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6. García-Reyna JC, Rico Martínez G, Vega González IF, Linares LM, Delgado Cedillo EA, Romero Ramírez R: [Musculoskeletal tumor evaluation with 99mTc-Tetrofosmin]. Acta Ortop Mex; 2008 Nov-Dec;22(6):390-6
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  • [Title] [Musculoskeletal tumor evaluation with 99mTc-Tetrofosmin].
  • [Transliterated title] 99mTc-Tetrofosmin en la evaluación de tumores musculoesqueléticos.
  • INTRODUCTION: (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin is an efficient agent as a tumor marker.
  • Several studies have proven its efficiency in detection and localization of tumors of the breast, larynx, thyroid, parathyroid glands, lung, brain, skin, lymphatic and musculoskeletal tissues with a sensitivity and specificity of 95% to 100%.
  • Nevertheless, benign pathology such as active inflammation is a source of false positives and the attending physician must consider the aid of complementary studies such as histopathology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19280840.001).
  • [ISSN] 2306-4102
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ortopédica mexicana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ortop Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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7. Blumenthal GM, Dennis PA: PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes. Eur J Hum Genet; 2008 Nov;16(11):1289-300
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  • [Title] PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes.
  • The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) are a collection of rare clinical syndromes characterized by germline mutations of the tumor suppressor PTEN.
  • These syndromes are driven by cellular overgrowth, leading to benign hamartomas in virtually any organ.
  • Cowden syndrome (CS), the prototypic PHTS syndrome, is associated with increased susceptibility to breast, thyroid, and endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Protein Kinases / genetics. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Signal Transduction. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases


8. Anyikam A, Nzegwu MA, Ozumba BC, Okoye I, Olusina DB: Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria. Saudi Med J; 2008 Feb;29(2):241-4
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  • [Title] Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize benign breast diseases in Eastern Nigeria and to highlight the age variations of these lesions as base line data.
  • Seven hundred and twenty-two benign breast specimens were analyzed over 5 years from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004, out of 1050 breast samples received.
  • RESULTS: Of 1050 breast specimens received, 722 (68.8%) were benign.
  • Normal breast in the axillary tail region was seen in 32 cases (4.4%), represented as no pathology, with a mean presentation age of 20-46 years.
  • Low grade Phyllodes tumor had 28 cases (3.9%), presenting at an average mean age of 17-32 years.
  • Benign breast lesions peaked at the 20-24 age range and then declined.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign breast lesions occur more frequently than malignant breast lesions with a ratio of 2.3:1 and were presented 20 years earlier than their malignant counterparts.
  • Fibroadenoma was the most common benign lesion followed by fibrocystic disease, similar to the findings in Western Nigeria.
  • In Northern Nigeria, fibrocystic breast disease was more common.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Fibroadenoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / epidemiology. Gynecomastia / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18246234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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9. Dragoumis D, Atmatzidis S, Chatzimavroudis G, Lakis S, Panagiotopoulou K, Atmatzidis K: Benign spindle cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) in a male breast. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;18(6):575-9
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  • [Title] Benign spindle cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) in a male breast.
  • Breast spindle cell tumors (BSCTs), although uncommon, constitute a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant lesions, often necessitating different therapeutic approaches.
  • This study describes the case of a 62-year-old man who displayed a gradually growing retroareolar tumor of the left breast.
  • Diverse histological results and immunohistochemical features established the diagnosis of benign BSCT, not otherwise specified.
  • This case report adds to the spectrum of the benign BSCTs and delineates the nature of different types of these lesions, in order to carefully select optimal therapeutic regimes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19064588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Kamate B, Traore CB, Diallo D, Foko I, Sangare F, Malle B, Coulibaly B, Mounkoro N, Bayo S: [Epidemiology and morphology of breast benign tumors in Mali: about 186 cases]. Mali Med; 2008;23(3):36-9
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  • [Title] [Epidemiology and morphology of breast benign tumors in Mali: about 186 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Epidemiologie et morphologie des tumeurs benignes du sein au Mali: a propos de 186 cas.
  • Benign tumors are more frequent, and are characterized by a possibility of recurrence or malignant transformation.
  • The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and morphological characteristics of breast benign tumors.
  • The study had concerned all benign tumors confirmed by histology.
  • FINDINGS: In total, 186 benign tumors were diagnosed over 611 mammary pathologies (30.44%).
  • The main complaint was feeling a nodule in the breast (91.9%).
  • The most affected breast was the right side (50.8%).
  • Tumor sizes were variable, and the color changed through white to yellow.
  • Histological aspects were: fibroadenoma (72%), lipoma (8.6%), tubular adenoma (5.9%), papilloma (5.4%), lactating adenoma (3.8%), phyllodes tumor (3.8%), and syringomatous tumor (0.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: Benign tumors are frequent in mammary pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Mali / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1993-0836
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Mali médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mali Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mali
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11. Kondi-Pafitis A, Kairi-Vassilatou E, Grapsa D, Kalkounou I, Vassilikostas G, Psichogios I: A large benign vascular neoplasm of the male breast. A case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(4):454-6
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  • [Title] A large benign vascular neoplasm of the male breast. A case report and review of the literature.
  • Breast hemangiomas are extremely rare neoplasms in the male population.
  • We report a case of a 77-year old man with a breast hemangioma which was detected in physical examination as a small nodule ten years after a chest injury.
  • The final histological diagnosis was hemangioma of the breast, 6 cm in the largest diameter.
  • To our knowledge, this is the largest benign vascular breast neoplasm in a male patient reported up to date.
  • The rarity of the lesion and its differential diagnosis from angiosarcoma are discussed while the problems encountered in the correct diagnosis and classification of this tumor are also presented.
  • The need for extreme caution in the interpretation of the histological characteristics of all palpable vascular tumors of the breast is emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Mastectomy, Segmental

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2005;26(6):667; author reply 667-8 [16398236.001]
  • (PMID = 16122203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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12. Papachristopoulou G, Avgeris M, Scorilas A: Expression analysis and study of KLK4 in benign and malignant breast tumours. Thromb Haemost; 2009 Feb;101(2):381-7
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  • [Title] Expression analysis and study of KLK4 in benign and malignant breast tumours.
  • The purpose of this study was the expression analysis and study of KLK4 in benign and malignant breast tumours.
  • Total RNA was isolated from 16 benign and 45 malignant breast tissue specimens.
  • Relative quantification analysis was performed using the comparative C(T) method 2(-DeltaDeltaC)(T) KLK4 expression was found to vary in both patients' cohorts; however, a statistically significant elevation of the KLK4 mRNA levels was observed in malignant compared to benign tumour patients.
  • ROC and logistic regression analysis recommended that KLK4 gene expression may be used as a new potential biomarker in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Kallikreins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. ROC Curve. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19190825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6245
  • [Journal-full-title] Thrombosis and haemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thromb. Haemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins; EC 3.4.21.- / kallikrein 4
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13. Smarrito S, Salmon R: [Desmoid tumor in a male breast in the context of Gardner's syndrome. Case report]. Ann Chir; 2005 Jan;130(1):40-3
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  • [Title] [Desmoid tumor in a male breast in the context of Gardner's syndrome. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur desmoïde du sein chez l'homme dans le cadre d'un syndrome de Gardner. A propos d'un cas.
  • Fibromatosis (Desmoid tumor) of the male breast is an exceptional location.
  • We present a case of such a tumor, in the context of Gardner's syndrome.
  • A palpable mass was discovered in the right breast of a 52 years old man, with a history of rectocolic adenomatous polyposis.
  • Mammography ant thoracic CT scan showed a stellar tumor, mimicking a breast cancer.
  • Treatment consisted of wide excision and histology revealed a desmoid tumor.
  • Desmoid tumors of the breast are benign lesions; they should be widely excised because of a high risk of recurrence.
  • Coloscopy is indicated in the presence of mammary fibromatosis, to look for associated multiple polyps, confirming the diagnosis of Gardner's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Fibromatosis, Aggressive / pathology. Fibromatosis, Aggressive / surgery. Gardner Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonoscopy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15664376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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4. Foschini MP, Krausz T: Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;27(1):77-90
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  • [Title] Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential.
  • Salivary gland-type neoplasms of the breast are uncommon and comprise numerous entities analogous to that more commonly seen in salivary glands.
  • The clinicopathologic spectrum ranges from benign to malignant but there are important differences as compared with those of their salivary counterpart.
  • In the breast, benign adenomyoepithelioma is recognized in addition to malignant one, whereas in the salivary gland a histologically similar tumor is designated as epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma without a separate benign subgroup.
  • Mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma is a low-grade neoplasm compared with its salivary equivalent.
  • It is also important to appreciate that in contrast to "triple negative" conventional breast carcinomas with aggressive course, most salivary-type malignant breast neoplasms behave in a low-grade manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / metabolism. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Adenomyoepithelioma / metabolism. Adenomyoepithelioma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20306833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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15. Lauwers K, Bestman TJ, Bergmans G, Molderez C: Granular cell tumour of the male breast. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Jan-Feb;108(1):112-4
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumour of the male breast.
  • Granular cell tumour (GCT) is a rare neoplasm that can be found in multiple sites throughout the body.
  • Occasionally GCT is located in the breast.
  • In general, it appears as a singular benign lesion, although it can be multi-focal and rare cases with malignant behaviour have been reported.
  • We report a rare case of granular cell tumour of the nipple in the male breast, treated by wide local excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Granular Cell Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Nipples

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  • (PMID = 18411585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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16. Koh YW, Kim JW, Lee SW, Choi EC: Endoscopic thyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral benign thyroid lesions. Surg Endosc; 2009 Sep;23(9):2053-60
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  • [Title] Endoscopic thyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral benign thyroid lesions.
  • Recently, the authors developed a unilateral axillo-breast approach for endoscopic hemithyroidectomy to minimize the visible scar in a natural position and to overcome the limitation of instrumentation.
  • METHODS: This study enrolled 52 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic hemithyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation.
  • A second 1.0-cm skin incision was made along the upper margin of the mammary areola on the tumor side for insertion of a 12-mm trocar.
  • RESULTS: Postoperative pathology showed 11 follicular adenomas, 1 follicular carcinoma, and 40 benign thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the aspect of invasiveness could be improved, endoscopic hemithyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation is safe and effective and appears to provide better cosmetic results and a shorter operation time than other endoscopic methods for managing selective unilateral benign thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Axilla. Breast. Drainage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Hematoma / etiology. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Seroma / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18528625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Meguerditchian AN, Malik DA, Hicks DG, Kulkarni S: Solitary fibrous tumor of the breast and mammary myofibroblastoma: the same lesion? Breast J; 2008 May-Jun;14(3):287-92
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the breast and mammary myofibroblastoma: the same lesion?
  • Benign stromal tumors of the breast are rare mesenchymal neoplasms that have significant clinical and morphologic overlap.
  • We report the case of a spindle cell tumor occurring in the mammary gland with mixed features of solitary fibrous tumor and mammary myofibroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18384484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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18. Moon HJ, Kim MJ, Kwak JY, Yoon JH, Kim SJ, Sohn YM, Kim EK: Malignant lesions initially categorized as probably benign breast lesions: retrospective review of ultrasonographic, clinical and pathologic characteristics. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2010 Apr;36(4):551-9
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  • [Title] Malignant lesions initially categorized as probably benign breast lesions: retrospective review of ultrasonographic, clinical and pathologic characteristics.
  • The primary objective of this study was to review the ultrasonographic features of BI-RADS category 3 ("probably benign") lesions that eventually proved to be malignant.
  • Thirty-two (0.8%) of 4000 women with lesions that were initially classified as "probably benign" proved to be malignant and formed the study group.
  • There was no statistical difference in the mean age, mean size of lesions, or tumor stage between patients who underwent early biopsy (n = 19) or biopsy after 6 months (n = 13).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / statistics & numerical data. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ultrasonography, Mammary / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Korea / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20350681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Yanik B, Tur BS, Kutlay S: Metastatic vertebral tumor misdiagnosed in magnetic resonance imaging as benign degenerative bone marrow changes: a case report. Rheumatol Int; 2005 Jun;25(5):384-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic vertebral tumor misdiagnosed in magnetic resonance imaging as benign degenerative bone marrow changes: a case report.
  • We report a man with low back and right groin pain as a result of metastatic breast carcinoma which was misdiagnosed in magnetic resonance imaging as benign degenerative changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Low Back Pain / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15449024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] Rheumatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rheumatol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Sanlioglu AD, Koksal IT, Ciftcioglu A, Baykara M, Luleci G, Sanlioglu S: Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors in benign and malignant prostate tissues. J Urol; 2007 Jan;177(1):359-64
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  • [Title] Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors in benign and malignant prostate tissues.
  • PURPOSE: Because TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) selectively kills cancer cells without damaging normal cells, a gene therapy approach using TRAIL is feasible for treating patients with cancer.
  • Our recent studies suggest that TRAIL receptor composition is the major modulator of TRAIL sensitivity, as demonstrated using prostate, breast and lung cancer cells.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin embedded prostate tissues of 44 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 28 with organ confined prostate carcinoma and 26 with advanced prostate carcinoma were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining procedures.
  • RESULTS: Significant levels of TRAIL-R4 decoy receptor expression were detected in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and organ confined and advanced prostate carcinoma.
  • All TRAIL markers tested appear to be valuable markers for separating patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from patients with organ confined prostate carcinoma or advanced prostate carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 17162091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
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21. Dakin Haché K, Gray S, Barnes PJ, Dewar R, Younis T, Rayson D: Clinical and pathological correlations in male breast cancer: intratumoral aromatase expression via tissue microarray. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Oct;105(2):169-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical and pathological correlations in male breast cancer: intratumoral aromatase expression via tissue microarray.
  • BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer (MBC) commonly expresses hormone receptors and there is anecdotal evidence of disease responsivity to aromatase inhibitors in the metastatic setting.
  • Specimens were reviewed for standard pathologic characteristics and tumor blocks were incorporated into three TMA's (four 1 mm cores per tumor).
  • ITA staining intensity was compared to control, benign hepatic tissue and if greater than or equal to liver was scored positive and if less than liver was scored negative.
  • Median tumor size was 2.6 cm (0.3-8.0 cm) and 22(41%) had nodal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms, Male / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tissue Array Analysis


