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1. Engohan-Aloghe C, Aubain Sommerhausen Nde S, Noël JC: Ovarian involvement by desmoplastic small round cell tumor with leydig cell hyperplasia showing an unusual immunophenotype (cytokeratin negative, calretinin and inhibin positive) mimicking poorly differentiated sertoli leydig cell tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Nov;28(6):579-83
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  • [Title] Ovarian involvement by desmoplastic small round cell tumor with leydig cell hyperplasia showing an unusual immunophenotype (cytokeratin negative, calretinin and inhibin positive) mimicking poorly differentiated sertoli leydig cell tumor.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare aggressive tumor primarily involving serosal surfaces in adolescents and young men.
  • We report here a variant of DSRCT involving the ovaries that mimics the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a 21-year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain.
  • Frozen section examination identified the right ovarian mass as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.
  • The surgically resected tumor and left ovary and omentum implants found during laparoscopy were diagnosed as DSRCT with Leydig cell hyperplasia.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were negative for epithelial markers but were positive for calretinin and inhibin.
  • This case showed that DSRCT with unusual immunohistochemical profiles and Leydig cells hyperplasia pose a diagnostic challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Leydig Cells / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19851210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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2. Nardo LG, Ray DW, Laing I, Williams C, McVey RJ, Seif MW: Ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a peri-menopausal woman with severe hyperandrogenism and virilization. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2005 Oct;21(4):238-41
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  • [Title] Ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a peri-menopausal woman with severe hyperandrogenism and virilization.
  • The authors report a case of Leydig cell tumor in a 46-year-old woman who first presented with severe clinical hyperandrogenism and associated complex medical history.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a 2 cm Leydig cell tumor within the right ovary.
  • Clinical presentation, biochemistry and imaging modalities should allow to detect androgen-secreting ovarian tumors, while selective venous sampling should be reserved for patients whom uncertainty remains.
  • The present case confirms that androgen-secreting ovarian tumors represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperandrogenism / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Virilism / complications

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  • (PMID = 16316848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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3. Bertola G, Giambona S, Balza G, Sironi C, Colombo E, Santangelo M, Di Nuovo F: [An uncommon cause of gynecomastia: testicular Leydig cell tumor. Hormonal profile before and after orchiectomy]. Recenti Prog Med; 2006 Feb;97(2):85-8
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  • [Title] [An uncommon cause of gynecomastia: testicular Leydig cell tumor. Hormonal profile before and after orchiectomy].
  • Leydig cell tumors (LTC) are uncommon neoplasms arising from gonadal stroma that account for 1-3% of all testicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Gynecomastia / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16671273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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4. Sangkhathat S, Kanngurn S, Jaruratanasirikul S, Tubtawee T, Chaiyapan W, Patrapinyokul S, Chiengkriwate P: Peripheral precocious puberty in a male caused by Leydig cell adenoma harboring a somatic mutation of the LHR gene: report of a case. J Med Assoc Thai; 2010 Sep;93(9):1093-7
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  • [Title] Peripheral precocious puberty in a male caused by Leydig cell adenoma harboring a somatic mutation of the LHR gene: report of a case.
  • While a germline activating mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) gene is known to cause autonomous production of testosterone from testicular Leydig cells in male-limited precocious puberty, only a few studies have addressed the role of somatic LHR mutation in testicular pathology.
  • Examination revealed asymmetrical testicular volume, following which a left testicular tumor was detected through ultrasonography.
  • A left orchiectomy was performed, and histopathology revealed a well-circumscribed Leydig cell tumor Molecular study of the exon 11 of the LHR gene revealed a missense mutation at the nucleotide position 1,732, leading to a substitution of histidine for aspartic acid at codon 578.
  • Interestingly, the substitution was consistent with all previously reported LHR alteration in pediatric Leydig cell adenoma, but which had never before been reported in male-limited precocious puberty, suggesting that the mutation is a molecular signature of the adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Puberty, Precocious / genetics. Receptors, LH / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Child. Exons. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Testosterone / analysis. Testosterone / genetics. Treatment Outcome


5. Sirianni R, Chimento A, De Luca A, Zolea F, Carpino A, Rago V, Maggiolini M, Andò S, Pezzi V: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 down-regulates aromatase activity and decreases proliferation of Leydig tumor cells. J Biol Chem; 2009 Oct 16;284(42):28905-16
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  • [Title] Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 down-regulates aromatase activity and decreases proliferation of Leydig tumor cells.
  • Our recent studies have revealed that estrogens stimulate an autocrine mechanism determining Leydig tumor cell proliferation.
  • Although we have shown that increased SF-1 expression depends mainly on higher local insulin-like growth factor I production, the mechanisms and factors determining increased CREB activation in Leydig tumor cells are not completely understood.
  • In this study, we investigated the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in CREB dependent-aromatase expression in Leydig tumor cells.
  • We found that COX-2 is expressed in rat and human Leydigiomas as well as in the rat Leydig tumor cell line R2C, but not in normal testis.
  • The reduction in aromatase activity was responsible for a drop in estrogen production and subsequent reduction in cyclin E expression resulting in a decrease in tumor Leydig cell proliferation.
  • Furthermore, COX-2 silencing caused a significant decrease in CREB phosphorylation, aromatase expression, and R2C cell proliferation.
  • These novel findings clarify the mechanisms involved in the growth of Leydig cell tumors and should be taken into account in determining new therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase 2 / chemistry. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / chemistry. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Leydig Cells. Male. Phosphorylation. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 19679653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2781436
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6. Carmignani L, Salvioni R, Gadda F, Colecchia M, Gazzano G, Torelli T, Rocco F, Colpi GM, Pizzocaro G: Long-term followup and clinical characteristics of testicular Leydig cell tumor: experience with 24 cases. J Urol; 2006 Nov;176(5):2040-3; discussion 2043
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  • [Title] Long-term followup and clinical characteristics of testicular Leydig cell tumor: experience with 24 cases.
  • PURPOSE: The natural history of Leydig cell testicular tumors is not well known, and differentiation between malignant and benign forms is not easy.
  • We performed a retrospective multicenter evaluation of clinical and histological characteristics as well as followup of Leydig cell tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1990 to August 2004 surgery was performed on 24 Leydig cell tumors.
  • Before surgery all patients underwent clinical examination, tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, lactate dehydrogenase), scrotal ultrasound and chest x-ray.
  • In 17 of 20 patients (85%) Leydig cell tumor was diagnosed on frozen section examination.
  • All definitive diagnoses interpreted the neoplasia as benign.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our case study all Leydig cell tumors were interpreted as benign and long-term followup was negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2007 May;177(5):1955 [17437857.001]
  • (PMID = 17070249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Mäkitie LT, Kanerva K, Sankila A, Andersson LC: High expression of antizyme inhibitor 2, an activator of ornithine decarboxylase in steroidogenic cells of human gonads. Histochem Cell Biol; 2009 Dec;132(6):633-8
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  • We found a robust expression of AZIN2 in steroidogenic cells: testicular Leydig cells and Leydig cell tumors, in ovarian luteinized cells lining corpus luteum cysts, and in hilus cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboxy-Lyases. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Leydig Cell Tumor / chemistry. Leydig Cells / chemistry. Male. Ovarian Cysts / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19756694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-119X
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Steroids; EC 4.1.1.- / Carboxy-Lyases; EC 4.1.1.17 / Ornithine Decarboxylase; EC 4.1.1.19 / ADC protein, human
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8. Staats PN, Coutts MA, Young RH: Primary ovarian mucinous cystic tumor with prominent theca cell proliferation and focal granulosa cell tumor in its stroma: case report, literature review, and comparison with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 May;29(3):228-33
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  • [Title] Primary ovarian mucinous cystic tumor with prominent theca cell proliferation and focal granulosa cell tumor in its stroma: case report, literature review, and comparison with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements.
  • A 73-year-old woman was found to have a 22 cm unilateral multilocular mucinous cystic tumor of the ovary.
  • Microscopic examination showed a routine appearance of the epithelial component, which ranged from benign to borderline to low-grade carcinoma.
  • The stromal component was unusual because of a striking cellular theca cell component in the stroma, which, in turn, merged with a component of adult granulosa cell tumor.
  • The "parent" neoplasm in this case and 3 other similar cases in the literature appears to be the mucinous neoplasm, in contrast with the other example of mucinous neoplasia associated with sex cord neoplasia, the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements, in which the "parent" neoplasm is likely the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Thecoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20407320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Magro G, Gurrera A, Gangemi P, Saita A, Greco P: Incompletely differentiated (unclassified) sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor of the testis with a "pure" spindle cell component: report of a case with diagnostic and histogenetic considerations. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(10):759-62
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  • [Title] Incompletely differentiated (unclassified) sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor of the testis with a "pure" spindle cell component: report of a case with diagnostic and histogenetic considerations.
  • The group of incompletely differentiated (unclassified) sex cord/gonadal stromal tumors includes rare cases with predominant spindle cell morphology.
  • We report a rare case of a "pure" spindle cell tumor of the testis with morphological and immunohistochemical features consistent with the diagnosis of "incompletely differentiated sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor".
  • Given the spindle cell morphology, the differential diagnosis with other benign and malignant spindle cell lesions is discussed.
  • The concurrent presence of some morphological and immunohistochemical features of both Leydig and granulosa cell lines in the tumor suggests its origin from a stromal stem cell, possibly capable of dual differentiation, but with an arrest of maturation at an early phase of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells. Female. Granulosa Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leydig Cells / pathology. Male. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17850986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Verdorfer I, Horst D, Höllrigl A, Rogatsch H, Mikuz G: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours of the ovary and testis: a CGH and FISH study. Virchows Arch; 2007 Mar;450(3):267-71
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  • [Title] Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours of the ovary and testis: a CGH and FISH study.
  • We present two malignant cases of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCT) of the testis and one ovarian SLCT with benign behaviour.
  • The present study is the first molecular-cytogenetic analysis of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17235570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Chovelidze ShG, Kochiashvili DK, Gogeshvili GG, Getta T, Lababidi A: [Cases of Leydig cell tumor in male infertility]. Georgian Med News; 2007 Feb;(143):76-9
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  • [Title] [Cases of Leydig cell tumor in male infertility].
  • Leydig cell tumor was found in 4 patients, among them 3 by palpation and testicle echography, fourth patient (at the age of 33) with bilateral varicocele (III stage at the left, II stage at the right) was more interesting for us.
  • Leydig cell tumor was found out at the scrotum exploration.
  • The node enucleation away from tumor by 0.5 cm has been carried out.
  • Exact histological investigation confirmed the presence of Leydig cell tumor.
  • In 6 years after surgical operation the tumor node 1.8 mm in diameter has been found out in right (contra lateral) testis.
  • The patient was urgently operated, ex-tempo investigation confirmed the presence of Leydig cell tumor in right testicle--high orchidectomy at the right has been carried out.
  • Given case shows that the enucleation of Leydig cell tumor proves to be equivalent alternative of orchidectomy, which is suggested by many authors.
  • Taking into account the presence of encapsulation and tumor benignity it is important to have opportunity of the testicle preservation due to infertility problems.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Male / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology


