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1. Massimi L, Tufo T, Di Rocco C: Management of optic-hypothalamic gliomas in children: still a challenging problem. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 Nov;7(11):1591-610
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of optic-hypothalamic gliomas in children: still a challenging problem.
  • Optic pathway-hypothalamic gliomas (OPHGs) are rare, often unresectable tumors that mostly occur in childhood.
  • Their biological behavior is unpredictable, although they tend to follow an aggressive clinical course in infants and a benign course in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • Carboplatin and vincristine are the most frequently used drugs, although several chemotherapeutic agents in different combinations are currently employed with good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamic Neoplasms / therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18020927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 148
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2. Kienast O, Kainberger F, Kurtaran A: [Diagnosis and therapy of diseases of the endocrine system: new trends in nuclear medicine]. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2003;115 Suppl 2:2-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of diseases of the endocrine system: new trends in nuclear medicine].
  • Diagnosis and therapy of endocrine disorders in nuclear medicine has been improved through the implementation of new techniques especially with positron emission tomography (PET).
  • For neoplasms of the adrenal gland PET systems could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant entities or to detect primary tumours.
  • Indications for nuclear medicine studies to detect abnormalities of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal system are established rarely.

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  • (PMID = 15518138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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3. Kamikawa S, Inui A, Asakawa A, Kasuga M, Tamaki N, Kobayashi N, Yamadori T: Histologic diagnosis and management of hypothalamic tumors in children by the use of newly developed flexible neuroendoscopes. Int J Oncol; 2003 Feb;22(2):269-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histologic diagnosis and management of hypothalamic tumors in children by the use of newly developed flexible neuroendoscopes.
  • Hypothalamic tumors are difficult to treat surgically, and chemotherapy and/or radiation are given based on the histology and the neuraxis staging of the tumors.
  • We have developed flexible neuroendoscopes (Yamadori-type 8 and 9) which have excellent image quality and maneuverability as well as capabilities for biopsy and electrocoagulative debulking of the cystic tumors.
  • We report the successful application of the neuroendoscopes to 10 children with hypothalamic tumors diagnosed with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Cystic tumors were evacuated, hydrocephalus managed with endoscopic operations, and some benign tumors were removed totally.
  • The relatively non-invasive approach reported here would represent a significant technical advance in the diagnosis and management of hypothalamic and other ventricular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopes. Endoscopy. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Biopsy. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebral Ventricles. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Craniotomy. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Dermoid Cyst / diagnosis. Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / surgery. Equipment Design. Female. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / radiotherapy. Germinoma / surgery. Humans. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Hypothalamic Diseases / diagnosis. Hypothalamic Diseases / pathology. Hypothalamic Diseases / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12527921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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4. Müller HL, Handwerker G, Gebhardt U, Faldum A, Emser A, Kolb R, Sörensen N: Melatonin treatment in obese patients with childhood craniopharyngioma and increased daytime sleepiness. Cancer Causes Control; 2006 May;17(4):583-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Craniopharyngioma is a rare dysontogenetic benign tumor.
  • Patients frequently suffer from endocrine deficiencies, sleep disturbances and obesity due to pituitary and hypothalamic lesions.
  • Because hypothalamic lesions may explain daytime sleepiness in craniopharyngioma patients, salivary melatonin and cortisol concentrations were examined in severely obese (BMI>or=4SD) and non severely obese (BMI<4SD) craniopharyngioma patients (n=79), patients with hypothalamic pilocytic astrocytoma (n=19), and control subjects (n=30).
  • Using a general linear model procedure analyzing the influence of BMI and tumor diagnosis on diurnal salivary melatonin we found that morning salivary melatonin levels were related to BMI (F test: p-value=0.004) and tumor diagnosis (F-test: p-value=0.032).
  • Severely obese craniopharyngioma patients and severely obese hypothalamic tumor patients had similar patterns of melatonin secretion.
  • As decreased nocturnal melatonin levels were associated with increased daytime sleepiness, BMI and hypothalamic tumor diagnosis, we initiated an experimental melatonin substitution in 10 adult obese patients (5f/5m) with childhood craniopharyngioma.
  • We speculate that hypothalamic lesions might be responsible for both obesity and daytime sleepiness.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / metabolism. Melatonin / secretion. Melatonin / therapeutic use. Obesity / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Sleep Stages
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Circadian Rhythm. Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / complications. Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / metabolism. Male. Saliva / chemistry


