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Items 1 to 83 of about 83
1. Duan G, Xu YK, Deng HJ, Huang CT: [Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of the intraductal papilloma of the breast]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 Aug;29(8):1643-6
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  • [Title] [Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of the intraductal papilloma of the breast].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of intraductal papilloma of the breast in mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and assess the diagnostic values of the two imaging modalities.
  • METHODS: Fifteen patients with intraductal papilloma of the breast confirmed surgically and pathologically underwent X-ray examination of the breast, and 11 of them also received enhanced MRI.
  • RESULTS: Enhanced MRI clearly displayed the location and morphology of the intraductal papilloma, and 7 patients showed smooth tumor margins and 2 showed irregular margins.
  • Some of the intraductal papillomas were seen encapsulated in the dilated ductal.
  • Mammography identified intraductal papillomas only in 2 of the 15 cases (13%) with lesion feature similar to that found by MRI.
  • In spite of some resemblance in the MRI findings between intraductal papillomas and breast carcinoma, MRI still serves as a useful diagnostic modality for intraductal papilloma that shows some characteristic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Papilloma, Intraductal / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19726318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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2. Yamamoto H, Okada Y, Taniguchi H, Handa R, Naoi Y, Oshima S, Kato T, Tsujie M, Iijima S, Kurokawa E, Kikkawa N, Kadone K: Intracystic papilloma in the breast of a male given long-term phenothiazine therapy: a case report. Breast Cancer; 2006;13(1):84-8
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  • [Title] Intracystic papilloma in the breast of a male given long-term phenothiazine therapy: a case report.
  • We experienced a very rare case of intracystic papilloma in a 57-year-old man who came to our hospital complaining of a left subareolar mass and nipple discharge.
  • Ultrasonography revealed a cyst with an intracystic component.
  • Pathological examination revealed the intracystic component to be intracystic papilloma.
  • There are ten reports of male intracystic papilloma including ours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects. Breast Cyst / chemically induced. Breast Neoplasms, Male / chemically induced. Papilloma / chemically induced. Phenothiazines / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16518066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Phenothiazines
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3. Singh P, Misra V, Singh PA, Mehrotra R: Multiple intraductal papillomas of breast clinically masquerading as malignancy. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):112-4
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  • [Title] Multiple intraductal papillomas of breast clinically masquerading as malignancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraductal papilloma is characterized by proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells overlying fibro-vascular stalks creating an arborescent structure within the lumen of duct.
  • Some times multiple papillomas with florid proliferation of epithelium may be confused with malignancy.
  • A case of multiple intraductal papillomas of breast with ulceration of overlying skin and large lump leading to clinical diagnosis of malignancy is documented here.
  • CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old female presented with ulcerated mass of six months duration in the left breast.
  • No family history of carcinoma breast was present.
  • Fine needle aspiration smears showed benign cellular changes with apocrine metaplasia.
  • Biopsy from an area adjacent to nipple showed intraductal papilloma.
  • On histology with immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of multiple intraductal papillomas was made.
  • CONCLUSION: The case highlights the problem in differentiating marked papillomatosis from a malignant lesion of breast and importance of biopsy with immunohistochemistry in such cases for proper management.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20090236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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4. Kihara M, Miyauchi A: Intracystic papilloma of the breast forming a giant cyst. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):68-70
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  • [Title] Intracystic papilloma of the breast forming a giant cyst.
  • Intracystic tumors of the breast prove to benign more often than malignant, and most intracystic lesions are benign papillomas.
  • Generally, the cyst with intracystic papilloma of the breast is small, and there are few cases of intracystic papilloma of the breast forming a giant cyst in the literature.
  • We report the case had the intracystic papilloma of the breast with a giant cyst (diameter of 15.0 cm).
  • Imaging examinations showed two intracystic components in the cyst, and suggested that they were malignancy.
  • The surgical resection was performed, and histological examination revealed two intracystic papillomas.
  • In review of the literatures, it is difficult to distinguish between intracystic papilloma and intracystic papillary carcinoma by imaging or cytologic examinations preoperatively.
  • Surgery should be recommended to confirm diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Cyst / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mastectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19152017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Dzodic R, Stanojevic B, Saenko V, Nakashima M, Markovic I, Pupic G, Buta M, Inic M, Rogounovitch T, Yamashita S: Intraductal papilloma of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph node of a patient with a previous intraductal papilloma of ipsilateral breast: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:17
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  • [Title] Intraductal papilloma of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph node of a patient with a previous intraductal papilloma of ipsilateral breast: a case report and review of the literature.
  • The presence of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) is a benign condition that must be differentiated from primary or metastatic carcinoma.
  • Here we report a patient who underwent excision of enlarged ALN 10 years after she had received surgical treatment of ipsilateral breast for an intracystic intraductal papilloma (IDP).
  • Histological examination of the removed ALN revealed that the proliferative lesion consisted of papillary and tubular structures lined by luminal cuboidal cells and a distinct outer layer of myoepithelial cells resembling IDP of the breast.
  • Immunostaining with a set of immunohistochemical markers including AE/AE3, alpha-smooth muscle actin and p63 in combination with estrogen and progesterone receptors confirmed the diagnosis of ectopic IDP.This case shows that even though benign proliferative change in ectopic breast tissue is an extremely rare phenomenon, this possibility should be taken into account for correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Choristoma. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20222992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841131
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100609
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6. Greif F, Sharon E, Shechtman I, Morgenstern S, Gutman H: Carcinoma within solitary ductal papilloma of the breast. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Apr;36(4):384-6
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  • [Title] Carcinoma within solitary ductal papilloma of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: Solitary ductal papilloma of the breast, traditionally considered a benign disorder, was recently found to have malignant potential, especially when associated with atypical ductal hyperplasia.
  • METHODS: All patients diagnosed with solitary ductal papilloma at a tertiary medical center from 1994 to 2004 were identified by a database search.
  • Background, clinical and pathological data were collected for those with a carcinoma within the papilloma, and their pathological specimens were revised.
  • RESULTS: Of the 3849 breast biopsies performed in our medical center during the study period, 77 (2%) yielded a solitary ductal papilloma.
  • In 12 cases (15.6% of all solitary ductal papillomas; 0.3% of all breast biopsies), a carcinoma was found within the papilloma.
  • CONCLUSION: In the present series, the incidence of carcinoma within solitary ductal papilloma was 15.6%, indicating that solitary ductal papillomas have malignant potential.
  • SUMMARY: Carcinoma within solitary ductal papilloma of the breast was found in 15.6% of all papillomas.
  • This seems to indicate a malignant potential of papillomas and the need for surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19646841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Arpa E, Domínguez-Cunchillos F, Martínez-Montero I, De Miguel C, Moras N: [Intraductal breast papillomas in patients with Costello syndrome]. Cir Esp; 2007 Jun;81(6):345-7
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  • [Title] [Intraductal breast papillomas in patients with Costello syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Papilomas intraductales de mama en paciente afectada de síndrome de Costello.
  • Costello syndrome is a multisystemic congenital disorder with a very low prevalence.
  • Diagnosis is clinical, based on findings of mental and growth retardation and a characteristic phenotype.
  • We report the case of a patient with Costello syndrome who was referred to our unit with a suspected diagnosis of intraductal papilloma based on the presence of various episodes of nipple discharge.
  • Postoperative histopathological study confirmed the diagnosis of multiple intraductal papilloma.
  • We review the literature on the topic and discuss the advisability of aggressive surgical therapy, given the predisposition of these patients to develop both benign and malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Elastic Tissue / metabolism. Intellectual Disability / complications. Laryngeal Diseases / complications. Laryngeal Diseases / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / complications. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Pharyngeal Diseases / complications. Pharyngeal Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17553408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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8. Yamaguchi R, Horii R, Maki K, Maeda I, Date Y, Nakamura T, Miyagi Y, Iwase T, Akiyama F: Carcinoma in a solitary intraductal papilloma of the breast. Pathol Int; 2009 Mar;59(3):185-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoma in a solitary intraductal papilloma of the breast.
  • Herein is reported a rare case of carcinoma arising from papilloma of the breast.
  • A 63-year-old postmenopausal woman noticed a nodule approximately 1 cm in diameter in her left breast.
  • Ultrasonography indicated a mass with a solid pattern within an intracystic tumor measuring 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.4 cm in diameter located near the left nipple.
  • Histologically the tumor consisted of cancerous and papilloma components.
  • In contrast, the tumor cells had no atypia, and had a thick stroma in the papilloma components.
  • Possible occurrence of cancerous change in solitary intraductal papilloma of the breast was suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19261097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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9. Ishihara A, Kobayashi TK: Infarcted intraductal papilloma of the breast: cytologic features with stage of infarction. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 May;34(5):373-6
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  • [Title] Infarcted intraductal papilloma of the breast: cytologic features with stage of infarction.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is being employed with increasing frequency for the pre-operative diagnostic workup of breast lesions.
  • Although most cases show morphologic features very characteristic of specific entities, rare lesions with infarcted breast can cause problems in interpretation.
  • We present cytologic findings in seven cases of an infarcted intraductal papilloma of the breast (IDPB) that was diagnosed by FNAC, and we also report the correlation of cytological features and stages of infarcted IDPB.
  • Extensive necrosis was demonstrated with a few sheets of ductal cells in the mid-stage of infarction.
  • In the late stage of infarction, clusters of fibroblasts, ductal cells and necrotic debris were found.
  • Knowledge of the characteristic cytologic pattern in different stages of infarcted IDPB may be helpful to suggest the probable pre-operative diagnosis of those lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Infarction / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16604546.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Wei H, Jiayi F, Qinping Z, Junyi S, Yuan S, Li L, Dongwei S, Liying Q: Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy system for diagnosis and minimally invasive excision of intraductal papilloma without nipple discharge. World J Surg; 2009 Dec;33(12):2579-81
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  • [Title] Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy system for diagnosis and minimally invasive excision of intraductal papilloma without nipple discharge.
  • BACKGROUND: As intraductal papilloma (IP) includes both benign and malignant lesions, it is difficult to decide whether the patient should merely be followed up.
  • The purpose of this study is to validate the ultrasound (US)-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy system (Mammotome) for diagnosis and minimally invasive excision of IP.
  • METHODS: Six women with breast cystic-solid lesions without nipple discharge underwent B-US-guided 8-gauge Mammotome biopsy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The US-guided 8-gauge Mammotome biopsy provides an accurate pathologic diagnosis and successful complete excision of cystic-solid breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19777298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Sakai T, Makita M, Akiyama F, Uehara K, Kasumi F, Horii R, Sakamoto G: Intraductal papilloma with bloody discharge from Montgomery's areolar tubercle examined by ductoscopy from the areola. Breast Cancer; 2006;13(1):104-6
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  • [Title] Intraductal papilloma with bloody discharge from Montgomery's areolar tubercle examined by ductoscopy from the areola.
  • A patient with intraductal papilloma who had abnormal bloody discharge from Montgomery's areolar tubercle underwent mammary ductography, mammary ductoscopy from the tubercle, and microdochectomy.A 43-year-old woman who was being followed-up for left breast cancer noticed bloody discharge from Montgomery's areolar tubercle of the right breast.
  • Mammary ductoscopy of Montgomery's areolar tubercle showed a normal internal duct structure.
  • The presence of yellowish superficial lesions suggested intraductal inflammation or superficial hyperplasia of the duct epithelium.
  • Lavage cytology revealed benign papillary lesions.
  • Histologically a lactiferous duct was connected to Montgomery's areolar tubercle and an intraductal papilloma was seen in part and considered to have caused the bloody discharge.
  • In our case, Montgomery's areolar tubercles were connected to a lactiferous duct.
