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6. Germani G, Burroughs AK, Dhillon AP: The relationship between liver disease stage and liver fibrosis: a tangled web. Histopathology; 2010 Dec;57(6):773-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relationship between liver disease stage and liver fibrosis: a tangled web.
  • The structural consequences of chronic liver disease are described as a series of liver disease 'stages' with scarring and architectural change that eventually destroys and replaces the normal lobular structure of the liver.
  • Fibrosis is part of increasing liver disease stage, but fibrosis and stage are different.
  • Staging liver disease is important in routine histopathological assessment.
  • Measurement of liver fibrosis is another process.
  • The collagenous proportion of a liver biopsy [collagen proportionate area (CPA)] correlates with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), which is of recognized prognostic value.
  • CPA improves the description of liver disease stage.
  • Proper validation of antifibrotic treatments and 'non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis' requires measurement of liver fibrosis (and not liver biopsy stage scores).
  • There are benefits to properly understanding liver fibrosis and liver disease stage and properly assessing each of them.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / pathology. Liver Diseases / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.
  • [CommentIn] Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2011 Jan;35(1):5-6 [21634050.001]
  • (PMID = 20812954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Schelonka RL, Szymanska E, Vale AM, Zhuang Y, Gartland GL, Schroeder HW Jr: DH and JH usage in murine fetal liver mirrors that of human fetal liver. Immunogenetics; 2010 Oct;62(10):653-66
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  • [Title] DH and JH usage in murine fetal liver mirrors that of human fetal liver.
  • The murine fetal antibody repertoire also limits the incorporation of N nucleotides and uses its most D(H) proximal V(H), V(H)81X, more frequently.
  • To test whether D(H) and J(H) also follow the pattern observed in human, we used the scheme of Hardy to sort B lineage cells from BALB/c fetal and neonatal liver, RT-PCR cloned and sequenced V(H)7183-containing VDJCμ transcripts, and then assessed V(H)7183-D(H)-J(H) and complementary determining region 3 of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (CDR-H3) content in comparison to the previously studied adult BALB/c mouse repertoire.
  • However, fetal liver usage of J(H)-proximal D(H)Q52 and D(H)-proximal J(H)2 was markedly greater than that of adult bone marrow.
  • Thus, the early pattern of D(H) and J(H) usage in mouse feta liver mirrors that of human.

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  • (PMID = 20714894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1211
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunogenetics
  • [Language] ENG
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  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K08 HD043327; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007051; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI48115; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047322; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI07051; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI078449; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI42732; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R56 AI048115; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI079741; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD043327; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI078449; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI048115
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Complementarity Determining Regions; 0 / Immunoglobulin Joining Region; 0 / Immunoglobulin Variable Region
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2944024
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8. Castroagudín JF, Molina E, Abdulkader I, Forteza J, Delgado MB, Domínguez-Muñoz JE: Sonographic features of liver involvement by lymphoma. J Ultrasound Med; 2007 Jun;26(6):791-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sonographic features of liver involvement by lymphoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The liver is one of the most frequent extranodal locations of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin disease.
  • Nevertheless, lymphoma constitutes only 6% to 8% of focal lesions of the liver.
  • Few studies have evaluated the sonographic patterns of lymphoma with liver involvement.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the sonographic features and to evaluate the accuracy of sonography for the diagnosis of lymphoma with liver infiltration.
  • METHODS: The abdominal sonographic findings of 23 consecutive patients with histologically proven diagnosis of lymphoma with liver involvement were reviewed.
  • Liver nodules were seen in half of patients, and the most frequent sonographic appearance was as multiple small focal lesions.
  • None of the patients with Hodgkin disease had liver nodules.
  • Concordance between sonography and computed tomography for the diagnosis of focal liver lesions was observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sonography may contribute to the diagnosis of liver infiltration by lymphoma.
  • The presence of multiple focal liver lesions associated with splenomegaly and lymphoadenopathies should make us consider the diagnosis of lymphoma with liver involvement.
  • Nevertheless, the low specificity of these findings requires histologic confirmation of lymphomatous infiltration of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17526610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Hoskins JD: Liver disease in the geriatric patient. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract; 2005 May;35(3):617-34
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  • [Title] Liver disease in the geriatric patient.
  • Normal functioning of the liver does not seem to change significantly in dogs and cats as a result of age.
  • Despite this, older dogs and cats are at greater risk for the development of liver disease.
  • The diagnosis of liver disease is initiated by the veterinarian's suspicion that liver disease might be present, followed by the case history and a physical examination.
  • The initial workup for the older dog or cat with suspected liver disease should begin with a CBC, serum chemistry profile, and urinalysis.
  • This may be followed by a liver function test, radiographic or ultrasonographic imaging studies, hepatic fine-needle aspiration, and, ultimately, liver biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / pathology. Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15833562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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10. Chen GH, Yang Y, Lu MQ, Cai CJ, Zhang Q, Zhang YC, Xu C, Li H, Wang GS, Yi SH, Zhang J, Zhang JF, Yi HM: Liver transplantation for end-stage alcoholic liver disease: a single-center experience from mainland China. Alcohol; 2010 May;44(3):217-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liver transplantation for end-stage alcoholic liver disease: a single-center experience from mainland China.
  • There has been a gradual increase in the number of patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease (ALD) undergoing liver transplantation (LT) in mainland China.
  • The results were retrospectively analyzed from 20 patients, who underwent LT for ALD from December 2003 to September 2007 at Liver Transplant Center of Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.
  • No significant difference was observed in complications such as pulmonary infection (50.0 vs. 31.9%, P=.137), biliary complications (15.0 vs. 27.4%, P=.297), hepatic arterial complications (10.0 vs. 6.9%, P=.641), and rejection (15.0 vs. 8.1%, P=.394) after LT between the ALD group and non-ALD group.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / surgery. Liver Transplantation

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20682189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6823
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Mackillop L, Williamson C: Liver disease in pregnancy. Postgrad Med J; 2010 Mar;86(1013):160-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liver disease in pregnancy.
  • This affects the biochemical and haematological parameters used in the assessment of liver disease, and it is important to appreciate the different reference ranges in pregnancy to facilitate recognition of liver disorders in pregnancy.
  • Due to the increased physiological and metabolic stress of pregnancy, liver disorders that have previously been subclinical may become symptomatic-for example, primary biliary cirrhosis.
  • In addition certain pregnancy specific disorders-for example, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and obstetric cholestasis-affect primarily the liver.
  • We propose an approach to the investigation and management of the pregnant patient with abnormal liver function tests.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholestasis, Intrahepatic / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. HELLP Syndrome / diagnosis. Hepatitis, Viral, Human / diagnosis. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / diagnosis


12. Tsukuma H, Tanaka H, Ajiki W, Oshima A: Liver cancer and its prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2005 Jul-Sep;6(3):244-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liver cancer and its prevention.
  • Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Asia and Africa.
  • The epidemiology of liver cancer is distinctive in Japan, where chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) rather than hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays the major role in the etiology.
  • In this paper, together with a brief review of the descriptive epidemiology of liver cancer and its prevention, Japanese experiences of liver cancer occurrence and some epidemiological studies are described, and Japanese national projects directed against hepatitis and liver cancer are presented.
  • Distinctive time-trends have been observed for liver cancer incidence in Japan.
  • Periodic examination with ultrasonography and measurement of alpha-fetoprotein has become common practice for early detection of HCCs among patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis in Japan.
  • A non-randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effect of periodic examination on mortality, but we failed to show any beneficial effects of screening for liver cancer.
  • HCV carriers are further examined by liver disease specialists, seeking indications for IFN therapy.
  • This project is expected to become a model of liver cancer control in HCV-endemic countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis C / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / complications. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16235981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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13. Daramola OO, Abbiyesuku FA, Otegbayo JA: Liver enzymes in Nigerians with lichen planus. Niger J Clin Pract; 2008 Mar;11(1):63-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liver enzymes in Nigerians with lichen planus.
  • INTRODUCTION: Lichen planus has been reported in association with liver diseases.
  • Clinical signs such as jaundice may not be reliable indicator of ongoing inflammation or the presence of an ongoing liver disease.
  • Liver function test in spite of its variability may serve as a more reliable indicator of liver disease.
  • The objective of this study is to assess the discriminant power of liver enzymes with lichen planus and control.
  • METHODS: Sixty Nigerians with lichen planus (LP group) and 30 patients with other dermatoses control group A) and 30 apparently normal individual (control group B) had their liver enzymes assayed using the automated Hitachi 70 auto-analyzer.
  • RESULT: There was no a statistically significant difference in the level of liver enzymes between the LP group and controls.
  • CONCLUSION: Liver enzymes in Nigerian with lichenplanus are generally within normal limits and are comparable to individuals without lichen planus.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / metabolism. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Aspartate Aminotransferases / metabolism. Lichen Planus / enzymology. Liver / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 18689142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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4. Deluca JA, Maxwell DR, Flaherty SK, Prigozen JM, Scragg ME, Stone PA: Injuries associated with pediatric liver trauma. Am Surg; 2007 Jan;73(1):37-41
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  • [Title] Injuries associated with pediatric liver trauma.
  • Injury remains the leading cause of childhood mortality for children younger than 14 years of age, with the liver being particularly susceptible to blunt trauma in children.
  • This study reviews the authors' institutions' experience with pediatric liver injuries in an attempt to establish current patterns of injury, management and outcomes.
  • A single-center, retrospective review was conducted of 105 consecutive pediatric patients who presented with a traumatic liver injury from January 1996 through February 2004.
  • Liver injury was most often grade II (35%) by CT scan.
  • Liver injury grade did not affect survival, but did affect injury management, with grade I and grade IV liver injuries more likely to be managed surgically (P < 0.001).
  • Grade I liver injuries were associated with concomitant spleen injuries, whereas grade IV injuries were associated with pancreatic injuries.
  • Children experiencing blunt abdominal trauma are at risk of significant morbidity and mortality; however, these risks stem more likely from associated injuries than injury to the liver proper.
  • Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for potentially catastrophic associated injuries to the pancreas with high-grade liver injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Injuries / epidemiology. Liver / injuries. Multiple Trauma / epidemiology. Pancreas / injuries. Spleen / injuries. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Trauma Severity Indices

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  • (PMID = 17249454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ishigami M, Honda T, Okumura A, Ishikawa T, Kobayashi M, Katano Y, Fujimoto Y, Kiuchi T, Goto H: Use of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to predict 1-year survival of Japanese patients with cirrhosis and to determine who will benefit from living donor liver transplantation. J Gastroenterol; 2008;43(5):363-8
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  • [Title] Use of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to predict 1-year survival of Japanese patients with cirrhosis and to determine who will benefit from living donor liver transplantation.
  • BACKGROUND: Consideration of the prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis is important when determining the appropriate timing of liver transplantation.
  • Especially in Japan, where 99% of liver transplants are from living donors, timing is very important not only for the patient but also for the family, who need time to consider the various factors involved in living donations.
  • METHODS: To clarify the applicability of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score in Japanese patients with cirrhosis, changes in the MELD score over 24 months were reviewed in 79 patients with cirrhosis who subsequently died of liver failure (n=33) or who survived 24 months (n=46).
  • We also compared their survival with that of 30 patients treated by living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in our institute to determine the proper timing of transplantation in patients with cirrhosis.
  • MELD scores of 15 had discriminatory value for indicating a survival benefit to be gained by liver transplantation and thus can be used to help patients and their families by identifying patients who would benefit from LDLT.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Cirrhosis / mortality. Liver Failure / diagnosis. Liver Transplantation. Living Donors


16. Soto-Gutierrez A, Basma H, Navarro-Alvarez N, Uygun BE, Yarmush ML, Kobayashi N, Fox IJ: Differentiating stem cells into liver. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev; 2008;25:149-63
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  • [Title] Differentiating stem cells into liver.
  • Research involving differentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells may revolutionize the study of liver disease, improve the drug discovery process, and assist in the development of stem-cell-based clinical therapies.
  • Generation of ES cell-derived hepatic tissue has benefited from an understanding of the cytokines, growth factors and biochemical compounds that are essential in liver development, and this knowledge has been used to mimic some aspects of embryonic development in vitro.
  • Although great progress has been made in differentiating human ES cells into liver cells, current protocols have not yet produced cells with the phenotype of a mature hepatocyte.
  • Here, we explore current challenges and future opportunities in development and use of ES cell-derived liver cells.
  • ES-derived hepatocytes could be used to better understand liver biology, begin the process of "personalizing" health care, and to treat some forms of liver disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult Stem Cells / cytology. Adult Stem Cells / transplantation. Animals. Biomedical Engineering. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Liver / embryology. Liver Diseases / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 21412354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-8725
  • [Journal-full-title] Biotechnology & genetic engineering reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Ramacciato G, Nigri GR, Aurello P, D'Angelo F, Pezzoli F, Rossi S, Pilozzi E, Ercolani G, Ravaioli M: Giant hepatic adenoma with bone marrow metaplasia not associated with oral contraceptive intake. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:58
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  • [Title] Giant hepatic adenoma with bone marrow metaplasia not associated with oral contraceptive intake.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular adenomas are the most common benign liver tumors.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: This case describes a 58-year-old woman admitted to our institution for a hepatic mass incidentally discovered during a routine examination.
  • She underwent a thorough diagnostic evaluation and then a hepatic right trisegmentectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Bone marrow metaplasia has rarely been found associated to liver tumors.
  • The presence of marrow-derived hepatic progenitor cells might be the source of both adenoma hepatocytes and bone marrow differentiated cells.