12. Wang W, Gong ZH, Dai YT: [Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of testicular tumor]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2007 May;13(5):424-7
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  • [Title] [Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of testicular tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ultrasonography in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of testicular tumor.
  • RESULTS: Of the total number, 50 cases were testicular hematoma, 13 testicular cyst, 26 testicular inflammatory node, 25 testicular tuberculosis and 58 testicular tumor.
  • Among 59 testicular tumor cases, 50 were germ cell tumor (including 41 cases of seminoma and 9 cases of nonseminoma germ cell tumor), 6 were non-germ cell tumor and 3 were secondary tumor.
  • The sonographic features of typical seminoma, teratomas, epidemic cyst, interstitial cell tumor and malignant lymphoma were obvious.
  • CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography, contributive to the preliminary diagnosis and differential diagnosis of testicular tumor and capable of evidence for further treatment, can be the first choice in medical imaging for the diagnosis of testicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / ultrasonography. Hematoma / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / ultrasonography. Testicular Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17569259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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13. Shiraishi Y, Nishiyama H, Okubo K, Iguchi R, Inoue T, Watanabe J, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Kanematsu A, Nakayama T, Hatayama H, Ogawa O: [Testicular Leydig cell tumor presenting as male infertility: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Dec;55(12):777-81
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  • [Title] [Testicular Leydig cell tumor presenting as male infertility: a case report].
  • A Leydig cell tumor is a rare disease entity occurring in the testis.
  • We report a case study of a Leydig cell tumor in a single testis presenting as male infertility.
  • A 38-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of a tumor in his right testis.
  • He had undergone left orchiectomy at one year old because of a testicular tumor.
  • During an examination related to the infertility, ultrasound revealed a 1 cm tumor.
  • Tumor markers were all within normal ranges.Hormonal examination showed that luteinizing hormone (LH) 30.3 mIU/ml (1.5-12.4) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 11.9 mIU/ml (1.7-8.6) were higher than normal limits, but total testosterone(total T) and estradiol (E2) were within normal ranges.
  • Tumor enucleation was first performed, and then testicular sperm extraction (TESE) was carried out from a macroscopically normal site of the testis.Histopathological diagnosis was a benign Leydig cell tumor surrounded by Leydig cell hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Male / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20048565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Bohlmann MK, Rabe T, Sinn HP, Strowitzki T, Von Wolff M: Intraoperative venous blood sampling to localize a small androgen-producing ovarian tumor. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2005 Sep;21(3):138-41
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  • [Title] Intraoperative venous blood sampling to localize a small androgen-producing ovarian tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Among other causes of virilization, ovarian tumors can be the cause of excessive androgen production.
  • We report the case of a Leydig cell tumor of the ovary where diagnostic attempts to localize the source of hyperandrogenism preoperatively failed owing to relatively small tumor size.
  • Intraoperative selective blood sampling of the ovarian veins and palpation gave evidence of a right ovarian tumor, which was then removed.
  • Histological examination revealed the presence of a pure Leydig cell tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Exploratory laparotomy with intraoperative selective blood sampling of the ovarian veins might be a useful approach in patients without accurate preoperative localization of androgen-producing tumors of the ovaries.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16335905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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15. Al-Agha OM, Axiotis CA: An in-depth look at Leydig cell tumor of the testis. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Feb;131(2):311-7
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  • [Title] An in-depth look at Leydig cell tumor of the testis.
  • Leydig cell tumor (LCT) is a rare tumor of the male testicular interstitium.
  • The tumor is usually benign, but malignant variants can occur.
  • The pathologic diagnosis of LCT is usually made based on morphologic characteristics of the tumor cells.
  • Pathologists have to be familiar with the diagnostic histopathologic features, immunohistochemical panel of this tumor, and its principal differential diagnoses to prevent tumor misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17284120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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16. Basciani S, Brama M, Mariani S, De Luca G, Arizzi M, Vesci L, Pisano C, Dolci S, Spera G, Gnessi L: Imatinib mesylate inhibits Leydig cell tumor growth: evidence for in vitro and in vivo activity. Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 1;65(5):1897-903
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  • [Title] Imatinib mesylate inhibits Leydig cell tumor growth: evidence for in vitro and in vivo activity.
  • Leydig cell tumors are usually benign tumors of the male gonad.
  • However, if the tumor is malignant, no effective treatments are currently available.
  • Leydig cell tumors express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), kit ligand and their respective receptors, PDGFR and c-kit.
  • We therefore evaluated the effects of imatinib mesylate (imatinib), a selective inhibitor of the c-kit and PDGFR tyrosine kinases, on the growth of rodent Leydig tumor cell lines in vivo and in vitro, and examined, in human Leydig cell tumor samples, the expression of activated PDGFR and c-kit and the mutations in exons of the c-kit gene commonly associated with solid tumors.
  • Imatinib caused concentration-dependent decreases in the viability of Leydig tumor cell lines, which coincided with apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation and ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of c-kit and PDGFRs.
  • Mice bearing s.c. allografts of a Leydig tumor cell line treated with imatinib p.o., had an almost complete inhibition of tumor growth, less tumor cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a lesser amount of tumor-associated mean vessel density compared with controls.
  • No drug-resistant tumors appeared during imatinib treatment but tumors regrew after drug withdrawal.
  • Human Leydig cell tumors showed an intense expression of the phosphorylated form of c-kit and a less intense expression of phosphorylated PDGFRs.
  • Our studies suggest that Leydig cell tumors might be a potential target for imatinib therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Leydig Cell Tumor / prevention & control. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Benzamides. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. In Vitro Techniques. Ligands. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mutation / genetics. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / genetics. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / metabolism. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15753388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / platelet-derived growth factor A; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
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17. Youssef A, Ben Ghezala M, Oueslati A, Agrebi W, Oueslati H: [Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary]. Tunis Med; 2006 Mar;84(3):209-11
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  • [Title] [Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs de Sertoli-Leydig de l'ovaire.
  • Sertoli-Leidig cell tumor of the ovary is a rare tumor.
  • It accounts for 0.5 - 1% of all ovarian tumors.
  • Sertoli-Leidig cell tumors are commonly benign and they occur in young women who desire further childrearing.
  • For the malign Sertoli-Leidig cell tumor, radical treatment is required.
  • The aim of this work is the analysis of clinical, para-clinical and therapeutic aspects of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16755966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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18. Sanz OA, Martinez PR, Guarch RT, Goñi MJ, Alcazar JL: Bilateral Leydig cell tumour of the ovary: a rare cause of virilization in postmenopausal patient. Maturitas; 2007 Jun 20;57(2):214-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral Leydig cell tumour of the ovary: a rare cause of virilization in postmenopausal patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Leydig cell tumours of the ovary are very rare benign neoplasms, frequently associated with symptoms of virilisation, in postmenopausal patients.
  • Only four cases of bilateral Leydig tumours have been reported in the literature.
  • A CT scan demonstrated adrenal glands and ovaries without tumour.
  • RESULT: The pathological finding was a bilateral Leydig cell tumour, measuring 15 mm in the right ovary and 3 mm in the left ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17289310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5122
  • [Journal-full-title] Maturitas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Maturitas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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19. Hribar KP, Warner NE, Sherrod AE: Cytologic identification of reinke crystalloids in scrapings and imprints of fresh testicular tumors: a simple and rapid technique for intraoperative use. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Mar;129(3):e65-6
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  • [Title] Cytologic identification of reinke crystalloids in scrapings and imprints of fresh testicular tumors: a simple and rapid technique for intraoperative use.
  • Although not required for the diagnosis, crystalloids of Reinke are pathognomonic for Leydig cell tumor.
  • We tested the efficacy of touch imprints and scrape smears for the identification of crystalloids in 2 cases of Leydig cell tumor of the testis.
  • Intraoperative smears of the tumors yielded abundant crystals.
  • We speculate that the process of scraping, and to a lesser extent touch imprinting, disrupts the cytoplasm of the Leydig cells and releases the crystalloids.
  • We conclude that cytologic testing is an effective method of identifying crystalloids of Reinke in Leydig cell tumors of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Crystallization. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006 Jun;130(6):765-6 [16740025.001]
  • (PMID = 15737059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Chatani F: Possible mechanism for testicular focal necrosis induced by hCG in rats. J Toxicol Sci; 2006 Oct;31(4):291-303
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  • These findings suggested that de novo synthesis of PGs beginning at 3-4 hr was responsible for induction of necrosis.
  • No necrosis was induced by hCG in the Leydig cell-devoid testis produced by ethane dimethanesulfonate treatment.
  • Necrosis of spontaneously-induced Leydig cell tumor mass was also induced by hCG, suggesting that Leydig cells are responsible for induction of necrosis.
  • 1) hCG stimulates Leydig cells to synthesize PGs de novo;.

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  • (PMID = 17077584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0388-1350
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of toxicological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Toxicol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Prostaglandin Antagonists
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21. Maratea KA, Ramos-Vara JA, Corriveau LA, Miller MA: Testicular interstitial cell tumor and gynecomastia in a rabbit. Vet Pathol; 2007 Jul;44(4):513-7
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  • [Title] Testicular interstitial cell tumor and gynecomastia in a rabbit.
  • Unilateral testicular interstitial (Leydig) cell tumor and gynecomastia were diagnosed in an adult male rabbit.
  • The interstitial cell tumor was a well-circumscribed, 2-mm diameter, pale tan nodule composed of a uniform population of polygonal cells.
  • Neoplastic interstitial cells exhibited diffuse, granular cytoplasmic staining with Melan A, a marker of steroid-producing cells in humans and dogs.
  • This is the first report of concurrent interstitial cell tumor and gynecomastia in a rabbit and also the first description of gynecomastia in this species.

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  • (PMID = 17606513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Young RH: Testicular tumors--some new and a few perennial problems. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Apr;132(4):548-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular tumors--some new and a few perennial problems.
  • The histopathology of testicular tumors is presented, emphasizing new, unusual, or underemphasized aspects.
  • Within the category of seminoma of the usual type, the recent literature has drawn attention to the presence in occasional tumors of solid or hollow tubules or spaces of varying sizes and shape that may result in cribriform or microcystic patterns, causing potential confusion with other neoplasms, most notably Sertoli cell tumor or yolk sac tumor.
  • Although regions of typical neoplasia and awareness of this phenomenon usually will be diagnostic, immunohistochemistry may play a role in excluding Sertoli cell tumor or yolk sac tumor.
  • Although immunohistochemistry can play an undoubted helpful role in this and selected other areas of testicular tumor evaluation, careful evaluation of the gross and routine microscopic features will solve the vast majority of diagnostic problems.
  • Spermatocytic seminoma remains a crucial pitfall in diagnosis, and the pathologist must always be alert to the possible diagnosis when looking at a seminomatous neoplasm, particularly in an older patient, although about one third of these tumors occur in the usual seminoma age range.
  • The enigmatic and picturesque tumor, polyembryoma, which virtually never occurs in pure form but may be a confusing component of a variety of mixed germ cell tumors, is discussed and illustrated.
  • The phenomenon of burnt-out germ cell neoplasia is also briefly noted and an excellent recent contribution is referred to.
  • Within the sex cord-stromal family of neoplasms, recent contributions and elaborations of unusual morphologic features of Leydig cell tumors and Sertoli cell tumors are presented.
  • Within the Leydig cell family, cyst formation, adipose metaplasia, calcification or ossification, and spindle cell patterns may be particularly confusing, and in the Sertoli cell family, a great array of patterns caused by differing admixtures of tubular, solid, and stromal components occur.
  • The peculiar lesion, intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell tumor, of young boys with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, is briefly discussed.
  • Although secondary tumors to the testis have not received the same attention in the literature as the similar phenomenon in the female gonad, remarkable examples of testicular spread of diverse neoplasms, usually carcinoma but rarely melanoma, are seen, and the pathologist should be alert to this possibility, particularly when examining an unusual morphology in an older patient.
  • Finally, a few comments are made on the common paratesticular neoplasm, the adenomatoid tumor, highlighting its varied patterns and recent description of some of the issues that may arise when they undergo total or subtotal infarction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Seminoma / diagnosis. Seminoma / pathology. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18384207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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23. Qiao XB, Ma ZZ: [Primary leydig cell tumor of epididymis: a case report]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Apr;34(4):247-8
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  • [Title] [Primary leydig cell tumor of epididymis: a case report].
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / pathology. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Inhibins / metabolism. Male. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16091185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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24. Gilbert R, Kutzler M, Valentine BA, Semevolos S: Hyperandrogenism from an ovarian interstitial-cell tumor in an alpaca. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2006 Nov;18(6):605-7
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  • [Title] Hyperandrogenism from an ovarian interstitial-cell tumor in an alpaca.
  • An ovarian benign interstitial (Leydig) cell tumor was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Camelids, New World. Hyperandrogenism / veterinary. Leydig Cell Tumor / veterinary. Ovarian Neoplasms / veterinary. Ovary / pathology. Theca Cells / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17121093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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25. Dickerson RD, Putman MJ, Black ME, Pinto KR, Diamond NG, Marynick S, Pinto AB: Selective ovarian vein sampling to localize a Leydig cell tumor. Fertil Steril; 2005 Jul;84(1):218
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  • [Title] Selective ovarian vein sampling to localize a Leydig cell tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with recent onset of rapidly progressive virilization who was diagnosed with an androgen-secreting tumor of the left ovary, localized by selective ovarian vein catheterization and hormonal sampling (SOVHS).
  • PATIENT(S): A 32-year-old woman presenting with progressive virilization over a period of 4 months was found to have a Leydig cell tumor of the left ovary.
  • Selective ovarian vein sampling was performed to localize the tumor.
  • RESULT(S): Patient's ovarian tumor removed laparoscopically was reported to be a Leydig cell tumor.
  • Rapid decreases in free and total T followed tumor removal.
  • CONCLUSION(S): Selective ovarian vein catheterization and hormonal sampling is an effective diagnostic modality that can help localize small ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovary / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 16009186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Kawakita M: [Testicular neoplasms (germ cell tumors, Leydig cell tumor, Sertoli cell tumor)]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 Jun 28;Suppl 2:291-5
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  • [Title] [Testicular neoplasms (germ cell tumors, Leydig cell tumor, Sertoli cell tumor)].
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Sertoli Cell Tumor. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy

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  • (PMID = 16817406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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27. Sato K, Ueda Y, Sakurai A, Ishikawa Y, Okamoto SY, Ikawa H, Katsuda S: Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor of the testis: comparative immunohistochemical study with Leydig cell tumor. Pathol Int; 2005 Jun;55(6):366-71
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  • [Title] Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor of the testis: comparative immunohistochemical study with Leydig cell tumor.
  • Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor is a rare type of testicular tumor.
  • Reported herein is a Japanese patient with this tumor not associated with Carney's complex.
  • Macroscopically, the tumor was well circumscribed and had a maximum diameter of approximately 2 cm.
  • Histologically, the tumor was composed of large neoplastic cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with a tubular, trabecular, and solid arrangement and loose myxoid stroma with irregularly shaped calcification.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, S-100 protein, calretinin, inhibin-alpha, melan-A, and CD10, and type IV collagen and laminin were observed in the extracellular matrix around the tumor cells.
  • The distributions of melan-A, CD10, and mitochondria were characteristically patchy; in contrast, they were diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm in a control case of Leydig cell tumor.
  • The differences in immunostaining patterns for melan-A, CD10, and mitochondria as well as positivity for S-100 protein-beta might be useful diagnostic hallmarks of large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor for discrimination from Leydig cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. Calbindin 2. Child. Collagen Type V / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neprilysin / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Testis / chemistry. Testis / pathology. Testis / ultrastructure. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15943795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Collagen Type V; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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28. Goodman JE, Gaylor D, Beyer LA, Rhomberg LR, Beck BD: Effects of MTBE on the reported incidence of Leydig cell tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats: range of possible Poly-3 results. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;50(3):273-84
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  • [Title] Effects of MTBE on the reported incidence of Leydig cell tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats: range of possible Poly-3 results.
  • An increased Leydig cell tumor (LCT) incidence has been reported in a study of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats exposed via gavage to 1000 (but not 250)mg/kgday MTBE; it is unclear, however, if this finding was indeed dose-related or due to the statistical analyses not having adequately accounted for the increased survival rate in the high-dose animals and/or for multiple statistical comparisons.
  • To address this question, we conducted Hoel-Walburg and Poly-3 analyses, using p-values of 0.01 for pair-wise comparisons and 0.005 for trend tests of common tumors.
  • This led us to conduct separate Poly-3 analyses for the most extreme scenarios of survival age and tumor incidence to provide an illustrative example of approaches for analyzing the impact of survival rates on tumor findings in the absence of animal-specific survival data.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / chemically induced. Leydig Cell Tumor / epidemiology. Methyl Ethers / toxicity. Models, Statistical. Survival Analysis. Testicular Neoplasms / chemically induced. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008 Apr;50(3):428-9 [17905498.001]
  • (PMID = 18241965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0273-2300
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Methyl Ethers; 29I4YB3S89 / methyl tert-butyl ether
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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29. Cajaiba MM, Reyes-Múgica M, Rios JC, Nistal M: Non-tumoural parenchyma in Leydig cell tumours: pathogenetic considerations. Int J Androl; 2008 Jun;31(3):331-6
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  • [Title] Non-tumoural parenchyma in Leydig cell tumours: pathogenetic considerations.
  • Little is known about the pathogenesis of Leydig cell tumours (LCTs) of the testis.
  • The observation of several associated dysgenetic features in the non-tumoural parenchyma and in the contralateral testes of men with testicular germ cell neoplasms has served as the basis to propose that there may be a common mechanism for different male reproductive disorders.
  • Parameters as Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCHY), qualitative evaluation of the germinal epithelium and spermatogenesis, the presence of Sertoli cell-only tubules (SCOT), and the Sertoli cell nuclear morphology were consistently assessed in all cases.
  • SCOT associated with Sertoli cell dysgenetic morphology was the most frequent finding, present in 50% of the cases.
  • The abnormalities in spermatogenesis observed here are likely to represent consequences of either tumour compression or abnormal hormonal production.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus Shape. Humans. Hyperplasia. Leydig Cells / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Sertoli Cells / pathology. Spermatogenesis

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  • (PMID = 17573846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2605
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Ozgun MT, Batukan C, Turkyilmaz C, Dolanbay M, Mavili E: Selective ovarian vein sampling can be crucial to localize a Leydig cell tumor: an unusual case in a postmenopausal woman. Maturitas; 2008 Nov 20;61(3):278-80
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  • [Title] Selective ovarian vein sampling can be crucial to localize a Leydig cell tumor: an unusual case in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Leydig cell tumors of the ovary are very rare, frequently associated with symptoms of virilization in postmenopausal patients.
  • It is sometimes difficult to localize the tumor precisely even with modern imaging techniques.
  • Extensive pre-operative evaluations included transvaginal ultrasound, abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging failed to localize the tumor.
  • Microscopic examination of the left ovary revealed a Leydig cell tumor.
  • In conclusion, when the precise location of the tumor is not determined pre-operatively, SOVHS may be valuable to make accurate diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 18930614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5122
  • [Journal-full-title] Maturitas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Maturitas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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31. Stuckmann G: [Ultrasound of the scrotum]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2006 May 3;95(18):709-20
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  • Ultrasound is an excellent tool for the diagnosis of benign or malignant intra- and extratesticular lesions depending on their structure and location in the scrotum.
  • Besides the sonographic appearance, the clinical history and the location of a scrotal mass is crucial for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant masses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / ultrasonography. Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cryptorchidism / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermal Cyst / ultrasonography. Epididymitis / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Orchitis / ultrasonography. Seminoma / ultrasonography. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / ultrasonography. Spermatic Cord Torsion / ultrasonography. Spermatocele / ultrasonography. Testicular Hydrocele / ultrasonography. Testis / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16722401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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32. Henderson CG, Ahmed AA, Sesterhenn I, Belman AB, Rushton HG: Enucleation for prepubertal leydig cell tumor. J Urol; 2006 Aug;176(2):703-5
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  • [Title] Enucleation for prepubertal leydig cell tumor.
  • PURPOSE: Leydig cell tumors in children are rare, comprising only 4% to 9% of all primary testis tumors in prepubertal males.
  • We present our experience with testis sparing enucleation of Leydig cell tumor in prepubertal boys.
  • RESULTS: Both patients had normalization of the serum testosterone following enucleation of the Leydig cell tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prepubertal boys with isosexual precocious pseudopuberty, an isolated testis mass, increased testosterone and low or normal gonadotropin levels can reliably be diagnosed with Leydig cell tumors.
  • Based on the ability to establish the diagnosis preoperatively and the universal benign behavior of unilateral, prepubertal Leydig cell tumor, we believe these patients are best treated with testis sparing enucleation of the tumor.
  • In view of the high likelihood that this tumor in prepubertal boys is benign, a transscrotal surgical approach should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16813923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Blystone CR, Lambright CS, Furr J, Wilson VS, Gray LE Jr: Iprodione delays male rat pubertal development, reduces serum testosterone levels, and decreases ex vivo testicular testosterone production. Toxicol Lett; 2007 Nov 1;174(1-3):74-81
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  • All three of these fungicides induce Leydig cell tumors in the rat testis in long-term studies and an endocrine mode of action has been hypothesized to mediate this effect.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Epididymis / drug effects. Epididymis / growth & development. Humans. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Seminal Vesicles / drug effects. Seminal Vesicles / growth & development. Testis / drug effects. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17931804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4274
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Fungicides, Industrial; 0 / Hydantoins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 360-97-4 / Aminoimidazole Carboxamide; 36734-19-7 / iprodione; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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34. Hoffman JG, Strickland JL, Yin J: Virilizing ovarian dermoid cyst with leydig cells. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Jun;22(3):e39-40
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  • [Title] Virilizing ovarian dermoid cyst with leydig cells.
  • Overall, ovarian tumors causing virilization are exceedingly rare and mostly occur in post-menopausal women.
  • The most frequent germ cell tumor derived from the ovaries is the benign cystic teratoma (dermoid) which accounts for 25% of all ovarian neoplasms.
  • Usually the tumors are asymptomatic, but they occasionally can cause severe pain if there is torsion or if sebaceous material perforates the cyst wall, leading to reactive peritonitis.
  • The dermoid was producing large amounts of testosterone from a nest of Leydig cells found pathologically in the mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign cystic teratomas can produce active hormones, albeit rarely.
  • This is a finding important to consider when ovarian cystectomy is performed for removal of a benign cystic teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / secretion. Leydig Cells / secretion. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secretion. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19539195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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35. Kayemba-Kays S, Fromont-Hankard G, Lettelier G, Gabriel S, Levard G: Leydig cell tumour revealed by bilateral gynecomastia in a 15-year-old adolescent: a patient report. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;23(11):1195-9
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumour revealed by bilateral gynecomastia in a 15-year-old adolescent: a patient report.
  • Its course is spontaneously benign with resolution occurring by age 18 years.
  • Association with Leydig cell tumour is more common in adults, so that scrotal ultrasound is part of routine work up.
  • A 15-years-old boy with Leydig cell tumour revealed by bilateral gynecomastia is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Gynecomastia / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 21284336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Yoon BS, Seong SJ, Park CT, Park H, Shim JY, Kim JY: Cellular fibroma of the ovary containing Leydig cell hyperplasia: a case report. J Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Mar;21(1):56-8
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  • [Title] Cellular fibroma of the ovary containing Leydig cell hyperplasia: a case report.
  • Ovarian stromal tumors containing Leydig cell components are rare.
  • Only a few cases of ovarian stromal Leydig cell tumors characterized by clusters of Leydig cells have been reported to date.
  • Here, we present the first case report of a 65-year-old woman with a cellular fibroma of the ovary containing Leydig cell hyperplasia.
  • Final pathology of the tumor revealed a cellular fibroma including Leydig cell hyperplasia.

