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Items 1 to 36 of about 36
1. Olivieri I, Teutonico F, Orcesi S, Papalia G, Uggetti C, Bastianello S, Balottin U, Veggiotti P: Paroxysmal tonic eye deviation: an atypical presentation of hypothalamic hamartoma. Epileptic Disord; 2010 Sep;12(3):233-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paroxysmal tonic eye deviation: an atypical presentation of hypothalamic hamartoma.
  • Hypothalamic hamartoma is a rare developmental non-neoplastic malformation, often characterised by early onset gelastic seizures and later progressive cognitive and behavioural deterioration.
  • In this case study, we have examined a child who presented with an atypical onset of benign paroxysmal gaze deviation between two to three months of age.
  • Based on the observation that hypothalamic hamartomas do not involve any functional region involved in eye motility, we speculate that both gaze deviation and gelastic seizures are a manifestation of the epileptogenic nature of the hypothalamic hamartoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Epilepsies, Partial / etiology. Hamartoma / physiopathology. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 20634167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1294-9361
  • [Journal-full-title] Epileptic disorders : international epilepsy journal with videotape
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epileptic Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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2. Abe T, Inoue R, Isono M, Ishii K, Fujiki M, Kamida T, Kobayashi H, Kashima K, Kusakabe T, Nakazato Y: Benign pleomorphic astrocytoma in the hypothalamus--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Feb;46(2):101-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Brain Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign pleomorphic astrocytoma in the hypothalamus--case report.
  • A 41-year-old woman presented with an unusual case of benign astrocytoma with marked pleomorphism manifesting as consciousness disturbance due to intraventricular hemorrhage.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-enhanced hypothalamic mass protruding into the third ventricle.
  • The histological findings revealed solid proliferation of tumor cells with marked pleomorphism, contrary to the benign clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothalamus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16498222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Xu Q, Yuan X, Tunici P, Liu G, Fan X, Xu M, Hu J, Hwang JY, Farkas DL, Black KL, Yu JS: Isolation of tumour stem-like cells from benign tumours. Br J Cancer; 2009 Jul 21;101(2):303-11
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolation of tumour stem-like cells from benign tumours.
  • We set out to test whether tumour stem-like cells can be identified from benign tumours.
  • RESULTS: In this study, we isolated sphere-forming, self-renewable, and multipotent stem-like cells from pituitary adenomas, which are benign tumours.
  • Furthermore, differentiated PASCs responded to stimulation with hypothalamic hormones and produced corresponding pituitary hormones that are reflective of the phenotypes of the primary pituitary tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: This study for the first time indicates that stem-like cells are present in benign tumours.

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  • (PMID = 19568241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048959-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048959; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048959; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048959-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R56 NS048959; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS048879-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048879-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS048879; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048879
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypothalamic Hormones; 0 / Pituitary Hormones
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2720199
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4. Broekman ML, Risselada R, Engelen-Lee J, Spliet WG, Verweij BH: Glioblastoma multiforme in the posterior cranial fossa in a patient with neurofibromatosis type I. Case Rep Med; 2009;2009:757898

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have an increased risk of developing neoplasms.
  • The most common brain tumors, found in 15%-20% of NF1 patients, are hypothalamic-optic gliomas, followed by brainstem and cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • These tumors generally have a benign nature.

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  • (PMID = 20029672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2796235
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5. Massimi L, Tufo T, Di Rocco C: Management of optic-hypothalamic gliomas in children: still a challenging problem. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 Nov;7(11):1591-610

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of optic-hypothalamic gliomas in children: still a challenging problem.
  • Optic pathway-hypothalamic gliomas (OPHGs) are rare, often unresectable tumors that mostly occur in childhood.
  • Their biological behavior is unpredictable, although they tend to follow an aggressive clinical course in infants and a benign course in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamic Neoplasms / therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18020927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 148
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6. Gleeson H, Amin R, Maghnie M: 'Do no harm': management of craniopharyngioma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Dec;159 Suppl 1:S95-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although histology is benign, the tumour can be clinically aggressive with local invasion and frequent recurrences.
  • Hypothalamic symptoms can have a devastating effect on quality of life and may reduce life expectancy.
  • This case highlights both the challenge of managing hyperphagia and morbid obesity and the importance of initial treatment preserving existing hypothalamic function and the need to avoid tumour recurrence and further surgery.
  • A 11-year old boy presented with hydrocephalus secondary to a craniopharyngioma (he had visual failure and hypopituitarism but few hypothalamic symptoms).