  • Although there are a few breast carcinomas that cause bloody discharge and eruption of areola, areolar preservation should be performed with the knowledge that disease may also involve the areola through the lactiferous ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Exudates and Transudates / cytology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Nipples. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16518070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Meherbano KM, Jaywant M, Girish J, Kiran B, Sanjay K, Anjali J, Nilima L, Dilip S, Vikas Y, Ratnamala K, Walde MS: Solitary intraductal papilloma of the breast--a diagnostic dilemma and the role of conferencing between surgeons and cytologist. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Oct;49(4):582-5
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  • [Title] Solitary intraductal papilloma of the breast--a diagnostic dilemma and the role of conferencing between surgeons and cytologist.
  • A 40 year female, presented with the complaints of spontaneous, sticky, blood stained discharge from the nipple of the left breast since 6 months.
  • On examination there was no lump palpable in either breast.
  • Cytology of the nipple discharge (ND) showed scanty cellularity consisting of tight papillary clusters of ductal cells in a hemorrhagic and inflammatory background.
  • Histopathology showed intraductal papilloma.
  • The cytological diagnosis of a papillary tumor is provisional and the definitive diagnosis must await histological examination.
  • In view of rarity of this lesion, combined with the overlapping of cytologic features in benign and malignant papillary lesions, conferencing and communication with the surgeon should be an integral part of patient evaluation and management.
  • In our case this approach resulted in less radical excision of breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17183864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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13. Moritani S, Ichihara S, Kushima R, Okabe H, Bamba M, Kobayashi TK, Hattori T: Myoepithelial cells in solid variant of intraductal papillary carcinoma of the breast: a potential diagnostic pitfall and a proposal of an immunohistochemical panel in the differential diagnosis with intraductal papilloma with usual ductal hyperplasia. Virchows Arch; 2007 May;450(5):539-47
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  • [Title] Myoepithelial cells in solid variant of intraductal papillary carcinoma of the breast: a potential diagnostic pitfall and a proposal of an immunohistochemical panel in the differential diagnosis with intraductal papilloma with usual ductal hyperplasia.
  • We examined myoepithelial status in intraductal papillary carcinoma (IPC) along with the expression of high-molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWK) and neuroendocrine markers, with special reference to the differential diagnosis of solid intraductal papillary carcinoma(SIPC) and intraductal papilloma with usual ductal hyperplasia (IP-UDH).
  • Twenty-six (93%) of the twenty-eight intraductal papillomas (IP) had myoepithelial cells in >70% of the epithelial-stromal interface of the intraluminal proliferating component.
  • If only the presence of myoepithelial cells is emphasized as a benign hallmark, about 30% of SIPCs may be underdiagnosed as IP-UDH.
  • However, by using a combination of myoepithelial markers, HMWK, and neuroendocrine markers, all of the 36 solid intraductal papillary lesions were properly classified as benign and malignant.
  • Solid intraductal papillary lesions meeting at least two of the following criteria are highly likely to be malignant:.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Molecular Weight. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17377808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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14. Niu Y, Yu Q, Yu Y, Ding XM, Shi YR: [Clonality of the peripheral papilloma and cancerous cells of breast]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Feb 27;87(8):542-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clonality of the peripheral papilloma and cancerous cells of breast].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clonality status of peripheral papilloma (peri-MP), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and normal tissue of the breast using an assay based on inactivation mosaicism of the length-polymorphic X-chromosomes at the androgen receptor (AR) locus and to explore a reliable way to distinguish the benign and malignant (or pre-malignant) cases judged morphologically.
  • METHODS: Specimens of breast tissues were obtained from 26 cases of peri-PM, 25 cases of peri-PM with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and 27 cases pf DCIS, 16 cases of developed canceration, and 20 normal women.
  • CONCLUSION: Normal breast tissue and peri-PM show polyclonality and the peri-PM with ADH shows monoclonality.
  • Clonality analysis may be a useful modality to screen high-risk cases from precancerous lesions or to distinguish between the benign hyperplasia and early carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Clone Cells / metabolism. Clone Cells / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / genetics. X Chromosome Inactivation

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  • (PMID = 17459204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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15. Tajima S, Maeda I, Kanemaki Y, Nakajima Y, Tatsunami S, Fukuda M, Takagi M: Evaluation of CD56 and CD57 immunostainings for discrimination between endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ and intraductal papilloma. Pathol Int; 2010 Jun;60(6):459-65
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  • [Title] Evaluation of CD56 and CD57 immunostainings for discrimination between endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ and intraductal papilloma.
  • Endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (E-DCIS) is an intraductal carcinoma characterized by endocrine features and expression of neuroendocrine markers.
  • E-DCIS and intraductal papilloma (IDP) resemble in their clinical features.
  • However, the former is an intraductal carcinoma, and the latter is an intraductal benign lesion.
  • It is sometimes difficult to distinguish E-DCIS from IDP because both can show near solid intraductal cellular proliferation.
  • However, it is considered that E-DCIS diagnosis is possible by diffuse immunopositivity of CD56 after having been based on histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Antigens, CD57 / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Pathol Int. 2011 Jan;61(1):49-51 [21166944.001]
  • (PMID = 20518901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, CD57; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Ondrias F: [Intraductal papillary proliferation of brest. Actual review and clinicopathological corelation]. Ceska Gynekol; 2006 Jan;71(1):61-5
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  • [Title] [Intraductal papillary proliferation of brest. Actual review and clinicopathological corelation].
  • [Transliterated title] Intraduktální papilární proliferace prsu. Aktuální prehled problematiky a klinicko-patologické korelace.
  • OBJECTIVE: Complex summary addressing current view of the intraductal papillary lesions of breast, especially focused on morphology, exact terminology and clinicopathological aspects of effective therapy.
  • METHODS: Summarized recent data, diagnostic principals and clinicopathological recommendations of papillary breast lesions created comprehensive guide for daily diagnostic and therapeutic practice.
  • RESULTS: The group of papillary tumors of the breast includes various lesions with different biologic potential.
  • They are all presenting as pure intraductal lesions, but in case of multiple peripheral distribution imply possible risk for aggressive behavior.
  • The reason is frequent occurrence of atypical ductal hyperplasia/intraductal (in situ) carcinoma in the adjacent tissue.
  • Spectrum of secondary changes further complicates the diagnosis of papillary tumors, especially in core needle biopsy.
  • Atypical papilloma is still very controversial issue and it essentially means situation when atypical ductal hyperplasia/conventional ductal in situ carcinoma arises in preexisting papillomas or extends to it from neighborhood.
  • Finding of benign papilloma in core biopsy remains unsolved question yet.

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  • (PMID = 16465918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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17. Rose C, Bojahr B, Grunwald S, Frese H, Jäger B, Ohlinger R: Ductoscopy-based descriptors of intraductal lesions and their histopathologic correlates. Onkologie; 2010;33(6):307-12
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  • [Title] Ductoscopy-based descriptors of intraductal lesions and their histopathologic correlates.
  • BACKGROUND: In order to elucidate criteria for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, this study correlated the ductoscopy-based macroscopic description of intraductal lesions with histopathologic results.
  • For all breast lesions, the factors lesion type, number of lesions, lesion color, surface characteristics, and presence of blood or atypical vessels were reported.
  • In contrast, a smooth surface, the absence of hemorrhage and atypical vessels and a level appearance of the lesions predicted benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For predicting the benign versus malignant character of ductoscopic lesions, the following criteria should be used: presence or absence of blood and atypical vessels, surface type, and level versus polypoid appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Endoscopy. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Galactorrhea / pathology. Humans. Odds Ratio. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20523094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Sakr R, Rouzier R, Salem C, Antoine M, Chopier J, Daraï E, Uzan S: Risk of breast cancer associated with papilloma. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Dec;34(12):1304-8
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  • [Title] Risk of breast cancer associated with papilloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk of carcinoma in patients with a diagnosis of papilloma of the breast made on ultrasound large core biopsy or stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsies.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective database review (2000-2007) included 130 patients with a papilloma diagnosed on preoperative biopsies or excisional surgery specimen.
  • The final surgical histology was compared to preoperative biopsy diagnosis, and then factors associated with underestimation of malignancy were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses.
  • Benign papilloma had been identified by ductography in 34 patients and by preoperative biopsy in 48 patients.
  • Malignancy was found on final histology in 8% of patients with initial diagnosis of benign papilloma.
  • CONCLUSION: Since benign papilloma can be associated to malignancy at excisional biopsy, we still recommend surgical excision for papilloma especially when associated to identified risk factors of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Mammography. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18440190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Moriya T, Kanomata N, Kozuka Y, Fukumoto M, Iwachido N, Hata S, Takahashi Y, Miura H, Ishida K, Watanabe M: Usefulness of immunohistochemistry for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant breast lesions. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(3):173-8
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  • [Title] Usefulness of immunohistochemistry for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant breast lesions.
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is routinely performed during pathology practice for various breast lesions.
  • Hormone receptor and HER2 analysis for primary breast carcinoma and cytokeratin staining for sentinel lymph nodes analysis are widely conducted.
  • This manuscript will present three useful examples of IHC for making differential diagnosis between benign and malignant lesions.
  • Case 1 is an intraductal papilloma with solid epithelial proliferation, for which diagnosis was resolved by myoepithelial markers and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins (HMWCKs).
  • Case 2 is a noninvasive ductal carcinoma with solid and papillary morphology.
  • Many cases with such morphology mimic benign papillomas, but expression of neuroendocrine markers may lead to the correct diagnosis.
  • Case 3 is a benign complex sclerosing lesion, with recognition of a pseudoinvasive process by myoepithelial markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Clinical Laboratory Techniques. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Myoepithelioma / diagnosis. Myoepithelioma / metabolism. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19475479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Di Cristofano C, Mrad K, Zavaglia K, Bertacca G, Aretini P, Cipollini G, Bevilacqua G, Ben Romdhane K, Cavazzana A: Papillary lesions of the breast: a molecular progression? Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Mar;90(1):71-6
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  • [Title] Papillary lesions of the breast: a molecular progression?
  • INTRODUCTION: Breast papillary lesions represent a heterogeneous group of tumors ranging from benign to malignant, including several intermediate forms.
  • In order to look into the issue, we compared LOH relative frequencies of four microsatellite markers located on chromosome 16 in a set of morphologically different papillary breast lesions.
  • Sections including a malignant papillary lesion, a benign lesion (when available), and normal breast tissue were selected.
  • Fifteen malignant and twelve benign areas were microdissected using the Leica laser microdissection system (AS LMD).
  • RESULTS: Fourteen malignant lesions and twelve paired benign areas appeared to be informative for at least one of the four markers on chromosome 16.
  • In particular, LOH at loci 16p13 and 16q21 was detected in both benign and malignant lesions, whereas LOH at locus 16q23 was limited to malignant lesions.
  • Nine malignant and seven benign lesions were informative for LOH at TP53 locus, that was found to be significantly associated (p=0.01) with the malignant phenotype.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest an involvement of chromosome 16 mutations in the early steps of breast papillary tumorigenesis.
  • TP53 deletion and possibly LOH at 16q23 appear to play a role as progression factors, being they significantly associated with malignant transformation of breast papilloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16 / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Papilloma, Intraductal / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Female. Gene Deletion. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 15770529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Woodhams R, Matsunaga K, Kan S, Hata H, Ozaki M, Iwabuchi K, Kuranami M, Watanabe M, Hayakawa K: ADC mapping of benign and malignant breast tumors. Magn Reson Med Sci; 2005;4(1):35-42
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  • [Title] ADC mapping of benign and malignant breast tumors.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions and evaluating the detection accuracy of the cancer extension.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used DWI to obtain images of 191 benign and malignant lesions (24 benign, 167 malignant) before surgical excision.
  • The ADC values of the benign and malignant lesions were compared, as were the values of noninvasive ductal carcinoma (NIDC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).
  • RESULTS: The mean ADC value of each type of lesion was as follows: malignant lesions, 1.22+/-0.31 x 10(-3) mm2/s; benign lesions, 1.67+/-0.54 x 10(-3) mm2/s; normal tissues, 2.09+/-0.27 x 10(-3) mm2/s.
