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1. Boneti KK, Piñeiro-Maceira J, Pereira FB, Barcaui CB: Reed nevus (pigmented spindle-cell nevus): a report of three cases with distinct dermoscopic patterns. An Bras Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;85(4):531-6
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  • [Title] Reed nevus (pigmented spindle-cell nevus): a report of three cases with distinct dermoscopic patterns.
  • Reed nevus or pigmented spindle-cell nevus may mimic cutaneous melanoma; however, its dermoscopic and histopathological characteristics are different.
  • This case report describes three patients with distinct clinical, dermoscopic and histopathological presentations, which were correlated to enable a differential diagnosis to be made between melanoma and Spitz nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20944915.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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2. Polat M, Topcuoglu MA, Tahtaci Y, Hapa A, Yilmaz F: Spitz nevus of the genital mucosa. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2009 Mar-Apr;75(2):167-9
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  • [Title] Spitz nevus of the genital mucosa.
  • Dermatological examination of the patient was performed and a pigmented lesion was found on the inner surface of the labium majus of the mucosa.
  • The patient was diagnosed as Spitz nevus on the basis of clinical and histopathological findings.
  • Our case is probably the first reported case of Spitz nevus localized to the genital mucosa in the English literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19293505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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3. Stănescu L, Popescu CF, Georgescu I, Georgescu CV, Anghelina L, Petrescu I, Călin G: Spitz nevus with an uncertain malignant potential. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2009;50(2):275-82
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  • [Title] Spitz nevus with an uncertain malignant potential.
  • We present the case of 10-year-old girl who have had from birth a plane tumor, of tan color, 3-4 mm of diameter, localized on the face on the cutaneous part of the superior lip.
  • This tumor has been stabile until 8-year-old.
  • The histopathologic exam distinguished typical images of Spitz nevus on some of the histological sections but also of melanocytary tumor with uncertain malignant potential on the others where atypical mitoses localized in the deeper component of the tumor are being noticed.
  • However, cyclin D1 was positive in rare nevic cells, and the proliferation rate of the tumor was small, with a proliferation index for Ki67 lesser than 5%.
  • The correlation between histopathological and immunohistochemical data conducive to final diagnosis of Spitz nevus with uncertain malignant potential.
  • The clinical evolution confirmed the histopathological diagnosis by the fact that the patient did not presented clinical signs of local recurrences or metastasis at three years after the excision of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19434323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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4. Barnhill RL: The Spitzoid lesion: rethinking Spitz tumors, atypical variants, 'Spitzoid melanoma' and risk assessment. Mod Pathol; 2006 Feb;19 Suppl 2:S21-33
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  • [Title] The Spitzoid lesion: rethinking Spitz tumors, atypical variants, 'Spitzoid melanoma' and risk assessment.
  • Although much remains to be learned about Spitzoid lesions, there is increasing evidence that these tumors may be a type of melanocytic neoplasm distinct from conventional melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma.
  • Acknowledging the peculiar nature of Spitzoid lesions, the author prefers the term Spitz tumor rather than 'Spitz nevus' (except perhaps for the most typical lesions) and argues against using the term 'Spitzoid melanoma' until more information is available to justify such a term.
  • (1) Spitz tumor without significant abnormality, (2) Spitz tumor with one or more atypical features (atypical Spitz tumor), including those judged to have indeterminate biological potential, and (3) malignant melanoma, rather than the two categories of 'Spitz nevus' and melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Mutation. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Risk Assessment. S100 Proteins / analysis. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16446713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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5. Rütten A: [Spitz nevus vs 'spitzoid' malignant melanoma. A diagnostic dilemma?]. Pathologe; 2007 Nov;28(6):422-9
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  • [Title] [Spitz nevus vs 'spitzoid' malignant melanoma. A diagnostic dilemma?].
  • [Transliterated title] Nävus Spitz vs. "spitzoides" malignes Melanom. Ein diagnostisches Dilemma?
  • Data from the literature and histopathological findings in six personal cases are used to illustrate criteria that can be applied in differential diagnosis between a Spitz nevus and a spitzoid variant of malignant melanoma.
  • The diagnostic term 'atypical Spitz tumor' is explained; it is used to describe a morphological "grey zone" in which it is not possible to differentiate with adequate certainty between a Spitz nevus and a spitzoid malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17846775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Kapur P, Selim MA, Roy LC, Yegappan M, Weinberg AG, Hoang MP: Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz nevi/tumors: a histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18(2):197-204
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  • [Title] Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz nevi/tumors: a histologic and immunohistochemical analysis.
  • A subset of Spitz nevi poses substantial diagnostic difficulty, even among experts, due to its resemblance to malignant melanoma.
  • These lesions are termed atypical Spitz nevi/tumors and there is currently a lack of objective criteria for predicting their biologic behavior.
  • We compared the expression of Ki-67, p21, and fatty acid synthase by immunohistochemistry in 10 atypical Spitz nevi, 28 typical Spitz nevi, 19 compound melanocytic nevi and 18 invasive malignant melanomas.
  • There was a progressive increase in fatty acid synthase cytoplasmic expression with statistically significant differences observed between Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz nevi (P=0.003) and between atypical Spitz nevi and malignant melanoma (P<0.050).
  • Ki-67 nuclear staining was lower in both typical and atypical forms of Spitz lesions than in malignant melanoma (P<0.001).
  • The degree of P21 nuclear expression in atypical Spitz nevi was not significantly different than in Spitz nevi, but was significantly greater than expression in conventional nevi and approached significance after multiple comparisons corrections for malignant melanoma.
  • Thus, a high level of P21 expression makes a tumor more likely to be a typical or atypical Spitz nevus than a malignant melanoma, especially when coupled with a low Ki-67 index and weak expression of fatty acid synthase.
  • These immunohistochemical observations support the concept that atypical Spitz nevi are distinct lesions of borderline biologic behavior residing between Spitz nevi and malignant melanoma.
  • The study also compared a large array of histologic features of 16 cases of typical Spitz nevi in children with 12 typical Spitz nevi in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Fatty Acid Synthases / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15467715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.3.1.85 / Fatty Acid Synthases
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7. Ludgate MW, Fullen DR, Lee J, Lowe L, Bradford C, Geiger J, Schwartz J, Johnson TM: The atypical Spitz tumor of uncertain biologic potential: a series of 67 patients from a single institution. Cancer; 2009 Feb 1;115(3):631-41
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  • [Title] The atypical Spitz tumor of uncertain biologic potential: a series of 67 patients from a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical Spitz tumors (AST) are rare spitzoid melanocytic proliferations with an uncertain malignant potential.
  • ASTs have overlapping features of both Spitz nevi and spitzoid melanoma, and consequently generate controversy with diagnosis and management.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been proposed as a possible means to gain additional insight into the true biologic potential of these tumors; however, previous reports on the use of SLNB in ASTs have been limited by small numbers of patients and short durations of follow-up.
  • METHODS: The authors extracted data from their institution's prospective melanoma database, collected between 1994 and 2007, for all patients with ASTs of uncertain biologic potential.
  • They reviewed the clinical features of these patients, including the sentinel lymph node status, and the histological features of the tumors.
  • All 27 patients with a positive SLNB were alive and disease free with median follow-up of 43.8 months.
  • One patient who did not receive a SLNB developed recurrent disease with regional and distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ASTs do not appear to behave like conventional melanoma.
  • There is a high incidence of microscopic lymph node deposits in SLNBs, but despite this finding, patients have a favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2010 Jan 1;116(1):258; author reply 258-9 [19862819.001]
  • (PMID = 19123453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Garrido-Ruiz MC, Requena L, Ortiz P, Pérez-Gómez B, Alonso SR, Peralto JL: The immunohistochemical profile of Spitz nevi and conventional (non-Spitzoid) melanomas: a baseline study. Mod Pathol; 2010 Sep;23(9):1215-24
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  • [Title] The immunohistochemical profile of Spitz nevi and conventional (non-Spitzoid) melanomas: a baseline study.
  • Several isolated markers have been proposed to aid in differential diagnostic of difficult melanocytic lesions, albeit none has been shown to be definitive in differentiating Spitz nevus from melanoma.
  • This study proposes a wide panel of 22 markers having important functions in different biological functions (cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA repair proteins and membranous receptors) to provide a combination of proteins associated with either benign or malignant phenotype.
  • Using tissue microarrays, we compared protein expression profiles in 28 typical Spitz nevi and 62 primary vertical growth phase non-spitzoid melanomas.
  • Most of the significant differences were linked to cell-cycle deregulation such as overexpression of cyclin D1 and p21 in Spitz nevi compared with non-spitzoid melanomas (74 vs 16% and 91 vs 27%, respectively) and mitotic rate including Ki-67, highly expressed in deep areas of non-spitzoid melanomas (37%), whereas it is not expressed in Spitz nevi (0%), topoisomerase IIalpha (79% in non-spitzoid melanomas vs 15% in Spitz nevi) and nuclear survivin (69% in melanomas vs 0% in Spitz nevi).
  • A combination of biological markers differentially expressed in Spitz nevi from non-spitzoid melanomas is defined, thus providing a potential tool for histopathological differential diagnostic between Spitz nevus and melanoma.
  • Nevertheless, more studies including atypical Spitz nevi and spitzoid melanomas are necessary to further establish a reliable panel to differentiate among difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


9. Bron JL, Jaspars EH, Molenkamp BG, Meijer S, Mooi WJ, van Leeuwen PA: [Three patients with a Spitz naevus that later turned out to be a melanoma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Aug 13;149(33):1852-8
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  • [Title] [Three patients with a Spitz naevus that later turned out to be a melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Drie patiënten met op Spitz-naevus gelijkende afwijkingen die later een melanoom bleken te zijn.
  • The preferred diagnosis was 'Spitz naevus'.
  • Subsequently, all three developed regional (sub)cutaneous and/or lymph node metastases, indicating that the lesions were melanomas.
  • The histopathological distinction between Spitz naevus and melanoma is often very difficult.
  • Classical Spitz naevi can be diagnosed correctly only if the entire lesion is available for histological examination.
  • Some melanomas resemble Spitz naevi, but can be recognised on the basis of well-defined histological indicators of malignancy.
  • Some melanocytic lesions, however, cannot be categorised with confidence as being either benign (Spitz naevus) or malignant (spitzoid melanoma).
  • Thus, a group of lesions with inconclusive histology remains and has been designated as 'atypical Spitz tumour' or 'Spitz tumour of uncertain malignant potential'.
  • Generally, such lesions are best treated as melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16128184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. Blum A: [Severely dysplastic nevus: atypical Spitz nevus or melanoma in situ?]. Hautarzt; 2010 Feb;61(2):151-2
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  • [Title] [Severely dysplastic nevus: atypical Spitz nevus or melanoma in situ?].
  • [Transliterated title] Nävus mit schwerer Dysplasie, atypischer Nävus Spitz oder Melanoma in situ?
  • A 31-year-old patient presented with a new, rapidly growing pigmented skin tumor on her left thigh.
  • Several years previously a level 2 superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) with a tumor thickness of 0.45 mm had been removed from her left thigh.
  • Dermatoscopic examination revealed asymmetric pigmentation of the tumor with branched streaks of variable thickness and irregular pseudopodia.
  • Histological analysis showed it to be a severely dysplastic melanocytic nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 2001 Oct;137(10):1376-8 [11594873.001]
  • [Cites] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004 Nov;18(6):665-9 [15482291.001]
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  • (PMID = 20135253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Rossiello L, Zalaudek I, Ferrara G, Docimo G, Giorgio CM, Argenziano G: Melanoacanthoma simulating pigmented spitz nevus: an unusual dermoscopy pitfall. Dermatol Surg; 2006 May;32(5):735-7
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  • [Title] Melanoacanthoma simulating pigmented spitz nevus: an unusual dermoscopy pitfall.
  • BACKGROUND: The starburst pattern is the dermoscopic hallmark of pigmented Spitz nevus, although it has been rarely observed in melanoma as well.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of melanoacanthoma simulating pigmented Spitz nevus.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic examinations were performed for the occurrence of a 4-mm pigmented skin lesion on the hip of a 38-year-old Caucasian woman.
  • RESULTS: Dermoscopy examination of the lesion disclosed a stereotypical starburst pattern characterized by pigmented streaks symmetrically distributed at the periphery.
  • A preoperative diagnosis of pigmented Spitz nevus was made, and the lesion was excised.
  • CONCLUSION: The starburst pattern, although diagnostic for pigmented Spitz nevus, can be rarely observed in other benign or malignant pigmented skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / diagnosis. Dermoscopy. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16706772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. de Giorgi V, Sestini S, Massi D, Papi F, Lotti T: Atypical Spitz tumour: a 'chameleon' lesion. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 May;33(3):309-11
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  • [Title] Atypical Spitz tumour: a 'chameleon' lesion.
  • It is a common experience that many Spitz naevi deviate from the idealized or stereotypical representation found in the literature, often causing considerable difficulties in distinguishing them from melanoma.
  • The diagnostic term 'atypical Spitz naevus' is used to describe lesions that deviate from the typical appearance of Spitz naevi and which have an uncertain biological significance and prognosis.
  • The term 'Spitz tumour' has been proposed for these lesions, as the term 'naevus' indicates a lesion that is completely benign and presents no risk to the patient.
  • We present a case of atypical Spitz tumour with peculiar atypical clinical and dermatoscopic features.
  • The difficulty in managing this Spitz tumour was aggravated by the clinical diagnosis.
  • In fact, the lesion appeared as a benign and nonmelanocytic lesion, a pigmented dermatofibroma.
  • The atypical Spitz tumour is a 'chameleon' lesion that can mimic not only melanocytic, but also nonmelanocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18201260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Clarke LE, Fountaine TJ, Hennessy J, Bruggeman RD, Clarke JT, Mauger DT, Helm KF: Cdc7 expression in melanomas, Spitz tumors and melanocytic nevi. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Apr;36(4):433-8
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  • [Title] Cdc7 expression in melanomas, Spitz tumors and melanocytic nevi.
  • BACKGROUND: Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase required for initiation of DNA replication that may play a role in the development and progression of melanoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 40 melanomas, 40 Spitz tumors and 30 nevi were constructed.
  • RESULTS: Nodular melanomas, atypical Spitz tumors and superficial spreading melanomas had the highest scores (nodular melanomas, 3.67; atypical Spitz tumors, 2.78 and superficial spreading melanomas, 2.44).
  • Typical Spitz nevi, dysplastic nevi and ordinary nevi had the lowest scores.
  • Cdc7 expression in melanomas differed significantly from non-Spitz nevi (p < 0.001).
  • The difference was also significant when invasive melanomas were compared with dysplastic nevi (p < 0.005) and when invasive melanomas were compared with non-atypical Spitz nevi (p < 0.001).
  • However, there was no significant difference between invasive melanomas and atypical Spitz tumors (p = 0.69) or between dysplastic nevi and ordinary nevi (p = 0.73).
  • The results suggest that differences in Cdc7 expression may account for some of the differences between malignant melanomas and benign melanocytic nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19278428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / CDC7 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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14. Isabel Zhu Y, Fitzpatrick JE: Expression of c-kit (CD117) in Spitz nevus and malignant melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):33-7
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  • [Title] Expression of c-kit (CD117) in Spitz nevus and malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: CD117, the receptor for kit-ligand, which is a growth factor for melanocyte migration and proliferation, has shown differential staining in various benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • The purpose of this study is to compare CD117 immunohistological staining in Spitz nevus versus malignant melanoma, to determine whether CD117 can aid in the diagnosis of these two lesions.
  • METHODS: CD-117 immunohistological staining was performed in 22 clinically and pathologically diagnosed pigmented lesions including 9 cases of Spitz nevus, 10 cases of primary MM and 3 cases of metastatic melanoma.
  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference in CD117 staining in either epidermis or dermis between Spitz nevi and primary melanomas.
  • However staining of metastatic melanomas is less than dermal staining of primary MM and Spitz nevus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD117 is unlikely a useful diagnostic tool in differentiating Spitz nevus from primary MM.
  • On the other hand, CD 117 may be useful in differentiating metastatic melanoma from primary melanoma in patients who had a history of melanoma and who present with new dermal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanocytes / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16441409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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15. Eroğlou A, Uğurluoğlu C: Spitz nevus of the tongue with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia: a case report. J BUON; 2005 Oct-Dec;10(4):555-7