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1973 Oct;32(4):940-51 [4751924.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2006 Jul;25(3):199-215 [16810055.001]
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  • (PMID = 20379449.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2849950
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Fibroma / Leydig cells / Ovary
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37. Bacchetta J, Droz JP: [Practical use of o,p'DDD in adrenocortical carcinoma]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Mar;92(3):273-9
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) is a rare tumor of poor prognosis.
  • Five patients (four with AC and one with a metastatic Leydig cell tumor of the testis) were treated by Lysodren.

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  • (PMID = 15820922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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38. Treiyer A, Blanc G, Stark E, Haben B, Treiyer E, Steffens J: Prepubertal testicular tumors: frequently overlooked. J Pediatr Urol; 2007 Dec;3(6):480-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prepubertal testicular tumors: frequently overlooked.
  • OBJECTIVE: Prepubertal testicular tumors are fundamentally distinct from their adult counterparts.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all testicular tumors diagnosed between 1996 and 2006 in males younger than 14 years.
  • RESULTS: Of 15 primary testicular tumors, eight (53%) were germ-cell tumors (three teratomas, two yolk sac tumors, one seminoma, one embryonic carcinoma and one choriocarcinoma), four (27%) tumor-like lesions (epidermoid cysts), two (13%) gonadal stromal tumors (a Leydig and a Sertoli cell tumor), and one (7%) gonadoblastoma with gonadal dysgenesis.
  • All boys were presented with a painless scrotal mass and four (27%) of them with elevated tumor markers.
  • At a mean 4-year follow-up no patient has presented with recurrent tumor in the residual or contralateral testicle.
  • Postoperative physical examination and scrotal ultrasound were obtained in 14 patients at a median follow-up of 48.2 months, and there was no evidence of tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign teratoma and epidermoid cysts were the most common prepubertal testicular tumors.
  • Any suspicion of a testicular tumor warrants an inguinal approach to prevent scrotal violation of the tumor.
  • Our limited experience with testis-sparing procedures supports the current trends that organ-confined surgery should be performed for benign lesions such as teratoma, Leydig cell tumor and epidermoid cysts based on frozen biopsy findings.

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  • (PMID = 18947799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. Huang P, Duda DG, Jain RK, Fukumura D: Histopathologic findings and establishment of novel tumor lines from spontaneous tumors in FVB/N mice. Comp Med; 2008 Jun;58(3):253-63
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  • [Title] Histopathologic findings and establishment of novel tumor lines from spontaneous tumors in FVB/N mice.
  • However, little is known about the incidence and characteristics of spontaneous tumors in these mice.
  • In addition, only a few tumor lines have been established for use in this particular mouse strain.
  • Our aim was to initiate a database of spontaneous tumors in our retired FVB/N breeders, analyze the histopathologic characteristics of these tumors, and establish novel tumor lines in vivo and in vitro.
  • The incidence of spontaneous tumors was 45.0% in male mice and 52.8% in female mice.
  • All tumors in male mice were lung alveolar-bronchiolar (AB) neoplasms, except for 1 testis interstitial cell tumor.
  • In female mice, histopathologic examination revealed 48 lung AB tumors, 27 mammary gland tumors, 13 ovarian tumors, and 14 other tumors.
  • Several of these spontaneous tumors have been transplanted into FVB/N mice.
  • Subsequently, we established cell lines from both tumors, which were maintained in monolayer in vitro.
  • Both of the grafted tumors and cell lines are tumorigenic in VEGF(P)-GFP/FVB and Tie2(P)-GFP/FVB mice.
  • Establishment of these novel tumor lines will benefit both in vivo and in vitro studies on the pathophysiology of cancer in this relatively new but widely used mouse strain.

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  • (PMID = 18589867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0820
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115767-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085140; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA115767; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA080124; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA85140; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115767; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096915; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085140-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA080124-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS108990; NLM/ PMC2693079
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40. Schubert S, Kamino K, Böhm D, Adham I, Engel W, von Wasielewski R, Moharregh-Khiabani D, Mauceri G, Vaske B, Meinhardt A, Schöner A, Gonzalez-Fassrainer D, Schmidtke J: TSPY expression is variably altered in transgenic mice with testicular feminization. Biol Reprod; 2008 Jul;79(1):125-33
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  • No tumors of germ cell origin were found in the testes of TSPY-Ar(Tfm) mice.
  • Five out of 46 TSPY transgenic Ar(Tfm) mice, and 3 out of 31 age-related NMRI-Ar(Tfm) controls developed Leydig cell tumors, whereas none of the age-matched Ar(Tfm) mice (n=44) on a wild type background were affected by Leydig cell tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Feminization / genetics


41. Lee G, Lee JH, Lee WA: F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of a Leydig cell tumor. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Mar;35(3):202-4
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  • [Title] F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of a Leydig cell tumor.
  • We report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a patient with a testicular Leydig cell tumor.
  • The tumor was pathologically confirmed as a Leydig cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Leydig Cell Tumor / radiography. Leydig Cell Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / radiography. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20173460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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42. Bry-Gauillard H, Meduri G, Abirached F, Constancis E, Brailly S, Chanson P, Young J: Primary amenorrhea revealing an occult progesterone-secreting ovarian tumor. Fertil Steril; 2008 Oct;90(4):1198.e1-5
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  • [Title] Primary amenorrhea revealing an occult progesterone-secreting ovarian tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with primary amenorrhea revealing an occult progesterone-secreting ovarian tumor.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Discovery of an occult progesterone-secreting ovarian tumor.
  • After long-term follow-up, a right ovarian tumor became apparent and was surgically removed.
  • Pathologic and immunohistochemical analysis showed a Leydig cell tumor expressing cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage and 3ss-hydroxysteroïd dehydrogenase enzymes, which are involved in progesterone biosynthesis, whereas P45017alpha-hydroxylase was not expressed, explaining the absence of hyperandrogenemia.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first case of isolated progesterone secretion by an occult ovarian Leydig cell tumor and a novel etiology of primary amenorrhea.

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  • (PMID = 18304537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
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43. Stecher CW, Grønbaek K, Hasle H: A novel splice mutation in the TP53 gene associated with Leydig cell tumor and primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):701-3
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  • [Title] A novel splice mutation in the TP53 gene associated with Leydig cell tumor and primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • A 20-month-old boy presented with precocious puberty due to a Leydig cell tumor, and at the age of 6 years with a primitive neuroectodermal brain-tumor (PNET).
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, p53. Leydig Cell Tumor / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. RNA Splice Sites / genetics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17066464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA Splice Sites
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44. Loyd E, Boorjian S: A painless testicular mass in a 50-year-old man. Leydig cell tumor of the testis, microcystic variant. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Mar;130(3):e39-40
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  • [Title] A painless testicular mass in a 50-year-old man. Leydig cell tumor of the testis, microcystic variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Humans. Inhibins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16519584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vimentin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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45. Iwamoto I, Yanazume S, Fujino T, Yoshioka T, Douchi T: Leydig cell tumor in an elderly patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):870-2
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor in an elderly patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  • Testicular tumors often develop in patients with AIS, Sertoli cell tumor and seminoma being the most common types.
  • Leydig cell tumor in AIS is extremely rare.
  • CASE: A large abdominal tumor developed in a 73-year-old female patient.
  • The patient underwent the extirpation of bilateral gonads including the tumor, pelvic lymph nodes, omentum and appendix vermiformis.
  • The pathological diagnosis was malignant Leydig cell tumor of the left testis.
  • CONCLUSION: We reported an extremely rare case of malignant Leydig cell tumor developing in an elderly AIS patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications


46. Masserdotti C, Bonfanti U, De Lorenzi D, Tranquillo M, Zanetti O: Cytologic features of testicular tumours in dog. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med; 2005 Sep;52(7):339-46
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  • [Title] Cytologic features of testicular tumours in dog.
  • In this paper, we report on our experience of cytology of fine needle biopsies performed on 92 dogs with testicular tumours during the period from 1998 to 2002.
  • Cytological diagnosis was consistent with seminoma in 20 cases, sertolioma in 16 cases, Leydig cell tumours in 50 cases and mastocytoma in one case.
  • Cytology provided a sensitivity of 95% for seminoma, 88% for sertolioma and 96% for Leydig cell tumours.
  • The specificity was 100% for all three tumour types.
  • In our experience cytology of fine needle aspirations of testicular tumours is a very reliable technique.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Italy / epidemiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Leydig Cell Tumor / veterinary. Male. Mastocytoma / pathology. Mastocytoma / veterinary. Predictive Value of Tests. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / veterinary. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16109100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-184X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Virk R, Lu D: Mucinous adenocarcinoma as heterologous element in intermediately differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jul 15;206(7):489-92
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  • [Title] Mucinous adenocarcinoma as heterologous element in intermediately differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (SLCT) is a rare tumor involving the ovary.
  • SLCT with benign and borderline mucinous neoplasm has been reported in the literature.
  • Herein, we describe a rare case of intermediately differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with mucinous adenocarcinoma as the heterologous element in a 21-year-old woman.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was composed of intermediately differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Interestingly, the bulk of the tumor (more than 90%) was composed of mucinous adenocarcinoma, whereas the SLCT component comprised less than 10% of the total tumor.
  • This case was a diagnostic challenge as more than 90% of the tumor was composed of mucinous adenocarcinoma and SLCT constituted only the minor part of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
  • (PMID = 19674851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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48. Sengupta S, Chatterjee U, Sarkar K, Chatterjee S, Kundu A: Leydig cell tumor: a report of two cases with unusual presentation. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):796-8
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor: a report of two cases with unusual presentation.
  • Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are rare testicular tumors.
  • They constitute 1-3% of all testicular tumors.
  • We report two cases of LCT, one benign and the other one malignant, representing both ends of the spectrum.
  • The case of benign LCT presented with infertility and was found to have azoospermia, and subsequently underwent orchidectomy.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed the presence of a benign LCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21045421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vimentin
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49. Goji K, Teraoka Y, Hosokawa Y, Okuno M, Ozaki K, Yoshida M, Matsuo M: Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty associated with a somatic activating mutation of the LH receptor gene: detection of a mutation present in only a small fraction of cells from testicular tissue using wild-type blocking polymerase chain reaction and laser-capture microdissection. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):397-401
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  • OBJECTIVE: Leydig cells are the principal source of testosterone, and boys with Leydig cell tumors typically have signs of gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty as a result of testosterone secretion by the tumor.
  • A single somatic activating mutation of the LH receptor gene, Asp578His, limited to the tumoral Leydig cells, has been described in a few boys with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty.
  • We report a molecular study of a boy with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty caused by a Leydig cell tumor.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: One patient with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty caused by a Leydig cell tumor underwent a left orchidectomy.
  • We performed a genetic study of the tumoral Leydig cells.
  • RESULT: Using wild-type blocking PCR (WTB-PCR) and laser-capture microdissection (LCM), we found that the Asp578His mutation of the LH receptor gene was exclusively localized to the tumoral Leydig cells and was absent in the adjacent normal tissue and leukocytes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Cell Separation. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Humans. Lasers. Male. Models, Biological. Mutation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19280371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Receptors, LH
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50. Ashley RA, McGee SM, Isotaolo PA, Kramer SA, Cheville JC: Clinical and pathological features associated with the testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome. J Urol; 2007 Feb;177(2):546-9; discussion 549
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  • [Title] Clinical and pathological features associated with the testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome.
  • PURPOSE: Testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome is a rare clinical entity found in young men with endocrine disorders.
  • Histologically it resembles Leydig cell tumor.
  • We 1) reviewed the clinical features of testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome and 2) determined if special histopathological features of the tumor and synaptophysin reactivity could distinguish testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome from Leydig cell tumor.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical and pathological records for all patients with testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome seen at our institution from 1978 to 2004.
  • These tumors were examined by histological and immunophenotypic methods for comparison to Leydig cell tumor.
  • RESULTS: A total of 14 males with an endocrine disorder had pathological evidence of testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome.
  • These tumors were often bilateral (93% or 13 of 14 cases), associated with pain (92% or 12 of 13) and refractory to medical management with high dose exogenous steroids (93% or 13 of 14).
  • Testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome was managed by tumor enucleation in 7 patients (54%) and by radical orchiectomy in 6 (46%).
  • Upon histological review features found to be more common to testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome compared with Leydig cell tumor were nuclear pleiomorphism, low mitotic activity, extensive fibrosis, lymphoid aggregates, adipose metaplasia and prominent lipochrome pigment.
  • Synaptophysin (ICN, Costa Mesa, California) reactivity was strong in testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome but rarely observed in Leydig cell tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our series medical treatment failed in patients with testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome and conservative surgical therapy was possible in select individuals.
  • We identified special histopathological and immunophenotypic features, including synaptophysin staining, which distinguish testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome from Leydig cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenogenital Syndrome / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17222630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Ellenberger C, Bartmann CP, Hoppen HO, Kratzsch J, Aupperle H, Klug E, Schoon D, Schoon HA: Histomorphological and immunohistochemical characterization of equine granulosa cell tumours. J Comp Pathol; 2007 Feb-Apr;136(2-3):167-76
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  • [Title] Histomorphological and immunohistochemical characterization of equine granulosa cell tumours.
  • Benign (n=33) and malignant metastasizing (n=1) granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) from 34 mares aged 3-21 years, and normal (control) ovaries from nine mares aged 3-10 years, were examined histologically and immunohistochemically (for inhibin alpha, glutathione S-transferase alpha [GSTalpha], c-erbB-2 oncoprotein [cerb], cytokeratin, vimentin, desmin and alpha-actin), the results being related where appropriate to clinical signs and endocrinological data.
  • The metastasizing GCT differed immunohistochemically from the benign GCTs in respect of the expression patterns of vimentin, cerb and GSTalpha in the granulosa cells.
  • A notable feature was the presence of Leydig-like cells in mares with stallion-like behaviour or elevated serum testosterone, or both.
  • GSTalpha immunolabelling indicated that the Leydig-like cells were potential producers of steroid hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Granulosa Cell Tumor / veterinary. Horse Diseases / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques / veterinary. Ovarian Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17416235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9975
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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52. Czernobilsky B: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):229-35
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update.
  • Tumors of the uterus resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were reported by Clement and Scully in 1976 and were divided in 2 groups: group 1, endometrial stromal tumors, and group 2, mural uterine tumors-both with elements resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.
  • In the former, the sex cord component constitutes a minor portion of an endometrial stromal neoplasm, whereas in the latter, it is the predominant or exclusive component of a uterine wall lesion composed of a variety of mesenchymal elements.
  • An origin from endometrial stromal cells, adenomyosis, stromal myosis, endometriosis, or multipotential cells within the myometrium was postulated in both groups of tumors.
  • In group 1 tumors, the prognosis depends on the type, grade, and stage of the underlying stromal neoplasm.
  • Group 2 tumors seemed to be benign, although because of the occasional recurrence of these tumors, they should be considered of low-grade malignant potential.
  • In recent years, the histological features in group 2 were found to be much more varied than those in group 1 and consisted among others of retiform areas, glomeruloid structures, and Leydig-like cells.
  • In group 1 tumors, the sex cord elements remained limited to cords, trabeculae, nests, and tubules.
  • Eventually, the abbreviation ESTSCLE, or endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, was given to group 1 tumors, whereas UTROSCT, or uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor, was used for group 2 tumors.
  • Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, on the other hand, usually express only 1 sex cord marker, mostly calretinin.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18317219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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53. Butros LJ, Phillip S, Chou A, Meyers PA, Huvos AG, Healey JH, Russo P, Gorlick RG: Leydig cell tumor after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Dec;49(7):1008-10
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma.
  • Leydig cell tumors account for 3% of testicular tumors and have never been reported after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma.
  • We report the unusual occurrence of a patient who developed a Leydig cell tumor of the testis 18 years after successful treatment for Ewing's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 16526050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Carmignani L, Gadda F, Gazzano G, Ragni G, Paffoni A, Rocco F, Colpi GM: Testicular sperm extraction in cancerous testicle in patients with azoospermia: a case report. Hum Reprod; 2007 Apr;22(4):1068-72
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  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in a cancerous testicle during orchiectomy for testicular neoplasm.
  • In two patients, a Leydig cell tumour was found (one patient underwent orchiectomy for large nodule size).


55. Cánovas Ivorra JA, Castillo Gimeno JM, Michelena Barcena J, Alberto Ramírez D, Vera Román J: [Leydig cell tumor. Case report and review of the literature]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Apr;59(3):293-6
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  • [Title] [Leydig cell tumor. Case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células de Leydig. A propósito de un nuevo caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a new case of the rare Leydig cell tumor, and to perform bibliographic review.
  • METHODS: We report the case of a 38-year-old male with the clinical and ultrasound diagnosis of testicular tumor, and normal hormonal and extension studies.
  • He underwent inguinal radical orchyectomy and the pathology report of the specimen showed a Leydig cell tumor.
  • RESULTS: The patient does not show evidence of recurrence after chest x-rays, abdominal-pelvic CT scan, ultrasound of the contralateral testis, and tumor markers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We recommend a long-term follow-up with contralateral testicle ultrasound, CT scan, chest x-ray, and tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16724717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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56. Liang JJ, Wang Z, Chiriboga L, Greco MA, Shapiro E, Huang H, Yang XJ, Huang J, Peng Y, Melamed J, Garabedian MJ, Lee P: The expression and function of androgen receptor coactivator p44 and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in the developing testis and testicular tumors. J Urol; 2007 May;177(5):1918-22
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  • [Title] The expression and function of androgen receptor coactivator p44 and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in the developing testis and testicular tumors.
  • We studied the expression of p44 and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in developing fetal testis and adult testicular tumors, including seminomas and Leydig cell tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 human fetal testes from abortuses at a gestational age of 10 to 40 weeks, 33 human seminomas and 11 human Leydig cell tumors were retrieved from the archives of the departments of pathology.
  • RESULTS: Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 and p44 were expressed predominantly as nuclear proteins in fetal Leydig cells and human adult nonneoplastic testes, including germ cells and Leydig cells, while they were expressed in the cytoplasm of germ cells of the fetal testis.
  • Compared to adult nonneoplastic testes, human seminoma and Leydig tumor cells showed a marked decrease in nuclear expression of p44 and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 with a concomitant marked increase in cytoplasmic expression of these proteins.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest distinct functions of the nuclear and the p44/protein arginine methyltransferase 5 complexes in the developing fetal testis and in the oncogenesis of testicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Blotting, Northern. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases. Seminoma / metabolism. Seminoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17437848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / p44 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / PRMT5 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / Protein Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.- / Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases
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57. Inaba H, Suzuki S, Shigematsu S, Shinomiya K, Ohfusa H, Shimojo Y, Uehara T, Hashizume K: Leydig cell tumor and malignant lymphoma in a patient with nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Intern Med; 2009;48(8):601-5
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor and malignant lymphoma in a patient with nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Five years earlier, he underwent simultaneous surgeries for an adrenal adenoma, a benign Leydig cell tumor (LCT), and a malignant lymphoma.
  • On immunohistochemistry analysis using the antibody against adrenal-specific 11beta-hydroxylase antibody, the LCT showed both properties as a testicular cell and as an adrenal cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / etiology. Lymphoma / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Hypoglycemia / diagnosis. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged


58. López PJ, Cadena Y, Paulos A, Angel L, Zubieta R: Unusual presentation of a Leydig Cell Tumor. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 May;63(4):303-5
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of a Leydig Cell Tumor.
  • SUMMARY: Leydig Cell Tumors (LCT) in children are very rare, with an incidence of 1-3% for all testicular tumors in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20511687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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59. Cecchetto G, Alaggio R, Bisogno G, Virgone C, Dall'Igna P, Terenziani M, Boldrini R, D'Onofrio V, Ferrari A, Bernini G: Sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis in children. A clinicopathologic report from the Italian TREP project. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Sep;45(9):1868-73
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  • [Title] Sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis in children. A clinicopathologic report from the Italian TREP project.
  • PURPOSE: Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs) are very rare in children and include a variety of neoplasms with different clinical features and biologic behavior.
  • Aim of the study was to report the clinical findings and results observed in a series of patients with testicular SCST, registered in a multi-institutional Italian network on rare tumors in children and adolescents.
  • All patients underwent primary removal of the tumor; orchiectomy with high ligation of spermatic cord was performed in 7 and tumor enucleation in 4.
  • At histology, 4 patients had Leydig cell tumors, 4 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 1 Sertoli cell tumor, 1 incompletely differentiated SCST, and 1 SCST with an intermediate pattern Sertoli cell tumor/mixed form.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20850634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. McLachlan RI, de Kretser DM: Hypogonadotropism with elevated serum testosterone: reversible causes of secondary infertility. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2006 Oct;3(10):560-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, semen-volume and sperm-density assessment, laboratory tests for serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, karyotyping, testicular ultrasound, pelvic and abdominal CT, assessment for serum testicular tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin), and histologic examination of testicular tissue.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Benign Leydig-cell adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17031381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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61. Connolly SS, D'Arcy FT, Bredin HC, Callaghan J, Corcoran MO: Value of frozen section analysis with suspected testicular malignancy. Urology; 2006 Jan;67(1):162-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether frozen section analysis (FSA) assists safe conservative surgery for men presenting with suspected testicular tumors.
  • The exclusion criteria included lesions of paratesticular origin, size greater than 5 cm, and the known presence of elevated tumor markers or metastatic disease.
  • RESULTS: Eighty men underwent FSA, facilitating the diagnosis of germ cell malignancy in 51 (54.3%) of the 94 new cases encountered during this period.
  • Malignancy was reported by FSA in 52 patients (65.0%), but was later revised in 3 to benign Leydig cell tumor after orchiectomy.
  • Also, 2 of 27 specimens reported as benign by FSA were revised to malignant after analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue from the biopsies.
  • FSA was reported as "suspicious" (intratubular germ cell neoplasia with necrosis) in 1 patient, in whom orchiectomy was performed and malignancy confirmed.
  • Of 13 lesions 1 cm or less, 10 (76.9%) were benign.

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  • (PMID = 16413354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Beck B: Letter to the editor: effects of MTBE on Leydig cell tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats: range of possible poly-3 results. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;50(3):430
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  • [Title] Letter to the editor: effects of MTBE on Leydig cell tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats: range of possible poly-3 results.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogenicity Tests. Leydig Cell Tumor / chemically induced. Leydig Cell Tumor / epidemiology. Male. Models, Statistical. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Testicular Neoplasms / chemically induced. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18423267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0273-2300
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Methyl Ethers; 29I4YB3S89 / methyl tert-butyl ether
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63. Vissiennon T, Schmidt T, Schneider E, Hildebrand M: Sertoli Leydig cell tumour in a bitch, 10 years after spaying. A case report. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere; 2010;38(6):399-402
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  • [Title] Sertoli Leydig cell tumour in a bitch, 10 years after spaying. A case report.