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  • (PMID = 18775978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Schally AV, González Bárcena D: [History of clinical studies on hypothalamic hormone analogs in Mexico]. Gac Med Mex; 2006 Jul-Aug;142(4):315-25
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Clinical Trials.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [History of clinical studies on hypothalamic hormone analogs in Mexico].
  • [Transliterated title] Historia de los estudios clínicos con los análogos de las hormonas hipotalámicas en México.
  • Modern LH-RH antagonist Cetrorelix was shown to be effective in men and women and useful in treatment of uterine leiomyomas and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • All these studies played a major role in introducing analogs of hypothalamic-releasing hormones into clinical medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Mexico. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17022307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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8. Garnett MR, Puget S, Grill J, Sainte-Rose C: Craniopharyngioma. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2007;2:18
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Craniopharyngiomas are benign slow growing tumours that are located within the sellar and para sellar region of the central nervous system.
  • The current treatment is gross total excision of the tumour, if there is no hypothalamic invasion or, in the presence of hypothalamic invasion, a sub-total resection with post-operative radiotherapy.
  • Overall, there is an 80% 5 year survival, though this can be associated with marked morbidity (hypothalamic dysfunction, altered neuropsychological profile).
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17425791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 43
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1855047
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9. Spoudeas HA, Saran F, Pizer B: A multimodality approach to the treatment of craniopharyngiomas avoiding hypothalamic morbidity: a UK perspective. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;19 Suppl 1:447-51
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A multimodality approach to the treatment of craniopharyngiomas avoiding hypothalamic morbidity: a UK perspective.
  • The perception that they are benign tumours cured by radical surgical resection is not borne out by their often difficult excision, propensity to recur and invade, and high late morbidity and mortality from direct brain injury.
  • The most important consequence of craniopharyngiomas is hypothalamic injury which may result in severe, crippling and life-threatening sequelae, such as adipsia, morbid obesity, sleep, and behavioural and cognitive disorders.
  • Evidence suggests that unless the tumour is smaller than 2-4 cm in the mid-line and completely resectable without additional hypothalamic or visual compromise, the surgical approach should be conservative even if this leaves residual tumour.
  • Hypothalamic damage is in many cases surgically induced.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / complications. Craniopharyngioma / therapy. Hypothalamic Diseases / etiology. Hypothalamic Diseases / prevention & control. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16700323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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10. Müller HL, Handwerker G, Gebhardt U, Faldum A, Emser A, Kolb R, Sörensen N: Melatonin treatment in obese patients with childhood craniopharyngioma and increased daytime sleepiness. Cancer Causes Control; 2006 May;17(4):583-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Craniopharyngioma is a rare dysontogenetic benign tumor.
  • Patients frequently suffer from endocrine deficiencies, sleep disturbances and obesity due to pituitary and hypothalamic lesions.
  • Because hypothalamic lesions may explain daytime sleepiness in craniopharyngioma patients, salivary melatonin and cortisol concentrations were examined in severely obese (BMI>or=4SD) and non severely obese (BMI<4SD) craniopharyngioma patients (n=79), patients with hypothalamic pilocytic astrocytoma (n=19), and control subjects (n=30).
  • Severely obese craniopharyngioma patients and severely obese hypothalamic tumor patients had similar patterns of melatonin secretion.
  • As decreased nocturnal melatonin levels were associated with increased daytime sleepiness, BMI and hypothalamic tumor diagnosis, we initiated an experimental melatonin substitution in 10 adult obese patients (5f/5m) with childhood craniopharyngioma.
  • We speculate that hypothalamic lesions might be responsible for both obesity and daytime sleepiness.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / metabolism. Melatonin / secretion. Melatonin / therapeutic use. Obesity / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Sleep Stages
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Circadian Rhythm. Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / complications. Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / metabolism. Male. Saliva / chemistry