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18. Loomba R, Sirlin CB, Schwimmer JB, Lavine JE: Advances in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology; 2009 Oct;50(4):1282-93
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  • [Title] Advances in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents in the United States.
  • Emerging data suggest that children with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progress to cirrhosis, which may ultimately increase liver-related mortality.
  • More worrisome is the recognition that cardiovascular risk and morbidity in children and adolescents are associated with fatty liver.
  • Pediatric fatty liver disease often displays a histologic pattern distinct from that found in adults.
  • Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of NASH.
  • Noninvasive biomarkers are needed to identify individuals with progressive liver injury.
  • Targeted therapies to improve liver histology and metabolic abnormalities associated with fatty liver are needed.

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  • (PMID = 19637286.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / U01DK61734; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK061734-07; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / U01 DK061734-07; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01DK075128; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK080506; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24DK080506; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075128; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / U01 DK061734
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 59
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS140426; NLM/ PMC2757471
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19. Meier V, Tron K, Batusic D, Elmaouhoub A, Ramadori G: Expression of AFP and Rev-Erb A/Rev-Erb B and N-CoR in fetal rat liver, liver injury and liver regeneration. Comp Hepatol; 2006;5:2
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  • [Title] Expression of AFP and Rev-Erb A/Rev-Erb B and N-CoR in fetal rat liver, liver injury and liver regeneration.
  • BACKGROUND: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) expression can resume in the adult liver under pathophysiological conditions.
  • RESULTS: The expression of AFP gene and orphan nuclear receptors in the liver was examined in different rat models: (a) fetal liver (b) liver regeneration [partial hepatectomy (PH) with and without 2-acetyl-aminofluren treatment (2-AAF)], (c) acute liver damage [treatment with CCl4] and (d) acute phase reaction [treatment with turpentine oil].
  • In the Northern blot analysis, a positive hybridization signal for the full-length AFP-RNA was observed only in liver samples from 2-AAF treated rats after PH.
  • In real-time PCR analysis, the full-length AFP-RNA was highly up regulated in the fetal liver (maximum at day 14: 21,500 fold); after PH of 2-AAF treated rats, the full-length AFP-RNA was also up regulated up to 400 fold (day 7 after PH).
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of "fetal" AFP could be demonstrated during liver development and during proliferation of the so-called oval cells.

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  • (PMID = 16822301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5926
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1552085
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20. Yilmaz Y, Yonal O, Kurt R, Ari F, Oral AY, Celikel CA, Korkmaz S, Ulukaya E, Ozdogan O, Imeryuz N, Avsar E, Kalayci C: Serum fetuin A/α2HS-glycoprotein levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: relation with liver fibrosis. Ann Clin Biochem; 2010 Nov;47(Pt 6):549-53
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  • [Title] Serum fetuin A/α2HS-glycoprotein levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: relation with liver fibrosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Serum concentrations of fetuin A/α2HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) have been linked to human metabolic alterations and can serve as an indicator of liver cell function.
  • We assayed serum levels of AHSG in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, and examined their association with clinical, biochemical and histological phenotypes.
  • Bivariate analyses (Spearman's rank correlation) in patients with NAFLD showed a statistically significant association between AHSG levels and insulin resistance as assessed by the HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) index (r = 0.31, P < 0.01) and the liver fibrosis score index (r = 0.36, P < 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / metabolism. Fatty Liver / blood. Liver Cirrhosis / blood. Serum / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20926473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-1001
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AHSG protein, human; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein
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21. Gedaly R, McHugh PP, Johnston TD, Jeon H, Koch A, Clifford TM, Ranjan D: Predictors of relapse to alcohol and illicit drugs after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease. Transplantation; 2008 Oct 27;86(8):1090-5
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  • [Title] Predictors of relapse to alcohol and illicit drugs after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common indication for transplantation worldwide.
  • RESULT: Between July 1995 and November 2007, 387 patients underwent liver transplantation at our institution.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Excellent results can be obtained in patients undergoing liver transplantation for ALD, though depression and recidivism adversely impact survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcoholism / complications. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Substance-Related Disorders / complications. Temperance


22. Botelberge T, Van Vlierberghe H, Voet D, Defreyne L: Detachable balloon embolization of an arterioportal fistula following liver biopsy in a liver transplant recipient: a case report and review of literature. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2005 Nov-Dec;28(6):832-5
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  • [Title] Detachable balloon embolization of an arterioportal fistula following liver biopsy in a liver transplant recipient: a case report and review of literature.
  • We report a case of an intrahepatic arterioportal fistula in a 61-year-old female liver transplant recipient.
  • The patient presented with massive ascites 7 months after a percutaneous liver biopsy.
  • A large fistula between the right hepatic artery and the right portal vein was diagnosed on color Doppler ultrasound and confirmed on arteriography.
  • Symptomatic intrahepatic arterioportal fistula in a liver transplant recipient following percutaneous biopsy is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Fistula / diagnosis. Arteriovenous Fistula / therapy. Balloon Occlusion / methods. Hepatic Artery / ultrasonography. Liver / pathology. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Portal Vein / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Rare Diseases. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 15886940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Turmelle YP, Shikapwashya O, Tu S, Hruz PW, Yan Q, Rudnick DA: Rosiglitazone inhibits mouse liver regeneration. FASEB J; 2006 Dec;20(14):2609-11
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  • [Title] Rosiglitazone inhibits mouse liver regeneration.
  • The remarkable regenerative potential of the liver is well known.
  • Recent investigations have shown that this regenerative response is impaired in mouse models of fatty liver disease.
  • Other studies demonstrate that mice engineered for liver-specific overexpression of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) develop significant hepatic steatosis.
  • These observations suggest that precise regulation of hepatic PPARgamma activity may be essential for normal liver regeneration.
  • To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effects of PPARgamma-activating thiazolidinediones on liver regeneration in the rodent partial hepatectomy model.
  • Thiazolidinediones with different PPARgamma-activating potencies were administered to mice, and those mice were subjected to partial hepatectomy and analyzed for resulting effects on hepatocellular proliferation and signaling pathways important during normal liver regeneration.
  • The results showed that thiazolidinediones suppress liver regeneration with efficacies that correlate with their relative PPARgamma-activating potencies.
  • These studies provide the first evidence linking regulation of PPARgamma activity and the hepatic regenerative response.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Regeneration / drug effects. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology. Vasodilator Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromans / pharmacology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Interleukin-6 / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins / metabolism. STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17077279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-6860
  • [Journal-full-title] FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FASEB J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK02900; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK068219; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK52574; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32-HD07409
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cdkn1a protein, mouse; 0 / Chromans; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Stat3 protein, mouse; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; I66ZZ0ZN0E / troglitazone; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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24. Casanova-González MJ, Trapero-Marugán M, Jones EA, Moreno-Otero R: Liver disease and erythropoietic protoporphyria: a concise review. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Sep 28;16(36):4526-31
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  • [Title] Liver disease and erythropoietic protoporphyria: a concise review.
  • FECH deficiency is associated with increased concentrations of protoporphyrin in erythrocytes, plasma, skin and liver.
  • The prevalence of this inherited disorder oscillates between 1:75 000 and 1:200 000.
  • Nevertheless, approximately 5%-20% of patients with EPP develop liver manifestations.
  • Retention of protoporphyrin in the liver is associated with cholestatic phenomena and oxidative stress that predisposes to hepatobiliary disease of varying degrees of severity, such as cholelithiasis, mild parenchymal liver disease, progressive hepatocellular disease with end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure.
  • Liver damage is the major risk in EPP patients, so surveillance and frequent clinical and biochemical liver follow-up is mandatory.
  • A variety of non-surgical therapeutic approaches have been adopted for the management of EPP associated with liver disease, but none of these has been shown to be unequivocally efficacious.
  • Nevertheless, some may have a place in preparing patients for liver transplantation.
  • Liver transplantation does not correct the constitutional deficiency of FECH.
  • Consequently, there is a risk of recurrence of liver disease after liver transplantation as a result of continuing overproduction of protoporphyrin.
  • Some authors recommend that bone marrow transplantation should be considered in liver allograft recipients to prevent recurrence of hepatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / etiology. Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic / complications. Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic / genetics


25. Flohr TR, Bonatti H Jr, Brayman KL, Pruett TL: The use of stem cells in liver disease. Curr Opin Organ Transplant; 2009 Feb;14(1):64-71
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  • [Title] The use of stem cells in liver disease.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cell transplantation to restore liver function as an alternative to whole liver transplantation has thus far not been successful in humans.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Adult mature hepatocytes and various populations of liver progenitors and stem cells are being studied for their regenerative capabilities.
  • Hepatocyte transplantation to treat metabolic deficiencies has shown promising early improvement in liver function; however, long-term success has not been achieved.
  • Liver progenitor cells can now be identified and were shown to be capable to differentiate into a hepatocyte-like phenotype.
  • Despite evidence of mesenchymal stem cell fusion in animal models of liver regeneration, encouraging results were seen in a small group of patients receiving autologous transplantation of CD133 mesenchymal stem cells to repopulate the liver after extensive hepatectomy for liver masses.
  • Ethical issues, availability, potential rejection and limited understanding of the totipotent capabilities of embryonic stem cells are the limitations that prevent their use for restoration of liver function.
  • The effectiveness of embryonic stem cells to support liver function has been proven with their application in the bioartificial liver model in rodents.
  • SUMMARY: There is ongoing research to restore liver function in cell biology, animal models and clinical trials using mature hepatocytes, liver progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatocytes / transplantation. Liver Diseases / surgery. Liver Regeneration. Regenerative Medicine. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Embryonic Stem Cells / transplantation. Humans. Liver, Artificial. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation. Models, Animal. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19337149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-7013
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in organ transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Organ Transplant
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK067629
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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26. Saini N, Singh J, Sehgal R, Ojha S: Evaluation of liver function impairment and lipid peroxidation induced by lantana camara leaf powder administration in adult rat serum and liver. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand); 2007;53(5):79-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of liver function impairment and lipid peroxidation induced by lantana camara leaf powder administration in adult rat serum and liver.
  • In, liver tissue this increase was 66% and 258%.
  • In, liver there was 46% increase in group B and 216% increase in group C in the ALT activity.
  • The overall protein concentration was increased in serum and decreased in liver tissue.
  • Lipid peroxidation in liver tissue was inhibited by 22% in group B and 55% in group C.
  • [MeSH-major] Lantana / chemistry. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Liver / drug effects. Plant Extracts / toxicity. Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Alanine Transaminase / metabolism. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Animals. Antioxidants / pharmacology. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Aspartate Aminotransferases / metabolism. Bilirubin / blood. Blood Proteins / analysis. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Female. Liver Function Tests. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 17543236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1165-158X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Plant Extracts; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
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27. Lesurtel M, Graf R, Aleil B, Walther DJ, Tian Y, Jochum W, Gachet C, Bader M, Clavien PA: Platelet-derived serotonin mediates liver regeneration. Science; 2006 Apr 7;312(5770):104-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Platelet-derived serotonin mediates liver regeneration.
  • The liver can regenerate its volume after major tissue loss.
  • In a mouse model of liver regeneration, thrombocytopenia, or impaired platelet activity resulted in the failure to initiate cellular proliferation in the liver.
  • In thrombocytopenic mice, a serotonin agonist reconstituted liver proliferation.
  • The expression of 5-HT2A and 2B subtype serotonin receptors in the liver increased after hepatectomy.
  • Antagonists of 5-HT2A and 2B receptors inhibited liver regeneration.
  • Liver regeneration was also blunted in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of peripheral serotonin.
  • These results suggest that platelet-derived serotonin is involved in the initiation of liver regeneration.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Platelets / physiology. Liver / physiology. Liver Regeneration. Serotonin / physiology