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  • (PMID = 22212753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-1239
  • [Journal-full-title] Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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64. Gonzalez M, Merlani P, Egger JF, Pugin F, Morel P: Hemorrhagic shock caused by rupture of an intra-abdominal leydig cell tumour: case report. Case Rep Gastroenterol; 2007;1(1):53-8
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  • [Title] Hemorrhagic shock caused by rupture of an intra-abdominal leydig cell tumour: case report.
  • The rupture of an intra-abdominal testicular neoplasm is a rare cause of acute abdomen and massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage.
  • We report the case of a 70-year-old male presenting a massive intra-abdominal bleeding caused by a Leydig cell tumour in an undescended testis.
  • The clinical details and pathology of this rare testicular tumour are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 21487472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1662-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3073788
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cryptorchidism / Hemorrhagic shock / Leydig cell tumour
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65. Agrawal U, Sharma M, Bhatnagar D, Saxena S: Leydig cell tumor: an unusual presentation. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jul-Sep;52(3):395-6
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor: an unusual presentation.
  • Leydig cell tumor is a benign tumor of the testis and malignant transformation, if present, is rare.
  • The case could not be labeled as benign or malignant and patient is on follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19679972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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66. Carmignani L, Morabito A, Gadda F, Bozzini G, Rocco F, Colpi GM: Prognostic parameters in adult impalpable ultrasonographic lesions of the testicle. J Urol; 2005 Sep;174(3):1035-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a bibliographic search on PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE online databases from 1990 to May 2004 using search words such as sonographic lesions of the testicle, impalpable tumors of the testicle and impalpable testicular lesions.
  • Six articles were found that presented a description of the histological characteristics, patient age, lesion dimensions, presence of cryptorchidism and association with tumors in other parts of the body.
  • Histologically 15 of the lesions were Leydig cell tumors (31%), 12 (25%) seminomas, 7 (14.5%) nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, 2 (4.5%) Sertoli cell tumors, 12 (25%) benign forms (fibrosis, infarct, lipoma, mesothelial hyperplasia, adenomatoid tumor).
  • Dimension was particularly related to germ cell tumors (for dimensions between 16 and 32 mm relative risk ratio [RRR] = 13.97, p=0.0449).
  • Infertility proved significant in defining stromal tumors (RRR = 9,681, p=0.022) CONCLUSIONS: Although with the limits of a retrospective study consisting in an analysis of individual data, interesting correlations between malignant pathologies and the initial characteristics of impalpable sonographic lesions were revealed.
  • In particular an interesting correlation was found between the dimensions of the lesion and the malignant pathology and between Leydig cell tumor and infertility.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infertility, Male / mortality. Infertility, Male / pathology. Infertility, Male / ultrasonography. Logistic Models. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / ultrasonography. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Statistics as Topic. Survival Rate. Task Performance and Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16094042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Irizarry-Rovira AR, Lennox AM, Ramos-Vara JA: Granular cell tumor in the testis of a rabbit: cytologic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic characterization. Vet Pathol; 2008 Jan;45(1):73-7
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumor in the testis of a rabbit: cytologic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic characterization.
  • Pathologic evaluation (exfoliative cytology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy) indicated that the tumor was an intratesticular granular cell tumor.
  • Granular cell tumor has not been described in rabbits before and has not been described in the testes of animals or postnatal humans.
  • Granular cell tumor should be included as a differential diagnosis of testicular tumors, particularly Leydig cell tumor, because of potential histologic similarities.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / veterinary. Rabbits. Testicular Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18192581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Naik R, Upadhyaya K, Pai MR, Baliga PB, Nayak SK: Fine needle aspiration of metastatic malignant Leydig cell tumor of testis: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jul;50(3):624-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of metastatic malignant Leydig cell tumor of testis: a case report.
  • The fine needle aspiration of the inguinal mass showed a highly cellular tumor composed of sheets and isolated, large round to polygonal cells with moderate pleomorphism.
  • A provisional diagnosis of metastasis probably of testicular tumour was made.
  • The orchidectomy showed a brown tumor replacing the entire testis and infiltrating the epididymis.
  • The histological features showed Leydig cell tumor without Reinke crystalloids.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17883165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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69. Heer R, Jackson MJ, El-Sherif A, Thomas DJ: Twenty-nine Leydig cell tumors: histological features, outcomes and implications for management. Int J Urol; 2010 Oct;17(10):886-9
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  • [Title] Twenty-nine Leydig cell tumors: histological features, outcomes and implications for management.
  • Leydig cell tumors are the most common interstitial neoplasm of the testes.
  • Between June 1998 and March 2009, 29 patients underwent surgery for Leydig cell tumor of the testis in our cancer network.
  • Our data suggest that, in the absence of high-risk histopathological features, this tumor can be safely regarded as benign, pending a longer-term follow-up evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20812939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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70. Biancani B, Lacave G, Magi GE, Rossi G: Ovarian interstitial cell tumor in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). J Wildl Dis; 2010 Jul;46(3):1012-6
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  • [Title] Ovarian interstitial cell tumor in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).
  • A case of an ovarian tumor is reported in an 8-yr-old South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) kept in a marine park in Malta (35.57 degrees N, 14.25 degrees E).
  • The neoplasm was a solid mass of dense sheets and nests of round to polyhedral, irregularly shaped cells with abundant, finely vacuolated cytoplasm.
  • The tumor cells were positive for positive inhibin and vimentin and focally positive for cytokeratin by immunohistochemistry.
  • The neoplasm was diagnosed as an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, specifically an interstitial cell tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20688715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-3700
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wildlife diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Wildl. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Zafrakas M, Venizelos ID, Theodoridis TD, Zepiridis L, Agorastos T, Bontis JN: Virilizing ovarian hilus (Leydig) cell tumor with concurrent contralateral hilus cell hyperplasia: a rare diagnosis. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(3):338-40
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  • [Title] Virilizing ovarian hilus (Leydig) cell tumor with concurrent contralateral hilus cell hyperplasia: a rare diagnosis.
  • Ovarian hilus or Leydig cell tumor and ovarian hilus cell hyperplasia are rare clinical entities, causing virilization in both pre- and postmenopausal women.
  • We report herein an extremely rare case of ovarian hilus or Leydig cell tumor, presenting concurrently with contralateral ovarian hilus cell hyperplasia in a postmenopausal woman with virilization.
  • Ovarian hilus cell tumors and hilus hyperplasia almost always have benign biological behavior, thus making bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy an appropriate and sufficient therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19697637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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72. Kline RC, Bazzett-Matabele LB: Adnexal masses and malignancies of importance to the colorectal surgeon. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2010 Jun;23(2):63-71
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  • In this article, the authors review both benign and malignant ovarian masses, as the colorectal surgeon who encounters an adnexal mass at the time of surgery should be aware of the steps necessary for surgical staging and optimal tumor resection.Ovarian tumors-most of which are benign-are divided into three major categories, in order of frequency: epithelial, germ cell, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Nonneoplastic conditions of the ovary that may present as adnexal masses include the following, according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification: pregnancy luteoma, hyperplasia of ovarian stroma, hyperthecosis, massive edema, solitary follicle cysts and corpus luteal cysts, multiple follicle cysts, and endometriosis.Epithelial ovarian tumors arise from the surface epithelium and can be benign or malignant.
  • Histologic types are serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, or Brenner.
  • Germ cell tumors are more likely to appear in females under 20 years, accounting for 70% of ovarian tumors in this age group.
  • Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors.
  • Malignancies, in addition to malignant teratomas, include dysgerminomas, endodermal sinus tumors, and embryonal carcinomas.
  • The more common sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa stromal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and gynandroblastomas.Surgical staging and optimal tumor resection are also addressed, with a focus on epithelial malignancies, as they are the most relevant to colorectal surgeons.

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  • [Cites] Gynecol Oncol. 2001 Apr;81(1):77-81 [11277654.001]
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  • (PMID = 21629623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967325
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adnexal masses / ovarian cancer / ovarian cysts
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73. Miller MA, Hartnett SE, Ramos-Vara JA: Interstitial cell tumor and Sertoli cell tumor in the testis of a cat. Vet Pathol; 2007 May;44(3):394-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interstitial cell tumor and Sertoli cell tumor in the testis of a cat.
  • Testicular tumors are rarely reported in cats.
  • We describe a case of interstitial cell tumor and Sertoli cell tumor in a cat that developed aggressive behavior and inappropriate urination 7 years after it was obtained from a shelter as an allegedly castrated 2 year old.
  • Testes were not palpable, but the left testis was found in the scrotum by surgical exploration and was mostly replaced by the 2 tumors.
  • The interstitial cell tumor, but not the Sertoli cell tumor, was immunohistochemically positive for Melan-A, consistent with steroid production.
  • Neither tumor had metastasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / pathology. Leydig Cell Tumor / veterinary. Sertoli Cell Tumor / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17491086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Mirzaei MR, Rezvanian H, Siavash M, Parham M, Mahzouni P: A patient with refractory testicular adrenal rest tumour in the setting of cyp11b1 deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] A patient with refractory testicular adrenal rest tumour in the setting of cyp11b1 deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Testicular adrenal rest tumour (TART) due to CYP11B1 deficiency is a very rare clinical finding.
  • The most important differential diagnosis of his latter presentation is Leydig cell tumour (LCT).
  • Conversely, high titres of tumour markers and presence of Reinke crystalloids are supportive of a diagnosis of LCT.

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  • (PMID = 21686875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3028312
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75. Shirley S, Devi VS, Krishnamurthy R, Nabhi MV, Majhi U, Selvaluxmy G: Endometrial adenocarcinoma involving both horns of a bicornuate uterus. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Jul-Sep;6(3):304-6
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  • Incidentally, the left ovary revealed a well differentiated sertoli leydig cell tumor.
  • Its simultaneous occurrence with an ovarian sertoli leydig cell tumor has not been reported in English literature so far.