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  • [Title] Spitz nevus of the tongue with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia: a case report.
  • Spitz nevus is a rare tumor, most commonly arising from the skin.
  • We report on a case of Spitz nevus of the tongue in a 14-year-old girl.
  • She underwent local excision and the histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies by using AEC chromogen peroxidase conjugate indicated Spitz with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 17357216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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16. Song JY, Kwon JA, Park CJ: A case of Spitz nevus with multiple satellite lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Feb;52(2 Suppl 1):48-50
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  • [Title] A case of Spitz nevus with multiple satellite lesions.
  • Spitz nevus is a benign melnocytic lesion with many histologic similarities to malignant melanoma.
  • To our knowledge, a Spitz nevus with multiple satellite lesions has not been reported.
  • This paper reports a case of Spitz nevus with multiple satellite lesions on the abdomen of a 19-year-old Korean woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15692514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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17. Zätterström U, Thor A, Nordgren H: Cervical metastasis from Spitz nevus of the buccal mucosa. Melanoma Res; 2008 Feb;18(1):36-9
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  • [Title] Cervical metastasis from Spitz nevus of the buccal mucosa.
  • A 23-year-old woman was presented with a prolonged history of a small lump in the buccal mucosa.
  • The morphology diagnosed a Spitz nevus and she underwent supplementary excision of scar tissue.
  • Cytology from fine needle aspiration indicated spread of a melanocytic tumor and she underwent a modified supraomohyiod neck dissection.
  • One of the lymph nodes showed an inclusion of cells in the deep layers with epitheloid and spindle cells in a pattern similar to that of the primary oral lesion.
  • The finding suggests a mechanical spread of melanocytes from the Spitz nevus to the regional lymph node.
  • After more than 3 years of follow-up there is no further manifestation of disease.
  • It is believed that this may be an example of how a Spitz tumor, although inherently benign, can spread along lymphatics in a pseudometastatic fashion.
  • To our knowledge this is the first report of an oral Spitz melanoma with metastatic behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck Dissection. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18227706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Lyon VB: The spitz nevus: review and update. Clin Plast Surg; 2010 Jan;37(1):21-33
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  • [Title] The spitz nevus: review and update.
  • The Spitz nevus is a relatively common skin lesion in children and is less commonly seen in adults.
  • The lesion is defined by the presence of distinctive-appearing spindle or epithelioid cells on light microscopy in a recognizable nevus-like pattern.
  • Spitz lesions share features with melanoma on light microscopic examination.
  • When Spitz features are atypical or typical features are absent, distinction from melanoma can be difficult.
  • A spectrum of pathology of Spitz lesions can be found from lesions that are benign and typical to lesions that are atypical with melanoma-like features and frank melanoma.
  • There is significant interobserver variation in interpretation of Spitz lesions.
  • Exciting progress has been made recently in ancillary testing that will likely be helpful in determining in more detail the biologic nature of these lesions, in better differentiating the benign Spitz lesions from malignant lesions, and in eventually improving treatment recommendations.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19914455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0504
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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19. van Engen-van Grunsven AC, van Dijk MC, Ruiter DJ, Klaasen A, Mooi WJ, Blokx WA: HRAS-mutated Spitz tumors: A subtype of Spitz tumors with distinct features. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;34(10):1436-41
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  • [Title] HRAS-mutated Spitz tumors: A subtype of Spitz tumors with distinct features.
  • It is often very difficult to confidently distinguish benign and malignant Spitz lesions, and a diagnosis of Spitz tumor of unknown malignant potential (STUMP) is rendered.
  • To address this problem, we performed molecular genetic analysis in a large group of Spitz tumors (93 Spitz nevi and 77 STUMPs) and identified a subgroup of 24 lesions harboring a HRAS mutation.
  • In 7 of these 24 cases (29%) melanoma had been the initial diagnosis, or an important differential diagnostic consideration, mainly based on the presence of multiple or deeply located mitotic figures, especially in adult patients.
  • This was in accordance with the literature: review showed that no HRAS mutations had so far been reported in Spitzoid melanomas.
  • We therefore conclude that HRAS mutation analysis may be a useful diagnostic tool to help differentiate between Spitz nevus and Spitzoid melanoma, thereby reducing the frequency of overdiagnosis of melanoma, and to help predict the biological behavior of a STUMP.
  • Moreover, this might be a first step toward a more reproducible classification of Spitz tumors combining histological and genetic data.
  • [MeSH-major] Mutation. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Dermis / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20871217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.6.5.2 / HRAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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20. Kim YC, Do JE, Bang D, Cho BK, Cho KH, Choi JC, Kim MB, Kim MH, Kim SY, Kim SN, Lee JH, Lee SJ, Shin DH, Shin JH, Son SJ, Suh KS, Yoon TY, Park CK: Spitz naevus is rare in Korea. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2010 Mar;35(2):135-9
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  • [Title] Spitz naevus is rare in Korea.
  • BACKGROUND: Spitz naevi have not been widely studied in Asians.
  • AIM: To compare the epidemiology and clinicopathological features of Spitz naevi in Koreans with lesions in western countries.
  • METHODS: In total, 80 Spitz naevi in 77 patients diagnosed over 10 years at 17 university hospitals in Korea were analysed.
  • RESULTS: The relative incidence of Spitz naevus vs. MM was 1 vs. 10.9.
  • In most patients (75%) the Spitz naevi had been present for > 6 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Spitz naevus is rare in Korea.
  • The lesions were more commonly larger, pigmented, and of the dermal type than reported in western countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Korea / epidemiology. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19594767.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Berlingeri-Ramos AC, Morales-Burgos A, Sánchez JL, Nogales EM: Spitz nevus in a Hispanic population: a clinicopathological study of 130 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 May;32(3):267-75
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  • [Title] Spitz nevus in a Hispanic population: a clinicopathological study of 130 cases.
  • Spitz nevus is an uncommon melanocytic nevus distinctive by its epithelioid and spindled melanocytes.
  • Many studies have attempted to characterize Spitz nevus, but none of them in a Hispanic population.
  • Our aim is to characterize the clinical and histopathological presentation of the Spitz nevus in a Hispanic population.
  • A retrospective study was carried out from our files that included those cases histopathologically diagnosed as Spitz nevus.
  • The nevi followed a similar anatomic distribution in females and males.
  • The lesions were clinically diagnosed with accuracy in 20% of the cases and characterized as a pigmented papule in 42% of the cases.
  • Upon histopathological evaluation, most nevi exhibited symmetry (84%), were well circumscribed (91%), and exhibited epidermal hyperplasia (69%).
  • Sixty-eight percent of nevi were mostly composed of epithelioid melanocytes, the spindled-shaped melanocytes predominated in 17% of cases, and 12% were composed of both epithelioid and spindled-shaped melanocytes.
  • Multinucleated melanocytes were seen in 7% of nevi, mostly in the epithelioid Spitz nevus (67%).
  • Abundant melanin was observed in 51 cases, from which the most common variant was the classic Spitz nevi.
  • The typical dull eosinophilic globules (Kamino bodies) were observed in a minority of the cases (11%), mostly in the classic Spitz nevus.
  • The most common variant was the classic Spitz nevus (65%), followed by the dermal Spitz nevus (15%).
  • In conclusion, Spitz nevus in a Hispanic population most commonly presents as a pigmented papule on the lower extremities irrespective of sex and age.
  • It is characterized by a melanocytic proliferation most commonly composed of nested epithelioid melanocytes in a junctional or compound arrangement, with the presence of abundant melanin.
  • [MeSH-major] Hispanic Americans / ethnology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Melanins / metabolism. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanocytes / pathology. Puerto Rico / epidemiology. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20098300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanins
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22. George E, Polissar NL, Wick M: Immunohistochemical evaluation of p16INK4A, E-cadherin, and cyclin D1 expression in melanoma and Spitz tumors. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Mar;133(3):370-9
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of p16INK4A, E-cadherin, and cyclin D1 expression in melanoma and Spitz tumors.
  • We evaluated the usefulness of immunohistochemical examination for E-cadherin, p16, and cyclin D1 in discriminating melanoma from Spitz tumors.
  • Immunoperoxidase staining was performed on formalin-fixed tissue specimens from 46 Spitz tumors and 42 concurrent melanoma specimens.
  • Dermal p16 immunoreactivity was the best quantitative discriminator: decreased nuclear immunoreactivity (<25% of dermal melanocytes) was 3-fold more likely in melanoma than in Spitz tumors (P = .004).
  • Loss of both nuclear and cytoplasmic dermal p16 immunoreactivity was 8-fold more likely in melanoma (P = .01).
  • Qualitative irregularities in the zonal distribution of E-cadherin immunoreactivity were 2-fold higher in melanoma (P = .01), but these were often focal or subtle.
  • In atypical Spitz tumors, the dermal p16 immunoreactivity and frequency of qualitative E-cadherin abnormalities were intermediate between those of ordinary Spitz nevi and melanoma.
  • Also, contrasting immunoreactivity patterns were helpful in determining Breslow thickness in specimens containing melanoma and contiguous dermal nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