28. Burgos San Juan L: [Cholangiocarcinoma]. Rev Med Chil; 2008 Feb;136(2):240-8
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  • It is most frequently found in the confluence of the hepatic ducts, where it is called hilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor.
  • These, in addition to laboratory exams, endoscopical and imaging procedures, lead to the diagnosis.
  • Hilar cholangiocarcinoma must be distinguished from other malignant or benign causes of biliary obstruction.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma of the distal common bile duct must be differentiated from other periampullary tumors and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma can be confused with a hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The type and size of surgery depends on the location and extent of the tumor.
  • Patients with unresectable tumors can be subjected to palliative procedures such as biliary-enteric bypass, endoscopic or pecutaneous stent placement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18483680.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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29. Wong CS, Lee WC, Jenq CC, Tian YC, Chang MY, Lin CY, Fang JT, Yang CW, Tsai MH, Shih HC, Chen YC: Scoring short-term mortality after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl; 2010 Feb;16(2):138-46
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  • [Title] Scoring short-term mortality after liver transplantation.
  • Liver transplantation can prolong survival and improve the quality of life of patients with end-stage liver disease.
  • This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 149 patients who had received liver transplants in a tertiary care university hospital from January 2000 to December 2007.
  • The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score had better discriminatory power than the Child-Pugh points, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and RIFLE (risk of renal dysfunction, injury to the kidney, failure of the kidney, loss of kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease) criteria.
  • Moreover, the SOFA score on day 7 post-liver transplant had the best Youden index and highest overall correctness of prediction for 3-month (0.86, 93%) and 1-year mortality (0.62, 81%).
  • Cumulative survival rates at the 1-year follow-up after liver transplantation differed significantly (P < 0.001) between patients who had SOFA scores < or = 7 on post-liver transplant day 7 and those who had SOFA scores > 7 on post-liver transplant day 7.
  • In conclusion, of the 4 evaluated scoring systems, only the SOFA scores calculated before liver transplantation were statistically significant predictors of 3-month and 1-year posttransplant mortality.
  • SOFA on post-liver transplant day 7 had the best discriminative power for predicting 3-month and 1-year mortality after liver transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure / mortality. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation / mortality. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 20104481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6473
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Pelletier L, Rebouissou S, Paris A, Rathahao-Paris E, Perdu E, Bioulac-Sage P, Imbeaud S, Zucman-Rossi J: Loss of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha function in human hepatocellular adenomas leads to aberrant activation of signaling pathways involved in tumorigenesis. Hepatology; 2010 Feb;51(2):557-66
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  • Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are benign liver tumors that usually develop in women who are taking oral contraceptives.
  • Among these tumors, biallelic inactivating mutations of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF1A) transcription factor have been frequently identified and in rare cases of hepatocellular carcinomas developed in noncirrhotic liver.
  • Because HNF1A meets the genetic criteria of a tumor suppressor gene, we aimed to elucidate the tumorigenic mechanisms related to HNF1alpha inactivation in hepatocytes.
  • We searched for signaling pathways aberrantly activated in human HNF1A-mutated HCA (H-HCA) using a genome-wide transcriptome analysis comparing five H-HCA with four normal livers.
  • Moreover, estradiol detoxification activities were shut down, suggesting a hypersensitivity of H-HCA to estrogenic stimulation.
  • CONCLUSION: H-HCA showed a combination of alterations related to HNF1alpha inactivation that may cooperate to promote tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / etiology. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha / physiology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20041408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha
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31. Molinelli S, de Pooter J, Méndez Romero A, Wunderink W, Cattaneo M, Calandrino R, Heijmen B: Simultaneous tumour dose escalation and liver sparing in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for liver tumours due to CTV-to-PTV margin reduction. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):432-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous tumour dose escalation and liver sparing in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for liver tumours due to CTV-to-PTV margin reduction.
  • PURPOSE: To quantify potential benefits of CTV-to-PTV margin reduction for SBRT of liver tumours, as allowed by enhanced treatment precision.
  • RESULTS: Apart from the expected tumour dose escalation (D(iso), EUD(PTV), gEUD(PTV)) with decreasing margin, a simultaneous improved sparing of the normal liver (D33%, D50%, D(mean)) was also observed.
  • For renormalized plans with D(iso) equal to the clinical value (3x19.2Gy), and a margin reduction of 50% (2.5mm laterally, 5mm longitudinally), normal liver D33% and D50% reduced on average by 22% (maximum 38%), and 26% (maximum 47%), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using an algorithm for beam direction, shape and weight optimisation, large increases in the therapeutic ratio of liver plans could be obtained for reduced margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Humans. Liver / radiation effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18077033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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32. Shirado A, Uto H, Kusumoto K, Kurogi J, Sakamoto H, Hasuike S, Nagata K, Hayashi K, Iwamitsu A, Hori T, Ibusuki K, Ido A, Tsubouchi H: [A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma with liver metastasis showing rapid growth during pregnancy and marked reduction by systemic chemotherapy after delivery]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Jul;103(7):827-32
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  • [Title] [A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma with liver metastasis showing rapid growth during pregnancy and marked reduction by systemic chemotherapy after delivery].
  • A 28-year-old woman was given a diagnosis of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma with multiple liver metastases in 1997.
  • Chemotherapy was administered for treatment after a distal gastrectomy and hepatic tumor resection, and she had shown no sign of relapse after 2002.
  • In February 2004, she was in the third month of pregnancy, and experienced recurrent liver metastasis.
  • Although the tumor grew rapidly from 3cm to 10cm during her pregnancy, its size was significantly reduced with systemic chemotherapy after delivery.
  • This is a rare case in which a liver metastasis of a gastric endocrine cell carcinoma grew during the course of pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / secondary. Delivery, Obstetric. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology


33. Abbasoglu O: Liver transplantation: yesterday, today and tomorrow. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 May 28;14(20):3117-22
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation: yesterday, today and tomorrow.
  • With the advances in technical skills, management of postoperative complications and improvements in immunosuppressive drugs, liver transplantation is the standard treatment for many patients with chronic liver disease.
  • Today, shortage of donor organs seems to be the major limiting factor for the application of liver transplantation.
  • This review focuses on five issues that are challenging to clinical practice of liver transplantation and relevant to gastroenterologists.
  • These include living donor liver transplantation, recurrent viral hepatitis, non-heart-beating donors, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ABO incompatible liver transplantation.
  • Recurrent hepatitis C and hepatocellular carcinoma following liver transplantation are among major problems and ongoing research in these diseases may lead to better outcomes in these recipients.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation / trends. Living Donors / supply & distribution
  • [MeSH-minor] ABO Blood-Group System. Blood Group Incompatibility. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Graft Rejection / etiology. Graft Rejection / virology. Graft Survival. Hepatitis, Viral, Human / complications. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18506914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABO Blood-Group System
  • [Number-of-references] 50
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712841
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34. Choi JW, Choi SJ, Kwon HC, Cheong JY, Lee KM, Yoo BM, Hahm KB, Kim JH, Cho SW: [A case of Salmonella liver abscess]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr;47(4):316-9
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  • [Title] [A case of Salmonella liver abscess].
  • Liver abscess can be caused by bacterial, parasitic, or fungal infection.
  • Amebic abscesses are more common, but pyogenic abscesses account for three quarters of hepatic abscess in developed countries.
  • Most common pathogens of the pyogenic liver abscess are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacteroides, Enterococci, Streptococci, and Staphylococci.
  • However, liver abscess caused by Salmonella species has rarely been reported.
  • We experienced a case of Salmonella liver abscess which improved after antibiotic therapy and percutaneous drainage.
  • He was diagnosed as liver cirrhosis eight years ago and diabetes three years ago.
  • Salmonella group D, non-typhi was cultured from blood and pus from the liver respectively at the same time.
  • With percutaneous drainage and susceptible antibiotic therapy, liver abscess decreased in size with improvements in fever and abdominal pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Abscess, Pyogenic / diagnosis. Salmonella Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Liver / diagnostic imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiography. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16632985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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35. Laleman W, Wilmer A, Evenepoel P, Verslype C, Fevery J, Nevens F: Review article: non-biological liver support in liver failure. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2006 Feb 1;23(3):351-63
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  • [Title] Review article: non-biological liver support in liver failure.
  • Liver failure, whether acute or acute-on-chronic, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • The lack of liver detoxification, metabolic and regulatory functions of the liver leads to life-threatening complications, such as renal failure, altered immune response, hepatic coma and systemic haemodynamic dysfunction, eventually culminating in multiorgan failure.
  • Current medical therapy involves the management of the precipitating event and treatment of complications until the liver eventually recovers, leaving us with no other treatment options than transplantation if these attempts fail.
  • However, the shortage in cadaveric organs and other transplant-related problems, have prompted the need for alternative methods to provide liver support.
  • As liver failure is often potentially reversible, considerable effort has been invested in the development of liver support systems.
  • They represent the focus of this review, which aims to define the goals of liver support, to describe the design of the different existing devices and to analyse the available data to determine their current status in the management of patients with liver failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure, Acute / therapy. Liver, Artificial
  • [MeSH-minor] Albumins / therapeutic use. Dialysis / instrumentation. Dialysis / methods. Humans. Liver Regeneration / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16422994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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36. Zurick AO 3rd, Spier BJ, Teelin TC, Lorenze KR, Alberte C, Zacks S, Lindstrom MJ, Pfau PR, Selzman K: Alterations in corrected QT interval following liver transplant in patients with end-stage liver disease. Clin Cardiol; 2010 Nov;33(11):672-7
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  • [Title] Alterations in corrected QT interval following liver transplant in patients with end-stage liver disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) often have a prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) with variable changes in the QTc post-transplant.
  • HYPOTHESIS: QTc interval is prolonged in ESLD patients pre-transplant due to a variety of risk factors and shortens following liver transplantation.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study utilizing 2 large liver-transplant databases.
  • Age and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score were not predictive of prolonged QTc at baseline.
  • [MeSH-major] End Stage Liver Disease / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Long QT Syndrome / prevention & control


37. Adukauskiene D, Dockiene I, Naginiene R, Kevelaitis E, Pundzius J, Kupcinskas L: Acute liver failure in Lithuania. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(7):536-40
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  • [Title] Acute liver failure in Lithuania.
  • OBJECTIVES: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening condition that can rapidly progress into coma and death due to the cerebral edema and multi-organ dysfunction.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 consecutive patients admitted to the tertiary care center (one of two university-level medical centers in Lithuania) over the period of January 1996 and December 2004 and who fulfilled the entry criteria of ALF (presence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and prothrombin international normalized ratio (INR) >1.5) were included into a prospective study.
  • RESULTS: In our study the most frequent causes of ALF were acute viral hepatitis B (21.4 %), drug-induced hepatitis (21.4%), and indeterminate hepatitis (17.9%); other etiologies included Budd-Chiari syndrome (10.7%), ischemic hepatitis (10.7%), Wilson's disease (7.1%), Amanita phalloides-induced liver damage (3.6%), acute fatty liver of pregnancy (3.6%), and malignant infiltration of the liver (3.6%).
  • Among patients with drug-induced liver injury, only one case of acetaminophen poisoning was diagnosed.
  • Clinical status of 9 persons in all patients with ALF corresponded to criteria for liver transplantation (LT) (one liver transplantation was performed), 6 of them had contraindications, and 13 patients did not fulfill requirements for urgent LT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Acute viral hepatitis B, drug-induced liver injury, and indeterminate hepatitis are the main ALF causes in Lithuania.
  • Improvement of liver donation system for urgent liver transplantation is essential requirement for amelioration of ALF patient's survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure, Acute
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetaminophen / poisoning. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bilirubin / blood. Confidence Intervals. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / complications. Fatty Liver / complications. Female. Hepatic Encephalopathy / mortality. Hepatitis / complications. Humans. Lithuania / epidemiology. Liver Transplantation. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Odds Ratio. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Prothrombin / analysis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18695350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 362O9ITL9D / Acetaminophen; 9001-26-7 / Prothrombin; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
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38. Dan YY, Yeoh GC: Liver stem cells: a scientific and clinical perspective. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 May;23(5):687-98
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  • [Title] Liver stem cells: a scientific and clinical perspective.
  • The promise of liver stem cells lie in their potential to provide a continual and readily available source of liver cells that can be used for gene therapy, cellular transplant, bioartificial liver-assisted devices, drug toxicology testing and use as an in vitro model to understand the developmental biology of the liver.
  • Both the rodent and human embryonic stem cell, bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell, mesenchymal stem cell, umbilical cord blood cell, fetal liver progenitor cell, adult liver progenitor cell as well as the mature hepatocyte have been reported to be capable of self-renewal, giving rise to daughter hepatocytes both in vivo and in vitro.
  • These cells can repopulate livers in animal models of liver injury and seemingly improve liver function.
  • These include lack of consensus in immunophenotype of liver progenitor cells, uncertainty of the physiological role of reported candidate stem/progenitor cell, practicality in obtaining sufficient quantity of cells for clinical use and concerns over ethics, long-term efficacy and safety.
  • Reports of stem cell transplantation and phase 1 trials of bone marrow transplantation in humans for liver diseases are exciting but require more robust verification.
  • We review the evidence for various candidate stem cells, human clinical trials reported to date and highlight the challenges facing clinicians in their quest to use liver stem cells to save lives.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / therapy. Stem Cells

