychol Health; 2008;23(4):407-25
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  • [Title] Biographical disruption and the experience of loss following a spinal cord injury: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.
  • Individual in-depth interviews with eight people who had experienced a total spinal cord injury were conducted, focussing on the experience of living with a spinal cord injury.
  • The findings are discussed in relation to both extant spinal cord literature and chronic health literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Activities of Daily Living / psychology. Adaptation, Psychological. Identity Crisis. Internal-External Control. Spinal Cord Injuries / psychology

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  • (PMID = 25160576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-8321
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychology & health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychol Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; IPA / Spinal cord injury / identity / incontinence / loss
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93. Ogawa T, Sasatomi K, Hiragata S, Seki S, Nishizawa O, Chermansky CJ, Pflug BR, Nelson JB, Chancellor MB, Yoshimura N: Therapeutic effects of endothelin-A receptor antagonist on bladder overactivity in rats with chronic spinal cord injury. Urology; 2008 Feb;71(2):341-5
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  • [Title] Therapeutic effects of endothelin-A receptor antagonist on bladder overactivity in rats with chronic spinal cord injury.
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of suppression of endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptors on bladder function and ET-1 levels in the bladder in rats with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • METHODS: We transected the spinal cord of female Sprague-Dawley rats at the level of Th 8-9.
  • Awake cystometrograms were performed 4 weeks after spinal cord transection.
  • ELISA analysis for ET-1 showed significantly elevated protein concentrations in SCI rats compared with spinal cord intact rats.

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  • [Cites] Am J Physiol. 1993 Jul;265(1 Pt 2):R132-8 [8342677.001]
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  • (PMID = 18308116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK68557; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD039768-05; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD039768-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK057267-06; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK57267; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK057267; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD39768; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD039768; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK068557; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK068557-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK057267-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin A Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Pyrrolidines; V6D7VK2215 / atrasentan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44037; NLM/ PMC2396329
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94. De Vries J, De Jongste MJ, Spincemaille G, Staal MJ: Spinal cord stimulation for ischemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg; 2007;32:63-89
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  • [Title] Spinal cord stimulation for ischemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease.
  • One of the NM methods used is chronic electrical stimulation of the spinal cord (spinal cord stimulation: SCS).
  • [MeSH-major] Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods. Myocardial Ischemia / therapy. Peripheral Vascular Diseases / therapy. Spinal Cord

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  • (PMID = 17907475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-4829
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances and technical standards in neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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95. Zhang TL, Zhao YW, Liu XY, Ding SJ: Effects of L-lysine monohydrochloride on insulin and blood glucose levels in spinal cord injured rats. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Mar 20;123(6):722-5
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  • [Title] Effects of L-lysine monohydrochloride on insulin and blood glucose levels in spinal cord injured rats.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia in brain and spinal cord could aggravate neurologic impairment.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of LMH on pancreatic islet B cells, the levels of endogenous insulin and blood glucose in spinal cord injured rats.
  • The model of spinal cord injured rat was established by hemi-transection at the lower right thoracic spinal cord.
  • LMH was administered via intraperitoneal injection once spinal cord injury was produced in rats.
  • All rats were sacrificed 48 hours after spinal cord injured.
  • CONCLUSION: LMH, but dose-dependent, might participate in the regulation of pancreatic islet B cells, and then reduce the blood glucose levels in the spinal cord injured rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Glucose / analysis. Insulin / blood. Lysine / pharmacology. Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology. Spinal Cord Injuries / blood