  • The mean ADC value of the malignant lesions was statistically lower than that of the benign lesions and normal breast tissues.
  • Major histologic types of false-positive lesions were intraductal papilloma and fibrocystic diseases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DWI has the potential in clinical appreciation to detect malignant breast tumors and support the evaluation of tumor extension.
  • However, the benign proliferative change remains to be studied as it mimics the malignant phenomenon on the ADC map.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 16127252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medical sciences : MRMS : an official journal of Japan Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Grunwald S, Heyer H, Paepke S, Schwesinger G, Schimming A, Hahn M, Thomas A, Jacobs VR, Ohlinger R: Diagnostic value of ductoscopy in the diagnosis of nipple discharge and intraductal proliferations in comparison to standard methods. Onkologie; 2007 May;30(5):243-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of ductoscopy in the diagnosis of nipple discharge and intraductal proliferations in comparison to standard methods.
  • BACKGROUND: Ductoscopy is gaining increased importance in the diagnosis of nipple discharge of unclear origin and intraductal proliferation.
  • Here, 3 invasive and 8 ductal carcinomas in situ were found, as well as 3 atypical ductal hyperplasias, 44 papillomas/papillomatoses, and 13 benign findings.
  • Duct sonography showed the highest sensitivity (67.3%), followed by MRI (65.2%), galactography (56.3%), ductoscopy (55.2%), and FNAC (51.9%).
  • The highest specificity was shown by FNAC, core biopsy, and galactography (each 100.0%), followed by mammography (92.3%), nipple smear (77.8%), ductoscopy, and duct sonography (each 61.5%); the lowest specificity was displayed by MRI (25.0%).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Cell Division / physiology. Endoscopy. Galactorrhea / etiology. Mammary Glands, Human. Nipples. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17460418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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23. Carder PJ, Garvican J, Haigh I, Liston JC: Needle core biopsy can reliably distinguish between benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast. Histopathology; 2005 Mar;46(3):320-7
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  • [Title] Needle core biopsy can reliably distinguish between benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast.
  • The appropriate management of non-malignant papillary breast lesions detected on needle core biopsy (NCB) is currently uncertain.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-seven papillary breast lesions with a histological diagnosis of papilloma, papilloma with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), multiple papillomas, 'papillomatosis' or papillary carcinoma (invasive or in situ) were identified from records at the Leeds Breast Screening and Assessment Unit.
  • In 21 cases the previous NCB contained a papillary proliferation which had been categorized as either 'B2', benign, 'B3', of uncertain malignant potential, or 'B4', suspicious of malignancy.
  • All excised cases with a previous 'B3' or 'B2' were found benign, although four of the 'B3's derived from papillomata associated with an atypical proliferation amounting to ADH.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the accuracy of NCB in the diagnosis of screen-detected papillary lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / standards. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Papilloma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2006 Jul;49(1):91 [16842253.001]
  • (PMID = 15720418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Iglesias A, Arias M, Santiago P, Rodríguez M, Mañas J, Saborido C: Benign breast lesions that simulate malignancy: magnetic resonance imaging with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 Mar-Apr;36(2):66-82
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  • [Title] Benign breast lesions that simulate malignancy: magnetic resonance imaging with radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • The typical appearance of benign breast conditions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well established and diagnosis is usually easy.
  • However, cases of benign breast lesions that are extremely difficult to differentiate from malignant breast tumors are occasionally encountered in MRI of the breast because overlap between benign and malignant lesions characteristics is found.
  • This article describes the MRI features of a variety of suspicious breast conditions that were confirmed to be benign in the histopathologic study.
  • We evaluated both enhancement kinetics and lesion morphological information to differentiate malignant from benign lesions.
  • Lesions evaluated included benign proliferative breast disease, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, granular cell tumor, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, fat necrosis, mastitis, inflammatory granuloma, epidermal inclusion cyst, and benign intramammary lymph node.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Cyst / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Humans. Mastitis / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17331838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Hatzung G, Grunwald S, Zygmunt M, Geaid AA, Behrndt PO, Isermann R, Kohlmann T, Ohlinger R: Sonoelastography in the diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical experiences. Ultraschall Med; 2010 Dec;31(6):596-603
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  • [Title] Sonoelastography in the diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical experiences.
  • PURPOSE: This prospective study aimed to compare sonoelastography, B-mode ultrasonography, and mammography in terms of their ability to distinguish benign from malignant breast lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluation revealed a total of 97 lesions (66 benign; 31 malignant) without histological confirmation at the time of the initial examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Biopsy / methods. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / ultrasonography. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Humans. Middle Aged. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / ultrasonography. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 20614414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Park YM, Kim EK, Lee JH, Ryu JH, Han SS, Choi SJ, Lee SJ, Yoon HK: Palpable breast masses with probably benign morphology at sonography: can biopsy be deferred? Acta Radiol; 2008 Dec;49(10):1104-11
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  • [Title] Palpable breast masses with probably benign morphology at sonography: can biopsy be deferred?
  • BACKGROUND: When a palpable breast mass is detected, a biopsy is usually performed even if the mass reveals probably benign morphologic features on imaging, as there is relatively little data reporting the outcome of such breast masses.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the negative predictive value for sonographic evaluation of palpable breast masses with probably benign morphology, and to assess whether follow-up may be an acceptable alternative to immediate biopsy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of the 1399 sonograms of palpable masses from January 2004 to September 2005, there were 397 patients with masses of probably benign morphology.
  • RESULTS: Of the 312 masses, there were 310 benign lesions and two malignancies, resulting in a false-negative rate of 0.6% (NPV 99.4%, P value=0.0432, 95% CI 0.0-1.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: The negative predictive value of sonography for palpable breast masses with probably benign morphology is high (99.4%).
  • Therefore, short-term imaging follow-up can be an acceptable alternative to immediate biopsy, similar to the management of nonpalpable probably benign lesions (BI-RADS category 3).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoepithelioma / diagnosis. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Biopsy, Needle. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18855166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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27. Tse GM, Tan PH, Ma TK, Gilks CB, Poon CS, Law BK: CD44s is useful in the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Nov;58(11):1185-8
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  • [Title] CD44s is useful in the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: CD44s, the standard form of CD44, has been shown to be downregulated during malignant transformation of breast cancers.
  • It has also been reported recently to be a useful marker in differentiating between benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast, with high expression in the former.
  • CD44s expression in benign and malignant papillary lesions was evaluated.
  • METHODS: CD44s expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 101 benign papillomas and 59 papillary carcinomas (seven invasive papillary carcinomas, 41 papillary ductal carcinomas in situ, and 11 ductal carcinomas involving papillomas).
  • RESULTS: Patients' age and tumour size were significantly different between the papilloma and papillary carcinoma groups (p < 0.0001).
  • CD44s showed positive staining in 45 papillomas (45%) and five papillary carcinomas (8%), and the difference was significant (p < 0.0001).
  • Using CD44s positive staining to differentiate between benign and malignant papillary lesions gives a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 45%, 92%, and 62%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD44s may be useful as an adjunct in the evaluation of morphologically problematic cases of papillary lesion of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16254109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44S antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770758
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28. Uematsu T, Kasami M: MR imaging findings of benign and malignant circumscribed breast masses: part 2. Cystic circumscribed masses. Jpn J Radiol; 2009 Dec;27(10):405-9
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  • [Title] MR imaging findings of benign and malignant circumscribed breast masses: part 2. Cystic circumscribed masses.
  • The purpose of our study was to review the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings and pathological characteristics of benign and malignant cystic circumscribed breast masses.
  • This article reviews the MR imaging findings of cystic circumscribed breast masses.
  • Intracystic papillomas typically show a single mural nodule with a washout enhancement pattern.
  • Intracystic papillary carcinomas show multiple mural nodules or grow as a solid mass that obliterates the cystic space with a washout enhancement pattern.
  • Despite the MR imaging findings, however, many circumscribed breast masses are impossible to differentiate without performing a biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / diagnosis. Breast Cyst / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / diagnosis. Humans. Mastitis / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20035411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-108X
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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29. Moriya T, Kasajima A, Ishida K, Kariya Y, Akahira J, Endoh M, Watanabe M, Sasano H: New trends of immunohistochemistry for making differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Med Mol Morphol; 2006 Mar;39(1):8-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New trends of immunohistochemistry for making differential diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Immunohistochemistry is widely used for pathological diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Other than hormone receptors and HER2/neu analysis for primary breast carcinomas, several markers may be useful for differential diagnoses, although in limited situations.
  • To decide the malignant potential of intraductal proliferative lesions, analysis for the staining pattern of cytokeratins may be a good reference.
  • Most ductal carcinoma in situ cases are diffusely positive for luminal cell markers (CK8, CK18, CK19), but negative for basal cell markers (CK5/6 and CK14).
  • However, usual ductal hyperplasia may show the mosaic staining patterns for any of these markers, which may indicate a heterogeneous cell population in benign lesions.
  • Myoepithelial markers (alpha-SMA, myosin, calponin, p63, CD10) are almost consistently positive for benign papillomas but they do not completely distinguish intraductal papillary carcinomas.
  • Preservation of myoepithelial layer is the diagnostic key when looking at benign sclerosing lesions, including carcinoma with pseudoinvasive structures.
  • E-cadherin is mostly positive for ductal carcinomas but negative for lobular carcinomas.
  • Comparison with histopathological findings of hematoxylin and eosin is essential to make proper diagnosis in the individual case.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Immunohistochemistry / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16575508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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30. Istvanic S, Fischer AH, Banner BF, Eaton DM, Larkin AC, Khan A: Cell blocks of breast FNAs frequently allow diagnosis of invasion or histological classification of proliferative changes. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 May;35(5):263-9
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  • [Title] Cell blocks of breast FNAs frequently allow diagnosis of invasion or histological classification of proliferative changes.
  • Two major limitations of breast fine needle aspiration (FNA) compared with core needle biopsies (CNB) are the inability to determine whether a cancer is invasive and to classify proliferative lesions.
  • We studied 40 consecutive "rapid cell blocks" from breast FNAs with surgical pathology follow-up to test whether cell blocks can overcome these limitations.
  • Cell blocks from 12 of 14 benign breast FNAs showed sufficient cells to assign a histologic diagnosis of no hyperplasia (1 case, confirmed on follow-up) and usual hyperplasia (11 cases; confirmed in eight of 11 on follow-up).
  • Specific histologic diagnoses included intraductal papilloma (2 cases), and in situ lobular neoplasia (2 cases).
  • Cell blocks complement smears and monolayers and appear to overcome major limitations of breast FNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary / pathology. Paraffin Embedding / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papilloma, Intraductal / classification. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / classification. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427225.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Kim MJ, Kim EK, Lee JY, Youk JH, Park BW, Kim H, Oh KK: Breast cancer from the excisional scar of a benign mass. Korean J Radiol; 2007 May-Jun;8(3):254-7
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  • [Title] Breast cancer from the excisional scar of a benign mass.
  • Breast cancer developing from a surgical scar is rare; this type of malignancy has been reported in only 12 cases to date.
  • Herein, we report on a 52-year-old female who developed infiltrating ductal carcinoma in a surgical scar following excision of a benign mass.
  • Two years previously, the patient underwent surgery and radiotherapy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast.
  • A biopsy and subsequent excision of the scar were performed; the diagnosis of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the scar was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / etiology. Cicatrix / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Foreign-Body Reaction / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17554196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627412
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32. Ding Y, Ruan Q: The value of p63 and CK5/6 expression in the differential diagnosis of ductal lesions of breast. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2006;26(4):405-7
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  • [Title] The value of p63 and CK5/6 expression in the differential diagnosis of ductal lesions of breast.
  • In order to explore the value of p63, smoothmuscle actin (alpha-SMA) and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) in the differential diagnosis of ductal lesions of breast, 88 tissue specimens of ductal lesions of breast were collected and examined histologically by HE staining.