22. Sturgeon CM, Duffy MJ, Stenman UH, Lilja H, Brünner N, Chan DW, Babaian R, Bast RC Jr, Dowell B, Esteva FJ, Haglund C, Harbeck N, Hayes DF, Holten-Andersen M, Klee GG, Lamerz R, Looijenga LH, Molina R, Nielsen HJ, Rittenhouse H, Semjonow A, Shih IeM, Sibley P, Sölétormos G, Stephan C, Sokoll L, Hoffman BR, Diamandis EP, National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers. Clin Chem; 2008 Dec;54(12):e11-79
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed.
  • METHODS: Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed.
  • RESULTS: For testicular cancer, alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase are recommended for diagnosis/case finding, staging, prognosis determination, recurrence detection, and therapy monitoring. alpha-Fetoprotein is also recommended for differential diagnosis of nonseminomatous and seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • Free PSA measurement data are useful for distinguishing malignant from benign prostatic disease when total PSA is <10 microg/L.
  • For breast cancer, estrogen and progesterone receptors are mandatory for predicting response to hormone therapy, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 measurement is mandatory for predicting response to trastuzumab, and urokinase plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 may be used for determining prognosis in lymph node-negative patients.
  • CA125 is also recommended for differential diagnosis of suspicious pelvic masses in postmenopausal women, as well as for detection of recurrence, monitoring of therapy, and determination of prognosis in women with ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of these recommendations should encourage optimal use of tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Clinical Laboratory Techniques. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Reference Values


23. Mainiero MB, Cinelli CM, Koelliker SL, Graves TA, Chung MA: Axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in the preoperative evaluation of the breast cancer patient: an algorithm based on tumor size and lymph node appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Nov;195(5):1261-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in the preoperative evaluation of the breast cancer patient: an algorithm based on tumor size and lymph node appearance.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients depending on the size of the primary tumor and the appearance of the lymph nodes.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were collected about tumor size, lymph node appearance, and the results of ultrasound-guided FNA and axillary surgery of 224 patients with breast cancer undergoing 226 ultrasound-guided FNA.
  • Lymph nodes were classified as benign if the cortex was even and measured < 3 mm, indeterminate if the cortex was even but measured ≥ 3 mm or measured < 3 mm but was focally thickened, and suspicious if the cortex was focally thickened and measured ≥ 3 mm or the fatty hilum was absent.
  • The results of ultrasound-guided FNAs were analyzed by the sonographic appearance of the axillary lymph nodes and by the size of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Breast Neoplasms, Male / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [CommentIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jul;197(1):W194; author reply W195 [21700988.001]
  • (PMID = 20966338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Kammori M, Izumiyama N, Nakamura K, Kurabayashi R, Kashio M, Aida J, Poon SS, Kaminishi M: Telomere metabolism and diagnostic demonstration of telomere measurement in the human esophagus for distinguishing benign from malignant tissue by tissue quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Oncology; 2006;71(5-6):430-6
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  • [Title] Telomere metabolism and diagnostic demonstration of telomere measurement in the human esophagus for distinguishing benign from malignant tissue by tissue quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • In conclusion, our TCR method can be used to distinguish between benign and malignant tissue in esophageal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophagus / pathology. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Telomere / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anaphase / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Centromere / pathology. Chromosomal Instability / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Stem Cells / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17878747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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25. McPherson SJ, Hussain S, Balanathan P, Hedwards SL, Niranjan B, Grant M, Chandrasiri UP, Toivanen R, Wang Y, Taylor RA, Risbridger GP: Estrogen receptor-beta activated apoptosis in benign hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate is androgen independent and TNFalpha mediated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2010 Feb 16;107(7):3123-8
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen receptor-beta activated apoptosis in benign hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate is androgen independent and TNFalpha mediated.
  • Prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are androgen-dependent diseases commonly treated by inhibiting androgen action.
  • These data provide evidence of the beneficial effects of ERbeta agonist on epithelium and stroma of BPH, as well as androgen-independent tumor cells implicated in recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Androgens / metabolism. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout

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  • [Cites] Dev Biol. 2001 Jan 15;229(2):432-42 [11150243.001]
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  • (PMID = 20133657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2840300
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26. Magro G: Epithelioid-cell myofibroblastoma of the breast: expanding the morphologic spectrum. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jul;33(7):1085-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epithelioid-cell myofibroblastoma of the breast: expanding the morphologic spectrum.
  • Myofibroblastoma (MFB) of the breast is an uncommon benign tumor, which exhibits a wide variety of cytomorphologic features and architectural patterns.
  • All but 1 case contained an intratumoral mature fatty component that variably accounted from 10% to 40% of the entire tumor.
  • Immunohistochemistry, revealing a variable coexpression of vimentin, desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, CD34, bcl-2 protein, CD99, CD10, estrogen/progesterone/androgen receptors, is crucial in confirming the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19390423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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27. Ahmed HG, Ali AS, Almobarak AO: Frequency of breast cancer among Sudanese patients with breast palpable lumps. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jan-Mar;47(1):23-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequency of breast cancer among Sudanese patients with breast palpable lumps.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer mortality is high in Sudan and most patients are detected at later stages of the disease due to the lack of awareness and absence of screening programs.
  • This study aimed to determine the pattern and frequency of breast cancer among patients presenting with palpable breast lumps within one year duration.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We obtained information (patient's personal data) and Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) materials, for occurrence of 200 breast lesions in patients.
  • RESULTS: The diagnoses of the 200 breast lesions were as follows: 68 (34%) were malignant, 56 cases (28%) were fibroadenoma, 23 cases (11.5%) were fibrocystic change, 22 cases (11%) were inflammatory lesions (including mastitis and abscess formation), 12 cases (6%) were benign cysts and the remaining 19 patients (9.5%) were with lactation changes (8 cases), lipoma (6 cases), gynecomastia (3 cases) and phyllodes tumor (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of advanced breast cancer among patients with breast lesions is high, in this subset of patients, which signals the urgency for implementation of breast screening programs.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sudan / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20071785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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28. Xing Y, Zhao JH, Wang TS, Qiao WL, Che WJ: [The role of 18F-FDG SPECT-CT in detecting recurrence and metastases in breast cancer patients with elevated tumor markers]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;31(2):129-33
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  • [Title] [The role of 18F-FDG SPECT-CT in detecting recurrence and metastases in breast cancer patients with elevated tumor markers].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare retrospectively the role of (18)F-FDG SPECT-CT and conventional imaging in the detection of recurrence and metastases in postoperative breast cancer patients with elevated level of tumor markers, and to evaluate the impact of (18)F-FDG SPECT-CT on the management of breast cancer patients.
  • METHODS: (18)F-FDG SPECT-CT was performed in 35 breast cancer patients with suspected recurrence based on elevated level of serum tumor markers.
  • The final diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer was confirmed by either pathology or observation by imaging during the follow-up for more than 1 year.
  • RESULTS: Among the 35 patients, the final diagnosis of recurrence or metastasis was established in 19 patients.
  • Of the 114 sites of increased FDG uptake, 93 were interpreted as malignant and 21 as benign.
  • CONCLUSION: In postoperative breast cancer patients with elevated level of tumor markers during the follow-up, (18)F-FDG SPECT-CT is more sensitive for detecting recurrence and metastases than conventional imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms, Male / blood. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19538891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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29. Vourtsi A, Zervoudis S, Pafiti A, Athanasiadis S: Male breast hemangioma--a rare entity: a case report and review of the literature. Breast J; 2006 May-Jun;12(3):260-2
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  • [Title] Male breast hemangioma--a rare entity: a case report and review of the literature.
  • We report the case of a 77-year-old man with a very rare breast tumor: hemangioma.
  • The histology confirmed the diagnosis of benign hemangioma.
  • There is very little literature on this type of tumor in men.
  • Generally hemangiomas are large and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful for the diagnosis.
  • The important differential diagnosis with angiosarcoma is based on specific histologic patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Mastectomy, Segmental

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  • (PMID = 16684325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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30. Karam M, Roberts-Klein S, Shet N, Chang J, Feustel P: Bilateral hilar foci on 18F-FDG PET scan in patients without lung cancer: variables associated with benign and malignant etiology. J Nucl Med; 2008 Sep;49(9):1429-36
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  • [Title] Bilateral hilar foci on 18F-FDG PET scan in patients without lung cancer: variables associated with benign and malignant etiology.
  • Our objective was to evaluate features of these foci associated with benign or malignant etiology.
  • Variables evaluated were maximum standard uptake values (SUV max), purity (absence of (18)F-FDG-avid foci in nonhilar mediastinal nodes), symmetry (difference between left and right side SUV max), the primary tumor, node size determined by CT, and, in those who participated in 2 studies, stability of uptake over time.
  • The gold standard was histologic diagnosis or long-term clinical follow-up (range, 19-41 mo; mean, 25 mo).
  • On univariate analysis, variables associated with malignancy were SUV max (6.6+/-4.1 vs. 3.5+/-1.0 for benign, P<0.001; t test); impurity (P<0.001; chi(2) test), with 79% of impure scans versus 18% of pure scans being malignant; node size determined by CT (P=0.027); and change in uptake between scans 1 and 2 (change in SUV=2.7+/-2.1 vs. 0.73+/-1.1 for benign, P < 0.01; t test).
  • Variables associated with benign etiology were: symmetry (difference between left and right sides=0.57+/-0.54 for benign vs. 1.8+/-1.7 for malignant, P<0.01), purity, and colorectal primary (75% of colorectal were benign vs. 34% of breast, 49% of lymphoma, and 37% of other, P=0.030; chi(2) test).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with nonlung cancer, in particular colorectal, foci of symmetric and mild uptake limited to the hilar regions that are stable on 2 sequential PET studies despite intervening anticancer therapy are likely related to a benign etiology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2009 Mar;50(3):489-90 [19223415.001]
  • (PMID = 18765585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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31. Meaney PM, Fanning MW, di Florio-Alexander RM, Kaufman PA, Geimer SD, Zhou T, Paulsen KD: Microwave tomography in the context of complex breast cancer imaging. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc; 2010;2010:3398-401
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  • [Title] Microwave tomography in the context of complex breast cancer imaging.
  • The notion of applying microwave imaging to breast cancer imaging has been studied at various levels by numerous scientists.
  • The earliest appeal of this concept related to the presumably high property contrast between benign and malignant tissue that was unique to the breast.
  • Subsequent published studies have shown that this assumption was overly simplistic and that the tissue property heterogeneity is considerable within the breast.
  • As we have expanded the clinical use of our microwave tomographic system, we are now using this approach to monitor tumor progressions during neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In these cases, while we can still characterize and track the tumor progression, we have observed a new phenomenon.
  • Very often these cancer patients exhibit skin thickening near the tumor site.
  • Our images have reconstructed elevated dielectric properties along the breast surface associated with the accompanying edema.
  • These observations further add to the complex nature of breast dielectric properties and the challenges for imaging them using microwave interrogation.