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  • (PMID = 21119258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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76. Sirianni R, Chimento A, Malivindi R, Mazzitelli I, Andò S, Pezzi V: Insulin-like growth factor-I, regulating aromatase expression through steroidogenic factor 1, supports estrogen-dependent tumor Leydig cell proliferation. Cancer Res; 2007 Sep 1;67(17):8368-77
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor-I, regulating aromatase expression through steroidogenic factor 1, supports estrogen-dependent tumor Leydig cell proliferation.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the role of estrogens in Leydig cell tumor proliferation.
  • We used R2C rat Leydig tumor cells and testicular samples from Fischer rats with a developed Leydig tumor.
  • Treatment with exogenous 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) induced proliferation of R2C cells and up-regulation of cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and cyclin E, the expression of which was blocked by addition of antiestrogens.
  • These observations led us to hypothesize an E(2)/ERalpha-dependent mechanism for Leydig cell tumor proliferation.
  • In determining the molecular mechanism responsible for aromatase overexpression, we found that total and phosphorylated levels of transcription factors cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) were higher in tumor samples.
  • Moreover, we found that tumor Leydig cells produce high levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which increased aromatase mRNA, protein, and activity as a consequence of increased total and phosphorylated SF-1 levels.
  • The same inhibitors also inhibited aromatase expression and activity and, consequently, R2C cell proliferation.
  • We can conclude that one of the molecular mechanisms determining Leydig cell tumorigenesis is an excessive estrogen production that stimulates a short autocrine loop determining cell proliferation.
  • In addition, cell-produced IGF-I amplifies estrogen signaling through an SF-1-dependent up-regulation of aromatase expression.
  • The identification of this molecular mechanism will be helpful in defining new therapeutic approaches for Leydig cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / genetics. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Estrogens / pharmacology. Homeodomain Proteins / physiology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / physiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17804753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, rat; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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77. Marcelino M, Nobre E, Conceição J, Lopes L, Vilar H, França Martins M, Carvalho A, André S, Horta A, De Castro JJ: [A rare case of hyperandrogenism: bilateral Leydig cell tumor of the ovary]. Acta Med Port; 2010 Jan-Feb;23(1):113-8
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  • [Title] [A rare case of hyperandrogenism: bilateral Leydig cell tumor of the ovary].
  • [Transliterated title] Um caso raro de hiperandrogenismo tumor ovárico bilateral de células de Leydig.
  • BACKGROUND: The androgen-secreting tumors constitute fewer than 1% of ovarian tumors.
  • Leydig cell tumor is one of the most common of this type of lesion and it is usually benign, small and unilateral.
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography and abdomen-pelvic CT scan didn't show any signs of adrenal or ovarian tumors.
  • Bilateral oophorectomy was performed and histopathologic exam revealed bilateral Leydig cell tumors, measuring 1cm each.
  • DISCUSSION: Androgen-secreting tumors are rare, but they should be excluded in cases of rapid onset of virilization and elevated androgen levels.
  • Tumors are frequently undetectable by imaging techniques because of their small dimensions, exploratory surgery by a skilled team is frequently necessary and is often the best treatment for the majority of these cases.
  • In this case report we present a rare case of bilateral Leydig cell tumor.
  • Only five cases have been reported in the literature.The clinical history and the elevated levels of testosterone had suggested the presence of an androgen-producing tumor, despite the difficulty of the diagnosis on imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Hirsutism / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20353714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1646-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta médica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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78. Okada K, Furuuchi T, Tamada T, Sasaki T, Suwa T, Shatari T, Takenaka Y, Hori M, Sakuma M: Pancreatobiliary fistula associated with an intraductal papillary-mucinous pancreatic neoplasm manifesting as obstructive jaundice: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(4):371-6
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  • [Title] Pancreatobiliary fistula associated with an intraductal papillary-mucinous pancreatic neoplasm manifesting as obstructive jaundice: report of a case.
  • We report a pancreatobiliary fistula caused by an intraductal papillary-mucinous pancreatic neoplasm (IPMN), manifesting as obstructive jaundice.
  • We performed pancreaticoduodenectomy for IPMN of the pancreatic head and a tumor-like lesion in the lower common bile duct (CBD).
  • Histologic examination revealed a pancreatobiliary fistula caused by intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas with mucin hypersecretion, an adenoma without interstitial infiltration, and isolated implantation of an IPMN in the bile duct mucosa around the fistula.

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  • (PMID = 18368332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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79. Tucker AR, Smith JR: Prostatic squamous metaplasia in a cat with interstitial cell neoplasia in a retained testis. Vet Pathol; 2008 Nov;45(6):905-9
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  • [Title] Prostatic squamous metaplasia in a cat with interstitial cell neoplasia in a retained testis.
  • Histopathologic diagnosis was retained testis with a well-differentiated interstitial cell tumor, a poorly differentiated interstitial cell tumor, and marked squamous metaplasia of the prostatic epithelium with suppurative prostatitis.
  • Neoplastic interstitial cells were immunoreactive for Melan A, consistent with reports of Melan A expression in steroid hormone-producing tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / pathology. Cryptorchidism / veterinary. Leydig Cell Tumor / veterinary. Prostate / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18984794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Ohnuma A, Yoshida T, Takahashi N, Akema S, Kumagai M, Chiba Y, Kashimoto Y, Kuwahara M, Nakashima N, Harada T: Malignant Leydig cell tumor with spindle-shaped cells in a male CD-1 mouse. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 May;72(5):661-4
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  • [Title] Malignant Leydig cell tumor with spindle-shaped cells in a male CD-1 mouse.
  • Leydig cell tumors with spindle-shaped cells are very rare in humans and animals.
  • We report that an 84-week-old male CD-1 mouse had a malignant Leydig cell tumor characterized by proliferation of oval to spindle-shaped cells with or without fat deposition, and with a storiform pattern.
  • These cells were immunopositive for inhibin and S-100, and negative for the androgen receptor, thereby suggesting that they may have differentiated from Leydig cells.
  • This differentiation from Leydig cells was further confirmed by the immunopositivity of these cells for nestin and alpha-smooth muscle actin, both of which are known to be expressed in the stem/progenitor cells that differentiate into Leydig cells.
  • These findings suggest that the tumor is most probably a malignant spindle-cell-type Leydig cell tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20075603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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81. Gozzi T, Flück ChE, Mullis PE: [Follow-up in a boy with Leydig cell tumor after selective surgery]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2006 Feb 22;95(8):277-82
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  • [Title] [Follow-up in a boy with Leydig cell tumor after selective surgery].
  • [Transliterated title] Leydig-Zell-Tumor: Klinische Uberlegungen bei verfrühter Pubertätsentwicklung.
  • After a detailed examination a Leydig cell tumour was diagnosed.
  • Surgical exploration revealed an encapsulated tumour, 2.7 cm in length, which was selectively removed without orchidectomy.
  • We report on a long-term follow-up of a prepubertal boy after testis-sparing surgery for Leydig-cell-tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16523992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones
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82. Cho WS, Han BS, Nam KT, Park K, Choi M, Kim SH, Jeong J, Jang DD: Carcinogenicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol; 2008 Sep;46(9):3172-7
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  • The incidences of renal tubule adenomas or carcinomas and Leydig cell tumors occurred with dose-related positive trends in male rats.
  • The incidences of renal tubule carcinomas and Leydig cell tumors were significantly increased in male rats given 400ppm 3-MCPD.
  • In conclusion, there was clear evidence of the carcinogenic activity of 3-MCPD in male SD rats, based on the increased incidences of renal tubule carcinomas and Leydig cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18680782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-6915
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 96-24-2 / alpha-Chlorohydrin; PDC6A3C0OX / Glycerol
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83. Miller JS, Lee TK, Epstein JI, Ulbright TM: The utility of microscopic findings and immunohistochemistry in the classification of necrotic testicular tumors: a study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1293-8
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  • [Title] The utility of microscopic findings and immunohistochemistry in the classification of necrotic testicular tumors: a study of 11 cases.
  • Necrotic testicular tumors are relatively frequent and can present a significant diagnostic challenge.
  • Eleven totally (n=9) or almost totally (n=2) necrotic testicular tumors were retrieved from our consult files.
  • The submitting pathologists favored benign processes in 4 cases, Leydig cell tumor in 1, and lymphoma in 1.
  • Mean tumor size was 19 mm (range 7-53).
  • The combination of histologic features, immunostains and, in 1 case, serum AFP permitted classification of 8 tumors (4 seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas, 1 yolk sac tumor).
  • OCT4 stained 1 unclassifiable tumor, which lacked other specific markers.
  • We did not find placental alkaline phosphatase, AFP, and S100 stains useful, although S100 did highlight tumor "ghost" cells in 1 case.
  • Other features in most cases included intratubular germ cell neoplasia (6/11), tubular atrophy/hyalinization (10/11), tumor "ghost" cells (10/11), scar (9/11), and inflammation (10/11).
  • Of the 5 patients with available follow-up, 3 were free of disease at 1, 5, and 8 years after orchiectomy (2 necrotic seminomas and 1 germ cell tumor, unclassified).
  • One patient with yolk sac tumor (age 63 y) developed widespread metastases after 15 months and died of disease.
  • Most totally necrotic testicular tumors can be placed into clinically important groups by assessment for coarse intratubular calcifications and staining reactions for keratin, OCT4, CD117, and CD30.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / classification. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / classification. Seminoma / classification. Testicular Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / analysis. Orchiectomy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19461507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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84. Papaioannou N, Psalla D, Zavlaris M, Loukopoulos P, Tziris N, Vlemmas I: Immunohistochemical expression of dog TERT in canine testicular tumours in relation to PCNA, ki67 and p53 expression. Vet Res Commun; 2009 Dec;33(8):905-19
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of dog TERT in canine testicular tumours in relation to PCNA, ki67 and p53 expression.
  • The objective of the study was to determine the immunohistochemical expression of canine TERT in canine testicular tumours comparing two different antibodies for TERT, and to correlate them with well established markers specific to dividing cells such as PCNA and ki67, and with expression of the p53 tumour suppressor gene.
  • The study included 36 cases of canine testicular tumours, which were categorized as 12 Sertoli Cell Tumours (SCT), 20 seminomas, 3 interstitial cell tumours and 1 mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumour (MT).
  • Immunodetection of RCK-hTERT was observed in 31% of tumours examined (6/20 Seminomas, 4/12 SCT, 1/3 interstitial cell tumour and 0/1 mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumour), while the NCL-hTERT in 67% of them (15/20 Seminomas, 6/12 SCT, 3/3 interstitial cell tumour and 0/1 ΜΤ).
  • Regarding ki67, 3 SCT, 12 seminomas and all interstitial cell tumours showed clear immunoreaction. p53 immunoreactivity was detected in 6 SCT, 15 seminomas and all interstitial cell tumours.
  • The immunohistochemical expression of both TERT antibodies are discussed and compared in order to clarify their potential usefulness in canine testicular malignancies in relation to the expression of well known cell cycle markers.
  • Instead of that ki67 and p53 could be used for predicting aggressiveness in this group of tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / veterinary. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Leydig Cell Tumor / veterinary. Male. Seminoma / metabolism. Seminoma / veterinary. Sertoli Cell Tumor / metabolism. Sertoli Cell Tumor / veterinary. Testis / metabolism. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19655265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7446
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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85. Colpi GM, Carmignani L, Nerva F, Guido P, Gadda F, Castiglioni F: Testicular-sparing microsurgery for suspected testicular masses. BJU Int; 2005 Jul;96(1):67-9
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  • Histology revealed one case each of seminoma, Leydig-cell tumour, Leydig cell hyperplasia, atrophy, normality in the incidental forms, and complicated cysts of the albuginea.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increasingly frequent detection of benign testicular lesions, particularly in infertile men, calls for a surgical approach that must be as conservative as possible for the testicular parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Male / surgery. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Seminoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Testis / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15963123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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86. Klotz RK, Müller-Holzner E, Fessler S, Reimer DU, Zervomanolakis I, Seeber B, Mattle V, Wildt L: Leydig-cell-tumor of the ovary that responded to GnRH-analogue administration - case report and review of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 May;118(5):291-7
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  • [Title] Leydig-cell-tumor of the ovary that responded to GnRH-analogue administration - case report and review of the literature.
  • Progressive hirsutism can be a symptom of an androgen-producing tumor, especially in postmenopausal women.
  • The histologic examination revealed a Leydig cell tumor in the hilus and stroma of the left ovary.
  • In this paper, polyglobulia, the metabolic and psychological changes due to hyperandrogenism are discussed, as well as the phenomenon that the tumor responded to a GnRH-analogue.
  • Such a response implies that the tumor is either under gonadotropin control or that GnRH analogues have direct effects via receptors on tumorous Leydig cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Leydig Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20198556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Luteolytic Agents; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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87. Soini Y, Talvensaari-Mattila A: Expression of claudins 1, 4, 5, and 7 in ovarian tumors of diverse types. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Oct;25(4):330-5
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  • [Title] Expression of claudins 1, 4, 5, and 7 in ovarian tumors of diverse types.
  • Strong expression of claudins 1, 4, and 7 was seen in benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • Expression of claudin 5, reported to be mainly present in endothelial cells, was seen in ovarian epithelial tumors, but with a significantly lower frequency than claudins 1, 4, and 7.
  • On the contrary, sex-cord stromal tumors and cysts, such as fibromas/thecomas, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, granulosa cell tumors, and follicular and luteinized cysts were mainly negative for claudins 1, 4, 5, and 7.
  • Interestingly, adenomatoid tumors did not express claudin 5, which is in agreement with their non-endothelial nature.
  • The results show that claudins 1, 4, and 7 are mainly expressed in ovarian epithelial tumors and can thus be used to indicate epithelial differentiation in them.
  • However, this claudin can be used to differentiate adenomatoid tumors from vascular lesions.
  • No significant difference was seen between epithelial benign and malignant lesions, except for claudin 5, which seemed stronger in malignant epithelial tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatoid Tumor / chemistry. Brenner Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma / chemistry. Claudin-1. Claudin-4. Claudin-5. Claudins. Dysgerminoma / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Krukenberg Tumor / chemistry. Ovarian Cysts. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / chemistry. Teratoma / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16990707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN5 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudin-5; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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88. Carvajal-Carmona LG, Alam NA, Pollard PJ, Jones AM, Barclay E, Wortham N, Pignatelli M, Freeman A, Pomplun S, Ellis I, Poulsom R, El-Bahrawy MA, Berney DM, Tomlinson IP: Adult leydig cell tumors of the testis caused by germline fumarate hydratase mutations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3071-5
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  • [Title] Adult leydig cell tumors of the testis caused by germline fumarate hydratase mutations.
  • CONTEXT: Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are the most common non-germ-cell neoplasms of the testis.
  • We identified an LCT in an affected individual from a kindred with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) and a germline fumarate hydratase (FH) mutation (N64T).
  • RESULTS: No mutations were found in GNAS, and one tumor had a LHCGR somatic substitution.
  • Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated activation of the hypoxia/angiogenesis pathway not only in the tumors belonging to the FH mutation carriers but also in several other mutation-negative LCTs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that some LCTs are caused by FH mutations and represents one of the first reports of germline mutations in any type of adult testicular tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Fumarate Hydratase / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation. Leydig Cell Tumor / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16757530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs; EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
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89. Nadeau C, Gibelin H, Breheret J, Fieuzal S, Lefort G, Kraimps JL: [Virilizing ovarian tumors in the menopausal patient]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Sep-Oct;145(5):493-5
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  • [Title] [Virilizing ovarian tumors in the menopausal patient].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs virilisantes de l'ovaire chez la femme ménopausée.
  • Virilizing ovarian tumors are rare and can occur at any age.
  • These tumors should be suspected in any patient with virilization and high testosterone levels (>1ng/mL).
  • Tumor localization is sometimes difficult.
  • These tumors are usually benign; surgical resection is the accepted treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Postmenopause. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19106875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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90. Sugimoto K, Matsumoto S, Nose K, Kurita T, Uemura H, Park YC, Hanai J: A malignant Leydig cell tumor of the testis. Int Urol Nephrol; 2006;38(2):291-2
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  • [Title] A malignant Leydig cell tumor of the testis.
  • Histologically, Reinke's crystals and capsular invasion by tumor cells were found.
  • Final diagnosis, the tumor was a malignant Leydig cell tumor of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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91. Zizi-Sermpetzoglou A, Petrakopoulou N, Tepelenis N, Savvaidou V, Manoloudaki K, Katsoulis M: Pure Sertoli cell tumor. a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(1):117-9
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  • [Title] Pure Sertoli cell tumor. a case report and review of the literature.
  • Pure Sertoli cell tumor (SCT) is a rare sex cord tumor and a subtype of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors according to the WHO Classification.
  • They lack a Leydig cell component and do not contain the immature neoplastic stroma found in the neoplasms of the Sertoli-Leydig cell category.
  • Sertoli cell tumors occur in women of reproductive age but a few can also occur in children.
  • The tumors are hormone functional in 40-60% of cases.
  • These histologic patterns may result in SCTs mimicking other ovarian tumors.
  • Most SCTs are Stage I, unilateral, cytologically bland, and clinically benign, but occasional examples are high stage.
  • About 11% of Stage I tumors have worrisome histologic features that may portend an adverse outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20349797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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92. Santoriello A, Benevento R, Petronella P, Perna G, Canonico S: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Leydig cell tumor of testis. Case report and review of literature. Ann Ital Chir; 2010 Nov-Dec;81(6):445-8
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  • [Title] Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Leydig cell tumor of testis. Case report and review of literature.
  • This report describes a case of a monorchid patient suffering from Adrenogenital Syndrome and Leydig cell tumor of his testis.
  • This nodule had morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of a Leydig cell tumor, even found in the spermatic cord; those cells showed positivity to inibine, MART-1 and vimentine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications


