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1. Kaldrymidou H, Leontides L, Koutinas AF, Saridomichelakis MN, Karayannopoulou M: Prevalence, distribution and factors associated with the presence and the potential for malignancy of cutaneous neoplasms in 174 dogs admitted to a clinic in northern Greece. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med; 2002 Mar;49(2):87-91
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  • One hundred and seventy-four dogs diagnosed with cutaneous neoplasms in the Animal Medical and Surgical Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, were studied.
  • Thirty-one types of neoplasm were diagnosed, among which mast cell tumours (13.8%), hepatoid gland adenomas (9.8%), lipomas (5.7%) and histiocytomas (5.7%) were the most common.
  • The prevalence of epithelial, mesenchymal, lymphohistiocytic and melanocytic tumours was 47.7, 40.8, 8.6 and 2.9%, respectively.
  • Potentially malignant neoplasms were less frequently recorded than benign neoplasms.
  • The factors evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models for possible association with the odds of a tumour's potential for malignancy included the age, the sex and the breed of the dog, as well as the histological type of the neoplasm.
  • Dogs with mesenchymal tumours had two times higher odds of potential for malignancy than those with epithelial tumours.
  • The odds of neoplasm presence were two times higher in pure bred dogs than in mongrels but did not differ between cross-breeds and mongrels.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / veterinary. Animals. Breeding. Dogs. Female. Greece / epidemiology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / veterinary. Lipoma / veterinary. Male. Mast-Cell Sarcoma / veterinary. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 11958472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-184X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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2. Varnat F, Duquet A, Malerba M, Zbinden M, Mas C, Gervaz P, Ruiz i Altaba A: Human colon cancer epithelial cells harbour active HEDGEHOG-GLI signalling that is essential for tumour growth, recurrence, metastasis and stem cell survival and expansion. EMBO Mol Med; 2009 Sep;1(6-7):338-51
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  • [Title] Human colon cancer epithelial cells harbour active HEDGEHOG-GLI signalling that is essential for tumour growth, recurrence, metastasis and stem cell survival and expansion.
  • Human colon cancers often start as benign adenomas through loss of APC, leading to enhanced beta CATENIN (beta CAT)/TCF function.
  • We show that the growth of CC xenografts, their recurrence and metastases require HH-GLI function, which induces a robust epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
  • Moreover, using a novel tumour cell competition assay we show that the self-renewal of CC stem cells in vivo relies on HH-GLI activity.
  • Our results indicate a key and essential role of the HH-GLI1 pathway in promoting CC growth, stem cell self-renewal and metastatic behavior in advanced cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Mice. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Veratrum Alkaloids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20049737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-4684
  • [Journal-full-title] EMBO molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] EMBO Mol Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3378144
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3. Said-Al-Naief N, Zahurullah FR, Sciubba JJ: Oral spindle cell lipoma. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2001 Aug;5(4):207-15
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  • [Title] Oral spindle cell lipoma.
  • Lipoma is an uncommon benign, oral, soft-tissue neoplasm commonly found on the buccal mucosa.
  • It is predominantly composed of mature fat with or without other mesenchymal tissue elements, showing a variety of histologic subtypes, one of which is the rare "spindle cell variant" with only nine previously reported cases in the English literature.
  • In this report, we review clinical and histomorphologic data of 164 cases of oral lipomas retrieved from the files of Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Department of Dental Medicine (New Hyde Park, NY).
  • Of these, only two cases were diagnosed as the spindle cell variant, further confirming the rarity of this histologic subtype.
  • A review of oral lipoma with particular reference to the spindle cell variant is also presented.

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  • (PMID = 11510003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Kwok WK, Ling MT, Lee TW, Lau TC, Zhou C, Zhang X, Chua CW, Chan KW, Chan FL, Glackin C, Wong YC, Wang X: Up-regulation of TWIST in prostate cancer and its implication as a therapeutic target. Cancer Res; 2005 Jun 15;65(12):5153-62
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  • Unlike a majority of solid cancers, prostate cancer usually shows poor response to chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • Using malignant and nonmalignant prostate tissues, we found that TWIST expression was highly expressed in the majority (90%) of prostate cancer tissues but only in a small percentage (6.7%) of benign prostate hyperplasia.
  • Furthermore, down-regulation of TWIST through small interfering RNA in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3, resulted in increased sensitivity to the anticancer drug taxol-induced cell death which was associated with decreased Bcl/Bax ratio, leading to activation of the apoptosis pathway.
  • More importantly, inactivation of TWIST suppressed migration and invasion abilities of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells, which was correlated with induction of E-cadherin expression as well as morphologic and molecular changes associated with mesenchymal to epithelial transition.
  • Our results have identified TWIST as a critical regulator of prostate cancer cell growth and suggest a potential therapeutic approach to inhibit the growth and metastasis of androgen-independent prostate cancer through inactivation of the TWIST gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Transfection. Twist Transcription Factor. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15958559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TWIST1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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5. Mukherjee S, Frolova N, Sadlonova A, Novak Z, Steg A, Page GP, Welch DR, Lobo-Ruppert SM, Ruppert JM, Johnson MR, Frost AR: Hedgehog signaling and response to cyclopamine differ in epithelial and stromal cells in benign breast and breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Jun;5(6):674-83
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  • [Title] Hedgehog signaling and response to cyclopamine differ in epithelial and stromal cells in benign breast and breast cancer.
  • The hedgehog pathway regulates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, differentiation, proliferation and survival during development.
  • Stimulation of hedgehog signaling induces carcinogenesis or promotes cell survival in cancers of multiple organs.
  • Using real-time, quantitative PCR, laser capture microdissection, and immunohistochemistry, distinctive patterns of expression of the hedgehog pathway members patched 1 (PTCH1), smoothened, GLI1, GLI2 and the 3 hedgehog ligands were identified for epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts in benign breast and breast cancer.
  • Hedgehog ligands were expressed at higher levels in some cancer epithelial cell lines compared to noncancerous epithelial cells.
  • Correspondingly, expression of GLI1, a transcription factor and transcriptional product of hedgehog signaling, was increased 8-fold in cancer epithelial cell lines; however, PTCH1, also a transcriptional target of hedgehog signaling in many cell types, was not increased.
  • GLI1 protein and mRNA, and PTCH1 and sonic hedgehog (SHH) proteins were elevated in 3 of 10 breast cancers; however, PTCH1 transcripts were not consistently increased.
  • Hedgehog-mediated transcription, as indicated by a reporter of GLI-dependent promoter activity and by expression of GLI1 transcripts, was reduced by the hedgehog pathway inhibitor cyclopamine in both MDA-MB-435 cancer epithelial cells and MCF10AT epithelial cells, a cell line derived from benign breast.
  • However, cyclopamine reduced viability of cancer epithelial cell lines, including MDA-MB-435, but did not specifically affect fibroblasts or epithelial cells from benign breast, including MCF10AT.
  • These results demonstrate modulation of GLI-mediated transcription in both cancer and benign-derived epithelial cells by cyclopamine and sonic hedgehog, and further suggest that hedgehog signaling contributes to the survival of only the cancer epithelial cells.