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  • (PMID = 21097245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA080139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA080139
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS512905; NLM/ PMC3757128
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32. Fournier LS, Vanel D, Athanasiou A, Gatzemeier W, Masuykov IV, Padhani AR, Dromain C, Galetti K, Sigal R, Costa A, Balleyguier C: Dynamic optical breast imaging: a novel technique to detect and characterize tumor vessels. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Jan;69(1):43-9
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  • [Title] Dynamic optical breast imaging: a novel technique to detect and characterize tumor vessels.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of optical absorption imaging in patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3-5 breast lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six patients with BI-RADS classification 3 (11%), 4 (44%) or 5 (44%) lesions, underwent a novel optical imaging examination using red light to illuminate the breast.
  • Pressure was applied on the breast, and time-dependent curves of light absorption were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Optical mammography showed a statistical difference in numbers of suspect pixels between benign (N=12) and malignant (N=35) lesions (respectively 1325 vs. 3170, P=0.002).
  • The optical signal did not vary according to any other parameter including breast size or density, age, hormonal status or histological type of lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Optical imaging is a low-cost, non-invasive technique, yielding physiological information dependent on breast blood volume and oxygenation.
  • It appears to have a good potential for discriminating benign from malignant lesions.
  • Further studies are warranted to define its potential role in breast cancer imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Lighting / methods. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Photography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18829193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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33. Perez-Bóscollo AC, Dutra RA, Borges LG, Stafuzza Gonçalves EM, Etchebehere RM, Rocha RL, da Silva MM, Ribeiro TC: Galactocele: an unusual cause of breast enlargement in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Jul;44(7):e1-3
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  • [Title] Galactocele: an unusual cause of breast enlargement in children.
  • Galactoceles in children, either cystic or pseudotumors, are described in the literature as a rare cause of increasing breast size and can appear in males.
  • We report a case of galactocele in a 15-month-old male, treated at our institution.
  • The patient presented with a tumor in the right breast that had appeared 6 months earlier with no pain, signs of inflammation, or nipple secretion.
  • Twelve cases found in the literature emphasize the importance of including galactocele in the differential diagnosis of benign breast masses in infancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Mastectomy, Subcutaneous / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 19573643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Shin SJ, Lesser M, Rosen PP: Hemangiomas and angiosarcomas of the breast: diagnostic utility of cell cycle markers with emphasis on Ki-67. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Apr;131(4):538-44
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  • [Title] Hemangiomas and angiosarcomas of the breast: diagnostic utility of cell cycle markers with emphasis on Ki-67.
  • CONTEXT: Vascular tumors comprise a minor subgroup of tumors arising in the breast and represent variants of hemangiomas and angiosarcomas.
  • Ki-67 expression has been used as an adjunct to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions exhibiting histologic overlap at various anatomic sites.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the utility of Ki-67 and other cell cycle regulatory proteins (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 [Skp2], p27, and cyclin D1) in the differential diagnosis of mammary vascular lesions.
  • DESIGN: Thirty-four vascular tumors (21 hemangiomas and 13 angiosarcomas) of the breast were studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ki-67 index can be used as a diagnostic tool to distinguish between benign and malignant vascular lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17425381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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35. Li BJ, Wang JY, Wang HY, Huang XP, Zhang LJ, Long H, Yang MT, Rong TH: [Clinical significance of hMAM mRNA detection in bone marrow of breast carcinoma patient]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;28(10):766-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical significance of hMAM mRNA detection in bone marrow of breast carcinoma patient].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of the human mammoglobin (hMAM) mRNA in bone marrow and its clinical significance in the breast cancer patient.
  • METHODS: Expression of hMAM mRNA was detected using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the bone marrow aspiration sample from 75 breast cancer patients, 15 patients with benign breast lesions and 8 healthy volunteers as control.
  • The hMAM mRNA was found to be positively expressed by RT-PCR in 21 of 75 breast cancer patients with a positive rate of 28.0%.
  • However, hMAM mRNA expression was not detected in the bone marrow aspiration samples from patients with benign breast lesions and healthy volunteers.
  • The hMAM mRNA expression was positively correlated with axillary nodal involvement and progesterone receptor (PR) status (P < 0.05) as well as Ki67 expression in breast cancer tissue (chi2 = 4.936, P = 0.026), but not with age, tumor size, clinical stage, or estrogen receptor (ER) status (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: RT-PCR is quite sensitive and has a high specificity in detecting the presence of hMAM mRNA in the bone marrow from breast cancer patients.
  • Thereupon, hMAM mRNA may be useful as a molecular biomarker in detecting disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone marrow of breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms, Male / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Uteroglobin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mammaglobin A. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Receptors, Progesterone / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17366790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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36. Makkat S, Luypaert R, Sourbron S, Stadnik T, De Mey J: Assessment of tumor blood flow in breast tumors with T1-dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging: impact of dose reduction and the use of a prebolus technique on diagnostic efficacy. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2010 Mar;31(3):556-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of tumor blood flow in breast tumors with T1-dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging: impact of dose reduction and the use of a prebolus technique on diagnostic efficacy.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate whether dose reduction and the application of a prebolus technique can effectively alleviate signal saturation effects in T1 dynamic contrast enhanced (T1-DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in breast tumors and lead to increased diagnostic efficacy of the regional tumor blood flow (TBF) values obtained with deconvolution of T1-DCE MRI data.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining informed consent, 23 women (32-80 years) with histologically proven breast tumors underwent MR mammography that included a whole-breast T1 DCE sequence.
  • In the slice where the tumor enhanced maximally, a prebolus protocol was applied.
  • The relative enhancement time course from the tumor region of interest was deconvolved with the reconstructed AIF to generate the impulse response function, the maximum of which yielded the TBF.
  • RESULTS: Reducing the contrast dose by a factor of 2 led to an increase in diagnostic contrast for the TBF values of malignant and benign tumors by a factor of slightly more than 2.
  • CONCLUSION: Using a prebolus approach provides an estimate of the unsaturated AIF, while reduction of the high-dose bolus minimizes possible saturation effects in the tumor time course.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Flow Velocity. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation Dosage. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20187197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Ferbeyre-Binelfa L, Ramírez-Bollas J, Bautista-Piña V, Espejo-Fonseca R, Ruvalcaba-Limón E, Serratos-Garduño E: [Fibromatosis of the breast. Report of two cases and review of the literature]. Cir Cir; 2009 Jul-Aug;77(4):313-8; 291-6
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  • [Title] [Fibromatosis of the breast. Report of two cases and review of the literature].
  • BACKGROUND: Fibromatosis is a term used to describe a group of lesions characterized by well-differentiated fibroblast proliferation with an usually benign biological behavior but with an infiltrative pattern of growth, frequently recurrent and locally invasive.
  • The presence of this entity in breast tissue is an uncommon clinical situation, comprising approximately 0.2% of breast tumors and very often misdiagnosed as malignant disease or phyllodes tumor.
  • In this rare condition, immunohistochemistry is an important diagnostic tool in anatomopathological differential diagnosis with other spindle cell tumors of the breast.
  • CLINICAL CASES: We present two cases of breast fibromatosis confirmed immunohistochemically and also by biopsy.
  • One case had the clinical and imaging appearance of breast carcinoma with the classic irregular mass presentation and the other case was misdiagnosed as phyllodes tumor because of the size and density of the tumor and the cytology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 83 cases of breast fibromatosis have been reported during the last 30 years, including one male patient.
  • We reviewed clinicopathological features of two cases of fibromatosis of the breast treated at our institute.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19919794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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38. Sönmez K, Türkyilmaz Z, Karabulut R, Demiroğullari B, Ozen IO, Moralioğlu S, Başaklar AC, Kale N: Surgical breast lesions in adolescent patients and a review of the literature. Acta Chir Belg; 2006 Jul-Aug;106(4):400-4
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  • [Title] Surgical breast lesions in adolescent patients and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Breast disease in adolescence is uncommon, with most presenting lesions being benign.
  • Breast lesions in adolescent patients are discussed in this article with a review of world literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical records of 30 patients operated upon for breast lesions in our hospital during 18 years were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: There were 25 female and five male patients, ranging in age from 16 years.
  • Twenty-five female patients were operated on for breast mass and/or discharge, and five male adolescents were operated on for gynaecomastia.
  • The most frequent (n = 27) complaint was palpation of mass in the breast.
  • CONCLUSION: The most frequently encountered breast masses were fibro-adenomas.
  • These lesions are mostly benign in nature and can be treated conservatively but the possibility of precancerous lesion should be considered during follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Child. Female. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Gynecomastia / surgery. Humans. Male. Nipples / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17017692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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39. Akagi T, Kinoshita T, Shien T, Hojo T, Akashi-Tanaka S, Murata Y: Clinical and pathological features of intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast. Surg Today; 2009;39(1):5-8
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  • [Title] Clinical and pathological features of intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast.
  • A preoperative diagnosis was not made in five patients.
  • Three patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively, which helped to differentiate benign tumors and maintain free surgical margins.
  • The final pathological diagnosis was invasive carcinoma in 2 (14.2%) of the 14 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results show that ICPC is more difficult to diagnose than common breast cancer preoperatively.
  • Excisional biopsy was necessary when fine-needle aspiration and core-needle biopsy could not provide a diagnosis.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful to differentiate a benign tumor from invasive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Mastectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19132460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Abdel Razek AA, Gaballa G, Denewer A, Tawakol I: Diffusion weighted MR imaging of the breast. Acad Radiol; 2010 Mar;17(3):382-6
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  • [Title] Diffusion weighted MR imaging of the breast.
  • The aim of this work is to review the techniques and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast.
  • Diffusion-weighted MR imaging plays a role in the differentiation breast cancer from benign lesions, the characterization of malignancy, and the detection of tumor extension.
  • The apparent diffusion coefficient of breast cancer is correlated with tumor cellularity and some prognostic factors of breast cancer.
  • Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is used for the characterization of breast mass, diagnosis, and the grading and staging of breast cancer, as well as prediction of the responses of patients with breast cancer to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Male. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20004597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-4046
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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41. Papantoniou V, Tsiouris S, Koutsikos J, Sotiropoulou M, Mainta E, Lazaris D, Valsamaki P, Melissinou M, Zerva C, Antsaklis A: Scintimammographic detection of usual ductal breast hyperplasia with increased proliferation rate at risk for malignancy. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Nov;27(11):911-7
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  • [Title] Scintimammographic detection of usual ductal breast hyperplasia with increased proliferation rate at risk for malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To estimate whether breast uptake of (99m)Tc-(V)DMSA and (99m)Tc-sestamibi in usual ductal epithelial breast hyperplasia (UDH) and apocrine metaplasia is related to cell proliferation rate (Ki-67) and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, both of which are associated with the potential risk of evolving to malignancy.
  • METHODS: Among patients referred for suspicious breast findings on palpation and/or mammography and evaluated preoperatively with both radiopharmaceuticals, we retrospectively studied 17 (10 with UDH: group I; and seven with apocrine metaplasia: group II).
  • This could prove useful in identifying women with benign but high-risk breast pathologies who might benefit from chemoprophylaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Hyperplasia / radionuclide imaging. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Precancerous Conditions / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Risk Assessment / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17021432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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42. Bianco C, Strizzi L, Mancino M, Rehman A, Hamada S, Watanabe K, De Luca A, Jones B, Balogh G, Russo J, Mailo D, Palaia R, D'Aiuto G, Botti G, Perrone F, Salomon DS, Normanno N: Identification of cripto-1 as a novel serologic marker for breast and colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Sep 1;12(17):5158-64
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  • [Title] Identification of cripto-1 as a novel serologic marker for breast and colon cancer.
  • We evaluated whether CR-1 is present in the plasma of patients with breast and colon cancer, and if it can represent a new biomarker for these malignancies.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We determined CR-1 plasma levels using a sandwich-type ELISA in 21 healthy volunteers, 54 patients with breast cancer, 33 patients with colon carcinoma, and 21 patients with benign breast lesions.
  • A statistically significant increase in the levels of plasma CR-1 was found in patients with colon carcinoma (4.68+/-3.5 ng/mL) and in patients with breast carcinoma (2.97+/-1.48 ng/mL; P<0.001).
  • Although moderate levels of plasma CR-1 were found in women with benign lesions of the breast (1.7+/-0.99 ng/mL), these levels were significantly lower than in patients with breast cancer (P<0.001).
  • Finally, immunohistochemical analysis and real-time reverse transcription-PCR confirmed strong positivity for CR-1 in colon and/or breast tumor tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggests that plasma CR-1 might represent a novel biomarker for the detection of breast and colon carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Epidermal Growth Factor / blood. Membrane Glycoproteins / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16951234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / TDGF1 protein, human; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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43. Chung EM, Cube R, Hall GJ, González C, Stocker JT, Glassman LM: From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):907-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • The spectrum of breast lesions in children and adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign.
  • A breast mass in a young boy or girl may arise from normal and abnormal breast development.
  • After onset of puberty, most cases of breast enlargement arise from benign fibroadenoma in girls and gynecomastia in boys.
  • These conditions have specific imaging appearances, although juvenile (often giant) fibroadenoma cannot be distinguished from phyllodes tumor, which can be benign or malignant.