23. Cesinaro AM, Foroni M, Sighinolfi P, Migaldi M, Trentini GP: Spitz nevus is relatively frequent in adults: a clinico-pathologic study of 247 cases related to patient's age. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Dec;27(6):469-75
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  • [Title] Spitz nevus is relatively frequent in adults: a clinico-pathologic study of 247 cases related to patient's age.
  • Spitz nevus is a clinico-pathologic entity that can cause diagnostic concern, particularly in adults.
  • Many studies have been performed to establish reliable histologic criteria, in the attempt to differentiate this lesion from melanoma.
  • A series of 247 Spitz nevi, 6 of which were formerly classified as melanomas, were reviewed for clinical and histopathological parameters.
  • Histopathologic examination showed the following differences among Spitz nevi related to age: acanthosis, parakeratosis, pagetoid infiltration, and Kamino bodies were more frequent in young people, whereas multinucleated melanocytes were more frequent in adults.
  • The latter also had lesions that were less pigmented, with less maturation and more desmoplasia.
  • In our study, a greater proportion of Spitz nevi occurred in adults than in previous series.
  • Moreover, the relative incidence of Spitz nevus compared with melanoma in our population was higher than in other studies.
  • Histopathologic criteria elaborated to diagnose Spitz nevus, applied to our cases, appeared reliable, allowing a correct diagnosis, even in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16314701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Urso C, Borgognoni L, Saieva C, Ferrara G, Tinacci G, Begliomini B, Reali UM: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with "atypical Spitz tumors." A report on 12 cases. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jul;37(7):816-23
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with "atypical Spitz tumors." A report on 12 cases.
  • The distinction between Spitz nevus and melanoma is currently possible, applying a set of definite histological criteria.
  • However, in certain lesions deviating from the stereotypical morphology of classic Spitz nevi ("atypical Spitz tumors"), the differentiation between benign and malignant cases appears problematic because objective criteria for a reliable diagnosis are lacking.
  • We report the clinicopathologic findings of 12 patients with atypical Spitz tumors, who underwent sentinel node biopsy.
  • All the tumors, composed of spindle and/or epithelioid cells, histologically showed features referable to Spitz nevi mixed to features generally found in malignant melanomas.
  • Among the patients with positive sentinel node, two showed minimal nodal involvements; one patient showed additional tumor deposits in one nonsentinel regional node.
  • All patients are alive and free of disease with a follow-up of 2 to 90 months (mean, 26.3 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2006 Jul;37(7):779-80 [16784974.001]
  • (PMID = 16784980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Nojavan H, Cribier B, Mehregan DR: [Desmoplastic Spitz nevus: a histopathological review and comparison with desmoplastic melanoma]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Oct;136(10):689-95
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  • [Title] [Desmoplastic Spitz nevus: a histopathological review and comparison with desmoplastic melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Naevus de Spitz desmoplasique : analyse histopathologique et comparative avec le mélanome desmoplasique.
  • INTRODUCTION: Desmoplastic Spitz nevus is a rare variant of spitzoid tumours characterized by dermal proliferation of large epitheliod and/or fusiform melanocytes within a desmoplastic stroma, comprising thick, eosinophilic collagen bundles.
  • Histologically, this entity may be mistaken for cutaneous fibrous tumours or desmoplastic melanoma.
  • To establish useful histological criteria for differential diagnosis of desmoplastic Spitz nevus, we conducted a retrospective study comparing data concerning the clinical, demographic and histological characteristics of desmoplastic Spitz nevus and desmoplastic melanoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the slides for 28 cases of desmoplastic Spitz nevus and for 13 cases of desmoplastic melanoma obtained from the files of Pinkus Dermatopathology Laboratory (Monroe, MI, USA) during the period 1993-2005.
  • RESULTS: Desmoplastic Spitz nevus was more common in women (sex ratio M/F=0.4) and younger patients (mean age: 28.2 years) whereas the mean age of patients with desmoplastic melanoma was significantly higher (mean age: 75 years).
  • From a histopathological point of view, symmetry, circumscription, melanocytic maturation and involvement of adnexal structure were significantly more frequent in desmoplastic Spitz nevi.
  • The presence of melanocytic junctional nests associated with discohesive cells, variations in size and shape of the nests, lentiginous melanocytic proliferation, actinic elastosis, pagetoid spread, dermal mitosis, perineural involvement and brisk inflammatory infiltrate were significantly more frequent in desmoplastic melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of architectural and cytological features was useful in differentiating desmoplastic Spitz nevus from desmoplastic melanoma.
  • A complete excision biopsy is mandatory in such tumors as the architectural criteria are necessary for a correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19801251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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26. Sulit DJ, Guardiano RA, Krivda S: Classic and atypical Spitz nevi: review of the literature. Cutis; 2007 Feb;79(2):141-6
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  • [Title] Classic and atypical Spitz nevi: review of the literature.
  • Both classic and atypical Spitz nevi are uncommon melanocytic lesions usually presenting in children and adolescents.
  • The classic Spitz nevus typically is benign and has characteristic clinical and histologic features.
  • In contrast, the atypical Spitz nevus has an unknown clinical prognosis, and its clinical and histologic traits are loosely defined.
  • Melanoma can have similar features to both classic and atypical Spitz nevi and must be ruled out in all cases.
  • We review the literature on classic and atypical Spitz nevi, advances in differentiating both types of nevi from melanoma, and treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Melanoma / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Cutis. 2007 Sep;80(3):183; author reply 183 [17956003.001]
  • (PMID = 17388217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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27. Miteva M, Lazova R: Spitz nevus and atypical spitzoid neoplasm. Semin Cutan Med Surg; 2010 Sep;29(3):165-73
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  • [Title] Spitz nevus and atypical spitzoid neoplasm.
  • Spitz nevus (SN) and Spitzoid malignant melanoma (SMM) represent benign and malignant counterparts at both ends of the spectrum of Spitzoid lesions.
  • Atypical Spitzoid neoplasm (ASN) is a poorly defined and characterized category of melanocytic tumors with histologic features of both benign Spitz nevi and malignant melanomas.
  • The group of ASN represents a mixture of Spitz nevi with atypical features and Spitzoid melanomas.
  • Because this group encompasses both benign and malignant lesions, and perhaps also a separate category of melanocytic tumors that behave better than conventional melanomas, some of these neoplasms can metastasize and kill patients, whereas others have no metastatic potential, and yet others might only metastasize to regional lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21051010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0768
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Pellacani G, Longo C, Ferrara G, Cesinaro AM, Bassoli S, Guitera P, Menzies SW, Seidenari S: Spitz nevi: In vivo confocal microscopic features, dermatoscopic aspects, histopathologic correlates, and diagnostic significance. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Feb;60(2):236-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spitz nevi: In vivo confocal microscopic features, dermatoscopic aspects, histopathologic correlates, and diagnostic significance.
  • BACKGROUND: Spitz nevi are benign melanocytic tumors, sometimes misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma (MM).
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought identification of characteristic in vivo microscopic features of Spitz nevi, their histopathologic correlates, and diagnostic usefulness.
  • METHODS: Forty Spitz nevi were studied by in vivo confocal microscopy and dermatoscopy, evaluating histopathologic correlates, and compared with 40 MMs and 40 Clark nevi.
  • RESULTS: Some histologic aspects characteristic for Spitz nevus diagnosis were correlated with confocal features, comprising some that can be useful for atypical Spitz nevus classification.
  • The most striking features for differentiating Spitz nevi from MMs were the presence of sharp border cut-off, junctional nests, and melanophages.
  • CONCLUSION: Confocal and dermatoscopic examination enabled the identification of different Spitz categories with different histologic substrates.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Melanoma / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermis / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Epidermis / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19091443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Seehra J, Sen P, Lloyd R, Sloan P: Intraoral Spitz naevus: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Jul;36(7):661-2

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  • [Title] Intraoral Spitz naevus: a case report.
  • Intraoral occurrences of Spitz naevus are very rare, there being only one previously documented case in the literature.
  • Here is reported a case of a young male who presented with a pigmented lesion of the upper labial mucosa which had the clinical appearance of a simple naevus.
  • Excision biopsy confirmed this to be a Spitz naevus.
  • This lesion shares histopathological similarities with malignant melanoma.
  • Spitz naevus is a benign lesion, but malignant transformation has been reported and close monitoring is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Lip Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Mouth Mucosa / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17391924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0901-5027
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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30. Schmoeckel C, Wildi G, Schäfer T: Spitz nevus versus malignant melanoma: spitz nevi predominate on the thighs in patients younger than 40 years of age, melanomas on the trunk in patients 40 years of age or older. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 May;56(5):753-8
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  • [Title] Spitz nevus versus malignant melanoma: spitz nevi predominate on the thighs in patients younger than 40 years of age, melanomas on the trunk in patients 40 years of age or older.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine whether location and gender in addition to patient age might be useful in discriminating parameters between malignant melanoma (MM) and Spitz nevus (SN); 1228 cases of MM and 967 cases of SN were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Spitz nevi (SNs) were found to predominate on the thighs (32.6 % of the cases in women, 19.9 % of the cases in men); in persons younger than 40 years of age, in both genders they were found 8.1 times more frequently than MM in this location.
  • LIMITATIONS: There has been no follow-up of the patients, and the question whether SN are benign tumors was not assessed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The only locations that appear to be of additional diagnostic help when differentiating between these two tumors are the thighs in patients younger than 40 years of age, suggesting SN, and the trunk in patients 40 years of age or older, suggesting MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17261342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Magro CM, Yaniv S, Mihm MC: The superficial atypical Spitz tumor and malignant melanoma of superficial spreading type arising in association with the superficial atypical Spitz tumor: A distinct form of dysplastic Spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferation. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 May;60(5):814-23
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  • [Title] The superficial atypical Spitz tumor and malignant melanoma of superficial spreading type arising in association with the superficial atypical Spitz tumor: A distinct form of dysplastic Spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferation.
  • Spitzoid lesions are diagnostically problematic because of a deceptive morphology and indeterminate behavior.
  • The most problematic are atypical Spitz tumors whereby distinction from melanoma may be difficult.
  • We have designated this lesion as the superficial atypical Spitz tumor and have encountered 27 cases.
  • We believe that these lesions overlap histomorphologically with higher-grade dysplastic nevi and de novo intraepidermal epithelioid melanocytic dysplasia.
  • We identified 19 additional cases that appear to represent transition into malignant melanoma of superficial spreading type arising in a background of the superficial atypical Spitz tumor.
  • In conclusion, there exists a distinct subset of Spitz tumors that we designate as the superficial atypical Spitz tumor in which there is inherent dysplasia including lesions that evolve into melanoma of superficial spreading type.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Prospective Studies


32. Urso C, Borgognoni L, Doria M, Tinacci G, Zini E: Non-sentinel lymph node involvement in a patient with an atypical Spitz tumor and a positive sentinel node. Report of a case and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):586-90
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  • [Title] Non-sentinel lymph node involvement in a patient with an atypical Spitz tumor and a positive sentinel node. Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • We report a 20-year-old male patient with an atypical Spitz tumor, located in the dorsal aspect of his left hand, and a positive sentinel axillary lymph node.
  • After lymphadenectomy, 1 of 23 non-sentinel lymph nodes excised was found to contain small multiple deposits of large spindle atypical melanocytes.
  • Reviewing the pertinent literature, 5 of 29 patients with atypical Spitz tumors and positive sentinel nodes who had undergone lymphadenectomy have shown non-sentinel node involvement (17.2%), a proportion similar to that reported in melanoma patients.
  • The exact nature of atypical Spitz tumors and the interpretation of cell deposits detected in sentinel nodes are still debated; data regarding the non-sentinel lymph node involvement in patients with atypical Spitz tumors may contribute to better understand the real biological potential of such tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19476530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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33. Hilliard NJ, Krahl D, Sellheyer K: p16 expression differentiates between desmoplastic Spitz nevus and desmoplastic melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jul;36(7):753-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p16 expression differentiates between desmoplastic Spitz nevus and desmoplastic melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Loss of p16 in melanomas reflects worse outcomes for patients.
  • It is associated with depth of invasion, ulceration, vascular invasion, lymph node metastases, metastases, recurrence of melanoma and decreased 5-year survival.
  • Desmoplastic melanoma is an insidious malignant melanoma subtype that commonly occurs on sun-damaged skin of the head and neck area in elderly patients.
  • The diagnostic conundrum occurs with confusion of desmoplastic melanoma with scars, hyalinizing blue nevi, desmoplastic Spitz nevi and diffuse neurofibromas.
  • METHODS: The present study uses immunohistochemistry with a p16 antibody to differentiate desmoplastic Spitz nevi (n = 15 cases) from desmoplastic melanomas (n = 11).
  • To date, no other studies have been published defining the expression pattern of p16 in desmoplastic melanoma.
  • RESULTS: 81.8% of desmoplastic melanomas were negative for p16 and 18.2% were only weakly stained.
  • In contrast, all desmoplastic Spitz nevi were moderately to strongly positive for p16.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The staining pattern for p16 in desmoplastic melanomas and Spitz nevi in conjunction with the histopathologic features, S100 staining, Ki67 proliferation index and clinical scenario may aid in the difficult differential diagnosis between these two entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / metabolism. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19519606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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34. Aida K, Monia K, Ahlem S, Dominique HT, Becima F, Sylvie F, Ridha KM: Agminated Spitz nevi arising on a nevus spilus after chemotherapy. Pediatr Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;27(4):411-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Agminated Spitz nevi arising on a nevus spilus after chemotherapy.
  • Agminated Spitz nevus arising on a background of nevus spilus (NS) is a rare condition.
  • A 3-year-old boy presented 3 months after the onset of a chemotherapy for a vesico-prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma, multiple pigmented papulo-nodules located on the face, neck, chest wall, and the higher back.
  • These lesions have arose on a pre-existent large congenital histologically confirmed nevus spilus extending along the face, neck, the left shoulder and the left chest wall.
  • Histological examination of three excised nodules led to the diagnosis of Spitz nevus.
  • Our patient may have a high risk for melanoma since he has many criteria predisposing to this risk.
  • Some of these criteria are related to NS but we should also take into account the chemotherapy induction and the high number of Spitz nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / chemically induced. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy


35. Ferrara G, Zalaudek I, Savarese I, Scalvenzi M, Argenziano G: Pediatric atypical spitzoid neoplasms: a review with emphasis on 'red' ('spitz') tumors and 'blue' ('blitz') tumors. Dermatology; 2010;220(4):306-10
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  • [Title] Pediatric atypical spitzoid neoplasms: a review with emphasis on 'red' ('spitz') tumors and 'blue' ('blitz') tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of pediatric atypical Spitz nevus/tumors (pASNT) is an emerging challenge in clinical dermatology and dermatopathology.
  • RESULTS: While Spitz/Reed nevi are commonly small- to medium-sized, tan to black plaques, pASNT are large and nodular, either 'red' (dotted and/or polymorphous vascular pattern on dermoscopy; spindle and/or epithelioid tumors on histopathology: Spitz tumors, sensu strictiori) or 'blue' (homogeneous blue color on dermoscopy; intimate admixture of epithelioid cells and heavily pigmented dendritic cells on histopathology: Blitz tumors or pigmented epithelioid melanocytomas).
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20453474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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36. Ko CJ, McNiff JM, Glusac EJ: Melanocytic nevi with features of Spitz nevi and Clark's/dysplastic nevi ("Spark's" nevi). J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36(10):1063-8
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  • [Title] Melanocytic nevi with features of Spitz nevi and Clark's/dysplastic nevi ("Spark's" nevi).
  • BACKGROUND: Nevi with cytologic characteristics of Spitz nevus and architectural features of Clark's/dysplastic nevus are not well recognized in the literature.
  • METHODS: Twenty-seven nevi with characteristics of Spitz nevus and Clark's/dysplastic nevus are reviewed.
  • Histopathologically, these nevi were composed of large, monomorphous spindled and/or epithelioid melanocytes.
  • Spindle cells were often oriented parallel to the epidermis, with fused rete and lamellar fibroplasias.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Recognition of this type of nevus is important to avoid confusion with malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19187111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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37. van Dijk MC, Bernsen MR, Ruiter DJ: Analysis of mutations in B-RAF, N-RAS, and H-RAS genes in the differential diagnosis of Spitz nevus and spitzoid melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Sep;29(9):1145-51
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  • [Title] Analysis of mutations in B-RAF, N-RAS, and H-RAS genes in the differential diagnosis of Spitz nevus and spitzoid melanoma.
  • A definite diagnosis cannot be established based on histologic features alone in a large number of Spitz nevi and spitzoid melanomas.
  • In a vast majority of common benign and malignant melanocytic lesions, B-RAF and N-RAS mutations were described, but these were not detected in Spitz nevi.
  • In contrast, H-RAS mutations were frequently encountered in Spitz nevi, but only rarely in melanomas.
  • To date, B-RAF mutation analysis has not been reported in atypical Spitz nevi, and there are only a few reports of it in spitzoid melanomas.
  • B-RAF or N-RAS mutations were observed in 31 of 36 (86%) spitzoid melanomas, and in 6 of 7 (86%) spitzoid melanoma metastases.
  • In contrast, none of the 14 Spitz nevi and none of the 16 atypical Spitz nevi had mutations in any of the three genes.
  • A B-RAF or N-RAS mutation was found in 8 of 23 (35%) spitzoid lesions suspected for melanoma.
  • H-RAS mutations were detected in 4 of 14 (29%) Spitz nevi, in 3 of 22 (14%) atypical Spitz nevi, in 1 of 15 (7%) spitzoid tumors suspected for melanoma, but in none of the spitzoid melanomas.
  • These results strongly indicate that Spitz nevi and spitzoid melanomas are genetically unrelated entities.
  • Furthermore, we can conclude that mutation analysis may be useful as an additional diagnostic tool to distinguish between benign and malignant spitzoid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, ras / genetics. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