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  • (PMID = 18410603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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39. Haberal M: Liver transplantation: experience at our center. Transplant Proc; 2006 Sep;38(7):2111-6
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation: experience at our center.
  • Liver transplantation was pioneered by Starzl and his team in 1967.
  • Since then, many difficulties have been overcome and this treatment modality has gained worldwide acceptance as the definitive treatment for end-stage liver disease.
  • However, the current numbers of liver transplantations are still far below what is needed, the rising numbers on waiting lists have pushed transplant surgeons to search for new alternatives, and living related donors are considered one solution.
  • At our center, the only living liver donors we accept are relatives and spouses of recipients.
  • In the past 3 years, we have increased the annual numbers of liver transplantations; our graft and patient survival rates for this period exceed 90%.
  • Liver grafts donated by living related donors offer an extremely important, lifesaving alternative in urgent situations, such as acute liver failure, where there is limited time to wait for a deceased donor.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma is another important indication for living related liver transplantation.
  • Availability of living donors allows us to perform transplantations even in recipients with advanced tumors who would not be accepted as appropriate transplant candidates according to widely used selection criteria.
  • Liver transplantation is a lifesaving procedure that presents many challenges, and our experience has led us to develop an innovative technique for biliary reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Transplantation / physiology. Living Donors
  • [MeSH-minor] Anastomosis, Surgical. Animals. Cadaver. Disease Models, Animal. Gallbladder / surgery. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Tissue Donors / statistics & numerical data. Tissue and Organ Harvesting. Turkey


40. Said A, Einstein M, Lucey MR: Liver transplantation: an update 2007. Curr Opin Gastroenterol; 2007 May;23(3):292-8
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation: an update 2007.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent attention in liver transplantation has focused on equity in organ allocation and management of posttransplant complications.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Adoption of the model for end-stage liver disease for liver allocation has been successful in implementing a system based on medical urgency rather than waiting time.
  • Chronic renal dysfunction after liver transplantation is a source of considerable morbidity.
  • Alcohol relapse is common after liver transplant in alcoholic liver disease patients and can lead to worse outcomes.
  • SUMMARY: Organ allocation tends to evolve under the model for end-stage liver disease with a focus on maximizing transplant benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation / trends

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  • (PMID = 17414845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0267-1379
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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41. Guo L, Orrego M, Rodriguez-Luna H, Balan V, Byrne T, Chopra K, Douglas DD, Harrison E, Moss A, Reddy KS, Williams JW, Rakela J, Mulligan D, Vargas HE: Living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C-related cirrhosis: no difference in histological recurrence when compared to deceased donor liver transplantation recipients. Liver Transpl; 2006 Apr;12(4):560-5
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  • [Title] Living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C-related cirrhosis: no difference in histological recurrence when compared to deceased donor liver transplantation recipients.
  • The question of possible earlier and more aggressive recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) compared to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) remains unanswered.
  • To address this issue we retrospectively reviewed virological, histological, and clinical data in 67 patients (52 DDLT and 15 LDLT) who underwent liver transplant for their HCV-related cirrhosis since April 2001.
  • Our data indicate that there is no statistical difference between LDLT and DDLT groups in mean age, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, model for end-stage liver disease score, and gender distribution.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C / pathology. Liver Cirrhosis / surgery. Liver Transplantation / pathology. Living Donors. Tissue Donors


42. Muilenburg DJ, Singh A, Torzilli G, Khatri VP: Surgery in the patient with liver disease. Med Clin North Am; 2009 Sep;93(5):1065-81
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  • [Title] Surgery in the patient with liver disease.
  • Liver dysfunction is a prominent entity in Western medicine that has historically affected patients suffering from chronic viral or alcoholic hepatitis.
  • The incidence of these conditions has not changed dramatically in recent years but the overall number of patients with liver dysfunction has increased considerably with the emergence of the obesity epidemic.
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become increasingly recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States.
  • Although the rate of progression of NAFLD to overt cirrhosis is low, the high prevalence of this condition, combined with the moderate degree of liver dysfunction it engenders, has resulted in a significant increase in the number of patients with liver disease that can be encountered by a surgical practice.
  • Any degree of clinically evident liver disease in a prospective surgical patient should raise concern for the entire surgical team.
  • Nonabdominal surgery avoids some of the technical challenges presented by liver disease but the anesthetic management of a cirrhotic patient still makes any operation potentially more dangerous.
  • In this article, approaches to minimize the risk when surgery becomes necessary in the presence of liver disease are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / complications. Perioperative Care

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  • [ReprintIn] Anesthesiol Clin. 2009 Dec;27(4):721-37 [19942176.001]
  • (PMID = 19665620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9859
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Siriwardana PN, Pathirana A: Episodic biliary obstruction due to an intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:9032
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  • INTRODUCTION: Biliary cystadenoma is a rare, benign neoplasm of the bile ducts with malignant potential.
  • Contrast enhanced computed tomography revealed a cystic mass in segment 4B and protruding into and along the left hepatic duct.
  • CONCLUSION: Biliary cystadenoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with cystic liver lesions who present with episodic biliary obstruction.
  • Due to the reported malignant potential, radical surgery such as wide local excision of the lesion or hepatic resection is needed to minimize the risk of local recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 19918286.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2767148
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44. Morishita S, Hirooka Y, Sato K, Kato Y, Fukuda C, Endo K, Ikeguchi M, Koda M, Suou T: [Real-time tissue elastography in chronic liver disease]. Rinsho Byori; 2010 Apr;58(4):319-24
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  • [Title] [Real-time tissue elastography in chronic liver disease].
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: In patients with chronic liver diseases, the histological classification of liver fibrosis is essential for predicting prognosis and selecting appropriate antiviral therapy.
  • This study aimed to determine the usefulness of a new noninvasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis by using real-time tissue elastography, which can be performed with conventional ultrasound probes.
  • METHODS: Thirty-nine patients who had liver fibrosis and had undergone liver resection or liver biopsy were included in this study.
  • The surgical specimens obtained were examined to determine the histological stage of liver fibrosis.
  • The strain ratio of subcutaneous fat tissue to liver tissue was calculated.
  • We examined the correlation between the strain ratio and the histological liver fibrosis stage, and compared the utility with various surrogate liver fibrosis markers.
  • RESULTS: The strain ratio significantly differed with the stage of liver fibrosis, and they had significant correlation (Kruskal-Wallis test: p<0.0001; Spearman's rank correlation, p<0.0001, r=0.797).
  • We identified 5.8 and 3.7 as the cutoff values of strain ratio for the diagnosis of cirrhosis and significant fibrosis.
  • The AUROC was superior to the other surrogate liver fibrosis markers tested.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Real-time tissue elastography is a useful method for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic liver diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Liver Cirrhosis / ultrasonography. Liver Diseases / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20496758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. Lehmann U, Berg-Ribbe I, Wingen LU, Brakensiek K, Becker T, Klempnauer J, Schlegelberger B, Kreipe H, Flemming P: Distinct methylation patterns of benign and malignant liver tumors revealed by quantitative methylation profiling. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 May 15;11(10):3654-60
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  • [Title] Distinct methylation patterns of benign and malignant liver tumors revealed by quantitative methylation profiling.
  • PURPOSE: A comparative quantitative methylation profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma and the most frequent benign liver tumor, hepatocellular adenoma, was set up for the identification of tumor-specific methylation patterns.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The quantitative methylation levels of nine genes (RASSF1A, cyclinD2, p16INK4a, DAP-K, APC, RIZ-1, HIN-1, GSTpi1, SOCS-1) were analyzed in hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent normal tissue (n = 41), hepatocellular adenoma and adjacent normal tissue (n = 26), focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 10), and unrelated normal liver tissue (n = 28).
  • Accumulated methylation data were analyzed using various statistical algorithms, including hierarchical clustering, to detect tumor-specific methylation patterns.
  • RESULTS: Cluster analysis revealed that hepatocellular adenoma displays a methylation profile much more similar to that found in normal liver tissue and focal nodular hyperplasia than to that found in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • In the control group of 28 liver specimens from healthy donors, a clear correlation between age of patient and frequency and level of aberrant methylation was seen, which could not be detected in the group of hepatocellular carcinoma specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Cyclins / genetics. DNA Methylation. Liver Diseases / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Cluster Analysis. Cyclin D2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15897561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclins
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46. Blomme B, Van Steenkiste C, Callewaert N, Van Vlierberghe H: Alteration of protein glycosylation in liver diseases. J Hepatol; 2009 Mar;50(3):592-603
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  • [Title] Alteration of protein glycosylation in liver diseases.
  • Chronic liver diseases are a serious health problem worldwide.
  • The current gold standard to assess structural liver damage is through a liver biopsy which has several disadvantages.
  • A non-invasive, simple and non-expensive test to diagnose liver pathology would be highly desirable.
  • Glycosylation is a posttranslational modification of many secreted proteins and it has been known for decades that structural changes in the glycan structures of serum proteins are an indication for liver damage.
  • The aim of this paper is to give an overview of this altered protein glycosylation in different etiologies of liver fibrosis / cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Although individual liver diseases have their own specific markers, the same modifications seem to continuously reappear in all liver diseases: hyperfucosylation, increased branching and a bisecting N-acetylglucosamine.
  • Analysis at mRNA and protein level of the corresponding glycosyltransferases confirm their altered status in liver pathology.
  • The last part of this review deals with some recently developed glycomic techniques that could potentially be used in the diagnosis of liver pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Fucosyltransferases / metabolism. Glucosyltransferases / metabolism. Liver Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / enzymology. Chronic Disease. Fatty Liver / enzymology. Gallbladder Diseases / enzymology. Glycosylation. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / enzymology. Liver Neoplasms / enzymology. Polysaccharides / metabolism. Sialyltransferases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19157620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0641
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polysaccharides; EC 2.4.1.- / Fucosyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.- / Glucosyltransferases; EC 2.4.99.- / Sialyltransferases
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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47. Williams R: Global challenges in liver disease. Hepatology; 2006 Sep;44(3):521-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Global challenges in liver disease.
  • End-stage chronic liver disease (ESLD) as a result of co-infection with HBV/HCV is now the major cause of death for individuals who have been infected with the HIV virus.
  • Steatohepatitis due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is developing into a new and major health problem as a result of rising levels of obesity in populations worldwide.
  • Hepatic steatosis also has an adverse influence on the progression of other liver diseases including chronic HCV infection and alcoholic liver disease.
  • Finally, despite the successes of liver transplantation, many deserving patients are not getting transplants due to low levels of cadaver organ donation in many countries, thereby increasing pressures on the use of living donor liver transplantation.
  • Only through a concerted effort from governments, health agencies, healthcare professionals at all levels, and the pharmaceutical industry can this grim outlook for liver disease worldwide be reversed.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16941687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-9139
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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48. Volk ML, Lok AS, Pelletier SJ, Ubel PA, Hayward RA: Impact of the model for end-stage liver disease allocation policy on the use of high-risk organs for liver transplantation. Gastroenterology; 2008 Nov;135(5):1568-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of the model for end-stage liver disease allocation policy on the use of high-risk organs for liver transplantation.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although priority for liver transplantation is determined by the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, the quality of organs used is subject to physician discretion.
  • METHODS: Data were analyzed from the United Network for Organ Sharing of adults who underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation between January 1, 2007, and August 1, 2007 (n = 47,985).
  • RESULTS: The overall organ quality of transplanted livers has worsened since MELD implementation, with an increase in the donor risk index equivalent to a 4% increased risk of graft failure after adjusting for temporal trends (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: As an unintended consequence of the MELD allocation policy, patients that are least in need of a liver transplant now receive the highest-risk organs.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation / methods. Policy Making. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Resource Allocation / methods. Tissue Donors

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  • [CommentIn] Gastroenterology. 2008 Nov;135(5):1452-4 [18851971.001]
  • (PMID = 19009713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 234-2005-370011C
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Palatini P, De Martin S, Pegoraro P, Orlando R: Enzyme inhibition and induction in liver disease. Curr Clin Pharmacol; 2008 Jan;3(1):56-69
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enzyme inhibition and induction in liver disease.
  • This article reviews the influence of liver functional status on pharmacokinetic interactions due to inhibition and induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes.
  • Recent human studies have shown that the magnitude of inhibitory interactions caused by the reversible CYP1A2 inhibitor fluvoxamine decreases as liver function worsens, and virtually vanishes in patients with more advanced hepatocellular insufficiency.
  • This effect of liver dysfunction is independent of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the CYP1A2 substrate, since it has been observed with both high- and low-clearance drugs.
  • It is most probably due to reduced uptake of the inhibitory drug by the cirrhotic liver.
  • 1) whether the inhibition of any CYP isoform is reduced in liver disease;.
  • 2) whether the effect of liver dysfunction depends on the chemical nature of the inhibitory drug, since both reduced in vivo inhibition and in vitro uptake by the cirrhotic liver have so far been shown only for basic drugs;.
  • Although many in vivo and in vitro studies have examined the inducibility of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver disease, available data are incomplete and conflicting, since both well-preserved and severely curtailed responses to inducing agents have been reported.
  • The reasons for these variable responses are most probably methodological, i.e., differences in the type and degree of liver dysfunction of the animals and patients examined, and in the type and dosage of the inducing agent used.
  • Nonetheless, the results of those few studies which used pathologically homogeneous animal or patient groups suggest that, like basal enzyme expression, drug-inducible expression is also substantially preserved in mild to moderate liver disease, whereas it is lost in severe hepatic dysfunction.
  • For a definitive conclusion, further studies are necessary which examine etiologically homogeneous patient groups and stratify patients rigorously according to their functional hepatic reserve.
  • Such studies should also examine inducers with different physicochemical properties and acting by different mechanisms, since the expression of both hepatic transporters and nuclear receptors may be differentially affected by liver function impairment.
  • [MeSH-major] Enzyme Induction. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Liver Diseases / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / biosynthesis. Drug Interactions. Fluvoxamine / pharmacology. Humans. Lidocaine / metabolism. Liver / metabolism. Theophylline / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18690879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-8847
  • [Journal-full-title] Current clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Clin Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine; C137DTR5RG / Theophylline; O4L1XPO44W / Fluvoxamine
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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50. Stadlbauer V, Krisper P, Beuers U, Haditsch B, Schneditz D, Jung A, Putz-Bankuti C, Holzer H, Trauner M, Stauber RE: Removal of bile acids by two different extracorporeal liver support systems in acute-on-chronic liver failure. ASAIO J; 2007 Mar-Apr;53(2):187-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Removal of bile acids by two different extracorporeal liver support systems in acute-on-chronic liver failure.
  • Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is accompanied by marked intrahepatic cholestasis leading to accumulation of cytotoxic bile acids.
  • Extracorporeal liver support systems efficiently remove bile acids, but their effect on bile acid composition in ACLF is unknown.
  • The molar fraction of CDCA (fCDCA) was elevated at baseline and correlated with the degree of liver dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Acids and Salts / blood. Extracorporeal Circulation / methods. Liver Failure, Acute / therapy. Renal Dialysis / methods. Sorption Detoxification / methods