  • A diagnosis of juvenile papillomatosis (a benign lesion) portends later development of breast cancer, and patients with this condition should be closely monitored.
  • Malignant lesions of the breast in children are rare.
  • The most common primary breast malignancy is malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Primary breast carcinoma is exceedingly rare in the pediatric age group, but its imaging appearance in children is the same as seen in adults and is different from that of almost all benign lesions.
  • In girls, diagnostic interventions may injure the developing breast and cause subsequent disfigurement.
  • Given this risk and the low prevalence of malignant disease in this population, a prudent course should be followed in the diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast / abnormalities. Breast / anatomy & histology. Breast / growth & development. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / radiography. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / radiography. Gynecomastia / pathology. Gynecomastia / radiography. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Nipples / abnormalities. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / radiography. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / radiography. Puberty. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19448124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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44. Li JR, Li MQ, Li JZ: [Diagnosis and treatment of breast lumps in children]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Sep 23;88(36):2556-7
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of breast lumps in children].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the diagnosis and treatment of breast lumps in children.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 61 children with breast lumps, 20 with physiological breast masses, 5 male and 15 female, aged 1 - 14, 38 with benign tumors, 1 male and 37 female, aged 10 - 14, 3 with malignant tumors, aged 7 months, and 10 and 13 years. diagnosed and treated 2001 - 2006 were analyzed.
  • The 38 cases with benign tumors all underwent resection, 36 cases were cured and 2 cases recurred.
  • Recurrence was not seen in 2 of the 3 cases of malignant breast tumors, and the patient of leiomyosarcoma died one year after the operation.
  • CONCLUSION: Physiological breast masses in children needn't treatment; mostly enjoy spontaneous cure.
  • The outcomes of benign breast tumors in children are good after operation.
  • Malignant breast tumor is rare, and it is still difficult to predict its prognosis now.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Remission, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 19080650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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45. Morakkabati-Spitz N, Schild HH, Leutner CC, von Falkenhausen M, Lutterbey G, Kuhl CK: Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging in men: preliminary results. Radiology; 2006 Feb;238(2):438-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging in men: preliminary results.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate whether the descriptors of lesion features and the diagnostic criteria that have been established for breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in female patients may be used for differential diagnosis with breast MR imaging in male patients as well.
  • Seventeen consecutive male patients (mean age, 53 years +/- 14) were referred for imaging of a palpable breast mass.
  • In addition to mammography and high-frequency breast ultrasonography, patients underwent dynamic breast MR imaging in a prone position with a dedicated double-breast surface coil.
  • Findings were recorded by using the terminology and descriptors and by evaluating the diagnostic criteria (related to morphology and enhancement kinetics) that have been developed for breast MR imaging in female patients.
  • RESULTS: A total of 24 breast abnormalities were diagnosed.
  • Three patients had invasive breast cancer (five tumors), 11 had gynecomastia (six unilateral, five bilateral), two had pseudogynecomastia, and one had a benign solid tumor (angiolipoma).
  • All malignant tumors appeared as irregular masses with heterogeneous internal architecture or rim enhancement and showed rapid initial enhancement (mean value, 137% +/- 23) followed by a washout time course (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] category 5).
  • The angiolipoma showed benign morphologic features and slow initial and persistent enhancement (BI-RADS category 2).
  • CONCLUSION: In the small study cohort, the MR imaging features of benign breast diseases and breast cancers in male patients seemed to be comparable to those seen in female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005
  • (PMID = 16371581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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46. Kapila K, Pathan SK, Al-Mosawy FA, George SS, Haji BE, Al-Ayadhy B: Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast masses in children and adolescents: experience with 1404 aspirates. Acta Cytol; 2008 Nov-Dec;52(6):681-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast masses in children and adolescents: experience with 1404 aspirates.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution and efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of breast lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients.
  • STUDY DESIGN: From January 1993 to December 2006, the cytology reports of 1404 breast aspirates (178 males and 1226 females) performed on children and adolescents (ranging from 1 to 21 years) were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The morphologic spectrum seen in females was inflammatory lesions (4%), benign ductal cells (20%), ductal hyperplasia (0.6%), papillary lesions (0.7%), benign neoplasms (69%), suspicious cytology (0.3%) and cancer (0.3%).
  • Of the benign neoplasms, 98% (831 of 851) were fibroadenomas, with 12 cases of phyllodes (benign), 5 cases of lipoma and 3 cases of adenoma.
  • Only 3% of the male breast aspirates provided a diagnostic challenge, while 89% of them showed benign ductal cells.
  • CONCLUSION: FNAC of children and adolescent breast masses is helpful and can reduce the need for open surgery to prevent later deformity.
  • The aspirates are mostly benign and can be managed conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19068671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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47. Hu Y, Zhang S, Yu J, Liu J, Zheng S: SELDI-TOF-MS: the proteomics and bioinformatics approaches in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Breast; 2005 Aug;14(4):250-5
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  • [Title] SELDI-TOF-MS: the proteomics and bioinformatics approaches in the diagnosis of breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer has never had any good serum tumor markers.
  • SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip was used to detect the serum protein patterns of 49 breast cancer patients, 51 patients with benign breast diseases, and 33 healthy women.
  • The abilities of these models to diagnose stage I breast cancer were not worse than for stages II-IV (P>0.05).
  • Four candidate biomarkers of breast cancer were found.
  • The high sensitivity and specificity achieved by this method show great potential for the early detection of breast cancer and facilitation of discovering new and improved biomarkers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Computational Biology. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Spectrometry / methods. Middle Aged. Protein Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16085230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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48. Roncella S, Ferro P, Franceschini MC, Bacigalupo B, Dessanti P, Sivori M, Carletti AM, Fontana V, Canessa PA, Pistillo MP, Fedeli F: Diagnosis and origin determination of malignant pleural effusions through the use of the breast cancer marker human mammaglobin. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2010 Jun;19(2):92-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and origin determination of malignant pleural effusions through the use of the breast cancer marker human mammaglobin.
  • As was reported that human mammaglobin (hMAM) may be expressed in malignant pleural effusions (PEs), we investigated the relevance of hMAM reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for their diagnosis and determination of primary origin.
  • Two hundred and twenty-eight malignant (132 male, 96 female) and 185 benign (132 male, 53 female) PEs were investigated.
  • Statistical analyses evaluated the diagnostic performance parameters in all PEs and in cytologically negative malignant PEs, the association between hMAM and benign or malignant status by the direct index of correlation [diagnostic odds ratio (DOR)], chi test, and P value (P).
  • In addition, the discriminative diagnostic power of hMAM expression, independently in breast cancer, lung cancer (LC), malignant mesothelioma (MM), and other cancers was evaluated.
  • In the entire patient population, hMAM was detected in 45.6% and 5.4% of malignant and benign PEs, respectively, in the male group in 41.7% and 4.5% and in the female group in 51.0% and 7.5% of malignant and benign PEs, respectively.
  • A statistically significant correlation between hMAM and malignancy was found in the entire population (DOR=14.68, P<0.001) and in the male (DOR=15.00, P<0.001) or female (DOR=12.77, P<0.001) groups. hMAM RT-PCR increased the diagnostic rate of malignant PEs as it allowed us to detect as malignant 32.1% of cytologically negative PEs.
  • In female patients the positivity of hMAM indicated with higher probability (50.8%) the origin of PEs from breast cancer but lower probability from LC (17%), MM (9.4%), or other cancers (15.1%), whereas in male patients it indicated with similar probability (about 40%) the origin from LC or MM.
  • Our results suggest that hMAM RT-PCR may provide information both in the diagnosis of PE and in the search for the primary site of neoplasia, either in male or female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Uteroglobin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Mammaglobin A. Middle Aged. United States. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20502186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4066
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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49. Jeryong K, Jinsun L, Hyegyong K, Eilsung C, Jiyoung S, Insang S, Moonsang A, Jiyeon K, Jaeeun H: Total endoscopic thyroidectomy with bilateral breast areola and ipsilateral axillary (BBIA) approach. World J Surg; 2008 Nov;32(11):2488-93
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  • [Title] Total endoscopic thyroidectomy with bilateral breast areola and ipsilateral axillary (BBIA) approach.
  • The present study reviews our experiences with endoscopic thyroidectomy using bilateral breast areola and ipsilateral axillary (BBIA) approach to evaluate its safety and feasibility.
  • METHODS: From June 2003 through November 2007, the study group was comprised of 68 consecutive patients with benign thyroid nodules (66 women; mean age, 33.28 +/- 10.3 (range, 15-72) years).
  • RESULTS: The mean maximum diameter of the tumor was 3.14 +/- 1.61 (range, 1-10.7) cm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Nipples. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18668282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Wang F, Wang Z, Wu J, Qu W, Yao W, Zhao J, Liu Z: The role of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy in suspected breast cancer and correlates with expression of SSTR. Nucl Med Biol; 2008 Aug;35(6):665-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy in suspected breast cancer and correlates with expression of SSTR.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the value of (99m)Tc-octreotide acetate (hereafter, (99m)Tc-octreotide) somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy in the detection of primary breast cancer and to correlate with expression of SSTRs.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four female and 1 male patients (range, 17-77 years; mean age, 48 years) with palpable breast lesion were included in this study. (99m)Tc-octreotide and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy were undertaken in all patients, and the region of interest was drawn around each lesion.
  • Tumor uptake was measured and expressed as the ratio of tumor to normal tissue activity (T/NT).
  • Final clinical diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis.
  • Expression of SSTR1-5 mRNA was measured with RT-PCR in 15 patients with malignant neoplasm, and protein level of SSTR-2 and SSTR-5 was measured using immunohistochemical staining in 15 patients with malignant neoplasm and 18 patients with benign lesion.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-five patients were confirmed to have infiltrative ductal breast carcinoma, 1 patient with cellular cancer, 1 patient with adenocarcinoma and 18 patients had benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: (99m)Tc-octreotide acetate scintigraphy was sensitive for the detection of primary lesion of breast cancer; however, nonspecific breast tissue uptake hampered the specificity and clinical value in the detection of lymph node metastasis.
  • Five subtypes of SSTR mRNA and protein SSTR2 and SSTR5 were expressed variably in breast cancer due to tumor heterogeneity. (99m)Tc-octreotide imaging may hold promise in the evaluation of the level of SSTR2 in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Organotechnetium Compounds / pharmacokinetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18678351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 99mTc-octreotide; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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51. Shah SN: Giant myofibroblastoma of breast: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jul;50(3):583-5
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  • [Title] Giant myofibroblastoma of breast: a case report.
  • Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a very rare benign neoplasm usually seen in elderly male and is of very small size.
  • A 40 year old nulliparous woman was admitted with chief complain of massive enlargement of left breast.
  • The case was clinically diagnosed as Phyllodes tumor Left mastectomy was done.
  • The tumor was histopathologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed as Myofibroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17883145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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52. Li BJ, Huang XP, Wei WD, Wang JY, Su XD, Zhang X, Hong WS, Tang J, Zhang LJ, Long H, Yang MT, Rong TH: [Expression and clinical significance of cytokeratin 19 in bone marrow of patients with breast cancer]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jun;24(6):735-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of cytokeratin 19 in bone marrow of patients with breast cancer].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer may undergo metastasis in early phase.
  • Distant metastasis, especially bone metastasis, may influence prognosis of breast cancer patients.
  • This study was designed to evaluate expression and clinical significance of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) in bone marrow of patients with breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Expression of CK19 mRNA in bone marrows of 65 breast cancer patients, 15 benign breast disease patients, and 8 healthy volunteers was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • Correlation of CK19 mRNA expression to clinicopathologic features of the 65 breast cancer patients was analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Positive rate of CK19 mRNA was 33.8% in the 65 breast cancer patients, and 0 in both benign breast disease patients and healthy volunteers.
  • Expression of CK19 mRNA was positively correlated with tumor size and clinical stage (P < 0.05), but was not related to age and lymph node status (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: CK19 mRNA may be used as a molecular marker to detect bone marrow micrometastasis in patients with breast cancer.
  • The detection may help to select proper therapy and predict prognosis of breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Keratin-19 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms, Male / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Female. Fibroadenoma / blood. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15946491.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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53. Sood AK, Saxena R, Groth J, Desouki MM, Cheewakriangkrai C, Rodabaugh KJ, Kasyapa CS, Geradts J: Expression characteristics of prostate-derived Ets factor support a role in breast and prostate cancer progression. Hum Pathol; 2007 Nov;38(11):1628-38
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  • [Title] Expression characteristics of prostate-derived Ets factor support a role in breast and prostate cancer progression.
  • The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of prostate-derived Ets factor (PDEF) protein expression in breast and prostate cancer progression.
  • A polyclonal antibody specific to PDEF was raised and reacted with tissue microarrays consisting of benign breast, in situ ductal, invasive ductal, and invasive lobular breast carcinomas.
  • The antibody was also reacted with tissue microarrays, including benign prostate, prostate intraepithelial neoplasias (PINs), and prostate carcinomas.
  • Increased expression of PDEF was identified in 18%, 50%, 46%, and 51% of benign breast tissues, intraductal, invasive ductal, and invasive lobular carcinomas, respectively.
  • Importantly, in matched samples of benign breast vs tumor, 90% showed higher expression of PDEF in the tumor tissue.
  • Moreover, in invasive breast carcinomas, increased PDEF expression tended to correlate with Her2/neu overexpression.
  • Increased expression of PDEF was also found in 27%, 33%, and 40% of benign prostate tissues, PIN samples, and prostate adenocarcinomas, respectively.
  • Again, in matching samples of cancer vs benign and cancer vs PIN, 68% and 70%, respectively, showed increased expression in the malignant tissue.
  • In addition, R1881 treatment induced PDEF expression in the LNCaP prostate tumor cell line, suggesting regulation of PDEF by androgens in vivo.
  • Together, these results for the first time show frequent increased expression of PDEF protein in breast and prostate tumors and support a role for PDEF in breast and prostate cancer progression.