38. Requena C, Requena L, Kutzner H, Sánchez Yus E: Spitz nevus: a clinicopathological study of 349 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):107-16
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  • [Title] Spitz nevus: a clinicopathological study of 349 cases.
  • Spitz nevus is an infrequent, usually acquired melanocytic nevus composed of epithelioid and/or spindle melanocytes that can occasionally be confused with melanoma.
  • Currently, there are no immunohistochemical markers or molecular biology techniques that can be used to make an entirely safe diagnosis of Spitz nevus or melanoma in problematic cases.
  • A retrospective study has been carried out that included all the cases diagnosed as Spitz nevus from our files.
  • Three hundred forty-nine cases of unequivocal Spitz nevi were included, and their clinical and histopathological parameters were reviewed.
  • Spitz nevus was most commonly located on the lower extremities, followed by the trunk in both children and adults.
  • The constitution by epithelioid and/or spindled cells was the only histopathological finding present in 100% of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2010 Jun;32(4):410-4 [20145536.001]
  • (PMID = 19318795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Nino M, Brunetti B, Delfino S, Brunetti B, Panariello L, Russo D: Spitz nevus: follow-up study of 8 cases of childhood starburst type and proposal for management. Dermatology; 2009;218(1):48-51
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  • [Title] Spitz nevus: follow-up study of 8 cases of childhood starburst type and proposal for management.
  • Spitz nevus is an uncommon, benign melanocytic neoplasm that shares many clinical and histological features with melanoma.
  • We present our experience in the management of Spitz nevus by rigorous dermoscopic long-term follow-up of 8 Spitz nevi in patients younger than 12 years.
  • The aim of this paper is to better understand the long-term modifications of nevi with starburst pattern to avoid surgical excision of these lesions in the pediatric age group.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18832809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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40. Tetzlaff MT, Xu X, Elder DE, Elenitsas R: Angiomatoid Spitz nevus: a clinicopathological study of six cases and a review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Apr;36(4):471-6
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  • [Title] Angiomatoid Spitz nevus: a clinicopathological study of six cases and a review of the literature.
  • Angiomatoid Spitz nevus is a recently described subtype of desmoplastic Spitz nevus.
  • Here, we describe six additional cases of angiomatoid Spitz nevus and provide a review of the literature on this entity.
  • The features of classic angiomatoid Spitz nevus are described in the context of important differential diagnostic considerations, particularly regressed malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19278435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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41. Pinheiro AM, Pereira GA, Amorin AG, Varella TC, Friedman H: Spitz nevus: a case report and the use of dermoscopy. An Bras Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;85(4):555-7
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  • [Title] Spitz nevus: a case report and the use of dermoscopy.
  • The Spitz nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion with clinical and histopathological features similar to those of melanoma.
  • In Spitz nevus, the most common dermoscopic finding is a starburst-like pattern, followed by globular and atypical patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20944920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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42. Takata M, Lin J, Takayanagi S, Suzuki T, Ansai S, Kimura T, Cerroni L, Saida T: Genetic and epigenetic alterations in the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma and spitzoid lesion. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Jun;156(6):1287-94
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  • [Title] Genetic and epigenetic alterations in the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma and spitzoid lesion.
  • BACKGROUND: The histopathological differentiation of malignant melanoma and Spitz naevus often presents diagnostic problems.
  • METHODS: The cases included conventional melanomas and Spitz naevi as well as atypical spitzoid lesions that had posed diagnostic difficulties.
  • RESULTS: Twenty three of 24 conventional melanomas showed at least one of the genetic and epigenetic alterations examined, although one acral melanoma did not show any alteration.
  • By sharp contrast, 12 Spitz naevi with an unambiguous histopathology showed no or few chromosomal aberrations, no oncogene mutations and no methylation of CpG sequences.
  • Of the 16 ambiguous spitzoid lesions, most of which were designated atypical Spitz tumour by one of the authors, all but one showed no mutations, no methylations and few copy number aberrations.
  • However, three tumours showed copy number loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A gene (CDKN2A), an alteration observed frequently in melanomas but not found in conventional Spitz naevi.
  • These results show that, although most atypical Spitz tumours do not differ from conventional Spitz naevi showing virtually no genetic and epigenetic aberrations, some cases may have chromosomal aberrations that include copy number loss of the CDKN2A gene.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic and epigenetic analyses may be useful as an additional diagnostic tool to distinguish between melanoma and Spitz naevus, and may help to define subgroups in atypical Spitz tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Mutation / genetics. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


43. Kishida ES, Muniz Silva MA, da Costa Pereira F, Sanches JA Jr, Sotto MN: Epidermal nevus syndrome associated with adnexal tumors, spitz nevus, and hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets. Pediatr Dermatol; 2005 Jan-Feb;22(1):48-54
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  • [Title] Epidermal nevus syndrome associated with adnexal tumors, spitz nevus, and hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets.
  • The epidermal nevus syndrome is the association of epidermal nevi with abnormalities in other organ systems, most commonly the central nervous system, the skeletal system, and the eyes.
  • We present a patient with epidermal nevus syndrome associated with hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets and multiple adnexal and spindle cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypophosphatemia, Familial / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Hypophosphatemia / metabolism. Nevus. Nevus, Pigmented. Skin. Syndrome


44. Vervaet N, Van Ginderdeuren R, Van Den Oord JJ, Foets B: A rare conjunctival Spitz nevus: a case report and literature review. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol; 2007;(303):63-7
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  • [Title] A rare conjunctival Spitz nevus: a case report and literature review.
  • A conjunctival Spitz nevus is a very rare, benign melanocytic lesion, which can be mistaken for a malignant melanoma.
  • We present a case of a 28-year old man, who suffered from a rapidly growing, non-pigmented mass in the left caruncular area, extending to the nasal conjunctiva.
  • The lesion was excised and pathologic examination showed nests of large, polygonal, non-pigmented epithelioid cells, located in the stroma.
  • Immunohistochemical techniques, with stainings for S-100 protein, HMB-45 and MIB-1, were used for further investigation and showed the melanocytic origin of the lesion (S-100 staining) as well as many cells in cell cycle (MIB-1 staining).
  • The clinical image, combined with pathologic and immunohistochemical findings, provided the diagnosis of a Spitz nevus localised in the conjunctiva.
  • Although the cutaneous location of Spitz nevi is well known, conjunctival Spitz nevi are very rare and because of their mucosal origin, some of the histological features are different.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17894290.001).
  • [ISSN] 0081-0746
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de la Société belge d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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45. Fullen DR, Poynter JN, Lowe L, Su LD, Elder JT, Nair RP, Johnson TM, Gruber SB: BRAF and NRAS mutations in spitzoid melanocytic lesions. Mod Pathol; 2006 Oct;19(10):1324-32
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  • BRAF mutations are common events in a variety of melanocytic nevi and primary cutaneous melanomas.
  • We have previously found BRAF mutations in 82% of nevi, consisting of congenital, common acquired and dysplastic types, and 33% of primary cutaneous melanomas other than the spitzoid type, similar to other published reports.
  • A small number of studies have evaluated Spitz nevi and have failed to detect any lesions possessing a BRAF mutation.
  • Only one study included categories of atypical Spitz nevus and borderline lesions suspected to be spitzoid melanomas, along with classic Spitz nevi and spitzoid melanomas.
  • We examined a spectrum of spitzoid lesions that included 48 Spitz nevi, some with atypical features, seven atypical (borderline) Spitz tumors, and 13 spitzoid melanomas.
  • BRAF mutations were detected in 12 of 68 spitzoid lesions, of which two were spitzoid melanomas and 10 were Spitz nevi.
  • Five of the 10 Spitz nevi with BRAF mutations were altered by more than usual cytologic atypia and/or architectural atypia overlapping with dysplastic nevi, or irritation/inflammation; one desmoplastic Spitz nevus had a BRAF mutation.
  • These results indicate that a small subset of Spitz nevi, some with atypical histologic features, possess BRAF mutations.
  • Therefore, the BRAF mutational status does not separate all Spitz nevi from spitzoid melanomas and non-Spitz types of melanocytic proliferations, contrary to previous reports.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / genetics. Mutation. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16799476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / T32 HG00040; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA83180
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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46. Yu L, Xu H, Wasco MJ, Bourne PA, Ma L: IMP-3 expression in melanocytic lesions. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):316-22
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  • BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3 ), a member of the insulin-like growth factor mRNA-binding protein family, is expressed in several human malignancies, including melanomas.
  • However, the expression of IMP-3 has not been explored in melanoma in situ, various histologic subtypes of invasive melanomas and atypical Spitz tumors.
  • RESULTS: Nearly all benign (8/8), dysplastic (8/8) and Spitz nevi (8/9) were negative for IMP-3.
  • Focal IMP-3 positivity was observed in 5/12 melanoma in situ and 4/15 superficial melanomas (Breslow depth <or=1 mm).
  • Half (10/20) of deep melanomas (Breslow depth >1 mm) and 25/52 metastatic melanomas demonstrated strong IMP-3 staining.
  • IMP-3 expression differs significantly between non-desmoplastic melanomas (superficial and deep) and benign or dysplastic or Spitz nevi (p = 0.0427, respectively).
  • Four of 23 desmoplastic melanomas expressed IMP-3 , which was significantly different from deep melanomas (p = 0.0109).
  • IMP-3 stained 7 of 10 atypical Spitz tumors.
  • The difference between atypical Spitz tumors and Spitz nevi was statistically significant (p = 0.0256).
  • CONCLUSION: A malignant circumstance, such as non-desmoplastic melanoma or atypical Spitz tumor, can be inferred when IMP-3 is expressed, suggesting potential diagnostic value of IMP-3 in melanocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus / metabolism. Nevus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19788446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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47. Kantrow SM, Boyd AS, Ellis DL, Nanney LB, Richmond A, Shyr Y, Robbins JB: Expression of activated Akt in benign nevi, Spitz nevi and melanomas. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Aug;34(8):593-6
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  • [Title] Expression of activated Akt in benign nevi, Spitz nevi and melanomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Activated Akt expression (p-Akt) is reportedly increased in many melanomas as compared with benign nevi.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare p-Akt immunohistological staining in benign nevi, Spitz nevi and primary melanomas.
  • METHODS: Immunostaining for phosphorylated Akt was performed in 41 melanocytic lesions previously classified as benign intradermal nevus (14 lesions), Spitz nevus (9 lesions) or melanoma (18 lesions).
  • RESULTS: Benign nevi showed less staining (mean score 1.18) compared with Spitz nevi (mean score 2.11) and melanomas (mean score 2.19).
  • This difference was statistically significant between benign nevi and melanomas (p = 0.0047) and benign nevi and Spitz nevi (p = 0.0271).
  • No statistical difference was detected in staining between Spitz nevi and melanomas (p = 0.8309).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Activated Akt expression is increased in Spitz nevi and melanomas as compared with benign intradermal nevi, but is unlikely to prove useful in differentiating between the former.