93. Hussein N, Casse H, Fontanière S, Morera AM, Asensio MJ, Bakeli S, Lu JL, Coste I, Di Clemente N, Bertolino P, Zhang CX: Reconstituted expression of menin in Men1-deficient mouse Leydig tumour cells induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Jan;43(2):402-14
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  • [Title] Reconstituted expression of menin in Men1-deficient mouse Leydig tumour cells induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
  • To date, the lack of MEN1-deficient cell lines derived directly from MEN1 tumours has hampered the detailed study of the MEN1 gene.
  • We have established several stable Men1-deficient Leydig cell tumour (LCT) lines derived from a Leydig cell tumour developed in a male heterozygous Men1 mutant mouse.
  • Our data show that these cell lines maintain the basic characteristics of Leydig cells in terms of both androgen synthesis and gene expression.
  • Interestingly, reconstituted menin expression in one of Men1-deficient LCT cell lines resulted in cell growth inhibition, suggesting that the function of cell growth suppression of the menin pathway, apart from menin itself, is essentially preserved in these cells.
  • Furthermore, we show that menin re-expression in these Men1-deficient cells leads to a block in the transition from G0/G1 to S phase of the cell cycle and an increase in apoptosis, accompanied by a marked increase of p18INK4C and p27Kip1 expression.
  • The current study therefore highlights the importance of menin expression in cell cycle and cell survival control in endocrine cells, and may provide insights into the mechanisms of tumour suppression by menin in related endocrine tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / genetics. Cell Cycle / genetics. Leydig Cell Tumor / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Male. Mice. Progesterone / metabolism


94. Tazi MF, Mellas S, El Fassi MJ, Farih MH: Leydig cell hyperplasia revealed by gynecomastia. Rev Urol; 2008;10(2):164-7
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  • [Title] Leydig cell hyperplasia revealed by gynecomastia.
  • Leydig cell tumors are rare and represent 1% to 3% of all tumors of the testis.
  • Leydig cell tumors affect males at any age, but there are 2 peak periods of incidence: between 5 and 10 years and between 25 and 35 years.
  • Their main clinical presentation is a testicular mass associated with endocrinal manifestations that are variable according to age and appearance of the tumor.
  • Hormonal levels and tumor markers were normal.
  • The anatomopathological study found a nodule of Leydig cell hyperplasia.
  • Leydig cell hyperplasia manifests in the adult by signs of hypogonadism, most frequently gynecomastia.
  • Although many teams prefer total orchidectomy because of the diagnostic difficulty associated with malignant forms, simple subcapsular orchidectomy should become the first-line treatment, provided it be subsequently followed by close surveillance, as it preserves maximum fertility, and these tumors usually resolve favorably.

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  • (PMID = 18660859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6161
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2483322
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Fertility / Gynecomastia / Leydig cell hyperplasia / Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors / Testicular tumor
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95. Jou P, Maclennan GT: Leydig cell tumor of the testis. J Urol; 2009 May;181(5):2299-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Puberty, Precocious / epidemiology. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 19303105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Goto HG, Nishizawa Y, Katayama H, Murashima T, Yamasaki M, Tanigaki Y, Kimura S, Fushiki S, Nishizawa Y: Induction of apoptosis in an estrogen-responsive mouse Leydig tumor cell by leukotriene. Oncol Rep; 2007 Jan;17(1):225-32
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  • [Title] Induction of apoptosis in an estrogen-responsive mouse Leydig tumor cell by leukotriene.
  • For estrogen-responsive B-1F cells, established from estrogen-responsive mouse Leydig cell tumor, it has been reported that the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolic pathway appears to be associated with cell growth.
  • The addition of 5-LOX inhibitor 2-(12-hydroxydodeca-5,10-diyl)-3,5,6-trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (AA861) to the medium resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cell yield as described previously.
  • When the growth of the palpable tumors was measured, AA861 had stimulated in vivo tumor growth in adult male mouse inoculated B-1F cells.
  • When LTD4 was added in the culture medium, the increasing concentrations of LTD4 resulted in a significant inhibition of cell yields of E2-treated B-1F cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Estradiol / pharmacology. Leukotriene D4 / pharmacology. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / biosynthesis. Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / genetics. Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / metabolism. Arachidonic Acid / antagonists & inhibitors. Arachidonic Acid / metabolism. Benzoquinones / pharmacology. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17143502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / Lipoxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 27YG812J1I / Arachidonic Acid; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 73836-78-9 / Leukotriene D4; 80809-81-0 / 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-(12-hydroxy-5,10-dodecadiynyl)-1,4-benzoquinone; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
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97. Di Tonno F, Tavolini IM, Belmonte P, Bertoldin R, Cossaro E, Curti P, D'Incà G, Fandella A, Guaitoli P, Guazzieri S, Mazzariol C, North-Eastern Uro-Oncological Group, Italy: Lessons from 52 patients with leydig cell tumor of the testis: the GUONE (North-Eastern Uro-Oncological Group, Italy) experience. Urol Int; 2009;82(2):152-7
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  • [Title] Lessons from 52 patients with leydig cell tumor of the testis: the GUONE (North-Eastern Uro-Oncological Group, Italy) experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: The goal of the study was to define treatment rules for the uncommon, rarely (10%) malignant and chemorefractory Leydig cell tumors (LCT) of the testis.
  • We considered 52 patients (54 tumors, 2 bilateral) whose ages ranged from 13 to 70 years (mean 36).
  • Of the treatments performed, 52 were orchiectomies and 2 were enucleations (unfavorable pathology in only 2 tumors).
  • There were 5 lymphadenectomies (retroperitoneal lymph node dissections): 2 for suspected stage II disease and 1 each for unfavorable pathology, bilateral disease and associated Sertoli tumor (pathology: pN0 in all cases).
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Humans. Italy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Patient Selection. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19322000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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98. Battaglia M, Ditonno P, Palazzo S, Bettocchi C, Selvaggio O, Garofalo L, Selvaggi FP: Bilateral tumors of the testis in 21-alpha hydroxylase deficiency without adrenal hyperplasia. Urol Oncol; 2005 May-Jun;23(3):178-80
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  • [Title] Bilateral tumors of the testis in 21-alpha hydroxylase deficiency without adrenal hyperplasia.
  • This mass mimicked a testicular tumor and made differential diagnosis with a Leydig cell tumor extremely difficult.
  • Differential diagnosis between testicular nodules in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Leydig cell tumors is a major clinical challenge.

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  • (PMID = 15907717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Canda AE, Atmaca AF, Ozdemir AT, Akbulut Z, Balbay MD: Testis sparing surgery for sequential bilateral testicular tumors. Can J Urol; 2009 Jun;16(3):4677-81
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  • [Title] Testis sparing surgery for sequential bilateral testicular tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present our experience in performing testis sparing surgery (TSS) to treat sequential bilateral testicular tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed TSS on two patients with bilateral sequential testicular tumors.
  • The patients were diagnosed with secondary testicular tumors in the contralateral testes on follow up.
  • Pathologic evaluation of the removed tumors revealed immature teratoma and Leydig cell tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19497179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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100. Colecchia M, Nistal M, Gonzalez-Peramato P, Carmignani L, Salvioni R, Nicolai N, Regadera J: Leydig cell tumor and hyperplasia: a review. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Jun;29(3):139-47
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor and hyperplasia: a review.
  • We describe the role of Leydig cells in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic testis.
  • Recent acquisitions on etiology and pathobiology of Leydig cell proliferations, unusual microscopic presentations and clinical and morphologic features predictive of malignancy are reported.

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  • (PMID = 17672373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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