  • The results showed that in 38 cases of benign breast lesions, the proliferating cells were all positive for p63 and alpha-SMA.
  • In 19 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 7 cases of intraductal papillary carcinoma, alpha-SMA positive cells formed a layer of continuous embroider-shaped structure and the p63 positive cells formed a layer of evenly separated embroider-shaped structure around the ducts.
  • In 38 cases of benign breast lesions, the positive rate of CK5/6 expression was 100%.
  • In 5 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia, there were few positive cells in the ducts.
  • In 19 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, almost no CK5/6 was detectable.
  • It was suggested that p63 could serve as a novel specific marker for the identification of breast myoepithelial cells.
  • CK5/6 is of value in differentiating ductal proliferation of varying degrees, especially in the differentiation between cancerous and non-cancerous changes.
  • Simultaneous detection of p63, CK5/6 and alpha-SMA can help increase the diagnostic accuracy of breast diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Keratin-5 / biosynthesis. Keratin-6 / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17120733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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33. Tse GM, Tan PH, Moriya T: The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2009 May;62(5):407-13
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast.
  • Papillary lesions of the breast represent a heterogeneous group with differing biological behaviour.
  • Correct diagnosis is crucial but may be difficult, as many benign and malignant papillary lesions have similar appearances.
  • Myoepithelial markers can help in differentiating papilloma from papillary carcinoma, as the former usually shows a continuous layer of myoepithelial cells.
  • In intracystic papillary carcinoma, there is controversy as to the presence of a complete myoepithelial cell layer around these lesions. p63 is the marker of choice as the staining is nuclear, cross-reactivity is minimal, and sensitivity is high.
  • Papilloma may frequently be complicated by superimposed different types of epithelial hyperplasia, which range from usual to atypical or even ductal carcinoma in situ, and they many be morphologically similar.
  • Neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A and synaptophysin) may be positive in papillary carcinoma, particularly in the solid type, and there may be some overlap with the ductal carcinoma in situ with spindle cells or endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • A panel of CK5/6, p63 and neuroendocrine markers can be useful in the diagnostic investigation of problematic papillary lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19126567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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34. Jaffer S, Nagi C, Bleiweiss IJ: Excision is indicated for intraductal papilloma of the breast diagnosed on core needle biopsy. Cancer; 2009 Jul 1;115(13):2837-43
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  • [Title] Excision is indicated for intraductal papilloma of the breast diagnosed on core needle biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Although it has been accepted that intraductal papillomas with atypia or malignancy diagnosed on core needle biopsy require surgical excision, the management of pure intraductal papillomas has been controversial.
  • Because some series reported a small but definite incidence of atypia or malignancy, whereas others claimed that radiologic follow-up was adequate, this study evaluated results of excision of all pure intraductal papillomas diagnosed on core needle biopsy at this institution.
  • METHODS: By using computerized pathology files from January of 2000 to December of 2004, 200 cases of intraductal papillomas on core needle biopsy were identified.
  • The diagnoses on excision were as follows: intraductal papillomas = 71 cases (68.3%), no residual intraductal papillomas = 16 (15.3%), atypical duct hyperplasia = 8 (7.7%), ductal carcinoma in situ = 6 (5.8%), and invasive carcinoma = 3 (2.9%).
  • In cases with atypical duct hyperplasia or ductal carcinoma in situ, a spectrum of histologic changes ranging from florid to atypical duct hyperplasia (14 cases), to ductal carcinoma in situ (6 cases) were present, all involving intraductal papillomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The upstage rate of pure intraductal papillomas on core needle biopsy to atypia or malignancy on excision was 16.4%.
  • Because of sampling error and the close proximity of atypia or malignancy to the intraductal papillomas (suggesting precancerous potential), excision was recommended of these lesions diagnosed on core needle biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma, Intraductal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19402174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Hungermann D, Decker T, Bürger H, Kersting C, Böcker W: [Papillary tumors of the breast]. Pathologe; 2006 Sep;27(5):350-7
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  • [Title] [Papillary tumors of the breast].
  • [Transliterated title] Papilläre Tumoren der Mamma.
  • The term papilloma applies to benign proliferative epithelial breast lesions with a papillary architecture.
  • Papilloma may occur at any site in the ductal lobular system and according to its localization is subdivided into two types: solitary (central) papilloma which are located in the major nipple/subareolar ducts or large segmental ducts and multiple (peripheral) papillomas in cystically dilated terminal ductal lobular units (TDLU).
  • In a significant number of papillomas atypia can be identified which have to be classified as atypical proliferates of the ductal type.
  • These lesions must be distinguished from the papillary type of ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Some 17% of all papilloma are associated with (synchronous) intraductal or invasive carcinoma, but these also act as an indicator for subsequent (metachronous) carcinoma.
  • As a consequence, in minimally invasive biopsy papilloma has to be classified as B3 and usually has to be followed by surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 16896678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Ibarra JA: Papillary lesions of the breast. Breast J; 2006 May-Jun;12(3):237-51
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  • [Title] Papillary lesions of the breast.
  • Papillary lesions of the breast include a variety of benign, atypical, and malignant lesions whose hallmark is the formation of either papillary tufts composed only of epithelium, or true papillary structures with fibrovascular support and epithelium.
  • The precise diagnosis has significance because of the variability in treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Papilloma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16684322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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37. Rizzo M, Lund MJ, Oprea G, Schniederjan M, Wood WC, Mosunjac M: Surgical follow-up and clinical presentation of 142 breast papillary lesions diagnosed by ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Apr;15(4):1040-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical follow-up and clinical presentation of 142 breast papillary lesions diagnosed by ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical management of breast intraductal papilloma (IDP) remains controversial.
  • The objective of this study was to survey a large cohort of benign IDP diagnosed on core needle biopsy (CNB) and to evaluate their clinical presentation and potential risk of associated atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive carcinoma as identified by follow-up surgical excision.
  • In patients with surgical follow-up the upgrade to a lesion of greater clinical significance was analyzed according to race, clinical presentation and multiplicity of papillomas.
  • Among solitary benign IDP, nearly 25% were upgraded (p < 0.001): 14.0% to ADH and 10.5% to DCIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18204989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Choi YD, Gong GY, Kim MJ, Lee JS, Nam JH, Juhng SW, Choi C: Clinical and cytologic features of papillary neoplasms of the breast. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):35-40
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  • [Title] Clinical and cytologic features of papillary neoplasms of the breast.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the cytologic features benign and malignant papillary breast lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the clinical and cytologic features in 29 cases of intraductal papilloma and 26 cases of atypical papilloma or papillary carcinoma that had been diagnosed by histologic examination.
  • RESULTS: Of the features evaluated, the diameter of the mass, naked bipolar nuclei and cell balls differed significantly between benign and atypical or malignant papillary neoplasms.
  • The average diameter of a benign papillary neoplasm was 1.8 cm, and that of an atypical or malignant papillary neoplasm was 2.2 cm (p = 0.042).
  • Naked bipolar nuclei were found in 27 cases of benign papillary neoplasm (93.1%) versus 19 cases of atypical or malignant papillary neoplasm (73.1%) (p = 0.050).
  • Of 17 cases in which cell balls were absent and naked bipolar nuclei present, 13 (76.5%) were benign papillary neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSION: Most cytologic features overlapped in benign and atypical or malignant papillary neoplasms.
  • Although they were not pathognomonic, naked bipolar nuclei and cell balls were cytologic features that differed significantly between benign and atypical or malignant papillary neoplasms.
  • When papillary neoplasms of the breast are suspected in a cytologic smear, the combination of clinical examination, mammography and cytologic features should be considered to make the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16514838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Tamura T, Usui S, Murakami S, Arihiro K, Akiyama Y, Naito K, Akiyama M: Biexponential Signal Attenuation Analysis of Diffusion-weighted Imaging of Breast. Magn Reson Med Sci; 2010;9(4):195-207
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biexponential Signal Attenuation Analysis of Diffusion-weighted Imaging of Breast.
  • In this study, we investigated the clinical utility of DWI for the breast by performing DWI using multiple b-factors on healthy volunteers and clinical subjects, analyzing the signal by fitting it with a biexponential equation, and comparing the fitting parameters of breast lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: we investigated 8 healthy women as normal cases and 80 female patients with a total of 100 breast tumors (42 benign, 58 malignant tumors) as clinical cases.
  • RESULTS: decay of DWI signal of normal mammary glands, most cysts, and some fibroadenomas showed a monoexponential relationship, and conversely, that of intraductal papilloma (IDP) and malignant tumors was well fitted by a biexponential function.
  • Comparison of parameters derived from biexponential fitting demonstrated no significant difference between benign and malignant lesions.
  • For malignant tumor subtype, the fast component fraction of noninvasive ductal carcinoma was statistically greater than that of invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: although the parameters from biexponential fitting may reflect the character of tumor cellularity, because pathological diagnosis was performed with an emphasis on cell configuration or shape rather than cellularity, it was difficult to distinguish malignant from benign tumors, including many IDPs, or to distinguish tissue types using DWI signal attenuation alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21187689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-2206
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medical sciences : MRMS : an official journal of Japan Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Sohn V, Keylock J, Arthurs Z, Wilson A, Herbert G, Perry J, Eckert M, Smith D, Groo S, Brown T: Breast papillomas in the era of percutaneous needle biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2979-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast papillomas in the era of percutaneous needle biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: The significance of breast papillomas detected on core needle biopsy (CNB) remains unclear.
  • While those associated with malignancy or atypia are excised, no clear solution exists for benign papillomas.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective review, patients were divided into benign, atypical, or malignant cohorts based on initial results.
  • While patients with malignant or atypical features were encouraged to undergo surgical excision, no standard recommendation was given for benign papillomas.
  • Mammographic features, method of initial diagnosis, pathology results, and follow-up data were analyzed.
  • 206 patients were diagnosed with 215 breast papillomas.
  • 174 (81%) papillomas were benign, 26 (12%) were associated with atypia, and 15 (7%) were associated with malignancy.
  • Two benign papillomas (1.1%) developed into cancer over an average of 53 months.
  • Average follow-up of those patients not undergoing excision for benign papilloma was 41 months; we had 92 patients with greater than two year follow-up and 57 patients with greater than four year follow-up.
  • Of patients with atypia or malignancy associated with papilloma, there was a 26% and 87% associated rate of malignancy, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign breast papillomas diagnosed by CNB have a low risk of malignancy and do not need excision.
  • Papillomas associated with atypia or malignancy should continue to be excised.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Breast / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Observation

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  • (PMID = 17549566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Yamada M, Otsuki Y, Shimizu S, Tanioka F, Ogawa H, Kobayashi H: Cytological study of 20 cases of solid-papillary carcinoma of the breast. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jul;35(7):417-22
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  • [Title] Cytological study of 20 cases of solid-papillary carcinoma of the breast.
  • Solid-papillary carcinoma (SPC) of the breast is a rare variant of low-grade intraductal carcinoma but there are few cytological studies.
  • We examined 20 cases of SPC of the breast, aged 31-80 (mean age 66.0 yr), to define the cytological features.
  • In each of the cytological specimens, we could find both malignant and benign cytological features; the former were characterized by hypercellularity, highly discohesive clusters, numerous isolated cells, and severe overcrowding cells, while the latter were marked by small and bland nuclei, a low nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, and inconspicuous nucleoli.
  • We also reviewed the cytological findings of SPC as well as neuroendocrine carcinomas with intraductal components that had been reported and we concluded that the coexistence of malignant and benign features was the most characteristic cytological feature of SPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Diseases / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17580353.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Jayaram G, Elsayed EM, Yaccob RB: Papillary breast lesions diagnosed on cytology. Profile of 65 cases. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jan-Feb;51(1):3-8
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  • [Title] Papillary breast lesions diagnosed on cytology. Profile of 65 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cytologic features of nipple discharge and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic smears from breast lesions reported as showing papillary features and to correlate them with histopathologic features.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The study group consisted of FNA smears and/or nipple discharge smears from 65 breast lesions diagnosed on cytology as duct papilloma, papillary lesion, fibrocystic condition, fibroadenoma, papillary neoplasm or papillary carcinoma.