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  • (PMID = 17521701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 86164; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA086164-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R41 CA086164-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 16056
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / SPDEF protein, human; 2C323EGI97 / Metribolone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS33974; NLM/ PMC2121591
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54. Nouri S, Mahdhaoui N, Bouafsoun C, Zakhama R, Omezzine M, Tahar Yaacoubi M, Salem N, Seboui H: [Obstructive congenital multiple epulis. A case report in a male neonate]. Arch Pediatr; 2008 Jun;15(6):1083-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Obstructive congenital multiple epulis. A case report in a male neonate].
  • [Transliterated title] Epulis congénitale obstructive à double localisation. A propos d'une observation chez un garçon.
  • This benign condition can be life threatening when obstructive.
  • In this report, a case of a male neonate, with features of obstructive congenital epulis arising from both maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridge, interfering with breast-feeding is described.
  • Diagnosis was suspected clinically and confirmed by histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Gingival Neoplasms / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Airway Obstruction / etiology. Airway Obstruction / surgery. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male

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  • (PMID = 18403186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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55. White KY, Rodemich L, Nyalwidhe JO, Comunale MA, Clements MA, Lance RS, Schellhammer PF, Mehta AS, Semmes OJ, Drake RR: Glycomic characterization of prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase in prostate cancer and benign disease seminal plasma fluids. J Proteome Res; 2009 Feb;8(2):620-30
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  • [Title] Glycomic characterization of prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase in prostate cancer and benign disease seminal plasma fluids.
  • With the use of seminal fluid samples representative of normal control, benign prostatic disease and prostate cancers, PAP and PSA were enriched by thiophilic absorption chromatography.

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  • (PMID = 19128049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085067-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA085067; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2U01 CA98028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA085067-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Polysaccharides; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS91585; NLM/ PMC2651839
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56. Shukla R, Pooja B, Radhika S, Nijhawan R, Rajwanshi A: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extramammary neoplasms metastatic to the breast. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Apr;32(4):193-7
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extramammary neoplasms metastatic to the breast.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is the first-line investigation in any breast lump and hence cytomorphological recognition of nonmammary metastatic tumors to the breast and their distinction from primary tumors is important.
  • Metastatic breast neoplasms diagnosed over a 6-yr period from 1997 to 2002 were retrieved from the database of the Department of Cytopathology and the clinical, cytopathological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical findings were correlated with the histopathology of the primary tumor.
  • Fifteen cases of metastatic breast neoplasms were encountered constituting 1.47% of all malignant tumors of the breast diagnosed on FNA.
  • There were 14 female patients and one male patient aged 13-80 yr.
  • The preaspiration clinical diagnosis was either a benign breast lump or a malignancy (primary vs. metastatic).
  • The breast lump was the initial presentation in four cases and the cytodiagnosis of a metastatic malignancy lead to the subsequent detection of the primary malignancy.
  • The presence of unusual cytomorphological patterns on breast FNA should alert the cytopathologist to the possibility of a metastatic breast neoplasm, even if not suspected clinically.
  • A detailed history of the patient, clinical correlation, and immunocytochemistry helps in establishing an accurate diagnosis, which avoids unnecessary surgery and ensures appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15754368.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Chen L, Madura K: Increased proteasome activity, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and eEF1A translation factor detected in breast cancer tissue. Cancer Res; 2005 Jul 1;65(13):5599-606
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  • [Title] Increased proteasome activity, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and eEF1A translation factor detected in breast cancer tissue.
  • The activation of this pathway in various cancers and malignancies has been described, and several genetic determinants of breast cancer, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, are linked to protein degradation.
  • To investigate the involvement of the Ub/proteasome system in breast cancer, we examined a collection of 25 patient-matched breast cancer and normal adjacent tissues and detected activation of numerous components of the Ub/proteasome pathway.
  • The activity of the proteasome, and levels of proteasome subunits and various targeting factors, were increased in >90% of primary breast cancer tissue specimens.
  • In contrast, no activation was observed in benign solid tumors, indicating that the response is specific to abnormal growth in neoplastic cells.
  • Additionally, the accumulation of high levels of certain Ub-conjugating enzymes (UbcH1, UbcH2, and UbcH5), was specific to breast cancer, as no change in abundance was detected in primary colon cancer tissue extracts.
  • Surprisingly, the Ub/proteasome system was not activated in a well-characterized cell culture-based breast cancer model system.
  • Collectively, these findings suggest that the analysis of primary breast cancer tissue samples will be indispensable for the biochemical characterization of neoplastic growth and for the development of therapeutics.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Peptide Elongation Factor 1 / metabolism. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Ubiquitin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15994932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA83875
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Elongation Factor 1; 0 / Ubiquitin; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
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58. Ismail MF, Aly MS, Khaled HM, Mohamed HM: Detection of HER-2/neu, c-myc amplification and p53 inactivation by FISH in Egyptian patients with breast cancer. Ger Med Sci; 2009;7:Doc03
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  • [Title] Detection of HER-2/neu, c-myc amplification and p53 inactivation by FISH in Egyptian patients with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide.
  • Amplification of the two oncogenes HER-2/neu and c-myc and inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 are frequently encountered in breast carcinomas.
  • The study was conducted on 34 tissue samples obtained from 33 females and 1 male with breast carcinomas and 17 samples obtained from 16 females and 1 male with benign breast lesions.
  • Results revealed that the level of HER-2/neu, c-myc and p53 in the malignant group was significantly increased as compared to the benign group.
  • The sensitivity of the investigated markers significantly increased with larger tumor size.
  • Concerning tumor grade, HER-2/neu and p53 showed a significant increase in low-grade tumors whereas c-myc showed a highly significant increase in high-grade tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / genetics. Egypt / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques / methods. Prevalence. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19675743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1612-3174
  • [Journal-full-title] German medical science : GMS e-journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ger Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716551
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; HER-2/neu / breast cancer / c-myc / fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) / genetic alterations / p53
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59. Benavides MA, Hagen KL, Fang W, Du P, Lin S, Moyer MP, Yang W, Bland KI, Grizzle WE, Bosland MC: Suppression by L-methionine of cell cycle progression in LNCaP and MCF-7 cells but not benign cells. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jun;30(6):1881-5
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  • [Title] Suppression by L-methionine of cell cycle progression in LNCaP and MCF-7 cells but not benign cells.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Methionine inhibits proliferation of breast and prostate cancer cells.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCF-7 (breast), LNCaP (prostate), and LS-174 (colon) cancer cells (wild-type p53), DU-145 (prostate) and SW480 (colon) cancer cells (mutated p53), and immortalized, non-tumorigenic MCF-10A (breast), BPH-1 (prostate), and NCM-460 (colon) epithelial cells were used.
  • LNCaP and MCF-7 cells were arrested at G(1), but DU-145 at S.
  • CONCLUSION: L-Methionine selectively inhibits proliferation of breast and prostate cancer cells, but not non-tumorigenic cells, and may thus have therapeutic benefits. p53 status appeared to determine the cell cycle stage at which methionine acts.