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  • (PMID = 17413559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-943X
  • [Journal-full-title] ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ASAIO J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Serum Albumin; 0GEI24LG0J / Chenodeoxycholic Acid; G1JO7801AE / Cholic Acid
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51. Rivoire M, Kodjikian L, Baldo S, Kaemmerlen P, Négrier S, Grange JD: Treatment of liver metastases from uveal melanoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Jun;12(6):422-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of liver metastases from uveal melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma patients with liver metastases have a poor prognosis.
  • Sixty-three developed liver metastases as the first extraocular metastatic site.
  • When possible, liver surgery and intra-arterial catheter implantation were performed.
  • The influence on survival of demographics, uveal tumor characteristics, liver metastasis presentation, and treatment was studied.
  • RESULTS: The median time to liver metastasis was 29 months.
  • Twenty-eight patients (44%) were operated on: 14 (22%) had R0 liver surgery, and 14 with diffuse liver involvement had R2 liver surgery (there were no significant surgical complications).
  • Thirty-five patients with diffuse liver involvement received systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the case of liver metastases from uveal melanoma, aggressive treatment permitting tumor eradication seems to offer a chance of long-term survival to selected patients.
  • Better screening tests and more effective multimodality treatments are required to improve survival in uveal melanoma patients with hepatic metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology


52. Miquilena Colina ME, García Monzón C: [Obesity and liver disease]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Oct;33(8):591-604
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Obesity and liver disease].
  • Obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and contributes to the progression of liver diseases of distinct etiologies such as chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
  • The discovery that adipose tissue is submitted to a state of chronic inflammation able to secrete adipokines has allowed a connection to be established between the metabolic alterations that lead to triglyceride accumulation and liver inflammation, reinforcing the role of hepatocellular lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.
  • In addition, although HCV genotype 3 induces steatosis, it is currently believed that obesity and its associated alterations, such as insulin resistance, are involved in progression of HCV-mediated liver disease, as well as that of other chronic liver diseases of diverse etiologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / etiology. Obesity / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenylate Kinase / physiology. Adipokines / secretion. Adipose Tissue / secretion. Animals. Disease Progression. Fatty Acids / metabolism. Fatty Liver / etiology. Fatty Liver / physiopathology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Humans. Inflammation. Insulin Resistance. Lipid Metabolism. Lipid Peroxidation. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Models, Biological. Orphan Nuclear Receptors / physiology. PPAR alpha / physiology. Triglycerides / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20206411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Orphan Nuclear Receptors; 0 / PPAR alpha; 0 / Triglycerides; 0 / liver X receptor; EC 2.7.4.3 / Adenylate Kinase
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53. Perez MJ, Castaño B, Gonzalez-Buitrago JM, Marin JJ: Multiple protective effects of melatonin against maternal cholestasis-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat fetal liver-placenta-maternal liver trio. J Pineal Res; 2007 Sep;43(2):130-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple protective effects of melatonin against maternal cholestasis-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat fetal liver-placenta-maternal liver trio.
  • Maternal cholestasis is usually a benign condition for the mother but induces profound placental damage and may be lethal for the fetus.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects in rat maternal and fetal livers as also the placenta of melatonin or silymarin against the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by maternal obstructive cholestasis during the last third of pregnancy (OCP).
  • However, the protective effect on OCP-induced impairment in the GSH/GSSG ratio was mild in the placenta and fetal liver, while absent in maternal liver.
  • These included, biliverdin-IX alpha reductase and the sodium-dependent vitamin C transport proteins SVCT1 and SVCT2, whose expression levels were enhanced in maternal and fetal liver by melatonin treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cholestasis / metabolism. Cholestasis / pathology. Liver / drug effects. Liver / embryology. Melatonin / pharmacology. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Placenta / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17645691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Slc23a1 protein, rat; 0 / Slc23a2 protein, rat; 0 / Sodium-Coupled Vitamin C Transporters; 0 / Symporters; EC 1.3.- / Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors; EC 1.3.1.24 / biliverdin reductase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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54. Clark JM, Alkhuraishi AR, Solga SF, Alli P, Diehl AM, Magnuson TH: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass improves liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Obes Res; 2005 Jul;13(7):1180-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Roux-en-Y gastric bypass improves liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in the United States and is prevalent in morbidly obese patients.
  • RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We examined liver histology at the time of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and at elective incisional hernia repair after weight loss for 16 patients at one center.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Liver / pathology. Gastric Bypass. Obesity, Morbid / complications. Weight Loss / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y / methods. Female. Humans. Liver Diseases / etiology. Liver Diseases / pathology. Male. Treatment Outcome


55. Jin SJ, Lu SC, Lai W, Dai J, Zhao J, Li YP, Yan LN: [Enhancing active immunity against hepatitis B virus by HBV vaccine immunization in patients with HBV-related end-stage liver diseases treated with liver transplantation]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;16(4):261-4
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  • [Title] [Enhancing active immunity against hepatitis B virus by HBV vaccine immunization in patients with HBV-related end-stage liver diseases treated with liver transplantation].
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the active immunity response of liver transplant patients for HBV-related diseases after hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine immunization and to investigate the factors that influence the effectiveness of the vaccination in order to find measures to increase its success.
  • METHODS: Thirteen patients who had liver transplants because of HBV-related end-stage liver diseases received hepatitis B virus immunoglobulin and lamivudine for an average of 38 months (range 27-77 months).
  • CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B vaccine immunization can be used to enhance the active immunity against HBV in patients who had liver transplants for HBV-related diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B / immunology. Hepatitis B Vaccines / therapeutic use. Liver Diseases / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Hepatitis B virus. Humans. Immunity, Active. Liver Transplantation. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period

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  • (PMID = 18423146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-3418
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis B Vaccines
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56. Khai NC, Takahashi T, Ushikoshi H, Nagano S, Yuge K, Esaki M, Kawai T, Goto K, Murofushi Y, Fujiwara T, Fujiwara H, Kosai K: In vivo hepatic HB-EGF gene transduction inhibits Fas-induced liver injury and induces liver regeneration in mice: a comparative study to HGF. J Hepatol; 2006 Jun;44(6):1046-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vivo hepatic HB-EGF gene transduction inhibits Fas-induced liver injury and induces liver regeneration in mice: a comparative study to HGF.
  • This study explores the potential of hepatic HB-EGF gene therapy in comparison with HGF.
  • METHODS: Mice received an intraperitoneal injection of the agonistic anti-Fas antibody 72 h after an intravenous injection of either adenoviral vector (1x10(11) particles) expressing human HB-EGF (Ad.HB-EGF), human HGF (Ad.HGF) or no gene (Ad.dE1.3), and were sacrificed 24 or 36 h later to assess liver injury and regeneration.
  • The control Ad.dE1.3-treated mice represented remarkable increases in serum ALT and AST levels and histopathologically severe liver injuries with numerous apoptosis, but a limited number of mitogenic hepatocytes.
  • In contrast, the liver injuries and apoptotic changes were significantly inhibited, but the mitogenic hepatocytes remarkably increased, in both the Ad.HB-EGF- and Ad.HGF-treated mice.
  • In vivo hepatic HB-EGF gene transduction is therapeutic for Fas-induced liver injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Genetic Therapy. Liver Diseases / therapy. Liver Regeneration / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Antibodies / pharmacology. Antigens, CD95 / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Cell Membrane / chemistry. Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor. Hepatocyte Growth Factor / therapeutic use. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Liver / enzymology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Transduction, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16466829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / HBEGF protein, human; 0 / Hbegf protein, mouse; 0 / Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor
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57. Ladurner R, Königsrainer A: [Liver surgery: what is feasible?]. Zentralbl Chir; 2007 Aug;132(4):274-80
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  • [Title] [Liver surgery: what is feasible?].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgie der Leber: Grenzen des Machbaren.
  • BACKGROUND: Bilobar hepatic metastases, a small residual liver volume, de-novo and recurrent lesions, simultaneous pulmonary metastases and infiltration of vascular structures are often limiting factors in the surgical treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors.
  • METHODS: The combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiofrequency ablation, extended liver resection after selective portal vein embolization, two-stage hepatectomy, resection and reconstruction of vascular structures in deep hypothermia and simultaneous resection of pulmonary metastases, increase the resectability even in patients with poor prognosis achieving 5-year-survival rates between 26-46 % in colorectal liver metastases, 40 % in primary liver tumors and a median survival of 42 months after resection of liver and lung metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Catheter Ablation. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Patient Selection. Pilot Projects. Portal Vein. Prognosis. Time Factors. Venous Thrombosis / surgery. Venous Thrombosis / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17724627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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58. DeSanty KP, Amabile CM: Antidepressant-induced liver injury. Ann Pharmacother; 2007 Jul;41(7):1201-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antidepressant-induced liver injury.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review principles of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), summarize characteristics of antidepressant-mediated liver injury, and provide recommendations for monitoring and management.
  • DATA SOURCES: A search relating to antidepressant-induced liver injury was performed using MEDLINE (1966-March 2007).
  • Search terms included antidepressant, cholestasis, hepatotoxicity, jaundice, liver injury, toxic hepatitis, and transaminases.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: Antidepressant-induced liver injury described in published cases were of the idiopathic type and, by definition, cannot be predicted based on dose or specific risk factors.
  • Causality has not been well established in all reports due to the concurrent use of other drugs and/or underlying liver disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most antidepressant agents have the potential to produce idiopathic liver injury.
  • The clinician must be careful to provide ongoing therapy of the underlying depressive disorder and be aware of possible drug discontinuation syndromes should potential hepatotoxicity be suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Liver / drug effects. Liver / injuries
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Liver Diseases / metabolism. Liver Diseases / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17609231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-6270
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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59. Weiss KH, Gotthardt D, Schmidt J, Schemmer P, Encke J, Riediger C, Stremmel W, Sauer P, Merle U: Liver transplantation for metabolic liver diseases in adults: indications and outcome. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2007 Sep;22 Suppl 8:viii9-viii12
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation for metabolic liver diseases in adults: indications and outcome.
  • Orthotopic liver transplantation is the preferred treatment for many patients with complications of end-stage liver disease.
  • For metabolic liver diseases liver transplantation does not only replace the diseased organ, but also can potentially correct the metabolic defect.
  • Results of liver transplantation for metabolic diseases have been encouraging.
  • In Wilson's disease liver transplantation is considered an effective treatment for the fulminant form and for end-stage liver disease, associated with an excellent long-term outcome.
  • However, it is still a matter of controversy whether liver transplantation should be considered in Wilson's disease patients with severe neurological impairment.
  • Liver transplantation for hereditary haemochromatosis is relatively uncommon and is associated with a decreased post-transplantation patient survival, most likely due to infections and cardiac complications.
  • Reduction of iron overload prior to liver transplantation in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis might be associated with a better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / therapy. Liver Failure / therapy. Liver Transplantation / methods. Metabolic Diseases / diagnosis. Metabolic Diseases / therapy


60. Lemoine M, Revaux A, Francoz C, Ducarme G, Brechignac S, Jacquemin E, Uzan M, Ganne-Carrie N: Albumin liver dialysis as pregnancy-saving procedure in cholestatic liver disease and intractable pruritus. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Nov 14;14(42):6572-4
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  • [Title] Albumin liver dialysis as pregnancy-saving procedure in cholestatic liver disease and intractable pruritus.
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC3) is a rare cholestatic liver disease.
  • Such liver disease can get worse by female hormone disorder.