  • There was an overlap in cytomorphologic features between papillary and nonpapillary benign lesions as well as between benign and malignant papillary neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSION: Overlap of cytologic features in nonneoplastic and neoplastic benign papillary lesions and between benign and malignant papillary neoplasms necessitates histologic evaluation in all cases diagnosed as papillary on cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17328487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Pathmanathan N, Albertini AF, Provan PJ, Milliken JS, Salisbury EL, Bilous AM, Byth K, Balleine RL: Diagnostic evaluation of papillary lesions of the breast on core biopsy. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jul;23(7):1021-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic evaluation of papillary lesions of the breast on core biopsy.
  • The management of asymptomatic intraductal papillary lesions of the breast diagnosed on core biopsy poses a challenge for patients and clinicians, as the distinction between common benign lesions and atypical or malignant varieties may be difficult without formal excision.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether a combination of histopathologic and biomarker features could be used to accurately identify benign papillary lesions on core biopsy.
  • Comparison of benign, atypical, and malignant lesions revealed that the combination of broad, sclerotic fibrovascular cores, and epithelial CK5/6 staining was most commonly seen in benign papillomas.
  • Ki67 staining revealed striking intralesional heterogeneity, but there was no difference between the high scores of benign, atypical, or malignant lesions (P=0.173).
  • In a non-overlapping set of 42 cases, a binary classifier specifying benign lesions on the basis of thick fibrovascular cores and epithelial CK5/6 staining on core biopsy gave an overall misclassification rate of 4/42 (10%) when compared with the final excision diagnosis.
  • Misclassified cases included 2/27 lesions ultimately diagnosed as benign and 2/2 atypical papillomas.
  • The combined assessment of fibrovascular core thickness and CK5/6 staining on core biopsy distinguished benign from malignant papillary lesions, but did not separate benign from atypical cases.
  • This approach may form a useful addition to the clinicopathologic evaluation of papillary lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20473278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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44. Zeng H, Zhao YL, Huang Y, Lin X, Chen XY, Li AH: [Values of color Doppler flow imaging and imaging changes of breast fascia and ligament in differential diagnosis of small breast neoplasms]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Mar;25(3):339-42
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  • [Title] [Values of color Doppler flow imaging and imaging changes of breast fascia and ligament in differential diagnosis of small breast neoplasms].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) has been widely applied to the diagnosis of breast neoplasms.
  • But combined use of CDFI and imaging changes of breast fascia and ligament (superficial and deep fascia, and Cooper's ligament) on the differential diagnosis of small breast neoplasms (< or =2 cm) has rarely been reported.
  • This study was to explore the value of combined use of CDFI and imaging changes of breast fascia and ligament in differential diagnosis of small breast neoplasms.
  • METHODS: CDFI was performed on 110 patients with small breast neoplasms.
  • Among them, 52 cases were diagnosed to be benign by pathologic examination after surgery, while the rest 58 were malignant.
  • The blood flow and Doppler image inside and around the breast lesions were analyzed.
  • The infiltration of breast fascia and ligament was also considered.
  • RESULTS: The correct diagnosis rates of CDFI in diagnosing benign and malignant small breast neoplasms were 90.4% and 84.5%, respectively.
  • There were obvious differences in blood flow grading, systolic maximum velocity (V(max)), resistance index (RI), and imaging changes of superficial, deep fascia and Cooper's ligament between benign and malignant small breast neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSION: Combination of CDFI with imaging changes of breast fascia and ligament is valuable in clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis of small breast neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Fascia / ultrasonography. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Ligaments / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Flow Velocity. Breast / blood supply. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / blood supply. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / blood supply. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / blood supply. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Papilloma, Intraductal / blood supply. Ultrasonography, Mammary. Vascular Resistance

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  • (PMID = 16536990.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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45. Ueng SH, Mezzetti T, Tavassoli FA: Papillary neoplasms of the breast: a review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Jun;133(6):893-907
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  • [Title] Papillary neoplasms of the breast: a review.
  • CONTEXT: Interpretation of papillary lesions of the breast remains a challenging task because of the wide morphologic spectrum encountered in the benign, atypical, and malignant subtypes.
  • Data on clinical significance and outcome of papillary lesions, with superimposed atypia or areas similar to ductal carcinoma in situ partially replacing the benign elements, are sparse.
  • Furthermore, complete excision of even a fully developed papillary carcinoma confined to a dilated or cystic duct is associated with an excellent prognosis, whereas a complex papilloma extending into multiple branches of a duct may ultimately recur as a carcinoma because of incomplete excision of microscopic foci.
  • The limitations in precise diagnosis of papillary lesions in aspirates are addressed, and the implications of finding papillary lesions in core biopsies are discussed.
  • Although the focus is on intraductal lesions, associated invasive carcinomas and invasive micropapillary carcinoma are also presented.
  • The optimal management of localized papillary lesions is complete excision with a small rim of uninvolved breast tissue without any prior needle instrumentation if and when the papillary nature can be determined by imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Papilloma / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010 Jan;134(1):16 [20073595.001]
  • (PMID = 19492881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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46. Beechey-Newman N, Kulkarni D, Kothari A, D'Arrlgo C, Culora G, Hamed H, Fentiman I: Breast duct microendoscopy in nipple discharge: microbrush improves cytology. Surg Endosc; 2005 Dec;19(12):1648-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast duct microendoscopy in nipple discharge: microbrush improves cytology.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast duct microendoscopy is a new technique that allows direct visualization of the mammary ductal epithelia and has the potential to provide greater accuracy in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast conditions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast duct microendoscopy was offered to all patients undergoing surgery for nipple discharge.
  • Surgery included microdochectomy (younger women) and total duct excision (especially in postmenopausal women).
  • The microbrush was used to collect samples whenever an endoluminal papilloma was seen on endoscopy.
  • The results of microbrush cytology samples were compared to ductal lavage samples.
  • RESULTS: Fifty consecutive patients undergoing microdochectomy or total duct excision for nipple discharge had breast microendoscopy (28 general, and 22 under local anesthesia).
  • Thirty-one patients had microdochectomy and nineteen had total duct excision.
  • Among the 33 patients, 15 had single papilloma, 3 multiple papilloma and 15 inflammation (erythema, fronds, adhesions).
  • Seven out of eight patients with an intraductal papillorna who had microbrush cytology showed papillary cells whereas only 2 out of 11 patients who had ductal lavage were positive for papillary cells.
  • Thus the sensitivity of the brush cytology technique for the diagnosis of papilloma was 87.5% and the sensitivity of ductal lavage 18% (p = 0.0055).
  • CONCLUSION: Breast duct microendoscopy is an effective way of establishing the etiology of nipple discharge.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / pathology. Endoscopy / methods. Nipples / pathology. Nipples / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16222469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Li JL, Wang ZL, Su L, Liu XJ, Tang J: Breast lesions with ultrasound imaging-histologic discordance at 16-gauge core needle biopsy: can re-biopsy with 10-gauge vacuum-assisted system get definitive diagnosis? Breast; 2010 Dec;19(6):446-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast lesions with ultrasound imaging-histologic discordance at 16-gauge core needle biopsy: can re-biopsy with 10-gauge vacuum-assisted system get definitive diagnosis?
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if re-biopsy with 10-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) could get definitive diagnosis for breast lesions with ultrasound (US) imaging-histologic discordance at 16-gauge core needle biopsy (CNB).
  • All malignant lesions located at VAB were treated with subsequent surgery and all benign lesions at VAB were followed up for at least 1 year.
  • In them, one case upgraded from adenosis to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); one case upgraded from adenosis to infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC); one case upgraded from atypical ductal hyperplasia to IDC; two cases upgraded from intraductal papilloma to DCIS; and one case upgraded from sclerosing adenosis to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC).
  • The subsequent surgery further demonstrated the diagnosis of VAB for all the lesions with histologic upgrade.
  • Re-biopsy could improve diagnostic accuracy in patients with breast lesions showing imaging-histologic discordance during CNB, and 10-gauge VAB was a valuable method to deal with re-biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20869243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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48. Ballesio L, Maggi C, Savelli S, Angeletti M, De Felice C, Meggiorini ML, Manganaro L, Porfiri LM: Role of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with unilateral nipple discharge: preliminary study. Radiol Med; 2008 Mar;113(2):249-64
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  • [Title] Role of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with unilateral nipple discharge: preliminary study.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with bloody or serosanguineous nipple discharge and negative mammographic findings (35/44 cases) underwent MRI for evaluation of breast ducts.
  • Ultrasonography, negative in 18 patients, identified 26 cases of ductal ectasia (12 simple, nine with solid intraductal echoes and wall thickening, five with inhomogeneous parenchyma).
  • RESULTS: MRI identified 25 enhancing lesions Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS) 3 or 4) and confirmed the galactographic findings (ductal ectasia, intraluminal filling defects).
  • Five papillomatoses appeared as patchy, homogeneous enhancing areas, 15 intraductal papillomas as areas with well-defined margins and type II time-intensity curves, and two atypical ductal hyperplasias as diffuse nodular enhancement.
  • One micropapillary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), one papillary carcinoma and one infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) were visualised as two segmental areas of enhancement and one mass-like enhancement with poorly defined margins (BI-RADS 4).
  • The follow-up was negative, showing no pathological enhancement (BI-RADS 1) in 12 patients and benign enhancement (BI-RADS 2) in seven.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast MRI can be considered a valuable examination in the diagnosis of suspected ductal disease and an alternative to galactography when the latter cannot be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Nipples / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Mammography. Middle Aged. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18386126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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49. Ahmadiyeh N, Stoleru MA, Raza S, Lester SC, Golshan M: Management of intraductal papillomas of the breast: an analysis of 129 cases and their outcome. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Aug;16(8):2264-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of intraductal papillomas of the breast: an analysis of 129 cases and their outcome.
  • INTRODUCTION: The management of intraductal papillomas of the breast has been controversial; some advocate surgical excision of all lesions despite benign pathologic features, whereas others excise only those specimens with atypia.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 129 core-biopsy-proven papillomas of the breast with atypia (n = 43) and without atypia (n = 86) and determined the rate of missed carcinoma in surgically excised specimen in each group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm the practice that papillomas with atypical features should be excised, and suggest that in patients with adequate follow-up, benign papillomas may be managed conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Papilloma, Intraductal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19484312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Torres-Tabanera M, Alonso-Bartolomé P, Vega-Bolivar A, Sánchez-Gómez SM, Lag-Asturiano E, Sainz-Miranda M, Garijo-Ayensa F: Percutaneous microductectomy with a directional vacuum-assisted system guided by ultrasonography for the treatment of breast discharge: experience in 63 cases. Acta Radiol; 2008 Apr;49(3):271-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Percutaneous microductectomy with a directional vacuum-assisted system guided by ultrasonography for the treatment of breast discharge: experience in 63 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Vacuum-assisted devices are becoming a useful tool in the diagnosis and treatment of breast pathology.
  • Recent publications show good results in percutaneous removal of benign lesions.
  • PURPOSE: To discuss our experience in percutaneous excision of ductal lesions with a vacuum-assisted, ultrasound-guided directional system.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2003 to July 2006, 63 patients with pathological nipple discharge and intraductal lesion identifiable on imaging were studied at two reference centers.
  • Galactography showed an intraductal lesion in 67 cases (94%).
  • The histopathological results in the 45 lesions biopsied demonstrated intraductal papilloma in 30 cases, dilated duct with papillomatous projections in 11, ductal ectasia with no papillary lesion in three, and a nonspecific benign result in one.