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  • (PMID = 17640227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098807; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098807-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116021-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116021; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116021-03
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS49408; NLM/ PMC2665272
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48. Situm M, Bolanca Z, Buljan M, Tomas D, Ivancić M: Nevus Spitz--everlasting diagnostic difficulties--the review. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:171-6
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  • [Title] Nevus Spitz--everlasting diagnostic difficulties--the review.
  • In 1910, Darier and Civatte described in details an unusual melanocytic tumor characterized by rapid growth on the nose of a young child.
  • They could not state whether the tumor was benign or malignant.
  • In 1947, Sophie Spitz described the same lesion as juvenile melanoma in which prognosis was frequently excellent.
  • Later, the study was revised and it was concluded that juvenile melanoma was a benign tumor and can affect adults.
  • Although, the prognosis was mostly excellent, Spitz reported in one of 13 cases fatal metastases from nevus Spitz.
  • In 1999, Barnhill et al described one fatal case of the patient for whom it was thought to have typical Spitz nevus.
  • Nowadays, there is still a lack of consensus about histopathology and also a terminology of the tumors that are neither typical nevus Spitz, neither malignant melanoma.
  • All histopathological, clinical and ancillary criteria must be weighed in the final interpretation of epitheloid/spindle cell lesion.
  • Barnhill recommends that all Spitz tumors are completely excised.
  • Atypical tumors should be excised with wider margins up to 1 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19140279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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49. Abenoza P, Kowalczyk J, Nousari CH: Basal cell carcinoma-associated paratumoral follicular and epidermal hyperplasia. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):348-51
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma-associated paratumoral follicular and epidermal hyperplasia.
  • Reactive epithelial hyperplasia is a well-known phenomenon which occurs adjacent to certain neoplasms such as cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma, granular cell tumor, Spitz nevus, and melanoma.
  • We report 46 cases of paratumoral follicular and epidermal hyperplasia associated with basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • It may resemble other tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma and may appear in sections where BCC is absent.
  • The recognition of this entity may help dermatopathologists avoid misdiagnosing this process as a tumor and can suggest further search (section through the block or rebiopsy) when this reactive phenomenon is seen in sections without the associated BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2011 Feb;33(1):107 [21239900.001]
  • (PMID = 20145534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Levy RM, Ming ME, Shapiro M, Tucker M, Guerry D 4th, Cirillo-Hyland VA, Elenitsas R: Eruptive disseminated Spitz nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Sep;57(3):519-23
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  • [Title] Eruptive disseminated Spitz nevi.
  • Eruptive disseminated Spitz nevi represent an extremely rare variant of Spitz nevi, with only 13 previous cases reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17467853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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51. Kamino H: Spitzoid melanoma. Clin Dermatol; 2009 Nov-Dec;27(6):545-55
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  • [Title] Spitzoid melanoma.
  • Because spitzoid melanoma shares many histopathologic features with Spitz nevus, it is one of the most difficult lesions to diagnose in dermatopathology.
  • Uncertainty exists in the medical literature about how to diagnose melanocytic proliferations including Spitz nevus and spitzoid melanoma.
  • A misdiagnosis of a melanoma as Spitz nevus is one of the most frequent causes of malpractice lawsuits in surgical pathology and dermatopathology.
  • This contribution provides a review of the clinical presentation, histopathology, ancillary studies, treatment, and the differential diagnosis of spitzoid melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19880042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1131
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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52. Ali L, Helm T, Cheney R, Conroy J, Sait S, Guitart J, Gerami P: Correlating array comparative genomic hybridization findings with histology and outcome in spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010;3(6):593-9
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  • Melanocytic neoplasms with spitzoid features including spitz nevi, spitz tumors and spitzoid melanomas are commonly encountered in the practice of dermatopathology.
  • Several studies have now shown that chromosomal copy number aberrations are typical of melanoma while present in only a small percent and to a limited degree in spitz nevi.
  • A limited variety of copy number aberrations including gains of 11p and much more rarely 7q may be seen in spitz nevi.
  • Additionally in this report we present the first case of a typical spitz nevus with copy number gains involving both 7q and 11p.
  • Conversely, melanomas with spitzoid features typically have multiple chromsomal copy number aberrations involving a variety of loci.
  • A smaller number of chromosomal aberrations, possibly a single aberrant locus, may be present in spitz tumors, but their presence may predict more aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / genetics. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20661407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2907121
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms / array / chromsomal copy number aberrations / dermatopathology / genomic hybridization / melanoma
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53. Ferrara G, Argenziano G, Soyer HP, Chimenti S, Di Blasi A, Pellacani G, Peris K, Piccolo D, Rubegni P, Seidenari S, Staibano S, Zalaudek I, De Rosa G: The spectrum of Spitz nevi: a clinicopathologic study of 83 cases. Arch Dermatol; 2005 Nov;141(11):1381-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The spectrum of Spitz nevi: a clinicopathologic study of 83 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To achieve a clinicopathologic classification of Spitz nevi by comparing their clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic features.
  • DESIGN: Eighty-three cases were independently reviewed by 3 histopathologists and preliminarily classified into classic or desmoplastic Spitz nevus (CDSN, n = 11), pigmented Spitz nevus (PSN, n = 14), Reed nevus (RN, n = 16), or atypical Spitz nevus (ASN, n = 14); the remaining 28 cases were then placed into an intermediate category (pigmented Spitz-Reed nevus, PSRN) because a unanimous diagnosis of either PSN or RN was not reached.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Frequency of dermoscopic patterns within the different histopathologic subtypes of Spitz nevi.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among Spitz nevi, histopathologic distinction between PSN and RN is difficult, not reproducible, and may be clinically useless.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16301385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Emley A, Yang S, Wajapeyee N, Green MR, Mahalingam M: Oncogenic BRAF and the tumor suppressor IGFBP7 in the genesis of atypical spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferations. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):344-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oncogenic BRAF and the tumor suppressor IGFBP7 in the genesis of atypical spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferations.
  • Rare reports indicate that the frequency of BRAFV600E mutations is high in atypical Spitz nevi.
  • The purpose of this study was to ascertain the utility of the RAF/RAS mutational status as a diagnostic adjunct in lesions with histologic features that deviate from a typical Spitz nevus and, to examine expression of Insulin growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), a tumor suppressor acting through autocrine/paracrine pathways to inhibit BRAF-MEK-ERK signaling, in the same.
  • Genomic DNA for genotyping was isolated from 6 regular Spitz nevi and 14 atypical spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferations (including 1 melanoma with spitzoid histomorphology).
  • A mutation in BRAFV600E was noted in only one case-that of a regular Spitz nevus.
  • Lack of expression of IGFBP7 in atypical spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferations with histologically concerning features but BRAF-WT indicates that the evolutionary path in atypical spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferations is genetically distinct from that of IGFBP7-negative BRAF-positive melanoma.
  • From an oncogenic BRAF perspective, our findings suggest that the majority of 'atypical' spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferations are probably no different from conventional Spitz nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / genetics. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 19788444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 0 / insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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55. Wick MR, Patterson JW: Cutaneous melanocytic lesions: selected problem areas. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Dec;124 Suppl:S52-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This review considers several selected issues in that subject area, including proliferative congenital nevi, architecturally disordered (dysplastic) nevi, morphologic variants of Spitz nevus, atypical lentiginous melanocytic proliferations, nevoid melanoma, diagnostically deceptive histologic variants of melanoma, "epidermotropic" metastases of melanoma, and the relationship of melanoma microstages to tumor growth phases.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Humans. Lentigo / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16468418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 222
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56. McGowan JW, Smith MK, Ryan M, Hood AF: Proliferative nodules with balloon-cell change in a large congenital melanocytic nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Mar;33(3):253-5
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  • [Title] Proliferative nodules with balloon-cell change in a large congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • The balloon-cell nevus was first described over 100 years ago.
  • Since then, balloon-cell changes of melanocytes have been noted in numerous tumors, including melanoma, blue nevus, and Spitz nevus.
  • We report a case in which balloon-cell changes were found within proliferative nodules occurring in a large congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / congenital. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16466515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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57. Hueso L, Hernández A, Torrelo A, Colmenero I, Zambrano A: [Agminated Spitz nevi on a hyperpigmented macule]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 Jan-Feb;99(1):69-72
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  • [Title] [Agminated Spitz nevi on a hyperpigmented macule].
  • [Transliterated title] Nevos de Spitz agrupados sobre una mácula hiperpigmentada.
  • We present the case of a 2-year-old boy with multiple Spitz nevi clustered on a hyperpigmented macule that obeyed a quadrant distribution.
  • Multiple Spitz nevi are rare and can be disseminated or clustered.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperpigmentation / complications. Hyperpigmentation / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / complications. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18206090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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58. Goh EH, Zarina AL, Thambidorai CR, Maizaton AA, Siti AM, Somasundram S: Amelanotic spitzoid melanoma in a prepubescent boy. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Apr;24(4):447-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amelanotic spitzoid melanoma in a prepubescent boy.
  • The diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM) in children is difficult due to its uncommon occurrence as well histological similarities to Spitz nevus.
  • A case of MM of the foot in an 11-year-old boy is reported illustrating the histological overlap between Spitz nevus and MM.
  • The literature on MM in children is limited and the documentation of such unusual cases is necessary to improve the knowledge on this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Hum Pathol. 1998 Oct;29(10):1105-12 [9781649.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 2002 May;138(5):625-8 [12020223.001]
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  • (PMID = 17437116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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59. Kilinc Karaarslan I, Ozdemir F, Akalin T, Ozturk G, Turk BG, Kandiloglu G: Eruptive disseminated Spitz naevi: dermatoscopic features. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;34(8):e807-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Eruptive disseminated Spitz naevi: dermatoscopic features.
  • Eruptive disseminated Spitz naevi is a rarely reported condition.
  • Although the dermatoscopic features of nondisseminated, solitary forms of Spitz naevi are well known, there are no reports describing the dermatoscopic features of eruptive disseminated variant.
  • In all brown lesions, we observed only the reticular pattern, which is quite interesting as the reticular pattern is a rare feature of Spitz naevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19778309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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60. Morgan CJ, Nyak N, Cooper A, Pees B, Friedmann PS: Multiple Spitz naevi: a report of both variants with clinical and histopathological correlation. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2006 May;31(3):368-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple Spitz naevi: a report of both variants with clinical and histopathological correlation.
  • Spitz naevi are usually solitary lesions.
  • Multiple Spitz naevi are extremely rare and reported as widespread (disseminated) or grouped (agminated).
  • We report two cases of multiple Spitz naevi and review their aetiology and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Adult. Back. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16681578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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61. Lommatzsch PK, Willerding G, Nenning H, Taubert G: [Inflammatory juvenile conjunctival nevus (IJCN)]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2007 May;224(5):422-6
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  • [Title] [Inflammatory juvenile conjunctival nevus (IJCN)].
  • BACKGROUND: Pathologists may occasionally have difficulties in reliably assessing the dignity of tumour cells in histological sections, especially in nevi with junctional activity.
  • PATIENT HISTORY: This case history of a boy suffering from an inflammatory juvenile conjunctival nevus (IJCN) is reported with a follow-up period of 25 years.
  • Seven years after first surgical treatment of a histologically proven nevus, a recurrent pigmented lesion within the former operation area aroused the suspicion of it being a malignant melanoma.
  • The histological diagnosis performed by a pathologist resulted in a malignant melanoma.
  • A second recurrent pigmented conjunctival tumour developed fourteen years later.
  • This lesion again aroused another strong clinical suspicion of malignant transformation into a melanoma.
  • However, the histological examination of the biopsy at this time only showed benign nevus cells and areas of conjunctival melanosis without atypia.
  • DISCUSSION: Especially in young patients, IJCN must be regarded as an independent type of nevus, which might lead even experts in ophthalmic pathology to over-diagnose this lesion as a malignant melanoma.
  • A reappraisal of the former histological specimens of the first recurrent tumour by other pathologists came to the conclusion that the initial diagnosis of melanoma could not be maintained.
  • Nevertheless, we also strongly recommend follow-up examinations at regular intervals in cases of IJCN since we are aware of the fact that melanocytic tumours of the conjunctiva behave unpredictably.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Diseases / diagnosis. Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17516373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Al Dhaybi R, Sartelet H, Powell J, Kokta V: Expression of CD133+ cancer stem cells in childhood malignant melanoma and its correlation with metastasis. Mod Pathol; 2010 Mar;23(3):376-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of CD133+ cancer stem cells in childhood malignant melanoma and its correlation with metastasis.
  • Cancer stem cells expressing CD133 exist in a wide array of tumors and their identification in malignant melanoma may help refine classification, diagnosis and treatment.
  • To study the correlation between CD133 expression in childhood melanoma and lymph node and/or visceral metastasis, we evaluated 12 cases of malignant melanoma and 12 control cases of Spitz nevus occurring in children.
  • Three melanoma patients had lymph node metastasis and only one had multivisceral metastases; CD133 was positive only in these four patients.
  • The Ki-67 index was lower in the CD133(+) cells in comparison with the CD133(-) melanoma cells in three cases.
  • We found no positivity for CD133 in all the Spitz nevi.
  • CD133(+) cancer stem cell expression in childhood malignant melanoma might correlate with lymph node and/or visceral metastasis and may have a low proliferative Ki-67 index that might explain their chemoresistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Melanoma / secondary. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / metabolism. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20062010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Peptides
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63. Berk DR, Lane AT: Acquired bilateral agminated Spitz nevi in a child with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Pediatr Dermatol; 2010 May-Jun;27(3):282-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acquired bilateral agminated Spitz nevi in a child with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  • Multiple Spitz nevi are rare and may occur in agminated, widespread, or dermatomal distributions.
  • Agminated Spitz nevi usually arise in children, presenting on grossly normal, hyperpigmented, or most rarely, hypopigmented skin.
  • We present a child with Langerhans cell histiocytosis who developed bilateral agminated Spitz nevi in the inguinal area.
  • Unusual features included the multifocal distribution, bilateral inguinal location, and co-occurrence with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Groin. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / complications. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