61. Mandrekar P, Szabo G: Signalling pathways in alcohol-induced liver inflammation. J Hepatol; 2009 Jun;50(6):1258-66
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  • [Title] Signalling pathways in alcohol-induced liver inflammation.
  • The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury involves interactions of several intracellular signalling pathways in different cell types of the liver.
  • Alcohol-induced sensitization of liver macrophages to portal endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered a hallmark of alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
  • Intracellular mechanisms associated with LPS-induced signalling play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of alcoholic liver injury, and are being extensively explored.
  • LPS recognition by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on macrophages and other cell types in the liver, activation of downstream signalling pathways culminating in activation of transcription factors such as NFkappaB, AP-1 leads to increased inflammatory cytokine production in ALD.
  • In addition, LPS-induced MAPK such as ERK and p38 also contribute to liver injury.
  • In this review we describe the key signalling intermediates leading to alcohol-induced inflammation in alcoholic liver disease.

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  • (PMID = 19398236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0641
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R21 AA017545; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA017986; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R13 AA015283; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA017986-01A1; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA015283; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R13 AA017357; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA017357; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R21 AA017545-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Receptors, Cytokine; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 93
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS120690; NLM/ PMC3342816
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62. Sell S, Leffert HL: Liver cancer stem cells. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jun 10;26(17):2800-5
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  • [Title] Liver cancer stem cells.
  • In an effort to review the evidence that liver cancer stem cells exist, two fundamental questions must be addressed.
  • First, do hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from liver stem cells?
  • For many years the finding of preneoplastic nodules in the liver during experimental induction of HCCs by chemicals was interpreted to support the hypothesis that HCC arose by dedifferentiation of mature liver cells.
  • More recently, recognition of the role of small oval cells in the carcinogenic process led to a new hypothesis that HCC arises by maturation arrest of liver stem cells.
  • However, definitive markers for these putative cancer stem cells have not yet been found and a liver cancer stem cell has not been isolated.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Aug 1;26(22): 3819
  • (PMID = 18539957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI067354; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA161510; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1-R01-CA112481; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI067354-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI067354-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113602-02; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES010337; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112481-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112481; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / 5-P42 ES10337; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112481-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113602; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113602-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1-R01-CA113602; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 1-R21-AI067354
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 93
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS60581; NLM/ PMC2515096
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63. Elphick DA, Dube AK, McFarlane E, Jones J, Gleeson D: Spectrum of liver histology in presumed decompensated alcoholic liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol; 2007 Apr;102(4):780-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spectrum of liver histology in presumed decompensated alcoholic liver disease.
  • BACKGROUND: In presumed decompensated alcoholic liver disease (ALD; liver decompensation, heavy alcohol intake, and negative results of noninvasive screening for other causes), liver biopsy is often performed to assess severity of liver injury and to rule out other liver diseases.
  • AIM: The aim of the study is to describe the spectrum of liver histology in such patients.
  • METHODS: We reviewed all patients with presumed decompensated ALD seen between 1998 and 2004, in whom liver tissue was available for histology (N = 110).
  • These features were also associated with more severe liver dysfunction.
  • Histology revealed a major additional diagnosis (Budd-Chiari syndrome) in only one case.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with presumed decompensated ALD, other liver diseases are uncommon.
  • Routine liver biopsy is of limited added value but biopsy should be considered in those in whom the noninvasive workup, or failure to recover despite abstinence, raises the possibility of other liver diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Liver Function Tests. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 May;102(5):1141
  • (PMID = 17222323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Said A, Lucey MR: Liver transplantation: an update. Curr Opin Gastroenterol; 2006 May;22(3):272-8
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation: an update.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent attention in liver transplantation has focused on equity in organ allocation and management of post-transplant complications.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Adoption of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) for liver allocation has been successful in implementing a system based on medical urgency rather than waiting time.
  • With hepatocellular carcinoma becoming a bigger proportion of liver transplants since MELD, emerging literature is examining expansion of the current criteria for transplantation of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Hepatitis C virus infection is associated with worse patient and graft survival post-transplantation than other liver diseases.
  • Chronic renal dysfunction after liver transplantation is a source of considerable morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Tissue and Organ Procurement / organization & administration

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  • (PMID = 16550042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0267-1379
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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65. Suda T, Kamimura K, Kubota T, Tamura Y, Igarashi M, Kawai H, Aoyagi Y, Liu D: Progress toward liver-based gene therapy. Hepatol Res; 2009 Apr;39(4):325-40
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  • [Title] Progress toward liver-based gene therapy.
  • The liver is involved in the synthesis of serum proteins, regulation of metabolism and maintenance of homeostasis and provides a variety of opportunities for gene therapy.
  • The enriched vasculature and blood circulation, fenestrated endothelium, abundant receptors on the plasma membranes of the liver cells, and effective transcription and translation machineries in the hepatocytes are some unique features that have been explored for delivery, and functional analysis, of genetic sequences in the liver.
  • Both viral and non-viral methods have been developed for effective gene delivery and liver-based gene therapy.
  • This review describes the fundamentals of gene delivery, and the preclinical and clinical progress that has been made toward gene therapy using the liver as a target.

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  • (PMID = 19207594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6346
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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66. Amodio P, Biancardi A, Montagnese S, Angeli P, Iannizzi P, Cillo U, D'Amico D, Gatta A: Neurological complications after orthotopic liver transplantation. Dig Liver Dis; 2007 Aug;39(8):740-7
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  • [Title] Neurological complications after orthotopic liver transplantation.
  • BACKGROUND: The number of orthotopic liver transplantation performed each year is increasing due to increased safety and logistic facilities.
  • AIM: To review present knowledge on the neurological complications of orthotopic liver transplantation.
  • METHODS: The epidemiology, the clinical features and the pathophysiology of the neurological complications of orthotopic liver transplants, resulting from a systematic review of the literature in the last 25 years, are summarized.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The review highlights that a relevant variety of neurological adverse events can occur in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation.
  • The knowledge of neurological complications of orthotopic liver transplantation is important for transplantation teams to reduce their prevalence and improve their management.
  • In addition, the likelihood of neurological adverse effects provides evidence for the need of a careful cognitive and neurological work up of patients in the orthotopic liver transplantation waiting list, in order to recognize and interpret neurological dysfunction occurring after orthotopic liver transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Nervous System Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17611177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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67. Nobili V, Alkhouri N, Alisi A, Ottino S, Lopez R, Manco M, Feldstein AE: Retinol-binding protein 4: a promising circulating marker of liver damage in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 May;7(5):575-9
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  • [Title] Retinol-binding protein 4: a promising circulating marker of liver damage in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Noninvasive methods are needed to identify pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most frequent chronic liver disease in children and adolescents in industrialized countries.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows an inverse relationship between RBP4 levels and degree of liver damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma / analysis. Serum / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers / analysis. Biopsy. Child. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver / physiopathology. Liver Cirrhosis / pathology. Male. Metabolome. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 19268270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / RBP4 protein, human; 0 / Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma
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68. Targhetta S, Villamil F, Inturri P, Pontisso P, Fagiuoli S, Cillo U, Cecchetto A, Gianni S, Naccarato R, Burra P: Protocol liver biopsies in long-term management of patients transplanted for hepatitis B-related liver disease. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Mar 21;12(11):1706-12
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  • [Title] Protocol liver biopsies in long-term management of patients transplanted for hepatitis B-related liver disease.
  • AIM: To evaluate the long-term histological outcome of patients transplanted for HBV-related liver disease and given HBIg prophylaxis indefinitely after LT.
  • HBsAg, HBV-DNA and liver function tests were evaluated in the serum 3, 6 and 12 mo after LT and then yearly.
  • Actuarial survival was similar in patients with HBsAg+ or HBsAg- liver diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Hepatitis B / surgery. Immunoglobulins / therapeutic use. Liver Transplantation / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Protocols. DNA, Viral / blood. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / blood. Hepatitis B virus / genetics. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver Cirrhosis / diagnosis. Liver Function Tests. Prospective Studies. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16586538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / hepatitis B hyperimmune globulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4124344
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69. Xu C, Yi HM, Fu BS, Li H, Zhang D, Chen GH: [Application of aging donors in rat liver transplantation]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 Nov;29(11):2231-2
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  • [Title] [Application of aging donors in rat liver transplantation].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application of donor livers from aging rats, and discuss the age limit of the donor rats liver transplantation.
  • METHODS: Arterialized, two-cuff technique orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in male Wistar rats.
  • The postoperative function recovery and pathological changes of the liver grafts were evaluated by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) detection and histopathological examination, and the 3-month survival rate of the rats was observed.
  • RESULTS: Aging liver grafts in groups B, C, and D caused early elevation of ALT peak level and aggravation of liver tissue damage, and the liver graft recovery was delayed until postoperative day 7.
  • Mild liver fibrosis, reduced hepatocytes and pigment deposition were observed in the liver grafts before the transplantation.
  • Compared with the other groups, the rats in group E showed significantly increased ALT levels after the transplantation (P<0.05), with failure of liver graft function recovery and significantly reduced 3-month survival rate (0%, Plt;0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The donor age of the rats is a crucial factor to affect the outcome of the liver grafts.
  • Grafts obtained from rats younger than 23 months allow better functional recovery of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Transplantation / methods. Tissue Donors

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  • (PMID = 19923075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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70. Haug A, Raziorrouh B, Zachoval R, Jung CM, Otto C: Intra-hepatic splenosis as an unexpected cause of a focal liver lesion in a patient with hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis: a case report. Cases J; 2009 Aug 19;2:8335
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  • [Title] Intra-hepatic splenosis as an unexpected cause of a focal liver lesion in a patient with hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis: a case report.
  • Here we report a patient with a history of splenectomy after polytrauma with chronic hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis presenting with an hepatic mass of unknown origin.
  • After revision of a MRI performed in our centre it appeared that the liver mass contrasted in the same way as the remaining accessory spleens in the left upper quadrant.
  • A selective Tc-99m-labelled heat-denatured autologous red blood cells scintigraphy of the spleen was performed and showed both the accessory spleens in the left upper quadrant and spleen-typical tissue in projection to the left liver lobe and confirmed the diagnosis of splenosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although intrahepatic splenosis represents an extremely rare condition, this diagnosis should always be taken into consideration in patients with history of abdominal trauma with splenic involvement presenting with an indeterminate focal liver lesion.
  • The diagnosis of splenosis may then be reliably confirmed by Tc-99m-DRBC scintigraphy.