  • CONCLUSION: Percutaneous excision of ductal lesions with an ultrasound-guided, vacuum-assisted device is a safe procedure with high diagnostic and therapeutic value for the management of breast discharge.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Papilloma / surgery. Papilloma, Intraductal / surgery. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods

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  • (PMID = 18365813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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51. Mercado CL, Hamele-Bena D, Oken SM, Singer CI, Cangiarella J: Papillary lesions of the breast at percutaneous core-needle biopsy. Radiology; 2006 Mar;238(3):801-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary lesions of the breast at percutaneous core-needle biopsy.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively review the imaging and histologic findings in patients in whom a benign papillary lesion was diagnosed at core-needle breast biopsy.
  • The authors reviewed the findings from 42 patients (age range, 26-76 years; mean age, 54.3 years) with 43 benign papillary lesions diagnosed at core-needle biopsy.
  • RESULTS: At core-needle biopsy, lesions were diagnosed as papilloma (n = 29), sclerosing papilloma (n = 8), and benign papillary lesions not otherwise specified (n = 6).
  • For the 36 lesions that were surgically excised, histologic follow-up showed no residual lesion in 10, intraductal papilloma in 14, intraductal papillomatosis in two, papilloma with adjacent foci of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) in eight, and well-differentiated papillary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in two.
  • In nine of the 42 patients (21%), the diagnosis was upgraded to either ADH or DCIS (exact two-sided 95% CI = 11.4%, 36.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: The results strongly suggest that papillary lesions diagnosed as benign at core-needle biopsy should be surgically excised because a substantial number of lesions were upgraded to ADH and DCIS at excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2006.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2007 Apr;243(1):300-1; author reply 301 [17392265.001]
  • (PMID = 16424237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Reefy S, Osman H, Chao C, Perry N, Mokbel K: Surgical excision for B3 breast lesions diagnosed by vacuum-assisted core biopsy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jun;30(6):2287-90
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  • [Title] Surgical excision for B3 breast lesions diagnosed by vacuum-assisted core biopsy.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to assess whether open surgical excision is required following a B3 diagnosis on 11-gauge vacuum-assisted core biopsy (VACB) of radiologically indeterminate breast lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four women with a histological diagnosis of the B3 category on VACB of radiologically indeterminate breast lesions were identified over a 3-year period.
  • The remaining 5 patients who had 'complete' removal of the radiological abnormality using VACB under ultrasound (n=2, papilloma) or stereotactic (n=4, atypical ductal hyperplasia) guidance were followed up clinically and radiologically.
  • The disease status in three patients was upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ at open surgical excision.
  • No single case of upgrading to invasive breast cancer was identified in our series.
  • The remaining patients (16 out of 19) had a benign biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20651381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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53. Teifke A, Vomweg TW, Hlawatsch A, Nasresfahani A, Kern A, Victor A, Schmidt M, Bittinger F, Düber C: [Second reading of breast imaging at the hospital department of radiology: reasonable or waste of money?]. Rofo; 2006 Mar;178(3):330-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Second reading of breast imaging at the hospital department of radiology: reasonable or waste of money?].
  • [Transliterated title] Mammadiagnostische Zweitbefundung in der Radiologischen Klinik: sinnvoller Mehraufwand oder Ressourcenverschwendung?
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a second diagnostic reading of breast imaging at a university department of radiology.
  • The initial examinations had been performed because of symptoms (n = 117), early detection outside an organized screening program (n = 102), evaluations following breast cancer therapy (n = 13) and unknown primary tumors (n = 4).
  • RESULTS: A total of 140 lesions were malignant and 148 were benign.
  • Of the 288 lesions, 49 % were classified identically in the second reading; 36 % (79/217) of the lesions initially classified as BI-RADS 4 and 5 were downgraded to benign; and 41 % (29/71) of the lesions classified as BI-RADS 1 to 3 were upgraded as suspected of being malignant.
  • The kappa value between the first and second readers was 0.34 with respect to each BI-RADS category separately and 0.18 with respect to categories 1 to 3 (benign) versus 4 and 5 (malignant).
  • Second readers detected 23 additional malignant lesions, changed two lesions correctly classified as malignant to benign categories and caused 6 additional false-positive findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography. Papilloma / diagnosis. Radiology Department, Hospital. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Breast / pathology. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16508842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9029
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. Doshi DJ, March DE, Crisi GM, Coughlin BF: Complex cystic breast masses: diagnostic approach and imaging-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2007 Oct;27 Suppl 1:S53-64
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  • [Title] Complex cystic breast masses: diagnostic approach and imaging-pathologic correlation.
  • Complex cystic breast masses demonstrate both anechoic (cystic) and echogenic (solid) components at ultrasonography (US).
  • Numerous pathologic entities may produce complex cystic breast lesions or may be associated with them, and biopsy is usually indicated.
  • Common benign findings include fibrocystic changes, intraductal or intracystic papilloma without atypia, and fibroadenoma.
  • Common atypical findings include atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical papilloma, atypical lobular hyperplasia, and lobular carcinoma in situ.
  • Malignant findings include ductal carcinoma in situ, infiltrating ductal carcinoma, and infiltrating lobular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2007.
  • (PMID = 18180235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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55. Johnson NB, Collins LC: Update on percutaneous needle biopsy of nonmalignant breast lesions. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Jul;16(4):183-95
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  • [Title] Update on percutaneous needle biopsy of nonmalignant breast lesions.
  • Certain nonmalignant lesions encountered on percutaneous breast biopsies pose dilemmas with regard to the most appropriate clinical management subsequent to needle biopsy (ie, surgical excision vs. follow-up).
  • These lesions include columnar cell lesions, atypical ductal hyperplasia, lobular neoplasia, papillary lesions, radial scars, fibroepithelial lesions, and mucocele-like lesions.
  • As minimally invasive diagnostic procedures are now standard it is more important than ever to be aware of the limitations of percutaneous biopsy, particularly with regard to apparently benign lesions because of the risk that the radiologically detected lesion may harbor malignant disease not represented in the biopsy specimen.
  • In addition, magnetic resonance imaging is being used more frequently in breast imaging, resulting in pathologists more often encountering benign biopsies with uncertain imaging correlation.
  • This review focuses on management issues following the diagnosis of nonmalignant lesions diagnosed on percutaneous breast biopsy and highlights imaging terms commonly used in breast radiology reports to facilitate accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Hyperplasia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography. Mucocele / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Patient Selection. Predictive Value of Tests. Sclerosis. Terminology as Topic. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19546607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 145
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56. Hirose M, Hashizume T, Seino N, Kubota H, Nobusawa H, Gokan T: Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 Mar-Apr;36(2):51-65
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  • [Title] Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has become important not only for assessing the extent of breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery but also for the evaluation and diagnosis of other benign and malignant pathologies.
  • We radiologists therefore need to know the appropriate indications for performing breast MRI and understand the MRI features of breast disease.
  • We herein review and discuss the application of current pulse sequences and the imaging strategies for MRI of breast pathologies.
  • We will illustrate the MRI features of various breast pathologies including malignant tumors such as invasive and noninvasive ductal carcinoma, special types of invasive carcinoma (mucinous, apocrine, lobular carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and so on), inflammatory carcinoma, semimalignant tumor (phyllodes tumor), benign tumors (fibroadenoma, intraductal and intracystic papilloma), inflammatory conditions, and postsurgical changes.
  • We will also demonstrate three-dimensional fusion images of MR ductography and breast MRI of patients with nipple discharge.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17331837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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57. Tse GM, Tan PH, Lui PC, Gilks CB, Poon CS, Ma TK, Law BK, Lam WW: The role of immunohistochemistry for smooth-muscle actin, p63, CD10 and cytokeratin 14 in the differential diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;60(3):315-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry for smooth-muscle actin, p63, CD10 and cytokeratin 14 in the differential diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast.
  • The evaluation of myoepithelial cells can be helpful, with benign papilloma showing a continuous myoepithelial cell layer, which becomes attenuated or absent in malignant papillary lesions.
  • METHODS: A large series of 100 papillomas (28 papillomas with florid epithelial hyperplasia) and 68 papillary carcinomas (9 invasive, 44 in situ, and 15 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) involving papillomas) of the breast were stained for myoepithelial cells by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to smooth-muscle actin (SMA), p63, CD10 and cytokeratin (CK) 14.
  • RESULTS: In the papillomas, using these four antibodies, myoepithelial cells were positive in 88%, 99%, 91% and 95% of cases, respectively, with SMA showing marked stromal component cell staining and CD10 showing epithelial and stromal staining.
  • CK14 also showed epithelial staining in 71% of papillomas and 96% of papillomas with florid epithelial hyperplasia.
  • Invasive papillary carcinoma has the lowest proportion (33%) with myoepithelial cells, and DCIS involving papillomas had the highest proportion (87%).
  • CK14 has the added ability to distinguish between florid epithelial hyperplasia involving papilloma and DCIS involving papillomas.
  • CK14 and p63 may be used as an adjunct in assessing difficult papillary lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratin-14 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Papilloma / metabolism. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16698948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860581
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58. Popnikolov NK, Cavone SM, Schultz PM, Garcia FU: Diagnostic utility of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) as a marker of breast myoepithelial cells. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1535-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) as a marker of breast myoepithelial cells.
  • We evaluated the low affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) as a marker of breast myoepithelial cells.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for p75NTR was performed on paraffin sections of 122 malignant breast lesions, 28 benign lesions and the adjacent normal breast tissue.
  • The staining pattern was compared to those of myosin heavy chain and p63. p75NTR immunostain was consistently positive and compatible with p63 and myosin immunoreactivity in the myoepithelial cells of the normal mammary gland, benign breast lesions (six usual ductal hyperplasias, six specimens with sclerosing adenosis, eight intraductal papillomas, six fibroadenomas), and carcinoma in situ (18 ductal carcinomas in situ, two noninvasive papillary carcinomas, two lobular carcinomas in situ).
  • The luminal cells were negative for p75NTR, but rare positive cells were noticed in the solid areas of some of the usual ductal hyperplasias.
  • Four of 64 invasive ductal carcinomas (6%) and all metaplastic carcinomas (n = 3, 100%) showed a variable degree of p75(NTR) positivity.
  • Our study shows that p75NTR is a useful marker for breast myoepithelial cells and can be used to rule out invasive disease as well as to evaluate difficult for diagnosis sclerosing lesions.
  • Our data suggest a role of neurotrophins in the development of fibroepithelial breast tumors and some of the breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Female. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Myosin Heavy Chains / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16258511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor; EC 3.6.4.1 / Myosin Heavy Chains
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59. Hirose M, Otsuki N, Hayano D, Shinjo H, Gokan T, Kashiwase T, Suzuki K, Sawada T: Multi-volume fusion imaging of MR ductography and MR mammography for patients with nipple discharge. Magn Reson Med Sci; 2006 Jul;5(2):105-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Because nipple discharge is caused by carcinoma as well as benign disease, identification of intraductal abnormalities with ductography is important.
  • Ductography is an invasive mammographic examination in which contrast material is injected directly into the duct.
  • Ductography shows evidence of lesions, such as filling defects, duct obstruction, or wall irregularity, but it does not reveal the lesion itself.
  • Furthermore, ductography produces a two-dimensional image, so it does not show the shape of the dilated duct or the precise location of the intraductal lesion in the breast.
  • We applied three-dimensional (3D) heavily T2-weighted imaging with fat suppression of the breast to produce MR ductography.
  • The dilated ducts are seen in 3D as tubular structures with high signal, and intraductal abnormalities are seen as signal defects.
  • Furthermore, MR ductography can show an obstructed duct that cannot be seen on ductography.
  • We also performed 3D breast MRI with the intravenous infusion of contrast material to show the lesion itself.