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  • (PMID = 20368093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; K3Z4F929H6 / Lysine
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96. Rades D, Stalpers LJ, Veninga T, Hoskin PJ: Spinal reirradiation after short-course RT for metastatic spinal cord compression. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Nov 1;63(3):872-5
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  • [Title] Spinal reirradiation after short-course RT for metastatic spinal cord compression.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of reirradiation (re-RT) for in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression after primary RT with 1 x 8 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 62 patients, treated with 1 x 8 Gy (n = 34) or 5 x 4 Gy (n = 28) between January 1995 and August 2003, received re-RT for in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression.
  • Re-RT was performed with 1 x 8 Gy (after 1 x 8 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy, n = 34), 5 x 3 Gy (after 1 x 8 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy, n = 15), or 5 x 4 Gy (after 1 x 8 Gy, n = 13).
  • The cumulative biologically effective dose (primary RT plus re-RT) was 80-100 Gy2.
  • The median follow-up after re-RT was 8 months (range, 2-42 months).
  • Motor function was evaluated up to 6 months after re-RT.
  • RESULTS: After re-RT, 25 patients (40%) showed improvement of motor function, 28 (45%) had no change, and 9 (15%) had deterioration.
  • No second in-field recurrence in the same spinal region was observed after re-RT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Spinal re-RT with 1 x 8 Gy, 5 x 3 Gy, or 5 x 4 Gy for in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression appears safe and effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Cord Compression / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Recovery of Function. Relative Biological Effectiveness. Retreatment. Spinal Cord / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 15939549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Ferguson AR, Christensen RN, Gensel JC, Miller BA, Sun F, Beattie EC, Bresnahan JC, Beattie MS: Cell death after spinal cord injury is exacerbated by rapid TNF alpha-induced trafficking of GluR2-lacking AMPARs to the plasma membrane. J Neurosci; 2008 Oct 29;28(44):11391-400
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  • [Title] Cell death after spinal cord injury is exacerbated by rapid TNF alpha-induced trafficking of GluR2-lacking AMPARs to the plasma membrane.
  • AMPAR trafficking has recently been shown to be regulated by glial release of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in vitro.
  • Here, we use confocal and image analysis techniques to demonstrate that spinal cord injury (SCI) induces trafficking of AMPARs to the neuronal membrane.

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  • (PMID = 18971481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH067931; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS38079; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F32 NS045468; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F32 NS053059; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F30 NS053185; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS053059-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS038079; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS053059-01A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F32 NS053059-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F32 NS053059-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, AMPA; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS77600; NLM/ PMC2598739
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98. Leung PY, Johnson CS, Wrathall JR: Comparison of the effects of complete and incomplete spinal cord injury on lower urinary tract function as evaluated in unanesthetized rats. Exp Neurol; 2007 Nov;208(1):80-91
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  • [Title] Comparison of the effects of complete and incomplete spinal cord injury on lower urinary tract function as evaluated in unanesthetized rats.
  • This has been reported to be lost after spinal cord transection (txSCI), contributing to impaired function.

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  • (PMID = 17822702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4886
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS035647; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS035647-06; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS035647-06; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS035647-07; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS035647-08; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS035647-07; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS035647-08
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 418M5916WG / Chloral Hydrate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS34624; NLM/ PMC2712947
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99. Allbutt HN, Siddall PJ, Keay KA: Contusive spinal cord injury evokes localized changes in NADPH-d activity but extensive changes in Fos-like immunoreactivity in the rat. J Anat; 2007 Sep;211(3):352-70
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  • [Title] Contusive spinal cord injury evokes localized changes in NADPH-d activity but extensive changes in Fos-like immunoreactivity in the rat.
  • The histological detection of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d), a marker for nitric oxide-producing cells, was used to evaluate ongoing changes in the neural biochemistry of the rat spinal cord 1 week following contusive spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • The numbers and laminar locations of NADPH-d- and c-fos-positive cells were examined in spinal segments adjacent to the site of injury (T12-S3) as well as those distant from the injury (C3-C5) in both SCI and un-injured rats.
  • In spinal segments distant to the injury site (C3-C5), NADPH-d activity did not differ from that of uninjured controls.
  • Furthermore, significant reductions in the levels of c-fos expression were observed in SCI rats, in spinal segments both at and distant to the site of injury for all spinal laminae.
  • [MeSH-major] Contusions / metabolism. NADPH Dehydrogenase / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / analysis. Spinal Cord / metabolism. Spinal Cord Injuries / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17584182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of anatomy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.6.99.1 / NADPH Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2375816
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100. Opara J, Mehlich K, Bielecki A: Walking index for spinal cord injury. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2007 Mar-Apr;9(2):122-7
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  • [Title] Walking index for spinal cord injury.
  • This review reports on the contemporary possibilities of objective evaluation of walking ability in patients with paraplegia following a spinal cord injury.
  • Current methods of evaluation of walking function, i.e. the ASIA Classification, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Barthel Index and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) are described.
  • The latest classification, known as the WISCI (Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury) is described in detail.
  • [MeSH-major] Disability Evaluation. Paraplegia / diagnosis. Quality of Life. Spinal Cord Injuries / diagnosis. Walking

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  • (PMID = 17538517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng; pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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