11. Karavitaki N, Cudlip S, Adams CB, Wass JA: Craniopharyngiomas. Endocr Rev; 2006 Jun;27(4):371-97
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BLEOMYCIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Despite their benign histological appearance, they often show an unpredictable growth pattern, which, combined with the lack of randomized studies, poses significant difficulties in the establishment of an optimal therapeutic protocol.
  • This should focus on the prevention of recurrence(s), improvement of survival, reduction of the significant disease and treatment-related morbidity (endocrine, visual, hypothalamic, neurobehavioral, and cognitive), and preservation of the quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Humans. Hypothalamic Diseases / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16543382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-769X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 256
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12. Plans G, Brell M, Cabiol J, Villà S, Torres A, Acebes JJ: Intracranial retrograde dissemination in filum terminale myxopapillary ependymomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Mar;148(3):343-6; discussion 346
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Myxopapillary ependymomas (ME) are considered benign tumours (WHO grade I) of the central nervous system with long term survival rates and a tendency to local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cauda Equina / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical. Disease Progression. Headache / diagnosis. Headache / etiology. Headache / physiopathology. Humans. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / secondary. Hypothalamus / pathology. Hypothalamus / physiopathology. Hypothalamus / surgery. Laminectomy. Low Back Pain / etiology. Low Back Pain / physiopathology. Low Back Pain / surgery. Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / pathology. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / surgery. Radiotherapy / methods. Third Ventricle / pathology. Third Ventricle / physiopathology. Third Ventricle / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16362177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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13. Mełeń-Mucha G: [Molecular aspects of pituitary tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):333-8
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  • Pituitary adenomas are common benign neoplasms, accounting for approximately 15% of intracranial tumors.
  • Why most of these neoplasms remain undiagnosed and pituitary carcinomas are extremely rare?
  • Moreover, the important role of some hypothalamic hormones, peripheral hormones and their receptors (e.g.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromogranins. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins. Proteins. Proto-Oncogene Proteins. Securin

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  • (PMID = 16350728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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14. Schally AV: [The discovery of hypothalamic hormones and the development of antitumor analogs]. Ann Urol (Paris); 2005 Oct;39 Suppl 3:S46-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The discovery of hypothalamic hormones and the development of antitumor analogs].
  • [Transliterated title] La découverte des hormones hypothalamiques et le développement des analogues antitumoraux.
  • Their development is more recent, and they have begun to find a role in prostatic diseases, cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Hypothalamus / physiology. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16302710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4401
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Urol (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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15. May JA, Krieger MD, Bowen I, Geffner ME: Craniopharyngioma in childhood. Adv Pediatr; 2006;53:183-209
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These histologically benign but "geographically malignant" tumors are challenging to treat and require experienced clinicians from multiple disciplines including neurosurgery, radiology, hematology/oncology, ophthalmology, endocrinology, and general pediatrics to address the multiple issues that arise with diagnosis, treatment, and long-term follow-up of affected children.
  • The study and close observation of patients who have craniopharyngiomas may also be beneficial for our general understanding of pathophysiologic processes such as the observed "growth without growth hormone" phenomenon or the well-described and studied hypothalamic obesity phenotypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma. Pituitary Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17089867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-3101
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Wnt Proteins; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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16. Kalapurakal JA: Radiation therapy in the management of pediatric craniopharyngiomas--a review. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Aug;21(8-9):808-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Craniopharyngiomas are benign suprasellar tumors that arise from epithelial remnants of the Rathke's pouch.
  • The other side effects include potential damage to adjacent structures such as optic chiasm, vasculature and hypothalamus.
  • Following limited surgery and radiation therapy the incidence of endocrine deficits is significantly lower compared to radical surgery, as is the risk of neurovascular and hypothalamic injury.
  • Second malignant neoplasms, although rare, can occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 16075214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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17. Bosnjak J, Budisić M, Azman D, Strineka M, Crnjaković M, Demarin V: Pineal gland cysts--an overview. Acta Clin Croat; 2009 Sep;48(3):355-8
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  • The diagnosis of pineal cyst is usually established by MRI with defined radiological criteria to distinguish benign pineal cyst from tumors of this area.
  • Less frequently, patients present with ataxia, motor and sensory impairment, mental and emotional disturbances, epilepsy, circadian rhythm disturbances, hypothalamic dysfunction of precocious puberty, and recently described occurrence of secondary parkinsonism.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Central Nervous System Cysts. Pineal Gland