  • Finally, we fused these 2 volume images into a single 3D fused image that not only shows the existence of intraductal abnormality, but reveals the shape, size, and extent of lesion, allowing us to understand easily the relationship between the ducts with dilation and any intraductal lesions in the breast.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Dilatation, Pathologic / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Infusions, Intravenous. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 17008767.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medical sciences : MRMS : an official journal of Japan Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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60. Liu H, Jiang YX, Liu JB, Zhu QL, Sun Q, Chang XY: Contrast-enhanced breast ultrasonography: imaging features with histopathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med; 2009 Jul;28(7):911-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced breast ultrasonography: imaging features with histopathologic correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify histopathologic correlates for the varied appearances of breast masses on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS).
  • Homogeneous enhancement corresponded to hypercellularity in the whole mass, or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was predominant.
  • In benign masses, heterogeneous enhancement corresponded to loose cell proliferation in a more sclerotic stroma.
  • Homogeneous enhancement corresponded to diffuse hypercellularity, an inflammatory cell infiltrate, or intraductal papilloma.
  • Regional enhancement corresponded to focal hypercellularity or intraductal papilloma within a dilated duct.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast mass CEUS findings correlated with histologic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Microbubbles. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Software. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19546333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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61. Eliahou R, Sella T, Allweis T, Samet Y, Libson E, Sklair-Levy M: Magnetic resonance-guided interventional procedures of the breast: initial experience. Isr Med Assoc J; 2009 May;11(5):275-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance-guided interventional procedures of the breast: initial experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has emerged as a valuable imaging tool in addition to conventional imaging modalities.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate our initial clinical experience with MR-guided core needle breast biopsy and MR-guided needle localization.
  • Lesions were categorized as malignant, high risk, or benign according to the BI-RADS MR classification system.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen (16%) lesions were malignant (9 invasive ductal carcinoma, 2 invasive lobular carcinoma, 4 ductal carcinoma in situ); 7 (7%) lesions were high risk (4 atypical ductal hyperplasia, 3 radial scars); 75 (77%) lesions were benign, mainly fibrocystic changes.
  • Other benign findings were sclerosing adenosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, fat necrosis, intraductal papilloma, fibroadenoma, capillary hemangioma, and florid ductal hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MR-guided interventional procedures of the breast are accurate, safe and feasible methods for sampling breast lesions detected only by MR and have become a significant tool in the management of certain patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Female. Gadolinium. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19637504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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62. Pant I, Joshi SC: Invasive papillary carcinoma of the male breast: report of a rare case and review of the literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2009 Jul-Sep;5(3):216-8
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  • [Title] Invasive papillary carcinoma of the male breast: report of a rare case and review of the literature.
  • Breast masses occur in men far less commonly than women.
  • Papillary lesions of the male breast are rare and comprise a spectrum of lesions ranging from benign intraductal papilloma to intraductal papillary carcinoma and invasive papillary carcinoma.
  • A diagnosis of papillary lesion favoring papillary carcinoma was rendered.
  • As far as we know, only a few cases of invasive papillary carcinoma of the male breast have been published in the literature.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of invasive papillary carcinoma of male breast in Malaysia.
  • In this purview, we discuss papillary carcinoma of male breast with review of the relevant literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19841568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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63. Chivukula M, Domfeh A, Carter G, Tseng G, Dabbs DJ: Characterization of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ with and without regressive changes: diagnostic and biologic implications. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 Dec;17(6):495-9
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  • [Title] Characterization of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ with and without regressive changes: diagnostic and biologic implications.
  • RC in breast cancer is vaguely defined in the older literature.
  • We have observed periodically similar RC in a subset of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (HGDCIS) in breast specimens.
  • It is also critically important to recognize HGDCIS-RC for diagnostic purposes, as the differential diagnosis of RC includes, benign associations such as papilloma, fibrocystic changes and periductal mastitis.

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  • (PMID = 19407654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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64. Rabban JT, Koerner FC, Lerwill MF: Solid papillary ductal carcinoma in situ versus usual ductal hyperplasia in the breast: a potentially difficult distinction resolved by cytokeratin 5/6. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jul;37(7):787-93
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  • [Title] Solid papillary ductal carcinoma in situ versus usual ductal hyperplasia in the breast: a potentially difficult distinction resolved by cytokeratin 5/6.
  • The solid papillary variant of ductal carcinoma in situ is an uncommon entity, which usually presents in the seventh or eighth decade and may be associated with invasive mucinous carcinoma.
  • Solid papillary ductal carcinoma in situ (SP-DCIS) shares many morphological features with usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) involving a papilloma: papillary architecture, solid growth, cellular streaming, and low-grade nuclear features.
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 5/6 can distinguish UDH from conventional forms of ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Most of the epithelial cells of UDH express cytokeratin 5/6, but the tumor cells of ductal carcinoma in situ do not.
  • We tested the hypothesis that the results of staining for cytokeratin 5/6 can distinguish UDH from the solid papillary variant of ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of 14 cases of SP-DCIS and 9 cases of UDH (4 involving papillomas) was performed using cytokeratin 5/6 antibody clone D5/16 B4.
  • None of the SP-DCIS tumor cells stained for cytokeratin 5/6; however, many cases did show staining of occasional entrapped, benign epithelial, and myoepithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Keratins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16784976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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65. Zervoudis S, Iatrakis G, Economides P, Polyzos D, Navrozoglou I: Nipple discharge screening. Womens Health (Lond); 2010 Jan;6(1):135-51
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  • It can be related to benign conditions, such as intraductal papilloma, duct ectasia, plasma cell mastitis or galactorrhea; or to malignant conditions such as ductal, lobular or papillary carcinoma.
  • Techniques used in nipple discharge evaluation include mammography, ultrasound, cytology (which could be assisted by a mammary pump), duct endoscopy, ductography, immunochemical methods and at least surgical excision of the pathological ducts for diagnosis and treatment in the same procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Nipples / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Galactorrhea / etiology. Humans. Mammography. Nipple Aspirate Fluid. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20050819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-5065
  • [Journal-full-title] Women's health (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Womens Health (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Vazmitel M, Spagnolo DV, Nemcova J, Michal M, Kazakov DV: Hidradenoma papilliferum with a ductal carcinoma in situ component: case report and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):392-4
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  • [Title] Hidradenoma papilliferum with a ductal carcinoma in situ component: case report and review of the literature.
  • Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is a benign cutaneous adnexal neoplasm occurring mainly in the anogenital region of adult women and has features analogous to intraductal papilloma of the breast.
  • Only a single case of ductal carcinoma in situ arising in HP has been previously reported.
  • We present a new case of HP which, in addition to the typical appearance of HP, contained a focus of ductal carcinoma in situ that appeared as enlarged pleomorphic epithelial cells having a "blastic" appearance, exhibiting atypical mitotic figures and surrounded by myoepithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18645314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Zervoudis S, Iatrakis G, Navrozoglou I, Veduta A, Vladareanu R: Transnipple pyramidectomy in pathological nipple discharge: an original minimal surgery technique in a series of 80 cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(4):307-9
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  • Pathologic nipple discharge presents a diagnostic dilemma as no one diagnostic test has proven clearly superior to any other in the differentiation of benign versus malignant conditions.
  • A transnipple approach was used to identify, get to and excise the breast tissue suspicious of having caused the pathological discharge, with a pyramide-shaped tissue dissection (pyramidectomy).
  • Breast cancer was detected in six cases, papillomatosis in four, papillomas in 30, fibrocystic changes in five, ductal ectasia in 31 and non specific findings in four cases.
  • It is concluded that transnipple pyramidectomy is a useful technique for a reliable diagnosis of pathologic nipple discharge.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Nipples / surgery. Papilloma, Intraductal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17713099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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68. Intes X: Time-domain optical mammography SoftScan: initial results. Acad Radiol; 2005 Aug;12(8):934-47
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  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Near-infrared (NIR) technology appears promising as a noninvasive technique for breast cancer screening and diagnosis.
  • The technology capitalizes on the relative transparency of human tissue in this spectral range and its sensitivity to the main components of the breast: water, lipid, and hemoglobin.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A four-wavelength time domain optical imaging system was used to perform noninvasive NIR measurements in the breast of 49 women both pre- and postmenopausal, ages 24-80.
  • Algorithms based on a diffusive model of light transport provided absolute bulk and local values of breast constituent concentrations.
  • RESULTS: Important variations in the functional and structural NIR properties of the breast were observed.
  • Demographics trend were noticed in accordance with breast physiology.
  • Moreover, consistent differences between malign and benign cases are found with optical imaging.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this pilot study illustrate the sensitivity of optical techniques to the composition of the breast.
  • In addition, preliminary data suggest that benign and malignant tumors can potentially be noninvasively differentiated with optical imaging.
  • Moreover, statistically significant discrimination based on deoxy-hemoglobin content between malign and benign cases was found with optical imaging (P = .0184, one-tailed t test).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Body Mass Index. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / classification. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / physiopathology. Female. Fibroadenoma / classification. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / physiopathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / classification. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / diagnosis. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / physiopathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Papilloma, Intraductal / classification. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / physiopathology. Quebec. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared. Statistics as Topic. Women's Health

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  • [ErratumIn] Acad Radiol. 2005 Oct;12(10):1355
  • (PMID = 16023382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Dimov A: [Risk evaluation for malignant transformation breast intraductal papilloma]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2008;(3):11-3
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  • [Title] [Risk evaluation for malignant transformation breast intraductal papilloma].
  • AIM: To evaluate the risk evaluation for malignant transformation breast intraductal papiloma.
  • We found carcinoma in only 3 cases--1 intraductal and 2 invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20058723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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70. Al-Boukai AA: Bilateral intraductal papillomas arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue synchronously with right breast intraductal carcinoma. Saudi Med J; 2010 Mar;31(3):321-4
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  • [Title] Bilateral intraductal papillomas arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue synchronously with right breast intraductal carcinoma.
  • This study describes a case of 45-year-old woman with a mass developed in the right breast.
  • Physical examination revealed a 3 cm painless mass in the right breast as well as diffuse bulge in both axillary regions, though no significant lymphadenopathy was evident.
  • Mammogram and ultrasound examination were carried out and showed malignant mass in the right breast and ectopic breast tissue in both axillae with multiple intraductal papillomas.
  • The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance of occurrence of bilateral ectopic axillary breast with intraductal papilloma synchronously with right breast malignant mass and emphasize the importance of thorough mammographic and sonographic examination of the axilla in detecting such pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20231942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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71. Vaughan A, Crowe JP, Brainard J, Dawson A, Kim J, Dietz JR: Mammary ductoscopy and ductal washings for the evaluation of patients with pathologic nipple discharge. Breast J; 2009 May-Jun;15(3):254-60
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  • [Title] Mammary ductoscopy and ductal washings for the evaluation of patients with pathologic nipple discharge.
  • The majority of breast diseases result from lesions of the ductal epithelium.
  • Mammary ductoscopy allows for visualization of intraductal abnormalities, and ductoscopic lavage provides thousands of cells for analysis.
  • We reviewed our experience of 89 cases of patients with pathologic nipple discharge (PND) undergoing ductoscopy-directed duct excision and collection of ductal washings.
  • Patients undergoing ductoscopy-directed duct excision with ductal washings had an 88% abnormal pathology rate.
  • Most abnormalities were benign (71% papillomas), but the atypia rate for this group was 62%.
  • The combination of visualization and pathologic analysis of washings provided the highest predictive value for the diagnosis of papilloma.
  • Cellular yields for this technique were excellent with most specimens yielding >5,000 epithelial cells per high powered field and with evaluable ductal cells in 82% of specimens.
  • The most accurate tool was the combination of ductal washings and ductoscopic visualization, but preoperative use of these techniques is not helpful in most cases.
  • Greater than 90% of patients with PND are found to have a lesion on pathologic examination when using this technique for directed duct excision.
  • Of interest, ductal washings obtained from symptomatic patients with benign diseases are often atypical.