5. Schally AV, González Bárcena D: [History of clinical studies on hypothalamic hormone analogs in Mexico]. Gac Med Mex; 2006 Jul-Aug;142(4):315-25
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  • [Title] [History of clinical studies on hypothalamic hormone analogs in Mexico].
  • [Transliterated title] Historia de los estudios clínicos con los análogos de las hormonas hipotalámicas en México.
  • Modern LH-RH antagonist Cetrorelix was shown to be effective in men and women and useful in treatment of uterine leiomyomas and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • All these studies played a major role in introducing analogs of hypothalamic-releasing hormones into clinical medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Mexico. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17022307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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6. Chengalvala MV, Pelletier JC, Kopf GS: GnRH agonists and antagonists in cancer therapy. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents; 2003 Nov;3(6):399-410
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide that binds to GnRH receptors on pituitary gonadotrope cells to modulate the synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
  • These peptides are widely used for the treatment of clinical conditions in which modulation of or interference with sex hormone production is beneficial to prevent development or progression of benign conditions (e.g. endometriosis, uterine fibroids) or malignant tumors (e.g. breast, ovarian, endometrial and prostate carcinoma).
  • In recent years, a search for peptidomimetic compounds to replace peptides as therapeutic agents has been undertaken to find compounds with higher affinity for the GnRH receptor but do not have the disadvantages of peptides.
  • Such efforts have resulted in the identification and development of small-molecule non-peptide compounds that are sufficiently stable in vivo and possess favorable pharmacological parameters comparable to peptide antagonists.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Urogenital Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Receptors, LHRH / drug effects. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 14529448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-0118
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medicinal chemistry. Anti-cancer agents
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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7. Clementi M, Sánchez C, Benitez DA, Contreras HR, Huidobro C, Cabezas J, Acevedo C, Castellón EA: Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs induce apoptosis by extrinsic pathway involving p53 phosphorylation in primary cell cultures of human prostatic adenocarcinomas. Prostate; 2009 Jul 1;69(10):1025-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) analogs are widely used to block hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and inhibit blood androgen levels in patients with prostate cancer (PCa).
  • METHODS: Primary cultures from PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (non-malignant control) were derived from samples provided by our Institutional Hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Apoptosis / physiology. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Signal Transduction / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Phosphorylation / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19301301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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8. Schally AV: [The discovery of hypothalamic hormones and the development of antitumor analogs]. Ann Urol (Paris); 2005 Oct;39 Suppl 3:S46-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The discovery of hypothalamic hormones and the development of antitumor analogs].
  • [Transliterated title] La découverte des hormones hypothalamiques et le développement des analogues antitumoraux.
  • Their development is more recent, and they have begun to find a role in prostatic diseases, cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy.
  • Research currently in the preclinical stage involves the use of combinations of ligand analogs and cytotoxic agents to increase the anti-tumoral specificity of chemotherapy and provide greater efficacy and reduced collateral toxicity.
  • Likewise, this concept of targeted chemotherapy using analogs acting as cytotoxic agent carriers up to the tumor site is the aim of research to evaluate somatostatin and bombesin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Receptors, LHRH / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Hypothalamus / physiology. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16302710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4401
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Urol (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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9. Mazzocchi G, Malendowicz LK, Aragona F, Rebuffat P, Gottardo L, Nussdorfer GG: Human pheochromocytomas express orexin receptor type 2 gene and display an in vitro secretory response to orexins A and B. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2001 Oct;86(10):4818-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human pheochromocytomas express orexin receptor type 2 gene and display an in vitro secretory response to orexins A and B.
  • Orexins A and B are hypothalamic peptides, that act through two receptor subtypes, called OX1-R and OX2-R.
  • Here we demonstrated by RT-PCR the expression of the OX2-R, but not the OX1-R, gene in 10 benign secreting pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / pharmacology. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Estrenes / pharmacology. Humans. Orexin Receptors. Orexins. Protein Kinase C / physiology. Pyrrolidinones / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Type C Phospholipases / physiology

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  • (PMID = 11600547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Estrenes; 0 / HCRT protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Orexin Receptors; 0 / Orexins; 0 / Pyrrolidinones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 112648-68-7 / 1-(6-((3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 3.1.4.- / Type C Phospholipases
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