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  • (PMID = 20055263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9466
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Croatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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18. De Marinis L, Fusco A, Bianchi A, Aimaretti G, Ambrosio MR, Scaroni C, Cannavo S, Di Somma C, Mantero F, degli Uberti EC, Giordano G, Ghigo E: Hypopituitarism findings in patients with primary brain tumors 1 year after neurosurgical treatment: preliminary report. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):516-22
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  • Much more attention has been focused on lesions far from the hypothalamic-pituitary region as possible causes of pituitary impairment, validating the concept of the particular fragility of these structures.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate pituitary function in particular GH deficiency (GHD) in patients submitted to neurosurgery for benign tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) not involving hypothalamic-pituitary region.
  • We observed 37 patients with benign brain tumors [13 males, 24 females, age: 54.6+/-13.9 yr; body mass index (BMI): 25.1+/-4.0 kg/m2] performing a basic evaluation of the pituitary function and a dynamic test of the GH/IGF-I axis [GHRH (1 microg/kg iv)+arginine (0.5 g/kg iv) test] for 3 and 12 months after the neurosurgical treatment.
  • This data suggests that hypopituitarism of various degree may develop in patients who are submitted to neurosurgery for primary brain tumors, even far from hypothalamic-pituitary region.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 16840829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Somatomedins; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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19. Kaprara A, Pazaitou-Panayiotou K, Chemonidou MC, Constantinidis TC, Lambropoulou M, Koffa M, Kiziridou A, Kakolyris S, Kortsaris A, Chatzaki E: Distinct distribution of corticotropin releasing factor receptors in human breast cancer. Neuropeptides; 2010 Oct;44(5):355-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The hypothalamic neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) has been found in several types of human cancer, where its biological role is not clarified.
  • Receptor expression was studied in breast biopsies from patients diagnosed for primary breast adenocarcinoma, obtained from the tumor and the adjacent benign tissue.
  • CRF(1) transcripts were found in 23.1% of benign and in 23.1% of malignant biopsies.
  • CRF(2(a)) was found in 22.2% of benign and 36.0% of malignant biopsies.
  • Transcript levels of both receptors did not differ significantly between cancer and benign biopsies from the same tumor.
  • In conclusion, both CRF receptors were found in breast cancer and the respective benign adjacent tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20630588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2785
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropeptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropeptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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20. Yamini B, Narayanan M: Craniopharyngiomas: an update. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 Sep;6 Suppl 9:S85-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These benign cystic tumors are thought to be a part of a continuum of ectodermal cystic lesions found in the suprasellar region.
  • Patients most often present with findings associated with ventricular outflow obstruction causing hydrocephalus, optic chiasm compression resulting in visual dysfunction or hypothalamic/pituitary compression leading to endocrinopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17004862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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21. Honegger J, Tatagiba M: Craniopharyngioma surgery. Pituitary; 2008;11(4):361-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Craniopharyngiomas grow in the deep-seated hypothalamic area that is paramount for vegetative, emotional and endocrine function, and for maintaining worthwhile life.
  • The benign histological nature of craniopharyngiomas belies their biological behavior and the propensity to recur is a major threat.
  • Surgical treatment has to weigh the risk of hypothalamic damage against the risk of tumor recurrence or progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18636330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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22. Puget S, Grill J, Habrand JL, Sainte-Rose C: Multimodal treatment of craniopharyngioma: defining a risk-adapted strategy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;19 Suppl 1:367-70
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  • The fact that they are rare, that they are histologically benign, and that anatomically they are located in a challenging area, made them worthy surgical prizes.
  • Increasingly we are recognizing that the next challenge is preservation of hypothalamic function.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Hypothalamus / physiopathology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Quality of Life. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16700312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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23. Weitzner MA, Kanfer S, Booth-Jones M: Apathy and pituitary disease: it has nothing to do with depression. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci; 2005;17(2):159-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although the majority of pituitary adenomas are benign, the physical, emotional, and cognitive changes that these patients experience on their well-being is malignant.
  • Pituitary disease causes a variety of physical illnesses resulting from the alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-end organ axis.
  • There is a growing understanding that pituitary patients may experience these emotional problems as a result of long-term effects that the pituitary tumor itself, treatment, and/or hormonal changes have on the hypothalamic-pituitary-end organ axis.
  • A review of the literature on apathy, hypothalamic-pituitary-end organ axis dysfunction, and treatment for apathy syndrome is included.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / psychology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / psychology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / psychology. Prolactinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15939968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0895-0172
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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24. Stratakis CA: Adrenocortical tumors, primary pigmented adrenocortical disease (PPNAD)/Carney complex, and other bilateral hyperplasias: the NIH studies. Horm Metab Res; 2007 Jun;39(6):467-73
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  • It has been estimated that up to 1 in 10 adults has at least one adrenocortical nodule up to 1 cm on autopsy; these benign tumors may contribute to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, obesity and abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that can be linked to other serious disorders such as osteoporosis, depression and late-onset diabetes mellitus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17578766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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25. Eskelinen M, Ollonen P: Life stress and losses and deficit in adulthood as breast cancer risk factor: a prospective case-control study in Kuopio, Finland. In Vivo; 2010 Nov-Dec;24(6):899-904
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  • RESULTS: the clinical examination and biopsy showed BC in 34 patients, benign breast disease (BBD) in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy (HSS).
  • CONCLUSION: the results of this study support a weak association between life stress and losses in adulthood and breast cancer risk and it might be that stress and losses impacts indirectly on breast cancer risk, affecting behaviour, or directly on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system functioning.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Stress, Psychological / complications