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  • (PMID = 19830070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740154
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76. Dong Q, Jiang B, Lu Y, Zhang H, Jiang Z, Lu H, Yang C, Zhao J, Hao X: Surgical management of giant liver tumor involving the hepatic hilum of children. World J Surg; 2009 Jul;33(7):1520-5
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  • [Title] Surgical management of giant liver tumor involving the hepatic hilum of children.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgical management of giant liver tumors involving the hepatic hilum tends to be very difficult.
  • The present study assessed the feasibility and safety of resection of such liver tumors.
  • METHODS: We evaluated 27 patients with liver tumors involving the hepatic hilum.
  • The other four cases did not undergo operation because of their parents' decisions to discontinue treatment; these cases had multiple space-occupying lesions in addition to tumors involving the hepatic hilum.
  • Before resection, the tumor was fully exposed and an occluding tape was placed around the vena cava when necessary.
  • The nine cases with benign liver tumors were healthy at follow-up at 11 months to 9 years after operation.
  • Of the 14 cases with malignant tumors, six died from recurrence, metastasis, or other complications.
  • The other eight cases were still alive without clinical tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resecting giant liver tumors involving the main hepatic veins and/or the retrohepatic vena cava, although challenging, is feasible and safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Portal System / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Blood Loss, Surgical / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemostasis, Surgical / methods. Hepatoblastoma / diagnostic imaging. Hepatoblastoma / mortality. Hepatoblastoma / pathology. Hepatoblastoma / surgery. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Preoperative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19424748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Muratori P, Granito A, Pappas G, Muratori L, Lenzi M, Bianchi FB: Autoimmune liver disease 2007. Mol Aspects Med; 2008 Feb-Apr;29(1-2):96-102
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  • [Title] Autoimmune liver disease 2007.
  • Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists.
  • The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases.
  • Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary / drug therapy. Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary / immunology. Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 18067956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-2997
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular aspects of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Aspects Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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78. Fontanges T, Bailly F, Trepo E, Chevallier M, Maynard-Muet M, Nalet B, Beorchia S, Pillon D, Moindrot H, Froissart B, Slaoui M, Tinel X, Pradat P, Trepo C: Discordance between biochemical markers of liver activity and fibrosis (Actitest-Fibrotest) and liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2008 Oct;32(10):858-65
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  • [Title] Discordance between biochemical markers of liver activity and fibrosis (Actitest-Fibrotest) and liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine in routine practice and in comparison with liver biopsy the limitations of two blood tests, Actitest and Fibrotest, for the evaluation of hepatic activity and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
  • METHODS: Routine blood tests, Actitest and Fibrotest, and liver biopsy were performed in 96 patients with chronic hepatitis C attending routine outpatient clinics.
  • Discrepancies for fibrosis were observed in 18 patients with a higher score for biochemical test in eight and a higher score for liver biopsy in 10 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: This prospective study confirms the good diagnostic value of biochemical tests for necrotico-inflammatory activity and fibrosis as compared with the histological analysis of liver biopsy.
  • Clinicians must interpret Actitest and Fibrotest results with caution in patients with a significant elevation of ALT, and/or GGT and/or alpha2-macroglobulin which could overestimate hepatic injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis C, Chronic / blood. Hepatitis C, Chronic / pathology. Liver / pathology. Liver Cirrhosis / blood. Liver Cirrhosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18775614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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79. Bautista Rodríguez MD, Pozo Laderas JC, Bravo-Rodríguez Fde A, Sánchez-Tembleque MD, Martos Becerra JM, Sancho Ruiz H: [Acute liver failure in a hospital with a liver transplantation program]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Apr;28(4):211-4
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  • [Title] [Acute liver failure in a hospital with a liver transplantation program].
  • [Transliterated title] Fallo hepático agudo en un hospital con programa de trasplante hepático.
  • INTRODUCTION: Acute hepatic failure (AHF) is an uncommon entity but with high mortality.
  • Liver transplantation has improved prognosis but is an aggressive treatment with high risk.
  • Currently, there are no accurate criteria to differentiate between irreversible AHF and the possibility of hepatic regeneration.
  • Hepatic regeneration occurred in one patient.
  • CONCLUSION: The indication of hepatic transplantation in patients with a poor prognosis, early stage acute liver failure, and a low grade of encephalopathy, and prior to the development of multiorgan failure could improve the results of transplantation and reduce perioperative mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure, Acute / mortality. Liver Failure, Acute / surgery. Liver Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 15811261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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80. Di Sario A, Candelaresi C, Omenetti A, Benedetti A: Vitamin E in chronic liver diseases and liver fibrosis. Vitam Horm; 2007;76:551-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vitamin E in chronic liver diseases and liver fibrosis.
  • Liver fibrosis may be considered as a dynamic and integrated cellular response to chronic liver injury.
  • The activation of hepatic stellate cells and the consequent deposition of large amounts of extracellular matrix play a major role in the fibrogenic process, but it has been shown that other cellular components of the liver are also involved.
  • Although the pathogenesis of liver damage usually depends on the underlying disease, oxidative damage of biologically relevant molecules might represent a common link between different forms of chronic liver injury and hepatic fibrosis.
  • In fact, oxidative stress-related molecules may act as mediators able to modulate all the events involved in the progression of liver fibrosis.
  • In addition, chronic liver diseases are often associated with decreased antioxidant defenses.
  • Although vitamin E levels have been shown to be decreased in chronic liver diseases of different etiology, the role of vitamin E supplementation in these clinical conditions is still controversial.
  • In fact, the increased serum levels of alpha-tocopherol following vitamin E supplementation not always result in a protective effect on liver damage.
  • At present, treatment with vitamin E or other antioxidant compounds could be proposed for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most frequent hepatic lesion in western countries which can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis due to the production of large amounts of oxidative stress products.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / metabolism. Liver Cirrhosis / metabolism. Liver Diseases / metabolism. Vitamin E / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17628189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0083-6729
  • [Journal-full-title] Vitamins and hormones
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vitam. Horm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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81. Gentilini P, La Villa G: Liver-kidney pathophysiological interrelationships in liver diseases. Dig Liver Dis; 2008 Dec;40(12):909-19
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  • [Title] Liver-kidney pathophysiological interrelationships in liver diseases.
  • On the basis of several clinical and experimental researches, it is possible today to deepen the different mechanisms regarding kidney and liver relationships.
  • However, the most studied field remains the renal function during liver disease.
  • 2. Metabolic renal damage is principally due to abnormal serum levels of bile acids, bilirubin and perhaps toxic hepatic molecules which induce tubular dysfunction leading to RTA, of which type I, in the incomplete form, is the most common, varying between 30% and 50% of cases.
  • 3. Organic renal impairment is principally based on immunological response to viral antigens and abnormal hepatic products which lead to the presence of immunocomplexes and cryoglobulins on the blood which tend to be deposited in the subendothelial and subepithelial glomerular areas, inducing complement activation, mesangial cell proliferation and monocyte-macrophage cell infiltration.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatorenal Syndrome / physiopathology. Liver Diseases / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18621592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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82. Mekeel KL, Moss AA, Reddy KS, Douglas DD, Vargas HE, Carey EJ, Byrne TJ, Harrison ME, Rakela J, Mulligan DC: Living donor liver transplantation in polycystic liver disease. Liver Transpl; 2008 May;14(5):680-3
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  • [Title] Living donor liver transplantation in polycystic liver disease.
  • In the current Model for End-Stage Liver Disease system, patients with polycystic liver disease (PCLD) who have a poor quality of life secondary to their massive hepatomegaly are no longer competitive for a deceased donor liver transplant if their liver function is well preserved.
  • This series looks at 3 patients who underwent a caval sparing hepatectomy and subsequent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for PCLD.
  • LDLT is an ideal option for patients with PCLD and preserved liver function but poor quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / surgery. Graft Survival. Liver Diseases / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Living Donors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Hepatectomy. Hepatomegaly / etiology. Hepatomegaly / surgery. Humans. Liver Function Tests. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Quality of Life. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


83. Gazit V, Weymann A, Hartman E, Finck BN, Hruz PW, Tzekov A, Rudnick DA: Liver regeneration is impaired in lipodystrophic fatty liver dystrophy mice. Hepatology; 2010 Dec;52(6):2109-17
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  • [Title] Liver regeneration is impaired in lipodystrophic fatty liver dystrophy mice.
  • We previously reported that mice subjected to partial hepatectomy exhibit rapid development of hypoglycemia followed by transient accumulation of fat in the early regenerating liver.
  • We also showed that disrupting these metabolic alterations results in impaired liver regeneration.
  • The studies reported here were undertaken to further characterize and investigate the functional importance of changes in systemic adipose metabolism during normal liver regeneration.
  • The results showed that a systemic catabolic response is induced in each of two distinct, commonly used experimental models of liver regeneration (partial hepatectomy and carbon tetrachloride treatment), and that this response occurs in proportion to the degree of induced hepatic insufficiency.
  • Together, these observations suggest that catabolism of systemic adipose stores may be essential for normal liver regeneration.
  • To test this possibility, we investigated the hepatic regenerative response in fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mice, which exhibit partial lipodystrophy and have diminished peripheral adipose stores.
  • The results showed that the development of hypoglycemia and hepatic accumulation of fat was attenuated and liver regeneration was impaired following partial hepatectomy in these animals.
  • The fld mice also exhibited increased hepatic p21 expression and diminished plasma levels of the adipose-derived hormones adiponectin and leptin, which have each been implicated as regulators of liver regeneration.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the hypoglycemia that develops after partial hepatectomy induces systemic lipolysis followed by accumulation of fat derived from peripheral stores in the early regenerating liver, and that these events may be essential for initiation of normal liver regeneration.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
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  • (PMID = 20967828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK068219-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK078187-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30-DK056341; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK078187-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK056341; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK078187; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK068219-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30-DK52574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK068219; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK078187; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK068219; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Adipoq protein, mouse; 0 / Cdkn1a protein, mouse; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Leptin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS228309; NLM/ PMC2991544
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84. Vilatobá M, Eckhoff DE, Contreras JL: [Recipient selection for liver transplantation]. Rev Invest Clin; 2005 Mar-Apr;57(2):244-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Recipient selection for liver transplantation].
  • [Transliterated title] Selección del receptor para trasplante hepático.
  • In the last few years, there have been developments in many aspects of liver transplantation.
  • Improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppression markedly increased the success rates of liver transplantation.
  • Thus, it is necessary to properly select the best candidates for a successful liver transplant.
  • This article will review the indications and contraindications for liver transplantation in the Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score era.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Transplantation. Patient Selection
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / surgery. Hepatitis / surgery. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary / surgery. Liver Diseases / surgery. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16524065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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85. Dong L, Zuo L, Xia S, Gao S, Zhang C, Chen J, Zhang J: Reduction of liver tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression by targeting delivery of antisense oligonucleotides into Kupffer cells protects rats from fulminant hepatitis. J Gene Med; 2009 Mar;11(3):229-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reduction of liver tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression by targeting delivery of antisense oligonucleotides into Kupffer cells protects rats from fulminant hepatitis.
  • BACKGROUND: Fulminant liver failure can cause extreme mortality due to the lack of effective and targeting therapeutics for the disease.
  • METHODS: We explored the capacity of galactosylated low molecular weight chitosan (GLC) to efficiently mediate the antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) TJU-2755 into Kupffer cells, enhance the effect of the oligonucleotides on the suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and prolong the active time of the antisense drug in vivo.
  • Its efficacy was affirmed through both pretreatment and therapeutic use after liver damage had begun.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inhibiting TNF-alpha expression in the liver by this strategy represents a novel therapeutic approach that may be valuable for the treatment of some inflammation-related liver diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Targeting. Gene Transfer Techniques. Kupffer Cells / physiology. Liver Failure, Acute / prevention & control. Oligonucleotides, Antisense. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chitosan / chemistry. Chitosan / metabolism. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Carriers / metabolism. Female. Galactosamine / pharmacology. Humans. Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology. Liver / cytology. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19189285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-2254
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of gene medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gene Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 7535-00-4 / Galactosamine; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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86. Aloia T, Sebagh M, Plasse M, Karam V, Lévi F, Giacchetti S, Azoulay D, Bismuth H, Castaing D, Adam R: Liver histology and surgical outcomes after preoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer liver metastases. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Nov 1;24(31):4983-90
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  • [Title] Liver histology and surgical outcomes after preoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer liver metastases.
  • PURPOSE: Preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases (CLM) can produce histologic changes in the nontumor-bearing liver (NTBL) that may impact on surgical outcomes.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From a cohort of 303 patients treated for CLM with liver resection, 92 patients (75 received preoperative chemotherapy: group C+; and 17 were chemotherapy naïve: group C-) were randomly selected for detailed pathologic analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: The main hepatic lesion induced by preoperative FU/oxaliplatin chemotherapy in patients with CLM is vascular and not steatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatectomy. Liver / drug effects. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 Nov 1;24(31):4954-5 [17075112.001]
  • (PMID = 17075116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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87. Cong YL, Wei YX, Zhang LW, Yin ZJ, Bai J: [The relationship between hemostatic changes in liver cirrhosis patients with different degrees of liver lesions in reference to Child-Pugh scores]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi; 2005 Jan;13(1):31-4
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  • [Title] [The relationship between hemostatic changes in liver cirrhosis patients with different degrees of liver lesions in reference to Child-Pugh scores].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between hemostatic changes in liver cirrhosis patients with different degrees of their liver lesions.
  • METHODS: Forty-three patients (35 men, 8 women; age: 25 to 71 yr) with liver cirrhosis were divided into three subgroups (A, B, and C) on the basis of Child-Pugh classification.
  • Because the deterioration of the coagulation function and increasing fibrinolytic activity parallel the severity of liver cirrhosis, adequate treatment for cirrhotic bleeding should not only correct the coagulation defects, but also lower the increased fibrinolytic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemostasis. Liver Cirrhosis / blood. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 15670488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-3418
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithrombins; 0 / Blood Coagulation Factors; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen
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88. Kotsch K, Ulrich F, Reutzel-Selke A, Pascher A, Faber W, Warnick P, Hoffman S, Francuski M, Kunert C, Kuecuek O, Schumacher G, Wesslau C, Lun A, Kohler S, Weiss S, Tullius SG, Neuhaus P, Pratschke J: Methylprednisolone therapy in deceased donors reduces inflammation in the donor liver and improves outcome after liver transplantation: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg; 2008 Dec;248(6):1042-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Methylprednisolone therapy in deceased donors reduces inflammation in the donor liver and improves outcome after liver transplantation: a prospective randomized controlled trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential beneficial effects of donor treatment with methylprednisolone on organ function and outcome after liver transplantation.
  • METHODS: To investigate whether methylprednisolone treatment of the deceased donor is applicable to attenuate brain death-associated damage in clinical liver transplantation we conducted a prospective randomized treatment-versus-control study in 100 deceased donors.
  • A liver biopsy was taken immediately after laparotomy and blood samples were obtained after brain death diagnosis and before organ recovery.
  • RESULTS: After methylprednisolone treatment, steroid plasma levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05), and a significant decrease in soluble interleukins, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and inducible protein-10 was observed.
  • Methylprednisolone treatment resulted in a significant downregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, major histocompatibility complex class II, Fas-ligand, inducible protein-10, and CD68 intragraft mRNA expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our present study verifies the protective effect of methylprednisolone treatment in deceased donor liver transplantation, suggesting it as a potential therapeutical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Liver Transplantation / immunology. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain Death / physiopathology. Chemokine CCL2 / blood. Female. Humans. Inflammation / epidemiology. Inflammation / prevention & control. Interleukin-2 / blood. Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / blood. Interleukin-6 / blood. Interleukins / blood. Liver / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Prospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Donors. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg. 2009 Sep;250(3):502-3; author reply 503-4 [19730189.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Ann Surg. 2011 Aug;254(2):391
  • (PMID = 19092349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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89. Baldwin SL: Diffuse benign liver disease. Radiol Technol; 2007 Jul-Aug;78(6):476-90; quiz 491-3
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  • [Title] Diffuse benign liver disease.
  • Liver diseases are as varied as the numerous functions of this critical organ.
  • Three of the most common are cirrhosis, fatty liver and vascular pathologies of the liver.
  • This article examines the causes of these benign liver diseases, describes the laboratory tests and medical imaging examinations used to diagnose them and discusses treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Liver Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Liver / anatomy & histology. Liver / physiology. Liver Function Tests