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  • (PMID = 16855373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA091421; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA105950
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS11622; NLM/ PMC1557635
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6. Pellegrino M, Vadrucci S, Tinelli A: [Angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva: a rare but distinct entity. Case report and literature review]. Pathologica; 2007 Dec;99(6):438-9
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  • Angiomyofibroblastoma is a benign vulvar tumour involving soft tissue that is characterized by alternating hypocellular and hypercellular areas of spindle stromal cells, admixed and aggregated around blood vessels.
  • It is important to recognize this entity as it shows benign behaviour with respect to other mesenchymal tumours of the vagina, which have a more aggressive behaviour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / surgery. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18416337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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7. Satoh H, Kai K, Yabe K, Fujii F, Furuhama K: Müllerian tumor (atypical polypoid adenomyoma) with sex-cord differentiation arising from the oviduct in an adolescent cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toxicol Pathol; 2003 Mar-Apr;31(2):179-84
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  • [Title] Müllerian tumor (atypical polypoid adenomyoma) with sex-cord differentiation arising from the oviduct in an adolescent cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
  • In a 6.5-year-old cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), a tumor mass was macroscopically located near the right ovary, connected to the oviduct, and completely separated from the uterus.
  • Light-microscopically, the polypoid mass consisted of admixtures of neoplastic mesenchymal and epithelial elements.
  • Lipid-rich foamy cells scattered within the tumor mass formed nest-like/aggregated populations.
  • Immunohistochemically, mesenchymal tumor cells stained diffusely positive for vimentin, desmin, and alpha (alpha)-smooth muscle actin, demonstrating a smooth muscle origin.
  • Mesenchymal tumor cells contained mitotic figures, and tumor elements including mesenchymal, epithelial, and lipid-rich foamy cells stained strongly positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).
  • From these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as an atypical polypoid adenomyoma (benign mixed müllerian tumor) with sex-cord differentiation arising from the oviduct.
  • This tumor was considered to be an exceedingly rare finding in the adolescent cynomolgus monkey.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actin Cytoskeleton / ultrastructure. Actins / analysis. Animals. Basement Membrane / ultrastructure. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Desmin / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Female. Foam Cells / chemistry. Foam Cells / pathology. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Inclusion Bodies / ultrastructure. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Testosterone / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12696577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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8. Terasaki T, Kyo S, Takakura M, Maida Y, Tsuchiya H, Tomita K, Inoue M: Analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in bone and soft tissue tumors. Oncol Rep; 2004 Jun;11(6):1307-11
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  • [Title] Analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in bone and soft tissue tumors.
  • However, telomerase activity in tumors of mesenchymal origin is not well understood.
  • In the present study, we examined telomerase activity in clinical samples from osteosarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma and representative sarcoma cell lines (HOS, OST and Saos2), using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay.
  • The cell lines HOS and OST were telomerase-positive, but Saos2 cells lacked telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA expression.
  • Treatment of Saos2 cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxy-cytidine, alone or together with the histone deacetylase inhibitor tricostatin A, did not induce hTERT mRNA expression.
  • Twenty-six of the 83 sarcoma samples (31.3%) were telomerase-positive [bone sarcoma, 15 of 42 samples (35.7%); soft tissue sarcoma, 11 of 41 samples (26.8%)], whereas neither benign tumors nor normal bone tissue expressed telomerase activity.
  • There was no significant correlation between histological type, tumor staging and telomerase activity.
  • Thus, these mesenchymal tumors comprise heterologous groups, some positive and some negative for telomerase, with long and short telomeres, suggesting multiple carcinogenesis pathways.
  • The present results indicate that telomerase activation is not prevalent in mesenchymal tumors and is not a critical determinant of telomere length, but it may be a prognostic indicator of mesenchymal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Osteosarcoma / genetics. Sarcoma / genetics. Telomerase / metabolism. Telomere / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA-Binding Proteins. Humans. Mesenchymoma / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Survival Rate

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bone Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Soft Tissue Sarcoma.
  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 15138570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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