  • [MeSH-major] Bodily Secretions / cytology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secretion. Endoscopy / methods. Nipples / pathology. Nipples / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19645780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Al Sarakbi W, Worku D, Escobar PF, Mokbel K: Breast papillomas: current management with a focus on a new diagnostic and therapeutic modality. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2006;3:1
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  • [Title] Breast papillomas: current management with a focus on a new diagnostic and therapeutic modality.
  • Breast papilloma is a term that describes an intraductal papillary configuration of the mammary epithelium on macroscopic or microscopic examination.
  • It includes solitary intraductal papillomas, multiple papillomas, papillomatosis, and juvenile papillomatosis (JP).Recent advances in mammary ductoscopy (MD) have raised new possibilities in the diagnosis and treatment of breast papillomas.
  • This technique represents an important diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge (PND) by allowing direct visualisation and biopsy of intraductal lesions and guiding duct excision surgery.
  • Treatment of breast papillomas often entails surgical duct excision for symptomatic relief and histopathological examination.
  • MD-assisted microdochectomy should be considered the procedure of choice for a papilloma-related single duct discharge.
  • Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that MD has the potential to reduce the number of duct excision procedures and minimise the extent of surgical resection.
  • Imaging-guided vacuum-assisted core biopsy can be diagnostic and therapeutic for papillomas seen on mammography and/or ultrasound.
  • Patients with multiple papillomas do have an increased risk of developing cancer and should be kept under annual review with regular mammography (preferably digital mammography) if treated conservatively.
  • Patients who prove to have solitary duct papilloma have insufficient increase in the risk of subsequent malignancy to justify routine follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 16417642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1395317
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73. Li JG, Li S, Liu Q, Zhao TT: [Clinical evaluation of full-field digital mammography and breast imaging reporting and data system on breast diseases]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Apr 1;45(7):464-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical evaluation of full-field digital mammography and breast imaging reporting and data system on breast diseases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the values of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) on breast diseases.
  • All patients received operation and had identified pathological diagnosis including breast cancer, breast fibroma, intraductal papilloma and breast disease.
  • The radiological diagnosis followed BI-RADS suggested by American College of Radiology.
  • Two hundreds and sixty cases (97.7%) were pathological diagnosed breast cancer in BI-RADS category V, 67.8% (82/121) in BI-RADS category IV and 16.7% (81/484) in BI-RADS category I-III.
  • CONCLUSIONS: When the radiological diagnosis is BI-RADS category V, surgery biopsy is the option.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mammography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17686303.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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74. Koo JS, Jung W: Alteration of REDD1-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulation in human breast cancer. Pathobiology; 2010;77(6):289-300
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  • [Title] Alteration of REDD1-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulation in human breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate REDD1-(regulated in development and DNA damage response 1) mediated regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in breast cancer.
  • METHODS: A tissue microarray included samples from 224 patients with breast cancer, and 30 patients with papilloma were used as a control group.
  • The phenotypic classification of breast cancer was performed based on the results of the IHC for ER, PR and HER2: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpression and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).
  • RESULTS: Glut-1 and HIF-1α were more highly expressed in TNBC, the HER2 overexpression type and papilloma than in the luminal A and B phenotypes (p = 0.000).
  • REDD1 expression was higher in papilloma than in breast cancer (p = 0.000), but no difference was found among the 4 breast cancer phenotypes (p = 0.307).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21266827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DDIT4 protein, human; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
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75. Alcock C, Layer GT: Predicting occult malignancy in nipple discharge. ANZ J Surg; 2010 Sep;80(9):646-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent minor or major duct surgery for pathological nipple discharge.
  • METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2006, 55 female patients aged between 24 and 82 years old underwent major or minor duct excision, 49 of which were for pathological nipple discharge.
  • Results of several preoperative investigations were compared with the surgical pathology to determine how their sensitivity and specificity faired in predicting malignant ductal pathology.
  • RESULTS: Of the 49 patients undergoing surgery for nipple discharge, 21 were diagnosed with intraductal papilloma, 19 with duct ectasia, 6 with carcinoma, 2 with benign breast disease and 1 with lobular carcinoma in situ.
  • This, together with several other studies, demonstrates that ductal surgery remains the only reliable way of providing a diagnosis, in addition to being the major therapeutic measure.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / secretion. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Exudates and Transudates / secretion. Nipples / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Mammary. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
  • (PMID = 20840410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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76. Al Sarakbi W, Salhab M, Mokbel K: Does mammary ductoscopy have a role in clinical practice? Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2006;3:16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is a newly developed endoscopic technique that allows direct visualisation of the mammary ductal epithelium using sub-millimetre fiberoptic microendoscopes inserted through the ductal opening onto the nipple surface.
  • These scopes also provide working channels for insufflation, irrigation, ductal lavage, and possible therapeutic intervention.
  • The objective of this study is to assess the technical feasibility of mammary ductoscopy, and examine its role in guiding ductal excision surgery and the early diagnosis of malignancy.
  • METHODS: Mammary ductoscopy (MD) was performed using a 1 mm fiberoptic microendoscope (Mastascope TM) in 26 patients (age range: 14-73 years): 13 patients undergoing mastectomy (n = 12) or lumpectomy (n = 1) for ductal carcinoma (including 12 cases of DCIS and one case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma) and 13 patients with pathological nipple discharge (PND) and benign breast imaging and simple discharge cytology.
  • Of the latter group: 10 procedures were performed under local anaesthesia (LA) in the office setting and 3 procedures were carried out under general anaesthesia (GA) to guide duct excision surgery.
  • Intraductal pathology was visualised in 8 (80%) of the 10 cases undergoing mastectomy but ductoscopic cytology was positive for malignancy in only 2 cases (sensitivity = 16%, specificity = 100%).
  • Of these 10 patients; MD was inadequate (D0) in one patient due to complete occlusion of lumen by the lesion, showed a papilloma in 3 patients (D3), duct ectasia (D2) in 3 patients, irregular thickening of the lumen suspicious of DCIS (D4) in one patient and non-specific benign findings (D2) in 2 patients.
  • Three women with benign ductoscopy and ductoscopy-assisted cytology were reassured and treated conservatively.
  • The remaining 7 patients had ductoscopy-guided duct excision which revealed DCIS in one, papilloma in 4 and benign breast disease in 2 patients.
  • Adequate cellular yield was obtained in 7 (70%) out of 10 cases (benign cytology).
  • The three patients who had MD under GA during microdochectomy had benign endoscopic appearances and final histology (one papilloma and 2 cases of duct ectasia).
  • CONCLUSION: MD is technically feasible in most patients and has a potential in the early detection of breast cancer.
  • The procedure can be performed safely in the office setting and should be considered in all patients presenting with a single duct PND.
  • MD has the potential to reduce the number of duct excision procedures and minimise the extent of surgical resection.
  • Ductoscopic cytology is not sufficiently sensitive for the diagnosis of malignancy and the development of a biopsy tool that obtains tissue under direct visualisation is required.

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  • [Cites] Eur Radiol. 1999;9(4):583-90 [10354867.001]
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  • (PMID = 16808852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1524964
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77. Greydanus DE, Matytsina L, Gains M: Breast disorders in children and adolescents. Prim Care; 2006 Jun;33(2):455-502
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast disorders in children and adolescents.
  • Concerns about problems of the breast are often noted in adolescents and their parents.
  • This review discusses issues and disorders of the breast in children and adolescents, starting with basic principles of embryology and adolescent breast development.
  • Concepts that are covered include congenital breast disorders, abnormal timing of breast development, breast asymmetry, underdeveloped breasts, breast atrophy, tuberous breasts, mammary hyperplasia, fibroadenoma, giant fibroadenoma, cystosarcoma phyllodes, intra-ductal breast papilloma, adenocarcinoma, mastitis, traumatic breast disorders, benign breast disease, fibrocystic change, mastalgia, gynecomastia, and galactorrhea.
  • A number of figures are provided illustrating breast pathologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adolescent Development / physiology. Breast / abnormalities. Breast / anatomy & histology. Breast / physiopathology. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16713771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-4543
  • [Journal-full-title] Primary care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prim. Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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78. Târcoveanu E, Lupaşcu C, Vasilescu A, Moldovanu R, Ichim M, Georgescu S, Niculescu D, Dănilă N, Dimofte G, Anton R, Crumpei F, Florea N, Ungureanu C: [Surgical treatment of gynecomastia]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2008 Nov-Dec;103(6):643-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia describes a benign increase of the mammary gland in men.
  • We also noted intraductal papillary hyperplasia in 87 cases and chronic inflammation in 35 cases.
  • The histological exam also revealed intraductal papilloma--9 cases, fibro-adenoma--1 case, papillary ductal carcinoma--1 case and mucinous carcinoma--1 case.
  • From all these data, the etiological diagnosis in presented series was: pseudo-gynecomastia--5.3% (N = 6), idiopathic--64.9% (N = 73), endocrine--7.9% (N = 9), drug induce--5.3% (N = 6), metabolic--7.9% (N = 9), tumoral--8.8% (N = 10).
  • Gynecomastia it is possible to be associated with a breast cancer, even in younger people.

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  • (PMID = 19274908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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79. Zafrakas M, Chorovicer M, Klaman I, Kristiansen G, Wild PJ, Heindrichs U, Knüchel R, Dahl E: Systematic characterisation of GABRP expression in sporadic breast cancer and normal breast tissue. Int J Cancer; 2006 Mar 15;118(6):1453-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systematic characterisation of GABRP expression in sporadic breast cancer and normal breast tissue.
  • The GABRP gene has been previously identified by in silico analysis of four million ESTs as a candidate gene differentially expressed in breast cancer.
  • Using cDNA dot blot hybridisation (cancer profiling array), quantitative RT-PCR and non-radioisotopic in situ hybridisation (ISH), we have analysed GABRP expression in breast cancer and normal breast tissues as well as in nontumorigenic and tumorigenic breast cell lines.
  • Analysis of the cancer profiling array revealed a more than 2-fold downregulation of GABRP (p < 0.001) in 76% of primary breast carcinomas (n = 50) compared to corresponding normal tissues.
  • Quantitative RT-PCR in a panel of 23 normal human tissues showed that the GABRP expression level was most abundant in the normal breast tissues compared to other human tissues.
  • GABRP downregulation in breast cancer was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR in cryopreserved breast tumour and normal breast tissue specimens (n = 22), in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens (n = 32), as well as in breast cancer cell lines (n = 8).
  • Furthermore, a significant downregulation of GABRP was noted in large (pT3-pT4) (p = 0.044) primary breast tumours.
  • Non-radioisotopic ISH showed strong GABRP expression in normal epithelial and benign papilloma breast cells, but no signal could be detected in invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Altogether, these data suggest that GABRP is progressively down-regulated with tumour-progression, and that it may be useful as a prognostic marker in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Protein Subunits / genetics. Receptors, GABA-A / genetics


80. Gao HW, Wu Y, Yao M, Chen SF, Xu CJ: [Intraduct papilloma of breast with sebaceous metaplasia: report of a case]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 May;36(5):349-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intraduct papilloma of breast with sebaceous metaplasia: report of a case].
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17706150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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81. Soran A, Balkan M, Harlak A, Evrensel T, Bonaventura M: Complicated solitary intraductal papilloma of the breast. Int J Clin Pract; 2008 Jan;62(1):160-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complicated solitary intraductal papilloma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17971167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Nguyen BD, Lidner TK: Intraductal papilloma of the breast: F-18 FDG PET demonstration. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Jul;30(7):481-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraductal papilloma of the breast: F-18 FDG PET demonstration.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 15965323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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83. Liu M: Benign epithelial proliferations in axillary lymph nodes with ipsilateral breast in situ ductal carcinoma and intraductal papilloma of the breast. Histopathology; 2008 May;52(6):771-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign epithelial proliferations in axillary lymph nodes with ipsilateral breast in situ ductal carcinoma and intraductal papilloma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18439159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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