64. Requena C, Requena L, Sánchez-Yus E, Kutzner H, Llombart B, Sanmartín O, Botella-Estrada R, Nagore E, Serra C, Guillén C: Hypopigmented Reed nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Oct;35 Suppl 1:87-9
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  • [Title] Hypopigmented Reed nevus.
  • Reed nevus, also named pigmented spindle cell nevus, is a peculiar melanocytic nevus, now regarded as a variant of Spitz nevus by the majority of authors.
  • It is characterized by spindle-shaped melanocytes disposed in nests located in epidermis and papillary dermis.
  • It is usually heavily pigmented, and many melanophages may also be present.
  • Hypopigmented Reed nevus shows all the typical features of conventional pigmented spindle cell nevus, but it does not contain abundant melanin.
  • This variant of Reed nevus is poorly described in literature, so we report five cases of hypopigmented Reed nevus and discuss its clinical and histopathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypopigmentation / pathology. Nevus, Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arm / pathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Leg / pathology. Lymphangioma / pathology. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2008.
  • (PMID = 18547345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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65. Glasgow MA, Lain EL, Kincannon JM: Agminated Spitz nevi: report of a child with a unique dermatomal distribution. Pediatr Dermatol; 2005 Nov-Dec;22(6):546-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Agminated Spitz nevi: report of a child with a unique dermatomal distribution.
  • Spitz nevi most commonly present as solitary lesions.
  • Multiple agminated Spitz nevi are a rare presentation, with 38 reported cases in the English language literature.
  • We report a 2-year-old girl who presented with multiple Spitz nevi in a unique, dermatome-like distribution and review the English-language literature on agminated Spitz nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16354259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-8046
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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66. Ahmadi N, Davison SP, Kauffman CL: Melanocytic nevi with Spitz differentiation: diagnosis and management. Laryngoscope; 2010 Dec;120(12):2385-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanocytic nevi with Spitz differentiation: diagnosis and management.
  • OBJECTIVES: Melanocytic proliferations with Spitz differentiation present a difficult clinicopathologic dilemma, as their spectrum ranges from benign to malignant.
  • Distinct entities include Spitz nevus, atypical Spitz nevus, and Spitzoid melanoma.
  • Their histopathologic differentiation can be challenging, and cases of Spitzoid melanoma initially diagnosed as benign Spitz nevi are reported in the literature.
  • The goal of this article is to discuss the diagnostic tools (including comparative genomic hybridization), which may be helpful in differentiating benign Spitz nevi from malignant melanoma with Spitzoid features, and to propose an appropriate management strategy for each entity.
  • METHODS: Medical records of patients referred for suspicious nevi were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Four patients with three distinct diagnoses involving Spitz differentiation were identified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons and dermatopathologists will encounter patients who have melanocytic lesions with Spitz differentiation at some point in their career.
  • We believe that a team approach between the surgeon and the dermatopathologist is crucial when diagnosing and managing patients with Spitz lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arm. Back. Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Child. Child, Preschool. Dermis / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 21072755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Florell SR, Bowen AR, Hanks AN, Murphy KJ, Grossman D: Proliferation, apoptosis, and survivin expression in a spectrum of melanocytic nevi. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):45-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proliferation, apoptosis, and survivin expression in a spectrum of melanocytic nevi.
  • The apoptosis inhibitor survivin is expressed in melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers and benign keratinocytic lesions.
  • Its expression has not been studied in melanocytic nevi.
  • OBJECTIVE: We determined the expression pattern of survivin in benign melanocytic nevi in comparison to markers of proliferation and apoptosis.
  • METHODS: Six cases of each of the following melanocytic nevi were retrieved from a dermatopathology archive: compound dysplastic nevus, intradermal nevus, compound nevus, neurotized intradermal nevus, and Spitz nevus.
  • Apoptotic and proliferation indices were calculated by counting immunoreactive cells in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostained sections, respectively.
  • RESULTS: All nevi, regardless of histologic type, expressed survivin.
  • The apoptotic rate was low for dysplastic, compound, and Spitz nevi, and apoptotic cells were not identified in any neurotized nevus.
  • The proliferative index was highest for Spitz nevi, while all other nevi demonstrated rare positive cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survivin is consistently expressed in benign melanocytic lesions, while apoptotic cells are rarely identified, suggesting the dysregulation of apoptotic pathways with the accumulation of cells in these neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 15660660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR050102-02; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K08 AR048618; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K23RR17525; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K23 RR017525; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102-02; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / KO8AR48618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44268; NLM/ PMC2292117
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68. King MS, Porchia SJ, Hiatt KM: Differentiating spitzoid melanomas from Spitz nevi through CD99 expression. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jul;34(7):576-80
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  • [Title] Differentiating spitzoid melanomas from Spitz nevi through CD99 expression.
  • BACKGROUND: A true diagnostic marker differentiating Spitz nevi (SN) from spitzoid melanoma (sMM) has been elusive.
  • Recently, the expression of CD99 has been shown in 60% of primary melanomas.
  • METHODS: Cases of sMM were selected based on the presence of key microscopic words: spitz, spindled and/or epitheliod.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17576338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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69. Isaac AK, Lertsburapa T, Pathria Mundi J, Martini M, Guitart J, Gerami P: Polyploidy in spitz nevi: a not uncommon karyotypic abnormality identifiable by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Apr;32(2):144-8
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  • [Title] Polyploidy in spitz nevi: a not uncommon karyotypic abnormality identifiable by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) often reveals imbalanced chromosomal gains in melanoma, whereas Spitz nevi typically have a normal complement of chromosomes.
  • However, there may be a subset of Spitz nevi that are perfectly tetraploid by FISH analysis, and these cases may be confused diagnostically with melanoma.
  • This study evaluates 41 cases of Spitz nevi that were histologically confirmed to be benign.
  • This article highlights the importance of polyploidy as a feature of some benign Spitz nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / genetics. Polyploidy. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Aging. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, X. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20051813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Flauta VS, Lingamfelter DC, Dang LM, Lankachandra KM: Deep penetrating nevus: a case report and brief literature review. Diagn Pathol; 2006;1:31

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  • [Title] Deep penetrating nevus: a case report and brief literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Deep penetrating nevus (DPN) is a distinct variant of melanocytic nevus and remains a histopathologic challenge to pathologists because of its resemblance to blue nevus, malignant melanoma, pigmented Spitz nevus, and congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • A brief review of the literature shows that these lesions have a distinct growth pattern and cellular morphology that can differentiate these lesions from other entities including malignant melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: It is important to recognize these features because DPN carries a better prognosis than malignant melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 16999859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1586213
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71. Stefanaki C, Stefanaki K, Antoniou C, Argyrakos T, Patereli A, Stratigos A, Katsambas A: Cell cycle and apoptosis regulators in Spitz nevi: comparison with melanomas and common nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 May;56(5):815-24
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  • [Title] Cell cycle and apoptosis regulators in Spitz nevi: comparison with melanomas and common nevi.
  • BACKGROUND: Deregulated cell cycle control is one of the hallmarks of tumor development.
  • The expression of different cell cycle regulators has been used in various neoplasms as an adjunct to diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sough to determine the expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulators in Spitz nevi and to appraise its value as a diagnostic adjunct in the differential diagnosis from melanomas and common nevi.
  • METHODS: Ki-67, p-27, p-16, p-53, p-21, Rb, cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin B1, bcl-2, and bax expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 10 Spitz nevi and was compared with 16 melanomas and 20 common nevi immunohistochemical expression.
  • RESULTS: P-27 (60% +/- 20.13), p-16 (62.00% +/- 10.85), and bcl-2 (46.00% +/- 42.47) were highly expressed in Spitz nevi, whereas Ki-67 (2.80% +/- 2.55), Rb (3.75% +/- 4.55), p-53 (2.30% +/- 0.10), cyclin A (0.70% +/- 1.56), B1 (0.20% +/- 0.34), and bax (2.65% +/- 6.37) demonstrated a limited expression.
  • The expression of bax (P = .001), Ki-67 (P < .0001), Rb (P < .0001), p-16 (P < .0001), cyclin A (P < .0001), and cyclin B1 (P < .0001) was significantly higher in melanomas in comparison with Spitz nevi, whereas p-27 expression was significantly higher in Spitz nevi (P < .0001).
  • A trend for significant difference in favor of melanomas was also observed for p-53 (P = .002).
  • Spitz nevi demonstrated a trend for a higher expression for p-21 (P = .008) and cyclin D1 (P = .006), whereas they exhibited lower p-16 (P = .004) in comparison with common nevi.
  • LIMITATIONS: The number of Spitz nevi was relatively small.
  • CONCLUSION: Spitz nevi differ from melanomas in their immunohistochemical pattern of expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulators and more closely resemble common benign nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Melanoma / physiopathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus / diagnosis. Nevus / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17437889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins
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72. Haenssle HA, Kaune KM, Buhl T, Thoms KM, Padeken M, Mitteldorf C, Emmert S: Large speckled lentiginous naevus superimposed with Spitz naevi: sequential digital dermoscopy may lead to unnecessary excisions triggered by dynamic changes. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Mar;34(2):212-5
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  • [Title] Large speckled lentiginous naevus superimposed with Spitz naevi: sequential digital dermoscopy may lead to unnecessary excisions triggered by dynamic changes.
  • We report a 14-year-old girl with a large speckled lentiginous naevus (SLN) on her left arm and shoulder.
  • As the occurrence of melanoma within SLN has been described previously, long-term follow-up of atypical lesions by digital dermoscopy was started at the age of 4 years.
  • To date, nine Spitz naevi and four dysplastic compound naevi have been excised due to dynamic changes over time.
  • No melanoma has so far been detected.
  • We critically discuss the possibility of an 'overtreatment' because of a high rate of physiological changes within SLN of children.
  • In order to avoid unnecessary excisions triggered by subtle dynamic changes, a standard approach with overview images, conventional dermoscopy and early excision of lesions that are rated as suspicious for melanoma by established algorithms may be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Disease Progression. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009 Mar;34(2):133-5 [19040513.001]
  • (PMID = 19040514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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73. Troxel DB: An insurer's perspective on error and loss in pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Oct;129(10):1234-6
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  • Pathology claim severity is high, especially for claims involving a misdiagnosis of melanoma or a false-negative Papanicolaou test.
  • Fifty-seven percent of claims involved the following 5 categories: breast specimens, melanoma, Papanicolaou smears, gynecologic specimens, and operational error.
  • CONCLUSION: A false-negative diagnosis of melanoma is the single most common reason for filing a malpractice claim against a pathologist.
  • Nearly one third of misdiagnoses involve melanoma misdiagnosed as Spitz nevus, "dysplastic" nevus, spindle cell squamous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and dermatofibroma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16196510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Martorell-Calatayud A, Requena C, Botella-Estrada R, Sangüeza OP: [Advances in molecular biology and their application in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Nov;100 Suppl 1:52-65
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  • [Title] [Advances in molecular biology and their application in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Novedades en biología molecular y su aplicación en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del melanoma.
  • Even though malignant melanoma accounts for 4 % of all skin cancers, it is the type responsible for most deaths.
  • The pathogenesis of melanoma is currently not well understood, although an interaction of environmental and genetic factors doubtlessly plays a role.
  • In dermatology, application of molecular biology techniques to the study of malignant melanoma has led to important advances in our knowledge of the main molecular pathways implicated in its development.
  • These findings not only can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease but may also have practical implications.
  • Thus, molecular characterization of malignant melanoma may be of great help in differentiating between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions when histopathological features prove insufficient as is the case, for example, in Spitz nevus and spitzoid melanoma.
  • In addition, knowledge of the abnormal molecular pathways in different malignant melanoma lesions can point to new therapeutic targets for treating patients with melanomas with distant metastases, in whom current chemotherapy has failed to extend life expectancy.
  • This problem will, however, be overcome when the molecular patterns become standardized, allowing a prognostic and therapeutic characterization of this important disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20096197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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75. Wang L, Wang G, Fan P, Gao T: Linear arrangement of hypopigmented Spitz nevi on the ear after trauma. J Dermatol; 2010 Apr;37(4):346-9
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  • [Title] Linear arrangement of hypopigmented Spitz nevi on the ear after trauma.
  • Histopathological examination of two separate lesions showed proliferation of epithelioid cells in the dermis and some of them formed nests.
  • No melanin was found in the epithelioid cells, and immunohistochemistry staining with S100, HMB45 and Melan-A were positive in the neoplasm cells.
  • According to the clinical and histopathological characteristics, it was diagnosed as hypopigmented Spitz nevi with linear arrangement after trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear / injuries. Hypopigmentation / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Child. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 20507404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Da Forno PD, Pringle JH, Fletcher A, Bamford M, Su L, Potter L, Saldanha G: BRAF, NRAS and HRAS mutations in spitzoid tumours and their possible pathogenetic significance. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Aug;161(2):364-72
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  • [Title] BRAF, NRAS and HRAS mutations in spitzoid tumours and their possible pathogenetic significance.
  • BACKGROUND: The relationships between so-called spitzoid tumours have proven difficult to understand.
  • OBJECTIVES: To address three questions: does spitzoid tumour morphological similarity reflect molecular similarity?
  • Does Spitz naevus progress into spitzoid melanoma?
  • Are ambiguous spitzoid tumours genuine entities?
  • RESULTS: Both Spitz naevi and spitzoid melanoma had a lower combined BRAF and NRAS mutation frequency compared with common acquired naevi (P = 0.0001) and common forms of melanoma (P = 0.0072), respectively.
  • To look for evidence of progression from Spitz naevi to spitzoid melanoma, HRAS was analysed in 21 spitzoid melanomas, with no mutations identified.
  • The binomial probability of this was 0.03 based on an assumption of a 15% mutation frequency in Spitz naevi with unbiased progression.
  • Under these assumptions, HRAS mutations must be rare/absent in spitzoid melanoma.
  • Thus, Spitz naevi seem unlikely to progress into spitzoid melanoma, implying that ambiguous spitzoid tumours cannot be intermediate degrees of progression.
  • In addition, the data suggest that HRAS mutation is a potential marker of benign behaviour, in support of which none of three HRAS mutant spitzoid cases metastasized.
  • CONCLUSIONS: First, the morphological similarity of spitzoid tumours reflects an underlying molecular similarity, namely a relative lack of dependence on BRAF/NRAS mutations.
  • Second, Spitz naevi do not appear to progress into spitzoid melanoma, and consequently ambiguous spitzoid tumours are likely to be unclassifiable Spitz naevi or spitzoid melanoma rather than genuine entities.
  • Third, HRAS mutation may be a marker of Spitz naevus, raising the possibility that other molecular markers for discriminating Spitz naevi from spitzoid melanoma can be discovered.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19438459.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / HRAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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77. Thiagalingam S, Johnson MM, Colby KA, Zembowicz A: Juvenile conjunctival nevus: clinicopathologic analysis of 33 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Mar;32(3):399-406
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  • [Title] Juvenile conjunctival nevus: clinicopathologic analysis of 33 cases.
  • Conjunctival nevi in children and adolescents often have histologic features that can be difficult to differentiate from malignancy.
  • We have identified a subset of childhood nevi displaying a confluent growth pattern and a lack of maturation that we have defined as juvenile conjunctival nevi (JCN), with the aim of further describing the clinicopathologic features of these lesions.
  • Lesions identified as conjunctival nevus in a tertiary referral hospital were reviewed and the subset of lesions identified as JCN were further evaluated.
  • Of the 40 conjunctival nevi identified, 33 fit the criteria for JCN.
  • Thirty-two lesions were of the compound type; one was a junctional nevus.
  • Maturation was absent in 21 of the compound nevi (66%, average age 10.3 y), and incomplete in the remaining 11 lesions (34%, average age 12.1 y).
  • The nuclei of the subepithelial nevus cells were larger than the epithelial nevus cells in 19 nevi (59%) and the same size in 13 (41%).
  • Recognition of JCN as a distinct morphologic variant of a conjunctival nevus with characteristic histologic features may help to distinguish this benign lesion from melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18300811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Erickson LA, Letts GA, Shah SM, Shackelton JB, Duncan LM: TRPM1 (Melastatin-1/MLSN1) mRNA expression in Spitz nevi and nodular melanomas. Mod Pathol; 2009 Jul;22(7):969-76
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  • [Title] TRPM1 (Melastatin-1/MLSN1) mRNA expression in Spitz nevi and nodular melanomas.
  • The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 1 (TRPM1/Melastatin-1/MLSN-1) expression has been shown to have prognostic utility in the evaluation of primary cutaneous melanoma.
  • We analyzed a series of spindled and epithelioid cell nevi (Spitz) and primary cutaneous nodular melanomas to determine whether the expression of TRPM1 mRNA may be useful in distinguishing between Spitz nevi and nodular melanomas and to further examine the patterns of TRPM1 mRNA expression in cutaneous melanocytic proliferations.
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 95 Spitz nevi and 33 nodular melanomas were analyzed for the expression of TRPM1 mRNA by in situ hybridization using (35)S-labeled riboprobes.
  • Ubiquitous melanocytic expression of TRPM1 mRNA was observed in 56 of 95 (59%) Spitz nevi and 4 of 33 (12%) nodular melanomas.
  • Diffusely scattered loss of TRPM1 mRNA was identified in 38 of 95 (40%) Spitz nevi and 2 of 33 (6%) nodular melanomas.
  • Regional loss of the TRPM1 mRNA expression by a significant subset of dermal tumor cells or a complete absence of TRPM1 expression by the dermal tumor was identified in 27 of 33 (82%) nodular melanomas, but only 1 of 95 (1%) Spitz nevi.
  • These findings suggest that the pattern of TRPM1 mRNA expression may be helpful in the differentiation of Spitz nevi and nodular melanomas.
  • Of the 16 patients who experienced metastasis, 15 (94%) had primary tumors that displayed reduced MLSN mRNA expression by all or a part of the dermal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / genetics. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. TRPM Cation Channels / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19396153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / TRPM Cation Channels; 0 / TRPM1 protein, human
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79. Troxel DB: Medicolegal aspects of error in pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 May;130(5):617-9
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  • RESULTS: Fifty-seven percent of malpractice claims involved just 5 categories of specimen type and/or diagnostic error, namely, breast specimens, melanoma, cervical Papanicolaou tests, gynecologic specimens, and system (operational) errors.
  • CONCLUSION: A false-negative diagnosis of melanoma was the single most common reason for filing a malpractice claim against a pathologist.
  • Nearly one third involved melanoma misdiagnosed as Spitz nevus, "dysplastic" nevus, spindle cell squamous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and dermatofibroma.
  • While breast biopsy claims were a close second to melanoma, when combined with breast fine-needle aspiration and breast frozen section claims, breast specimens were the most common cause of pathology malpractice claims.
  • Cervical Papanicolaou test claims were third in frequency behind melanoma and breast; 98% involved false-negative Papanicolaou tests.
  • Forty-two percent of gynecologic surgical pathology claims involved misdiagnosed ovarian tumors, and 85% of these were false-negative diagnoses of malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 16683874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Wasco MJ, Pu RT, Yu L, Su L, Ma L: Expression of gamma-H2AX in melanocytic lesions. Hum Pathol; 2008 Nov;39(11):1614-20
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  • Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of gamma-H2AX in melanoma and dysplastic nevus, but its diagnostic and prognostic utility in a full range of melanocytic lesions has not been fully studied.
  • We found that gamma-H2AX was observed at higher levels (percentage and intensity of staining) in melanoma in situ (12/13), primary cutaneous melanoma (32/33; with the exception of desmoplastic melanoma), and metastatic melanoma (58/62), which was statistically different from that in benign nevus (7/9), dysplastic nevus (6/10), and Spitz nevus (5/9) considered together (P < .0001).
  • Of note, desmoplastic melanoma (20/26) demonstrated weak or negative gamma-H2AX staining.
  • The expression of gamma-H2AX did not show significant correlation with many melanoma prognostic factors, including Breslow depth, mitotic rate, and sentinel lymph node status.
  • Except for desmoplastic melanoma, no difference in gamma-H2AX levels was observed among various melanoma subtypes.
  • The overexpression of gamma-H2AX in melanoma as opposed to nevus indicates its possible role in melanomagenesis.
  • Based on the overlap in subsets of nevi and melanomas, the potential clinical utility of this antibody remains uncertain until further studies have been carried out in a larger cohort of melanocytic lesions, including borderline cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Histones / biosynthesis. Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18656236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / H2AFX protein, human; 0 / Histones
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81. Murakami M, Wada T, Kashiwagi T, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Iizuka H: Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node. J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;34(12):821-8
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  • [Title] Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node.
  • The clinical and histopathological similarities of nodular melanoma and Spitz nevus currently still make a definitive diagnosis difficult.
  • We report here a case of nodular melanoma that was extremely difficult to diagnose both clinically and histopathologically.
  • The primary tumor was a blackish nodule on the scalp and biopsy was performed for pathological diagnosis.
  • Although our first impression was malignant melanoma, we asked two dermatopathologists for second opinions; however, one diagnosed a melanoma and the other a Spitz nevus.
  • Histopathological diagnosis to establish whether it was a melanoma metastasis or nodal nevi was also difficult, and we again asked for second opinions from another dermatopathologist in the USA.
  • According to its clinical course and the histopathology of the sentinel lymph node with additional immunohistochemistry, this case was finally diagnosed as a nodular melanoma (T4aN1aM0, stage IIIA).
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy