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  • (PMID = 20651330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116195; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA116195
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS623504; NLM/ PMC4166481
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60. Vincensini D, Dedieu V, Eliat PA, Vincent C, Bailly C, de Certaines J, Joffre F: Magnetic resonance imaging measurements of vascular permeability and extracellular volume fraction of breast tumors by dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced relaxometry. Magn Reson Imaging; 2007 Apr;25(3):293-302
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging measurements of vascular permeability and extracellular volume fraction of breast tumors by dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced relaxometry.
  • Vascular permeability (k(ep), min(-1)) and extracellular volume fraction (v(e)) are tissue parameters of great interest to characterize malignant tumor lesions.
  • Thus, before treatment, these tissue parameters may prove useful to evaluate tumor aggressiveness and to predict responsiveness to therapy and variations during cytotoxic therapies could allow to assess treatment efficacy and early modified therapy schedules in case of poor responsiveness.
  • In this work, blood-tissue permeability and extracellular volume fraction information were derived from magnetic resonance imaging dynamic longitudinal relaxation rate (R(1)) mapping obtained after an intravenous bolus injection of Gd-DTPA in a group of 92 female patients with breast lesions, 68 of these being histologically proven to be with carcinoma.
  • For the sake of comparison, 24 benign lesions were studied.
  • As a consequence of neoangiogenesis, results showed a higher permeability in malignant than in benign lesions, whereas the extracellular volume fraction value did not allow any discrimination between benign and malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Capillary Permeability. Gadolinium DTPA. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Microcirculation / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Extracellular Fluid. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17371717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-725X
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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61. Ewan King L, Li X, Cheikh Saad Bouh K, Pedneault M, Chu CW: Human kallikrein 10 ELISA development and validation in breast cancer sera. Clin Biochem; 2007 Sep;40(13-14):1057-62
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  • [Title] Human kallikrein 10 ELISA development and validation in breast cancer sera.
  • There is significant interest in measuring hK10 which may act as a tumor suppressor in some cancers.
  • We have developed an ELISA for hK10 and determined its analytical and clinical performance in normal and breast cancer sera.
  • The assay was analytically validated and used to determine serum levels of hK10 in a set of breast cancer, benign breast disease and normal samples.
  • Concentrations were not age related and were not significantly different from benign fibrocystic disease or breast cancer.
  • However, in a subset of breast cancer patients with both early and late stage disease, serum hK10 levels were elevated, at >1.55 ng/mL, above all normal female and benign disease samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report in detail the analytical performance of a colorimetric hK10 ELISA validated in human serum and report for the first time the hK10 serum concentration in benign and breast cancer samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Kallikreins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17585892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9120
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / KLK10 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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62. Ligr M, Li Y, Zou X, Daniels G, Melamed J, Peng Y, Wang W, Wang J, Ostrer H, Pagano M, Wang Z, Garabedian MJ, Lee P: Tumor suppressor function of androgen receptor coactivator ARA70alpha in prostate cancer. Am J Pathol; 2010 Apr;176(4):1891-900
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  • [Title] Tumor suppressor function of androgen receptor coactivator ARA70alpha in prostate cancer.
  • Here we report that the full length ARA70alpha, in contrast, represses prostate cancer cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in nude mice xenograft experiments in vivo.
  • The tumor suppressor function of ARA70alpha is consistent with our previous findings that ARA70alpha expression is decreased in prostate cancer cells compared with benign prostate.
  • These results strongly suggest that ARA70alpha functions as a tumor suppressor gene.

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  • (PMID = 20167864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK058024
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NCOA4 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivators; 0 / Protein Isoforms
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2843478
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63. Paulino AC, Fowler BZ: Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;22(2):89-101
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  • [Title] Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor.
  • This study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients who develop a second neoplasm after radiotherapy (RT) for a childhood solid tumor.
  • From 1956 to 1998, 429 children with a malignant solid tumor were treated at a single radiation oncology facility.
  • The medical records and radiotherapy charts were reviewed to determine if the patient developed a secondary neoplasm after treatment for malignancy.
  • Twenty-three (5.4%) patients developed a secondary neoplasm.
  • There were 14 malignant neoplasms in 13 (3.0%) and 14 benign neoplasms in 11 patients (2.6%).
  • The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3.
  • For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years.
  • The 14 second malignant neoplasms (SMN) were osteosarcoma in 3, breast carcinoma in 2, melanoma in 2, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1, dermatofibrosarcoma in 1, leiomyosarcoma in 1, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1, colon cancer in 1, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1, and basal cell carcinoma in 1.
  • The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate after diagnosis of an SMN was 69.2%; it was 70% for children with a SMN at the edge or inside the RT field and 66.7% for those outside of the RT field.
  • The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian cystadenofibroma in 1, and giant cell tumor in 1.
  • Only 5 (36%) of the 14 benign tumors occurred in the RT field, with osteochondroma being the most common.
  • More than two-thirds of children with a radiation-induced malignancy are alive 10 years after the diagnosis of a SMN.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cause of Death. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15804994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Chung LW, Baseman A, Assikis V, Zhau HE: Molecular insights into prostate cancer progression: the missing link of tumor microenvironment. J Urol; 2005 Jan;173(1):10-20
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  • [Title] Molecular insights into prostate cancer progression: the missing link of tumor microenvironment.
  • PURPOSE: Tumor cell genotype and phenotype have been considered the only determinants supporting cancer growth and metastasis.
  • This review focuses on the published literature that suggests that tumor-microenvironment interaction has a decisive role in controlling local cancer growth, invasion and distant metastasis.
  • As this review shows, genetic alterations in prostate cancer cells alone are not enough to confer metastatic status without a supporting tumor microenvironment.
  • Effective therapeutic targeting requires a deeper understanding of the interplay between tumor and stroma.
  • Approaches co-targeting tumor and stroma already show promise over the conventional targeting of tumor cells alone in preventing prostate cancer progression and eradicating preexisting or newly developed prostate cancers in bone and visceral organs.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature survey using the MEDLINE database was performed in basic and clinical publications relevant to tumor-host microenvironment interaction.
  • RESULTS: Tumor associated stroma actively fuel the progression of prostate cancer from localized growth to the invasion of surrounding tissues, and the development of distant bone and visceral organ metastasis.
  • In concert with this progression tumor cells recovered from metastatic sites could represent a subpopulation of preexisting tumor cells or could be a newly acquired variant subsequent to tumor-stromal interaction.
  • This presents a new opportunity for therapeutic targeting for the treatment of benign and malignant growth of the prostate glands.
  • This review summarizes specific research implicating tumor-microenvironment interaction as the molecular basis of cancer progression, providing a rationale for targeting tumor and the tumor associated microenvironment in the management of androgen independent and bone metastatic prostate cancer progression in patients.
  • Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor-stromal interaction may yield improved medical treatments for prostate cancer growth and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / physiopathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Disease Progression. Extracellular Matrix / physiology. Fibroblasts / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Male. Molecular Mimicry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Signal Transduction / physiology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15592017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 098912; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 76620
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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65. Ribeiro-Silva A, Mendes CF, Costa IS, de Moura HB, Tiezzi DG, Andrade JM: Metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies: a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases. Pol J Pathol; 2006;57(3):161-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies: a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases.
  • Along with a brief review of the literature, we report the clinicopathologic features of 12 cases of extramammary malignancies metastatic to the breast.
  • Histological diagnoses of the primary tumor were as follows: non-Hodgkin diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (3 patients), acute mycloid leukemia (3 patients), serous papillary adenocarcinoma, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated neoplasm, mesothelioma, and melanoma.
  • The interval between diagnosis of primary cancer and the appearance of breast metastasis ranged from 0 to 108 months (mean: 17, median: 1).
  • Survival after the detection of the breast metastases ranged from 0.2 to 144 months (mean: 23, median: 9.5).
  • In conclusion, metastasis can mimic either benign disease or primary malignancy and is often an unexpected diagnosis in a patient presenting with a breast mass.
  • Thus, an accurate diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary mutilating surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Mammography. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17219743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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66. Leto G, Incorvaia L, Badalamenti G, Tumminello FM, Gebbia N, Flandina C, Crescimanno M, Rini G: Activin A circulating levels in patients with bone metastasis from breast or prostate cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2006;23(2):117-22
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  • [Title] Activin A circulating levels in patients with bone metastasis from breast or prostate cancer.
  • Activin A serum concentrations were determined, by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, in 72 patients with breast cancer (BC) or prostatic cancer (PC) with (BM+) or without (BM-) bone metastases, in 15 female patients with age-related osteoporosis (OP), in 20 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and in 48 registered healthy blood donors (HS) of both sex (25 female and 23 male).
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / blood. Prostatic Hyperplasia / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity


67. Kurihara T, Itoi T, Sofuni A, Itokawa F, Tsuchiya T, Tsuji S, Ishii K, Ikeuchi N, Tsuchida A, Kasuya K, Kawai T, Sakai Y, Moriyasu F: Detection of circulating tumor cells in patients with pancreatic cancer: a preliminary result. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2008;15(2):189-95
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  • [Title] Detection of circulating tumor cells in patients with pancreatic cancer: a preliminary result.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: It has been reported that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be used to predict survival in metastatic breast cancer.
  • CTC was negative in 15 patients with PC (stage II, 1; stage III, 1; stage IVa, 7; and stage IVb, 6) and in the subjects with benign conditions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18392713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Hiramatsu K, Takahashi K, Yamaguchi T, Matsumoto H, Miyamoto H, Tanaka S, Tanaka C, Tamamori Y, Imajo M, Kawaguchi M, Toi M, Mori T, Kawakita M: N(1),N(12)-Diacetylspermine as a sensitive and specific novel marker for early- and late-stage colorectal and breast cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Apr 15;11(8):2986-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] N(1),N(12)-Diacetylspermine as a sensitive and specific novel marker for early- and late-stage colorectal and breast cancers.
  • PURPOSE: N(1),N(12)-diacetylspermine (DiAcSpm) in the urine of colorectal and breast cancer patients was examined to establish its usefulness as a novel diagnostic tool for detecting these cancers at clinically early stages.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Urine samples from 248 colon cancer patients and 83 breast cancer patients as well as 51 patients with benign gastrointestinal diseases treated in Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital during the period of August 1999 to January 2004 were collected.
  • DiAcSpm was elevated in 60% of tumor-node-metastasis cancer stage 0 + I patients, whereas only 10% (P < 0.0001) and 5% (P < 0.0001) of these patients were CEA- and CA19-9-positive, respectively.
  • The sensitivity of urinary DiAcSpm for 83 cases of breast cancer (60.2%) was higher than the sensitivities of CEA (37.3%, P = 0.0032) and CA15-3 (37.3%, P = 0.0032).
  • DiAcSpm was elevated in 28% of tumor-node-metastasis stage I + II patients, whereas only 3% (P = 0.0064) and 0% (P = 0.001) of these patients were CEA- and CA15-3-positive, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The observations indicate that urinary DiAcSpm is a more sensitive marker than CEA, CA19-9, and CA15-3 and that it can efficiently detect colorectal and breast cancers at early stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spermine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / blood. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15837752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 2FZ7Y3VOQX / Spermine; 77928-71-3 / N',N''-diacetylspermine
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69. Li KL, Partridge SC, Joe BN, Gibbs JE, Lu Y, Esserman LJ, Hylton NM: Invasive breast cancer: predicting disease recurrence by using high-spatial-resolution signal enhancement ratio imaging. Radiology; 2008 Jul;248(1):79-87
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  • [Title] Invasive breast cancer: predicting disease recurrence by using high-spatial-resolution signal enhancement ratio imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate high-spatial-resolution signal enhancement ratio (SER) imaging for the prediction of disease recurrence in patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
  • From 1995 to 2002, gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging data were acquired with a three time point high-resolution method in women undergoing neoadjuvant therapy for invasive breast cancers.
  • RESULTS: Breast tumor volume calculated from the number of voxels with SER values above a threshold corresponding to the upper limit of mean redistribution rate constant in benign tumors (0.88 minutes(-1)) and the volume of cancerous breast tissue infiltrating into the parenchyma were important predictors of disease recurrence.
  • All three prechemotherapy parameters (total tumor volume, tumor volumes with high and low SER) and the postchemotherapy tumor volume with high SER were significantly different between the two groups.
  • The multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression showed that, of the three prechemotherapy covariates, only the low SER and high SER tumor volumes (P = .017 and .049, respectively) were significant and independent predictors of tumor recurrence.
  • Tumor volume with high SER was the only significant postchemotherapy covariate predictor (P = .038).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18566170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA069587; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116182
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Kara C, Kutlu AO, Tosun MS, Apaydin S, Senel F: Sertoli cell tumor causing prepubertal gynecomastia in a boy with peutz-jeghers syndrome: the outcome of 1-year treatment with the aromatase inhibitor testolactone. Horm Res; 2005;63(5):252-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sertoli cell tumor causing prepubertal gynecomastia in a boy with peutz-jeghers syndrome: the outcome of 1-year treatment with the aromatase inhibitor testolactone.
  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare disorder characterized by benign intestinal hamartomatous polyps and mucocutaneous pigmentation, and with an increased risk for intestinal and extra-intestinal neoplasms.
  • We report on a 7.25-year-old boy with PJS, bilateral gynecomastia, Sertoli cell tumor and nephrocalcinosis, and present the outcome of 1-year treatment with the aromatase inhibitor testolactone.
  • The patient presented with bilateral breast and testis enlargement, and mucocutaneous pigmentation.
  • One-year treatment with testolactone reduced the breast base diameter from 7 to 3 cm, and bone age advanced 1.2 years during this period.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Gynecomastia / complications. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome / complications. Sertoli Cell Tumor / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testolactone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Male. Nephrocalcinosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 15947469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 6J9BLA949Q / Testolactone
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71. Zissimopoulos A, Stellos K, Matthaios D, Petrakis G, Parmenopoulou V, Babatsikou F, Matthaiou E, Theodosiadou E, Hountis P, Koutis C: Type I collagen biomarkers in the diagnosis of bone metastases in breast cancer, lung cancer, urinary bladder cancer and prostate cancer. Comparison to CEA, CA 15-3, PSA and bone scintigraphy. J BUON; 2009 Jul-Sep;14(3):463-72
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  • [Title] Type I collagen biomarkers in the diagnosis of bone metastases in breast cancer, lung cancer, urinary bladder cancer and prostate cancer. Comparison to CEA, CA 15-3, PSA and bone scintigraphy.
  • PURPOSE: In this study we evaluated the clinical usefulness of serum pro-I collagen peptide (PICP) and I collagen telopeptide (ICTP) as indicators of early bone metastases in patients with breast (BC), lung (LC), urinary bladder (UBC) and prostate cancer (PC).
  • ICTP and CA 15-3 were the most reliable markers for early diagnosis of bone metastases in BC.
  • Furthermore, PICP and PSA levels were significantly higher in patients with PC and bone metastases in comparison to patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) (p <0.0001) or in patients with PC without bone metastases (p <0.0005 for PICP and p <0.0001 for PSA).
  • CONCLUSION: ICTP and CA 15-3 are the most reliable markers for early diagnosis of bone metastases in BC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Collagen Type I / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoradiometric Assay. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