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  • (PMID = 21164052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7549
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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26. Anagnostis P, Efstathiadou Z, Polyzos SA, Tsolakidou K, Litsas ID, Panagiotou A, Kita M: Long term follow-up of patients with adrenal incidentalomas--a single center experience and review of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Oct;118(9):610-6
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  • Most often it consists of benign-nonfunctioning lesions and an increase in size during follow-up is reported in about 9% (0-26%), whereas their functional evolution is rare.
  • The patients underwent basal and dynamic evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and adrenomedullary function.
  • RESULTS: Adrenalectomy was performed in 5 patients (4 benign cortical adenomas and 1 pheochromocytoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIs present usually as benign, non-secretory lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 19856259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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27. Losa M, Gatti E, Rossini A, Lanzi R: Replacement therapy with growth hormone and pituitary tumor recurrence: the relevance of the problem. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Sep;31(9 Suppl):75-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most cases of adult GH deficiency (AGHD) result from hypothalamic-pituitary tumors or their treatment.
  • Considering the slow-growing nature of most of these benign tumors and the absence of conclusive evidence from the available studies, a continuous imaging surveillance and longer follow-up periods are nevertheless mandatory for a definite statement on the safety of GH treatment in patients with previous pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Human Growth Hormone / adverse effects. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19020392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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28. Eskelinen M, Ollonen P: Life stress due to losses and deficit in childhood and adolescence as breast cancer risk factor: a prospective case-control study in Kuopio, Finland. Anticancer Res; 2010 Oct;30(10):4303-8
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  • RESULTS: The clinical examination and biopsy showed breast cancer in 34 patients, benign breast disease in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy.
  • However, the biological explanation for such an association is unclear and it might be that stress due to losses and deficit impacts indirectly on breast cancer risk, affecting behaviour, or directly on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system functioning.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / psychology. Stress, Psychological / complications


29. Zada G, Lin N, Ojerholm E, Ramkissoon S, Laws ER: Craniopharyngioma and other cystic epithelial lesions of the sellar region: a review of clinical, imaging, and histopathological relationships. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Apr;28(4):E4
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  • Histological features that signify transitional entities beyond simple benign Rathke cleft cysts include squamous metaplasia, stratified squamous epithelium, and ciliated or mucinous goblet cells in squamous-papillary CPs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of embryological formation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis plays a major role in its propensity for developing cystic epithelial lesions.
  • Subsequent inflammatory, metaplastic, and neoplastic processes may promote further progression along the pathological continuum, ranging from benign epithelial cysts to aggressive neoplastic cystic CPs.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Sella Turcica / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Central Nervous System Cysts / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Cysts / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / diagnosis. Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Female. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / statistics & numerical data. Male. Rats