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  • (PMID = 17626230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8397
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiologic technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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90. Lin YX, Zhou J, Lin JH, Wang Y, Zhang GW, Cui ZL, Li XH, Tan YF: [Clinical research of donor liver procurement and preparation in liver transplantation]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2010 May;30(5):1012-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical research of donor liver procurement and preparation in liver transplantation].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience of donor liver procurement and preparation in liver transplantation.
  • METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six cases of donor liver and kidney procurement and 105 cases of donor liver preparation from August, 2004 to December, 2006 were analyzed.
  • The 105 donor liver grafts were all used for orthotopic liver transplantation.
  • Donor liver preparation lasted for 38 to 102 min in the 105 cases, with a mean of 51 min.
  • The cold ischemia time of the donor liver was 5.5 to 13 h (mean 8 h).
  • Anatomical variations were identified in 8 of the donor liver grafts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cold perfusion of the donor liver and repair of the hepatic artery are important procedures in donor liver procurement and preparation.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Transplantation. Organ Preservation / methods. Tissue Donors. Tissue and Organ Procurement / methods

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  • (PMID = 20501381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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91. Yi SY, Nan KJ: Tumor-initiating stem cells in liver cancer. Cancer Biol Ther; 2008 Mar;7(3):325-30
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  • [Title] Tumor-initiating stem cells in liver cancer.
  • Definite evidence suggests that tumors harbor a small population of cancer stem cells (CSC) that both give rise to the bulk of the tumor and are tumorigenic in experimental models.
  • Mounting evidence suggests that these cells are responsible for regrowth of a tumor following unsuccessful treatment and for the establishment of metastases.
  • The concept of CSC has been demonstrated in several human cancers including leukemia, breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, colon and brain tumors.
  • Recently, several studies have demonstrated that liver cancer, like other tumors, are derived from a small population of liver cancer stem/progenitor cells.
  • Although still controversial, Liver CSC will likely become the most crucial target in the treatment of liver cancer, and a thorough understanding of its origin, molecular profile and particularly of how the Liver CSC differs from the normal stem cells, might allow it to be targeted selectively and eliminated, thus improving therapeutic outcome.
  • In this review we will summarize the recent evidence for Liver CSC, the relationship between normal and liver stem cells, and the possibility that transformation of different cell types in the liver may generate different types of liver cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Liver Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18285703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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92. Kayadibi H, Gültepe M, Yasar B, Ince AT, Ozcan O, Ipcioglu OM, Kurdas OO, Bolat B, Benek YZ, Guveli H, Atalay S, Ozkara S, Keskin O: Diagnostic value of serum prolidase enzyme activity to predict the liver histological lesions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a surrogate marker to distinguish steatohepatitis from simple steatosis. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Aug;54(8):1764-71
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of serum prolidase enzyme activity to predict the liver histological lesions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a surrogate marker to distinguish steatohepatitis from simple steatosis.
  • Determination of the liver histological lesions with noninvasive tests is an important part of the diagnostic work-up of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
  • We aimed to determine the predictive value of noninvasive biochemical markers, serum prolidase enzyme activity (SPEA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and AST/ALT ratio for the liver histological lesions.
  • Fifty-four liver biopsy-proven patients with NAFLD and 37 healthy controls were enrolled to the study.
  • SPEA was positively correlated with the grade of liver fatty infiltration, lobular inflammation and NAFLD activity score, and stage of fibrosis, (r = 0.377, P < 0.005; r = 0.443, P < 0.001; r = 0.457, P < 0.001; r = 0.321, P < 0.018, respectively).
  • It could be helpful for distinguishing steatohepatitis from simple steatosis and reducing the need for liver biopsy in the majority of patients with NAFLD.
  • [MeSH-major] Dipeptidases / blood. Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Hepatitis / diagnosis. Liver / enzymology. Liver / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alanine Transaminase / metabolism. Aspartate Aminotransferases / metabolism. Biomarkers / blood. Biopsy. Case-Control Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Linear Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18989777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 3.4.13.- / Dipeptidases; EC 3.4.13.9 / proline dipeptidase
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93. Zou Z, Xu D, Li B, Xin S, Zhang Z, Huang L, Fu J, Yang Y, Jin L, Zhao JM, Shi M, Zhou G, Sun Y, Wang FS: Compartmentalization and its implication for peripheral immunologically-competent cells to the liver in patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. Hepatol Res; 2009 Dec;39(12):1198-207
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  • [Title] Compartmentalization and its implication for peripheral immunologically-competent cells to the liver in patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.
  • AIMS: This study attempts to characterize the feature of immunologically competent cells (ICCs) and evaluate its clinical implication in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in relation to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
  • METHODS: Circulating ICCs were examined in ACLF patients (n = 75), as well as in patients with hepatitis B (CHB, n = 31), CHB-related liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 36), and normal controls (NC, n = 30).
  • In comparison to NC, ACLF patients displayed a significantly higher ratio of liver-infiltrating CD4(+) T-cell frequency than its circulating counterpart, suggesting that the possiblility of the ICCs compartmentalization from the peripheral blood into the liver in ACLF.

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  • (PMID = 19788691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-034X
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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94. Brookes MJ, Cooper BT: Hypertension and fatty liver: guilty by association? J Hum Hypertens; 2007 Apr;21(4):264-70
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  • [Title] Hypertension and fatty liver: guilty by association?
  • Essential hypertension is associated with the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and the development of fatty liver.
  • Fatty liver disease is a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple hepatic steatosis through steato-hepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatoma.
  • The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence for an association between essential hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and to consider the diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • We conclude that it is important to consider the diagnosis of fatty liver disease in hypertensive patients, to measure the liver function tests at diagnosis and not to ignore minor elevations of serum aminotransferases.
  • Hypertensive patients with raised liver enzymes should be referred for further assessment, particularly if risk factors for progressive liver disease, such as obesity and diabetes, are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Liver / complications. Hypertension / complications

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  • (PMID = 17273155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9240
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of human hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hum Hypertens
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.6.1.- / Transaminases
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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95. Wang HM, Lo GH, Hsu PI, Lin CK, Chan HH, Chen WC, Lai KH, Wang BW, Lin SL: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver. J Chin Med Assoc; 2008 Oct;71(10):523-7
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  • [Title] Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver.
  • Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH), characterized by diffuse hepatic micronodular transformation in groups without fibrous septa between the nodules, is a rare benign liver lesion that has many synonyms in previous literature.
  • Pathologic evaluation is the mainstay of accurate diagnosis.
  • A 39-year-old man visited our hospital due to right upper quadrant pain and a palpable liver mass.
  • Magnetic resonance examination revealed a slightly hyperintense tumor on T2-weighted images, and focal nodular hyperplasia was diagnosed by the radiologists.
  • Atypical radiologic findings could not yield an accurate diagnosis.
  • Pathologic examination of the resected liver tumor confirmed the diagnosis of NRH.
  • We conclude that NRH should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign liver tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia. Liver Regeneration. Male

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  • (PMID = 18955187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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96. Grieco A, Forgione A, Miele L, Vero V, Greco AV, Gasbarrini A, Gasbarrini G: Fatty liver and drugs. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2005 Sep-Oct;9(5):261-3
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  • [Title] Fatty liver and drugs.
  • Drug-induced liver diseases (DILD) are clinico-pathologic patterns of liver injury caused by drugs or other foreign compounds.
  • Clinical DILD syndromes include acute viral hepatitis-like injury, acute liver failure, cholestatic hepatitis,liver disease with signs of hypersensitivity, autoimmune hepatitis-like injury, acute venous-Outflow obstruction, chronic cholestasis, ciirrhosis, steatosis and steatohepatitis.
  • Reliable diagnosis of drug-induced liver disease requires demonstration of close correlation between the patient history and clinical, laboratory, and histological data.
  • [MeSH-major] Amiodarone / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Fatty Liver / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16237810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-3602
  • [Journal-full-title] European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Arrhythmia Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; N3RQ532IUT / Amiodarone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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97. Tucker ON, Marriott P, Rela M, Heaton N: Emergency liver transplantation following severe liver trauma. Liver Transpl; 2008 Aug;14(8):1204-10
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  • [Title] Emergency liver transplantation following severe liver trauma.
  • Liver trauma is a major cause of mortality after major blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma.
  • The need for life-saving emergency hepatectomy and liver transplantation is extremely rare.
  • We report the management of 2 patients who required urgent liver transplantation for liver trauma.
  • One patient developed hepatic failure following global ischemia after a gunshot injury.
  • We highlight the difficulties in the management of severe liver trauma with an emphasis on the clinical features, radiological investigations, and surgical treatment of these complex patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / injuries. Liver Failure, Acute / surgery. Liver Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 18668654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6473
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Cho JY, Han HS, Yoon YS, Shin SH: Outcomes of laparoscopic liver resection for lesions located in the right side of the liver. Arch Surg; 2009 Jan;144(1):25-9
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  • [Title] Outcomes of laparoscopic liver resection for lesions located in the right side of the liver.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Laparoscopic right-sided liver resection may be feasible and safe.
  • PATIENTS: Of 103 consecutive laparoscopic liver resections performed from May 1, 2003, to April 30, 2007, 46 patients underwent a right-sided laparoscopic liver resection.
  • Overall, data from 40 patients with benign liver tumors (n = 2), intrahepatic duct stones (n = 3), liver metastasis from colorectal cancer (n = 8), and hepatocellular carcinomas (n = 27) were analyzed.
  • For lesions located at segment VII or VIII (n = 15), the mean operation time and amount of blood loss in those receiving a minor liver resection were similar to those who received a major resection (P = .21 and .88, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Although greater technical refinement is required for a minor resection in the superior part of the right side of the liver, laparoscopic right-sided liver resection is feasible and safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Liver Diseases / pathology. Liver Diseases / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19153321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Barshes NR, Carter BA, Karpen SJ, O'Mahony CA, Goss JA: Isolated orthotopic liver transplantation for parenteral nutrition-associated liver injury. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr; 2006 Nov-Dec;30(6):526-9
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  • [Title] Isolated orthotopic liver transplantation for parenteral nutrition-associated liver injury.
  • BACKGROUND: Mild liver dysfunction is common after prolonged use of parenteral nutrition (PN), but end-stage liver failure occurs only rarely.
  • Few treatment options other than combined liver-intestine transplantation exist for patients with liver failure associated with PN use, however.
  • Herein, we report the results of a cohort of patients undergoing isolated orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for PN-associated liver injury.
  • METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 80 patients (73 pediatric patients and 7 adults) who have undergone isolated OLT for PN-associated liver injury as the primary indication for transplantation was performed.
  • Severe hepatic encephalopathy was seen in 5%, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was seen in 6.3%, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation was seen in 14% of patients at the time of OLT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with end-stage liver disease associated with PN administration often have very severe liver disease, multiple comorbidities, and poor prognosis by the time they are listed for OLT.
  • Nonetheless, isolated OLT is associated with good long-term survival and should be considered for selected patients with combined intestine-liver failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure / etiology. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Parenteral Nutrition / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17047179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-6071
  • [Journal-full-title] JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD41648
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Pawlik TM, Gleisner AL, Bauer TW, Adams RB, Reddy SK, Clary BM, Martin RC, Scoggins CR, Tanabe KK, Michaelson JS, Kooby DA, Staley CA, Schulick RD, Vauthey JN, Abdalla EK, Curley SA, Choti MA, Elias D: Liver-directed surgery for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the liver: results of a multi-center analysis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2807-16
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  • [Title] Liver-directed surgery for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the liver: results of a multi-center analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of hepatic resection for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unknown.
  • The current study evaluates the role of hepatic resection in patients with metastatic SCC to the liver.
  • METHODS: Between 1988 and 2006, 52 patients underwent hepatic resection of metastatic SCC at eight major cancer centers.
  • Factors associated with reduced DFS were liver tumor size > 5 cm (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.02) and positive surgical margin (HR = 2.33).
  • The overall median survival after hepatic resection was 22.3 months and 5-year actuarial OS was 20.5%.
  • Risk factors associated with worse overall survival included synchronous disease (HR = 4.09), hepatic metastasis > 5 cm (HR = 1.71) and positive surgical resection margin (HR = 1.83).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients will recur following hepatic resection of SCC.
  • Long-term survival, however, can be achieved following surgical resection of SCC liver metastasis, especially in patients who present with limited metachronous disease amenable to margin negative resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Electrocoagulation. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Prognosis. Retreatment. United States






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