72. Nese N, Kandiloglu AR, Simsek G, Lekili M, Ozdamar A, Catalkaya A, Coskun T: Comparison of the desmoplastic reaction and invading ability in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and prostatic adenocarcinoma based on the expression of heat shock protein 47 and fascin. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Apr;32(2):90-101
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  • [Title] Comparison of the desmoplastic reaction and invading ability in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and prostatic adenocarcinoma based on the expression of heat shock protein 47 and fascin.
  • RESULTS: HSP47 and fascin were localized to cytoplasm, and HSP47 and fascin IR were higher in IDC and PCa than benign groups (p < 0.05).
  • Fascin expression correlated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negativity, tumor size and stage in IDC and surgical margin status in PCa.
  • Although there is no relationship with recurrence or metastatic status, fascin overexpression correlated with tumor size, which may prompt its use as a prognostic factor in IDC.

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  • (PMID = 20701077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / FSCN1 protein, human; 0 / HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins
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73. Frankel BM, Jones T, Wang C: Segmental polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw fixation in patients with bone softening caused by osteoporosis and metastatic tumor involvement: a clinical evaluation. Neurosurgery; 2007 Sep;61(3):531-7; discussion 537-8
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  • [Title] Segmental polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw fixation in patients with bone softening caused by osteoporosis and metastatic tumor involvement: a clinical evaluation.
  • Of these patients, 23 had bone softening secondary to osteoporosis and/or metastatic spinal tumor involvement.
  • RESULTS: Six patients (26%) had metastatic spine disease (squamous cell lung carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, breast, prostate, and uterine adenocarcinoma); five patients (22%) had a degenerative spondylolisthesis; and 12 patients (52%) had burst fractures, eight as a result of benign causes and four as a result of metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Internal Fixators / standards. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17881965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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74. Zhou XD, Sens MA, Garrett SH, Somji S, Park S, Gurel V, Sens DA: Enhanced expression of metallothionein isoform 3 protein in tumor heterotransplants derived from As+3- and Cd+2-transformed human urothelial cells. Toxicol Sci; 2006 Oct;93(2):322-30
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  • [Title] Enhanced expression of metallothionein isoform 3 protein in tumor heterotransplants derived from As+3- and Cd+2-transformed human urothelial cells.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of MT-3 on archival diagnostic specimens showed that only 2 of 63 (3.17%) benign bladder specimens had even weak reactivity for the MT-3 protein.
  • The gain in MT-3 expression when cells were grown as heterotransplants was also shown to occur for the MCF-7, T-47D, Hs 578t, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and the PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein Isoforms. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16854967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA094997; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098832
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 00BH33GNGH / Cadmium; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
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75. Suzuki H, Graziano DF, McKolanis J, Finn OJ: T cell-dependent antibody responses against aberrantly expressed cyclin B1 protein in patients with cancer and premalignant disease. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Feb 15;11(4):1521-6
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  • PURPOSE: Cyclin B1-derived peptides were shown by us to be targets of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells in patients with breast and head and neck cancer.
  • We obtained further evidence of cyclin B1 immunogenicity and its potential to serve as a tumor-specific antigen by analyzing its ability to elicit T cell-dependent humoral immune responses in vivo in patients with different types of tumors.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Recombinant cyclin B1 protein from two different sources was purified and used as antigen in ELISA assays to test sera from patients with breast, pancreatic, colon, and lung cancer for the presence of anti-cyclin B1 antibody.
  • We also analyzed patients with benign lung disease, premalignant disease, and a known history of heavy smoking.
  • Antibodies in patients with breast and colon cancer are primarily of the IgG isotype whereas patients with pancreatic and lung cancer have in addition anti-cyclin B1 IgA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / immunology. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin B1. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin A / blood. Immunoglobulin G / blood. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / blood. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / blood. Pancreatic Neoplasms / immunology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Smoking / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15746055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 090440
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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81. Modlin IM, Shapiro MD, Kidd M: An analysis of rare carcinoid tumors: clarifying these clinical conundrums. World J Surg; 2005 Jan;29(1):92-101
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  • The primary organs in which carcinoids are most commonly mistaken for some of the more conspicuous endemic tumors include the esophagus, pancreas, liver, biliary tract, gallbladder, and Meckel's diverticulum, as well as within the pelvic and otolaryngeal organs and the breast.
  • The diminution of the likelihood of inadvertently neglecting these often benign, indolent neoplasms that are well known to metastasize if unaddressed would represent an important advance.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15599742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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82. Xuan Q, Yang X, Mo L, Huang F, Pang Y, Qin M, Chen Z, He M, Wang Q, Mo ZN: Expression of the serine protease kallikrein 7 and its inhibitor antileukoprotease is decreased in prostate cancer. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Nov;132(11):1796-801
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  • It has been confirmed that kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is differentially expressed in ovarian and breast cancer.
  • DESIGN: The mRNA expression of KLK7 and ALP transcript in benign prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancers was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
  • We examined hK7 and ALP protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 20 normal prostate tissues, 50 benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues, and 103 prostate cancers.
  • Western blot examination showed protein expression of hK7 and ALP in benign prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction examination revealed that the mRNA level of KLK7 and ALP was significantly decreased in prostate cancers compared with that in benign prostate epithelial cells (P < .001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Prostate / cytology. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18976018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK7 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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83. Czecior E, Namysłowski G, Misiołek M, Scierski W, Polok A, Lisowska G, Mrówka-Kata K, Orecka B, Pawlas P: [Strategy of the sinonasal tumors treatment]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2007;61(4):559-61
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  • They state about 1% of all tumors (kidney, testum, breast, pulmonary).
  • RESULTS: In the histological examination in 4 patients the benign neoplasm and in 22 patients malignant tumors were diagnosed.
  • On the basis of the CT and MRI examination as well as the description of the surgical procedure we stated that in 13 cases the primary localization of neoplasm was the maxillary sinus, in 5 cases ethmoidal cells, in 3 nasal cavity.
  • In one patient the estimation of primary tumor localization was not possible, because of the very large extension of the neoplasm.
  • The choice of the surgical procedure was depend on the tumor extension and localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18260251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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84. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Kerkebe M, Parma P, Pinto I, Diaz M: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected metastasis of adrenal glands: our experience. Urology; 2007 Apr;69(4):637-41
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  • METHODS: A total of 34 adrenalectomies were performed in 32 patients for incidental adrenal masses discovered at primary tumor diagnosis or during follow-up.
  • The primary tumors diagnosed were 13 cases of lung carcinoma, 9 of renal cell carcinoma, 2 of colorectal carcinoma, 2 of bladder carcinoma, and 1 each of ovarian carcinoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, and melanoma.
  • Two patients had no history of a primary tumor.
  • The male/female ratio was 1.9:1.
  • The mean tumor size was 4.3 cm (range 1.5 to 9).
  • The microscopic analysis revealed 22 malign lesions (64.7%) and 12 cases of benign pathologic features (35.3%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17445640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Nash JW, Barrett TL, Kies M, Ross MI, Sneige N, Diwan AH, Lazar AJ: Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma with demonstration of Her-2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization: potential treatment implications. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jan;34(1):49-54
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  • A 'benign' nodule had been excised from this location 8 years prior.
  • Histologically, a nodular dermal proliferation composed of poorly differentiated epithelioid cells in nests and focally forming ducts with pseudopapillary architecture comprised the primary tumor.
  • Metastatic tumor involved nine of 28 nodes.
  • Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated chromosomal amplification of the Her-2/neu locus within the tumor and a nodal metastasis.
  • We believe this to be the first demonstration of Her-2/neu amplification in a malignant skin adnexal tumor.
  • In analogy to breast carcinoma, these findings suggest the applicability of trastuzumab for patients with metastatic adnexal carcinomas demonstrating Her-2/neu amplification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Axilla. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thoracic Wall. Trastuzumab