82. Ferrari A, Lozzi GP, Fargnoli MC, Peris K: Dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus in childhood. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Nov;31(11 Pt 1):1448-50
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  • [Title] Dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: A combined nevus most commonly consists of a blue nevus in combination with a Clark or Spitz nevus.
  • Dermoscopically, combined nevus can mimic melanoma owing to the presence of dermoscopic features common to both types of lesions.
  • Benign clinical and dermoscopic changes can occur in nevi over time, especially in children and young adults.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus showing unusual dermoscopic features.
  • RESULTS: An asymptomatic plaque with a central blue area and peripheral brown pigmentation located on the back of a 13-year-old boy was diagnosed dermoscopically as combined nevus.
  • Histopathology revealed typical features of a congenital combined nevus (blue nevus + compound nevus).
  • CONCLUSION: Over time, congenital combined nevus may show clinical and dermoscopic changes in size, color, and structure.
  • Surgical excision is recommended when clinical and dermoscopic features are equivocal and the diagnosis of melanoma cannot be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Back. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16416618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Holsinger FC, Hafemeister AC, Hicks MJ, Sulek M, Huh WW, Friedman EM: Differential diagnosis of pediatric tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 45-year multi-institutional review. Ear Nose Throat J; 2010 Nov;89(11):534-40
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of pediatric tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 45-year multi-institutional review.
  • All patients had been diagnosed with a tumor of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses between Jan.
  • Lesions included adnexal neoplasm, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, basal cell carcinoma, benign fibrous histiocytoma, blue nevus, chondrosarcoma, compound nevus, epithelioma adenoides cysticum, esthesioneuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, giant cell granuloma, granulocytic sarcoma, hemangioma, hemangiopericytoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioma, lymphoma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibroma, ossifying osteofibroma, osteochondroma, osteosarcoma, port wine stain, rhabdomyosarcoma, Spitz nevus, and xanthogranuloma.
  • We believe that the large size of this study and the data on disease incidence will allow clinicians to be better informed of the differential diagnosis of neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in the pediatric population.