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  • (PMID = 20367361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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30. Dhellemmes P, Vinchon M: Radical resection for craniopharyngiomas in children: surgical technique and clinical results. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;19 Suppl 1:329-35
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  • Craniopharyngiomas are benign suprasellar tumors; however, their tendency to recur after resection and the risks associated with aggressive tumor resection pose a surgical dilemma.
  • Hypothalamic damage was generally associated with intraventricular extension of the tumor recurrence and re-operations, especially through combined approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neuropsychological Tests. Postoperative Care. Radiosurgery. Retrospective Studies. Rhenium / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 16700308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-15-5 / Rhenium
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31. Caldarola G, Battista C, Pellicano R: Melanoma onset after estrogen, thyroid, and growth hormone replacement therapy. Clin Ther; 2010 Jan;32(1):57-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Acute sun exposure is the main risk factor for the development of melanoma, especially if associated with a large number of benign melanocytic nevi.
  • At this time, insufficiency of the gonadal, thyroid, and growth hormone (GH) axes was diagnosed without evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary anatomic damage or of congenital or acquired causes.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Estrogens / adverse effects. Human Growth Hormone / adverse effects. Melanoma / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced. Thyroid Hormones / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20171412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-114X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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32. Weinrib AZ, Sephton SE, Degeest K, Penedo F, Bender D, Zimmerman B, Kirschbaum C, Sood AK, Lubaroff DM, Lutgendorf SK: Diurnal cortisol dysregulation, functional disability, and depression in women with ovarian cancer. Cancer; 2010 Sep 15;116(18):4410-9
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  • One hundred women were subsequently diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 77 with benign disease.
  • RESULTS: Ovarian cancer patients demonstrated significantly elevated nocturnal cortisol (P = .022) and diminished cortisol variability (P = .023) compared with women with benign disease and with healthy women (all P values <.0001).
  • There were no significant associations between functional or psychological variables and diurnal cortisol in women with benign disease.
  • These findings suggest potential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal involvement in functional disability in ovarian cancer, and may have implications for disease progression.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 20564155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA088293-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA140933; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA88293; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088293-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA104825; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104825; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104825-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA140933-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA088293; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA140933; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104825-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS286552; NLM/ PMC3118555
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33. Kendall-Taylor P, Jönsson PJ, Abs R, Erfurth EM, Koltowska-Häggström M, Price DA, Verhelst J: The clinical, metabolic and endocrine features and the quality of life in adults with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma compared with adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):557-67
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

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  • BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngioma is a parasellar tumour that, although benign, tends to behave aggressively.
  • In addition to GHD, most patients have evidence of hypothalamic damage with associated obesity, diabetes insipidus and hypopituitarism.

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  • (PMID = 15817911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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34. Clementi M, Sánchez C, Benitez DA, Contreras HR, Huidobro C, Cabezas J, Acevedo C, Castellón EA: Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs induce apoptosis by extrinsic pathway involving p53 phosphorylation in primary cell cultures of human prostatic adenocarcinomas. Prostate; 2009 Jul 1;69(10):1025-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) analogs are widely used to block hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and inhibit blood androgen levels in patients with prostate cancer (PCa).
  • METHODS: Primary cultures from PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (non-malignant control) were derived from samples provided by our Institutional Hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Apoptosis / physiology. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Signal Transduction / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19301301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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35. Caldarelli M, Massimi L, Tamburrini G, Cappa M, Di Rocco C: Long-term results of the surgical treatment of craniopharyngioma: the experience at the Policlinico Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Aug;21(8-9):747-57
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  • Although histologically benign and amenable to surgical treatment, its location and relation with vital nervous and vascular structures makes the feasibility of a radical resection difficult even in the microneurosurgery era.
  • On the other hand, extensive hypothalamic involvement should suggest a less aggressive attitude.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15995885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Mitchell J, Barbosa G, Tsinberg M, Milas M, Siperstein A, Berber E: Unrecognized adrenal insufficiency in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Surg Endosc; 2009 Feb;23(2):248-54
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  • BACKGROUND: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) is a well-described phenomenon where abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis exist in the absence of overt signs and symptoms of classic Cushing's syndrome.
  • RESULTS: The 41 patients' diagnoses included 13 pheochromocytomas, 15 nonsecreting adenomas, 5 aldosteronomas, 5 metastatic lesions, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma, and 2 other benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Insufficiency / epidemiology. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19037697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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