86. Nabarra B, Pontoux C, Godard C, Osborne-Pellegrin M, Ezine S: Neoplastic transformation and angiogenesis in the thymus of transgenic mice expressing SV40 T and t antigen under an L-pyruvate kinase promoter (SV12 mice). Int J Exp Pathol; 2005 Dec;86(6):397-413
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  • We describe the development of a carcinoma originating from thymic hyperplasia and followed by the formation of a benign tumour composed chiefly of medullary epithelial cells expressing the transgene and of lymphocytes, a pathology very rarely reported in mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Antigens, Viral, Tumor / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Pyruvate Kinase / genetics. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred CBA. Mice, Transgenic. Microscopy, Immunoelectron. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16309545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.1.40 / Pyruvate Kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517450
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87. Bosserhoff AK, Grussendorf-Conen EI, Rübben A, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Zerres K, Buettner R, Merkelbach-Bruse S: Multiple colon carcinomas in a patient with Cowden syndrome. Int J Mol Med; 2006 Oct;18(4):643-7
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  • Cowden syndrome is a non-adenomatous gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome with inactivation of PTEN, a dual-phosphatase tumor suppressor gene.
  • Patients with loss of wildtype PTEN expression from one allele carry an increased risk of malignant breast, thyroid and brain tumors.
  • In this study, we describe a kindred with Cowden syndrome and identify a heterozygous germline mutation causing truncation of the PTEN tumor suppressor.
  • The index patient was a 56 year-old woman having multiple facial papules, acral keratosis, oral papillomatosis, multiple benign breast and thyroid tumors and gastrointestinal polyposis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Codon, Nonsense / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Family Health. Female. Gene Expression / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Pedigree. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16964417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon, Nonsense; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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88. Kisselbach C, Ristic AD, Pankuweit S, Karatolius K, Maisch B: [Women and pericardial neoplastic manifestations of the heart and pericardium]. Herz; 2005 Aug;30(5):409-15; quiz 429-30
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  • Despite the proportions, most women believe that heart disease is a man's disease and that they will die of breast cancer.
  • Data on epidemiology and incidence are rare: there is only an estimated incidence of cardiac neoplasm at necropsy ranging from 0,001% to 0,3%.
  • The majority of the primary tumors are benign.
  • The most common tumor entity is benign cardiac myxoma.
  • They originate mainly from melanomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and cancer, especially of the lung or breast.
  • Indeed in women breast cancer is the most common metastatic tumor associated with pericardial effusion.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of all patients with cardiac and pericardial neoplasm exactly diagnosed by endomyocardial or epicardial biopsy and pericardiocentesis, using hospital medical records and a biopsy and pericardiocentesis registry from 2000-2005 with 297 patients.
  • RESULTS: In 76 cases (25.6%) a neoplasm was the reason for a pericardial effusion.
  • 36 women suffered from the breast carcinoma (47%) and 40 males lung cancer (42%) as the firstly metastatic tumor.
  • By contrast, the preventive checkup and aftercare will gain more prognostic importance, especially in case of breast cancer, to earlier recognize a secondary cardiac neoplasm by biopsy and pericardiocentesis with intrapericardial treatment of neoplastic pericarditis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / epidemiology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Registries. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Comorbidity. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. Sex Factors. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 16132244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-9937
  • [Journal-full-title] Herz
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Herz
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Abdul M, Hoosein N: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in human prostate cancer. J Membr Biol; 2005 Jun;205(3):125-8
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  • Of 18 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) specimens, none had stromal NMDAr staining, but 2 had low and 1 had high epithelial NMDAr immunoreactivity.
  • We have also examined the effects of the NMDAr antagonist memantine on the growth of ten human cancer cell lines: four prostate, two breast and four colon.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / metabolism. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Colonic Neoplasms. Cysteine / analogs & derivatives. Cysteine / pharmacology. Dizocilpine Maleate / pharmacology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Memantine / pharmacology. Prostate / physiology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16362500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2631
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of membrane biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Membr. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 2381-08-0 / cysteine sulfinic acid; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine; W8O17SJF3T / Memantine
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90. McLerran D, Grizzle WE, Feng Z, Bigbee WL, Banez LL, Cazares LH, Chan DW, Diaz J, Izbicka E, Kagan J, Malehorn DE, Malik G, Oelschlager D, Partin A, Randolph T, Rosenzweig N, Srivastava S, Srivastava S, Thompson IM, Thornquist M, Troyer D, Yasui Y, Zhang Z, Zhu L, Semmes OJ: Analytical validation of serum proteomic profiling for diagnosis of prostate cancer: sources of sample bias. Clin Chem; 2008 Jan;54(1):44-52
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  • [Title] Analytical validation of serum proteomic profiling for diagnosis of prostate cancer: sources of sample bias.
  • METHODS: We derived the decision algorithm used in this study from the analysis of serum samples from patients with prostate cancer (n = 181) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (n = 143) and normal controls (n = 220).

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  • (PMID = 17981926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 084986; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 84968; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 86368; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA086402; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA085067; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA086323; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA086368; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA086368; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 86359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 86402; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA086359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 86323; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA084968; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 85067; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA084986
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS371877; NLM/ PMC3354530
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91. Dupuis C, Coard KC: A review of granular cell tumours at the University Hospital of the West Indies: 1965-2006. West Indian Med J; 2009 Mar;58(2):138-41

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  • They are usually benign, but as they are infrequently diagnosed preoperatively, they may be confused clinically with malignant lesions.
  • Of these, 99patients were female and 23 male, providing a male:female ratio of l to 4.3.
  • Lesions ranged in size from 0.2 cm to 10 cm in greatest dimension, the average size being 1.85 cm and were found in a diverse array of anatomic locations, the most common being the vulva, breast and tongue.
  • The correct clinical diagnosis was proffered preoperatively in only one case.
  • In contrast, a malignant diagnosis was suggested in 19 cases.
  • In particular lesions of the tongue accounted for fewer than expected, while lesions of the breast and vulva were considerably increased.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / epidemiology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hospitals, University. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Tongue Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology. West Indies / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21866599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3144
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Indian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Indian Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Jamaica
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92. Gratz S, Kempke B, Kaiser W, Behr TM, Pfestroff A, Höffken H: Unexpected 99mTc-tetrofosmin findings during myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: intraindividual comparison with PET/computed tomography. Nucl Med Commun; 2008 Nov;29(11):963-9
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  • We report six patients found with unexpected mediastinal and thoracic tumor uptake during Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS).
  • Subsequently, the patients underwent resection of a thymoma (n=2), nonsmall cell lung cancer (n=1) and breast cancer (n=3).
  • In the patients with breast cancer one was a male patient with ductal, invasive breast cancer.
  • Benign thymomas showed high 99mTc-tetrofosmin ROI >4.0 and low F-FDG SUVmax <2.0, whereas low 99mTc-tetrofosmin ROI <2.0 were found in nonsmall cell lung cancer and breast cancer and high F-FDG SUVmax >2.5 in these malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms, Male / complications. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / complications. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Myocardial Perfusion Imaging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thymoma / complications. Thymoma / radiography. Thymoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / radiography. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 18836374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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93. Misra S, Toole BP, Ghatak S: Hyaluronan constitutively regulates activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases in epithelial and carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem; 2006 Nov 17;281(46):34936-41
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  • Hyaluronan (HA) is enriched in the pericellular matrices of many malignant human tumors, and manipulations of HA interactions have strong effects on tumor progression in animal models.
  • On the other hand, inhibition of constitutive HA-tumor cell interactions in malignant cells inhibits these properties.
  • IGF1R-beta, PDGFR-beta, EGFR and c-MET, in colon, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells.
  • On the other hand, we show that these RTKs are activated in phenotypically normal or relatively benign tumor cells by experimentally increasing HA production.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 16959784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA073839; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082867; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016434; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR017698
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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94. Smith RE, Lespi P, Di Luca M, Bustos C, Marra FA, de Alaniz MJ, Marra CA: A reliable biomarker derived from plasmalogens to evaluate malignancy and metastatic capacity of human cancers. Lipids; 2008 Jan;43(1):79-89
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  • Antigen tumor markers employed in monitoring therapeutical approaches are limited by their specificity (Sp) and sensitivity (Se).
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of a lipid tumor marker derived from ether-linked phospholipids and to compare it with others usually assayed in clinical practice.
  • Complex lipids from normal and pathological breast, lung, and prostate tissue were isolated and analyzed by TLC and c-GLC methods.
  • Major changes were observed in the plasmalogen sub-fraction where the ratio monoenoic/saturated fatty acids can distinguish with high Se normal tissues from either benign or neoplastic tissues from breast, lung, or prostate lesions.
  • Analyses of fatty acyl chains from ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens provided a reliable tumor marker that correlated with high Se and linearity with metastases spreading.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasms / blood. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Plasmalogens / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ethanolamine / analysis. Female. Humans. Lipids / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Regression Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18046593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-4201
  • [Journal-full-title] Lipids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lipids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Plasmalogens; 5KV86114PT / Ethanolamine
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95. Reich R, Vintman L, Nielsen S, Kaern J, Bedrossian C, Berner A, Davidson B: Differential expression of the 67 kilodalton laminin receptor in epithelioid malignant mesothelioma and carcinomas that spread to serosal cavities. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Nov;33(5):332-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a locally aggressive and highly lethal tumor of serosal cavities that is rarely associated with clinically detectable metastasis to distant organs.
  • Effusions from patients diagnosed with ovarian (=24) and breast (=38) adenocarcinomas and MM (=24) (total = 86) were analyzed for 67-kd LR protein expression, using immunocytochemistry.
  • Protein expression of the 67-kd LR was frequently detected in carcinomas (19/24 ovarian tumors, 79%; 15/38 breast tumors, 39%), but was rare in MM (2/24 cases, 8%), despite the presence of mRNA transcripts for the receptor in all 21 specimens studied using RT-PCR.
  • Nine benign effusions that were additionally studied for protein expression were uniformly negative, as were all reactive mesothelial cells in malignant effusions.
  • Our results suggest that the 67-kd LR may aid in the differential diagnosis between metastatic carcinoma, mainly of ovarian origin, and MM.
  • They additionally suggest that the failure of MM to express the 67-kd LR protein, as opposed to the frequent expression in carcinomas with proven metastatic capacity, may be one of the factors contributing to the reduced ability of the former tumor to metastasize to distant organs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Weight. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16240397.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Laminin
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96. Hwang HS, Lee WJ, Lim HK, Chun HK, Ahn GH: Chondrolipoma in the pelvic cavity: a case report. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Nov-Dec;9(6):563-7

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  • A chondrolipoma is an extremely rare form of a benign mesenchymal tumor containing mature cartilage and fatty tissue.
  • Chondrolipomas may be found in almost any part of the body, particularly in the connective tissue of the breast, head and neck area, as well as in the skeletal muscle.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondroma / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis. Mesenchymoma / diagnosis. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19039275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627234
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97. Afify A, Pang L, Howell L: Diagnostic utility of CD44 standard, CD44v6, and CD44v3-10 expression in adenocarcinomas presenting in serous fluids. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Dec;15(4):446-50
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  • Archival paraffin-embedded cell blocks of serous fluids from 23 cases of benign effusions containing reactive mesothelial cells and 45 cases of malignant effusions with metastatic adenocarcinoma (18 ovarian, 11 pulmonary, 9 gastrointestinal, and 7 breast) were retrieved from the surgical pathology files.
  • The cytopathology of all cases was reviewed to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Strong staining in at least 10% of the tumor cells was required to consider the case positive for the particular marker.
  • In benign effusions mesothelial cells expressed CD44s in 22 cases (96%), CD44v6 in 1 cases (4%) and CD44v3-10 in 0 cases (0%).

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  • (PMID = 18091389.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44 protein, human; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins
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98. Pontes ER, Matos LC, da Silva EA, Xavier LS, Diaz BL, Small IA, Reis EM, Verjovski-Almeida S, Barcinski MA, Gimba ER: Auto-antibodies in prostate cancer: humoral immune response to antigenic determinants coded by the differentially expressed transcripts FLJ23438 and VAMP3. Prostate; 2006 Oct 1;66(14):1463-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Here we evaluate auto-antibody response against two potential antigenic determinants of genes highly expressed in low Gleason Score prostate cancer (PC) tumor samples, namely FLJ23438 and VAMP3.
  • The auto-antibody response against FLJ23438 and VAMP3 recombinant proteins was tested by immunoblot assays using PC, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), healthy donors (HD), and other human cancers plasma samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Autoantibodies / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Prostatic Neoplasms / immunology. Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 3 / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens / genetics. Antigens / immunology. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Cell Line, Tumor. Colorectal Neoplasms. Esophageal Neoplasms. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Lung Neoplasms. Male. Middle Aged. Open Reading Frames / genetics. Prostatic Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / immunology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / physiopathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Small Nuclear / genetics. RNA, Small Nuclear / immunology. Recombinant Proteins / genetics. Recombinant Proteins / immunology. Seroepidemiologic Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16897729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Nuclear; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / U2 small nuclear RNA; 0 / VAMP3 protein, human; 0 / Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 3
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99. Neves Cde O, Soares AB, Costa AF, de Araujo VC, Furuse C, Juliano PB, Altemani A: CD10 (Neutral Endopeptidase) Expression in Myoepithelial Cells of Salivary Neoplasms. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Mar;18(2):172-8
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  • CD10 is a cell surface peptidase expressed in a wide variety of normal and neoplastic tissues, including breast myoepithelial cells.
  • In neoplastic myoepithelial cells, CD10 expression was found in 25.71% of benign and 32.43% of malignant neoplasms.
  • The high expression of CD10 by this carcinoma can be a valuable tool to separate EMEC from the tubular variant of adenoid cystic carcinomas in small incisional biopsies, where the precise diagnosis may be impossible.

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  • (PMID = 19752720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTA2 protein, human; 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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100. Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Slater EP, Langer P, Buchholz M, Ramaswamy A, Saeger W, Rothmund M, Fendrich V: Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 2;99(11):1900-7
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  • Snail expression was neither detected in normal adrenocortical tissue, nor in benign adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19018264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600683
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