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  • (PMID = 21086277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Paradela S, Fonseca E, Pita S, Kantrow SM, Goncharuk VN, Diwan H, Prieto VG: Spitzoid melanoma in children: clinicopathological study and application of immunohistochemistry as an adjunct diagnostic tool. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jul;36(7):740-52
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  • [Title] Spitzoid melanoma in children: clinicopathological study and application of immunohistochemistry as an adjunct diagnostic tool.
  • INTRODUCTION: The term spitzoid melanoma (SM) is reserved for a rare group of tumors with striking resemblance to Spitz nevus, often developing in children diagnosed in retrospect after the development of metastases.
  • Histological type, Clark level and Breslow thickness, radial and vertical growth phase, mitotic count/mm(2), ulceration, regression, vascular and perineural invasion, satellitosis, cytology and associated nevi were reviewed.
  • Given the low mortality rate, no conclusions about the prognostic significance of histological parameters of the primary tumor could be established.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 The Authors. Journal Compilation.
  • (PMID = 19032380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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85. Roaten JB, Partrick DA, Pearlman N, Gonzalez RJ, Gonzalez R, McCarter MD: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma and other melanocytic tumors in adolescents. J Pediatr Surg; 2005 Jan;40(1):232-5
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma and other melanocytic tumors in adolescents.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Melanoma is rare, accounting for only 1% of all pediatric malignancies.
  • The management of pediatric melanoma is controversial but largely parallels that of an adult occurrence.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNBX) has become a standard of care for adults with melanoma, but the role of this procedure in the staging of pediatric patients remains to be established.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of patients younger than 21 years (N = 20) undergoing SLNBX for melanoma or other melanocytic skin lesions at the University of Colorado Health Science Center between 1996 and 2003 was conducted.
  • As in adults, the sentinel node status correlates with primary tumor depth.
  • At 33 months median follow-up, all patients were disease free.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy can be successfully and safely performed in pediatric patients for melanoma and atypical nevi.
  • Completion lymph node dissection for microscopic disease is a morbid procedure with uncertain benefit to pediatric or adult patients with a positive SLNBX result.
  • Long-term follow-up data are needed before SLNBX can become a standard of care in pediatric melanoma or as a diagnostic tool to distinguish the atypical Spitz nevus from melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15868590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA86913
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Busam KJ, Pulitzer M: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with diagnostically controversial Spitzoid melanocytic tumors? Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):253-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with diagnostically controversial Spitzoid melanocytic tumors?
  • The distinction of a Spitz nevus from melanoma can be very difficult.
  • Pathologists may disagree on whether a Spitzoid melanocytic proliferation is benign or malignant, or acknowledge uncertainty about the diagnosis.
  • As long as melanoma is suspected or strongly considered, a clinical management plan is often adopted as if the patient had melanoma, which may include sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for staging.
  • The findings of the sentinel node may resolve the diagnostic controversy about the primary tumor, but there is also the risk for more diagnostic confusion, uncertainty, and errors.
  • We review the arguments in favor and against SLN biopsy for patients with diagnostically controversial Spitzoid melanocytic tumors, summarize current experience, and illustrate diagnostic pitfalls.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18724099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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87. Da Forno PD, Fletcher A, Pringle JH, Saldanha GS: Understanding spitzoid tumours: new insights from molecular pathology. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Jan;158(1):4-14
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  • [Title] Understanding spitzoid tumours: new insights from molecular pathology.
  • Spitzoid tumours are a morphologically diverse group of lesions that share histological similarity to the Spitz naevus, a benign melanocytic skin tumour.
  • Distinguishing classic Spitz naevi from cutaneous malignant melanoma is usually achievable on standard histology sections, but occasionally equivocal lesions are encountered that show features intermediate between these two entities and consequently generate considerable clinical and histopathological concern.
  • The nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for spitzoid lesions are not standardized and this article begins by considering the adverse effect this has on our understanding of spitzoid tumour biology.
  • Investigations of some of the hallmark features of cancer and neoplasia in spitzoid tumours are described, and the contribution of these studies to our understanding of spitzoid tumour biology is considered, along with their potential diagnostic utility.
  • These studies compare spitzoid tumours with better-characterized melanocytic lesions, and from such comparisons assumptions concerning the biological nature of different spitzoid tumours can be made.
  • In contrast, investigations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and DNA gains and losses have suggested that Spitz naevi may be genetically distinct from other melanocytic tumours.
  • The studies that led to this conclusion are reviewed, as well as subsequent work examining whether the same applies to all spitzoid tumours.
  • Finally, potential pathways of tumour progression within spitzoid lesions are considered, with an emphasis placed upon insights gained from investigations of MAPK genes and DNA gains and losses.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System / genetics. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17916202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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88. Chao MM, Schwartz JL, Wechsler DS, Thornburg CD, Griffith KA, Williams JA: High-risk surgically resected pediatric melanoma and adjuvant interferon therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 May;44(5):441-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-risk surgically resected pediatric melanoma and adjuvant interferon therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with high-risk surgically resected melanoma are at risk for relapse, yet little is known about these young patients and how they tolerate high-dose interferon therapy.
  • PROCEDURE: We reviewed medical records of patients (< or =18 years) with high-risk melanoma referred to the University of Michigan Pediatric Hematology-Oncology service between January 1989 and July 2003.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients were identified with high-risk resected melanoma.
  • Primary lesions were diagnosed as unequivocal melanoma, atypical epithelioid melanocytic proliferations, or atypical Spitz tumor with indeterminate malignant potential.
  • Twelve patients had a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy or a palpable regional lymph node and underwent regional lymph node dissection (LND).
  • Two patients with unequivocal melanoma with Breslow depth >4 mm had negative SLN biopsies.
  • All patients are alive and free of disease at follow-up (median 24.5 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Invasive melanoma can occur in very young children.
  • Histologically, diagnosis may be difficult because of overlap with Spitz nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Interferons / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005 May;44(5):431-2 [15514915.001]
  • (PMID = 15468307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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89. Boo H, Hogg JP: Nasal cavity neoplasms: a pictorial review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2010 Mar-Apr;39(2):54-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Retrospective case review of pathologically and clinically proven nasal cavity neoplasms are shown with multiple modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to illustrate the findings and complement a succinct review of this category of disease.
  • Examples include squamous cell cancer, adenoid cystic cancer, esthesioneuroblastoma, inverted papilloma, juvenile nasal angiofibroma, melanoma, lymphoma, sarcoma, and benign nasal histiocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiofibroma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Chondrosarcoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Melanoma / diagnosis. Papilloma, Inverted / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20113866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6302
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Kayton ML, La Quaglia MP: Sentinel node biopsy for melanocytic tumors in children. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2008 May;25(2):95-9
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  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy for melanocytic tumors in children.
  • Sentinel node biopsy is as pivotal for the staging of pediatric melanoma patients as it is for adults.
  • However, pediatric patients frequently present the clinician with pigmented lesions-such as atypical Spitz tumors or Spitzoid melanomas-that are not easy to classify as benign or malignant, and often fall into a diagnostic gray area when assessed with light microscopy alone.
  • We present a strategy for incorporating sentinel node biopsy into the overall management approach to children with atypical pigmented lesions with features suspicious for melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18697712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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91. Miettinen M, Fetsch JF: Reticulohistiocytoma (solitary epithelioid histiocytoma): a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 44 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;30(4):521-8
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  • [Title] Reticulohistiocytoma (solitary epithelioid histiocytoma): a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 44 cases.
  • In this study, we analyzed a uniform group of 44 lesions composed of epithelioid histiocytes, comprising a subset of lesions originally designated as reticulohistiocytoma, and propose designating them as "solitary epithelioid histiocytoma" (SEH), in line with the recently published classification proposal for histiocytic disorders.
  • They were composed of large epithelioid histiocytes with a varying number of lymphocytes and neutrophils.
  • Immunohistochemically, the epithelioid histiocytes were positive for CD163, CD68, lysozyme (variably), and vimentin.
  • The epithelioid histiocytes were consistently negative for CD3, CD20, CD30, HMB45, and keratins.
  • SEH is a benign, probably reactive, histiocytic proliferation of unknown etiology.
  • It needs to be distinguished from Rosai-Dorfman disease, juvenile xanthogranuloma, a variety of granulomatous conditions, and some malignant neoplasms, including histiocytic sarcoma, melanoma, and epithelioid sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytosis, Sinus / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sex Distribution. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16625100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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92. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Seidenari S: In vivo assessment of melanocytic nests in nevi and melanomas by reflectance confocal microscopy. Mod Pathol; 2005 Apr;18(4):469-74
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  • [Title] In vivo assessment of melanocytic nests in nevi and melanomas by reflectance confocal microscopy.
  • The aim of this study was to describe and characterize the cytological and architectural aspects of cell clusters in melanocytic lesions observed by confocal microscopy, and to correlate them with routine histopathology.
  • A total of 55 melanocytic lesions comprising 20 melanomas, 25 acquired nevi and 10 Spitz nevi were studied by means of reflectance confocal microscopy, dermoscopy and routine histopathology.
  • Three different types of cell clusters at confocal microscopy observation (dense, sparse cell and cerebriform clusters) were identified and correlated with histopathology.
  • Dense clusters appeared characteristic for benign lesions, although present in 13 out of 20 melanomas.
  • Sparse cell clusters were more frequently observable in melanomas, but also sporadically present in one Spitz nevus.
  • Moreover, cerebriform clusters were exclusively observed in five out of 20 melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15529179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Maly A, Epstein D, Meir K, Pe'er J: Histological criteria for grading of atypia in melanocytic conjunctival lesions. Pathology; 2008 Dec;40(7):676-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIMS: To develop a standardised protocol for grading atypia in melanocytic conjunctival lesions (MCL), mainly primary acquired melanosis (PAM) and inflamed juvenile conjunctival naevi (IJCN) and to establish prognostic parameters for progression to malignant melanoma (MM).
  • Histological slides of MCL diagnosed as conjunctival naevus (CN; 222 cases), PAM (42 cases), and IJCN (40 cases) were reviewed.
  • IJCN cases showed architectural disorder only.
  • Neither architectural disorder nor cytological atypia were found in the CN.
  • CONCLUSION: The standardised histological scoring protocol of MCL is reliable, and may reduce the risk of confusing a benign MCL, such as IJCN, with one that is potentially preneoplastic.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanosis / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18985522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Dhouib RS, Sassi S, Jbeli A, Driss M, Mrad K, Abbes I, Ben Romdhane K: Desmoplastic spitz nevus: report of a case and review of the literature. Pathologica; 2008 Jun;100(3):181-4
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic spitz nevus: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Desmoplastic spitz nevus (DSN) is an uncommon melanocytic lesion.
  • The histologic features of this benign tumour may mimic those of certain benign (dermatofibroma and desmoplastic cellular blue nevus) or malignant (metastatic carcinoma and malignant melanoma) neoplasms.
  • We report the case of a male with a DSN, and also review the clinical characteristics, histologic features and differential diagnosis of this extremely rare lesion.
  • The neoplastic cells were large and epithelioid-shaped, and were either isolated as individual cells or arranged in small nests in a paucicellular hyalinized stroma.
  • Diffuse expression of S100 and the absence of staining with antibodies to melan-A and HMB45 was observed.
  • The histologic presentation of this benign lesion mimics both benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18841824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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95. Quatresooz P, Piérard-Franchimont C, Piérard GE: Highlighting the immunohistochemical profile of melanocytomas: review. Oncol Rep; 2008 Jun;19(6):1367-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These designations include among others atypical and metastasizing Spitz tumor, malignant Spitz naevus, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, and melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential (MELTUMP) or Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP).
  • Such melanocytic lesions have a benign outcome but exhibit an atypical and worrisome aspect.
  • Rare individual cases of melanocytomas can progress to locoregional disease (agminate melanocytomas), and even beyond.
  • At times, the distinction between melanocytoma and melanoma is difficult and may even be impossible.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18497938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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96. Fabrizi G, Pennacchia I, Pagliarello C, Massi G: Sclerosing nevus with pseudomelanomatous features. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Nov;35(11):995-1002
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  • [Title] Sclerosing nevus with pseudomelanomatous features.
  • BACKGROUND: Among the pigmented lesions with a central area of scar, we found a group of cases histologically characterized by striking architectural alteration of the melanocytic component, but with no cytological atypia and mitotically quiescent.
  • METHODS: We selected 19 of these melanocytic neoplasms that had the following characteristics: (a) a clinically evident whitish central area suggestive of regression (with no history of a previous surgical procedure or trauma), (b) histological features of fibrous scar-like tissue at the center of the lesion, (c) the presence of large, confluent and unusually shaped melanocytic nests at the dermoepidermal junction and in the dermis, (d) a pagetoid spread of melanocytes above the epidermal basal layer and (e) remnants of nevus tissue at the border of the scar.
  • Histologically, these neoplasms have important similarities with the so-called recurrent nevus, nevi on lichen sclerosus and nevi developed during or following cutaneous inflammatory and sclerosing processes.
  • The origin of the scar in each case was obscure but was probably related to minor unnoticed trauma or to chronic friction on a nevus.
  • In few cases, the fibrosis was probably the result of partial regression of the nevus or a sequel to folliculitis.
  • The pseudomelanomatous features appear to be related to the presence of the scar, as already reported for nevi that are involved in fibrotic or scarring processes.
  • In our study, the nevi involved in the fibrotic process were congenital nevi and common or dysplastic nevi.
  • One case was a Spitz nevus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: From our data we concluded that, despite their worrisome clinical and histological aspect, the lesions described in this case series were most probably benign melanocytic nevi, involved by a fibrotic process combined with pseudomelanomatous proliferation.
  • The lack of cytological atypia, mitoses and expansive nodules allowed us to differentiate these lesions from regressing melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Proliferation. Cicatrix / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sclerosis. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Aug;36(8):913-5; author reply 916 [19586505.001]
  • (PMID = 18537860.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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97. Takata M, Suzuki T, Ansai S, Kimura T, Shirasaki F, Hatta N, Saida T: Genome profiling of melanocytic tumors using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA): Its usefulness as an adjunctive diagnostic tool for melanocytic tumors. J Dermatol Sci; 2005 Oct;40(1):51-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genome profiling of melanocytic tumors using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA): Its usefulness as an adjunctive diagnostic tool for melanocytic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The histopathology of melanocytic tumors sometimes presents diagnostic problems.
  • OBJECTIVE: We assessed the feasibility of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a novel PCR-based genome profiling method, in the classification of melanocytic tumors.
  • METHOD: We extracted DNA from paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 24 primary melanomas, 14 Spitz nevi and 17 common melanocytic nevi.
  • We analyzed the copy number gains or losses of a total of 76 genes spanning almost all chromosome arms using commercially available MLPA kits.
  • RESULTS: Although four melanocytic nevi and three Spitz nevi did not yield sufficient DNA for reliable analysis due to small tumor size, the MLPA analysis was feasible and applicable to the remaining 88% of samples.
  • We found multiple genetic aberrations in primary melanomas.
  • The total number of aberrations in each tumor ranged from 1 to 32 (average, 12.04).
  • All but two melanomas showed aberrations at more than three genetic loci.
  • Seventeen (70.8%) of the 24 melanomas showed a copy number loss of either the CDKN2A or CDKN2B gene on chromosome 9p21.
  • All the Spitz nevi and 7 (50%) of 14 common melanocytic nevi had copy number changes at one or two gene loci (average, 1.04).
  • The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that the threshold value of copy number aberrations corresponding to 98% specificity for melanoma was 2.42 and the sensitivity using this threshold value was 92.5%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MLPA could be used as an adjunctive diagnostic tool for melanocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Molecular Probe Techniques. Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques / methods. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15. Female. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, p16. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16054806.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-1811
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dermatological science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN2B protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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98. Zangari A, Bernardini ML, Tallarico R, Ilari M, Giangiacomi M, Offidani AM, Martino A: Indications for excision of nevi and melanoma diagnosed in a pediatric surgical unit. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Aug;42(8):1412-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Indications for excision of nevi and melanoma diagnosed in a pediatric surgical unit.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Childhood melanoma is rare but increasing in incidence.
  • The purpose of this study is to discuss surgical indications of nevi and diagnosis of melanoma in a pediatric surgical unit.
  • METHODS: Data relative to the patients who underwent removal of nevi in our pediatric surgical unit from 1999 to 2005 were reviewed to identify indications, histology, and melanoma occurrence.
  • RESULTS: The most frequent indication was atypical nevus.
  • Compound nevus was the most common finding, followed by congenital and Spitz nevi.
  • Melanoma was diagnosed in 3 excised nevi, and in 1 case it occurred as a metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed a pattern of indications for surgery similar to that described in the literature, with a high detection rate of melanoma, nonetheless showing that some rare conditions may delay diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17706506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Mourmouras V, Fimiani M, Rubegni P, Epistolato MC, Malagnino V, Cardone C, Cosci E, Nisi MC, Miracco C: Evaluation of tumour-infiltrating CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in human cutaneous benign and atypical naevi, melanomas and melanoma metastases. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Sep;157(3):531-9
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  • [Title] Evaluation of tumour-infiltrating CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in human cutaneous benign and atypical naevi, melanomas and melanoma metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are thought to induce immunotolerance in melanoma.
  • They have not yet been investigated in the entire spectrum of melanocytic cutaneous lesions within a tumour site.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs among tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in cutaneous melanocytic lesions.
  • METHODS: We analysed 128 lesions (10 benign junctional common naevi, 10 benign compound common naevi, 10 compound Spitz naevi, 10 junctional atypical naevi, 20 compound atypical naevi, 20 radial growth phase melanomas, 30 vertical growth phase melanomas and 18 melanoma metastases).
  • Junctional atypical naevi, compound atypical naevi and radial growth phase melanomas showed the highest percentages of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs (junctional atypical naevi vs. junctional common naevi, compound common naevi, compound Spitz naevi, melanoma metastases: P < 0.0001; junctional atypical naevi vs. vertical growth phase melanomas: P = 0.001; compound atypical naevi vs. junctional common naevi, compound common naevi: P < 0.0001; compound atypical naevi vs. compound Spitz naevi, melanoma metastases: P = 0.002; compound atypical naevi vs. vertical growth phase melanomas: P = 0.02; radial growth phase melanomas vs. junctional common naevi, compound common naevi, compound Spitz naevi, melanoma metastases: P < 0.0001; radial growth phase melanomas vs. vertical growth phase melanomas: P = 0.008).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The strong prevalence of CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs both in junctional and compound atypical naevi and radial growth phase melanomas, suggests that they induce immunotolerance early during melanoma genesis, favouring melanoma growth.
  • Their evaluation within a tumour site could be useful for prognostic and therapeutic purposes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology. Melanoma / immunology. Nevus, Pigmented / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD4 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / metabolism. Male

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  • (PMID = 17596146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
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100. Ray S, Jukic DM: Cutaneous granular cell tumor with epidermal involvement: a potential mimic of melanocytic neoplasia. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Feb;34(2):188-94
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  • [Title] Cutaneous granular cell tumor with epidermal involvement: a potential mimic of melanocytic neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous granular cell tumor (GCT) may present with extension into the junctional region of the epidermis and thus may mimic melanocytic neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: All cases consisted of spindle and epithelioid cells with granular cytoplasm and bland nuclei and were centered in the superficial dermis with extension into the epidermis.
  • Two cases resembled Spitz nevi and one case demonstrated lentiginous growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelioid Cells / chemistry. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Inhibins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17244032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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