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1. Xuan SY, Li N, Qiang X, Zhou RR, Shi YX, Jiang WJ: Helicobacter infection in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr 21;12(15):2335-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Liver samples from 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed by histopathology were studied.
  • Twenty-two patients with other liver diseases (5 with liver trauma, 7 with cavernous liver hemangioma, 6 with liver cyst and 4 with hepatolithiasis), 25 patients with gastric cancer, 15 with colonic cancer and 15 with myoma of uterus served as controls.
  • CONCLUSION: Helicobacter infection exists in liver tissues of HCC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / complications. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16688821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Bacterial; 0 / RNA, Bacterial; 0 / RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4088066
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2. Koszka AJ, Ferreira FG, de Aquino CG, Ribeiro MA, Gallo AS, Aranzana EM, Szutan LA: Resection of a rapid-growing 40-cm giant liver hemangioma. World J Hepatol; 2010 Jul 27;2(7):292-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Resection of a rapid-growing 40-cm giant liver hemangioma.
  • Hemangiomas are the most frequent benign tumors of the liver.
  • Most hemangiomas are asymptomatic and therefore largely diagnosed only in routine screening tests.
  • Resection of liver hemangioma is indicated in cases of great dimension tumors causing symptoms such as pain, nausea or bloating caused by compression of adjacent organs.
  • We report a case of a rare giant hemangioma with rapid growth in short time: a 50 year old female reported to our institution with a 40 cm giant liver hemangioma and then underwent a left hepatectomy.

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  • (PMID = 21161011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999292
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant liver Hemangioma / Liver benign neoplasms / Liver surgery
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3. Mahajan D, Miller C, Hirose K, McCullough A, Yerian L: Incidental reduction in the size of liver hemangioma following use of VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab. J Hepatol; 2008 Nov;49(5):867-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental reduction in the size of liver hemangioma following use of VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic cavernous hemangioma is the second most common liver tumor after metastases.
  • High VEGF expression leads to increased angiogenic activity in cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells.
  • METHODS: We report a patient with invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma and suspected liver metastasis on radiological examination, who showed a significant decrease in the size of his liver lesions after bevacizumab treatment.
  • Histology of the liver lesions revealed hemangioma with a strong staining for VEGF and anti-VEGFr2 antibody in the hemangioma endothelial cells.
  • To date, surgical resection provides the only consistently effective method for treatment of hepatic hemangioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first documented case of hepatic hemangioma responsive to antiangiogenic therapy, suggesting a possible use for these agents in treating symptomatic patients without surgery.
  • VEGF-signaling blockade including bevacizumab use poses a potential new treatment modality for vascular neoplasms in the liver and other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18814928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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4. Demircan O, Demiryurek H, Yagmur O: Surgical approach to symptomatic giant cavernous hemangioma of the liver. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):183-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical approach to symptomatic giant cavernous hemangioma of the liver.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Surgical treatment of giant cavernous hemangioma of the liver is still controversial.
  • METHODOLOGY: Fifteen patients with symptomatic giant cavernous hemangioma of the liver were treated by enucleation or liver resection.
  • RESULTS: The surgical indications were abdominal pain in 11 patients, uncertain diagnosis in 3 patients and tumor enlargement in one patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal pain, uncertain diagnosis and enlargement are major surgical indications of symptomatic giant cavernous hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15783025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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5. Lee VT, Magnaye M, Tan HW, Thng CH, Ooi LL: Sclerosing haemangioma mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. Singapore Med J; 2005 Mar;46(3):140-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sclerosing haemangioma mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Sclerosing haemangioma is a rare variant of hepatic haemangioma.
  • The radiological features on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may not be typical for haemangioma and can be confused with hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • We report sclerosing haemangioma occurring in a 65-year-old woman where the radiological features raise the possibility of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sclerosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15735880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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6. Jain V, Ramachandran V, Garg R, Pal S, Gamanagatti SR, Srivastava DN: Spontaneous rupture of a giant hepatic hemangioma - sequential management with transcatheter arterial embolization and resection. Saudi J Gastroenterol; 2010 Apr-Jun;16(2):116-9
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of a giant hepatic hemangioma - sequential management with transcatheter arterial embolization and resection.
  • Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of liver and is often asymptomatic.
  • Emergent hepatic resection has been the treatment of choice but has high operative mortality.
  • We report a case of spontaneous rupture of giant hepatic hemangioma that presented with abdominal pain and shock due to hemoperitoneum.
  • TAE is an effective procedure in symptomatic hemangiomas, and should be considered in such high risk patients prior to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy. Hemoperitoneum / therapy. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / diagnosis. Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Risk Assessment. Rupture, Spontaneous. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20339183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4049
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3016500
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7. El-Hashemite N, Walker V, Kwiatkowski DJ: Estrogen enhances whereas tamoxifen retards development of Tsc mouse liver hemangioma: a tumor related to renal angiomyolipoma and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 15;65(6):2474-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen enhances whereas tamoxifen retards development of Tsc mouse liver hemangioma: a tumor related to renal angiomyolipoma and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • Tsc1+/- and Tsc2+/- mice frequently develop liver hemangioma.
  • We found that the Tsc mouse liver hemangioma are composed predominantly of endothelial cells but with a smooth muscle component, and express HMB45 antigen, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor, similar to lymphangioleiomyomatosis and angiomyolipoma.
  • Estrogen treatment significantly accelerated the development of liver hemangioma in Tsc1+/- female mice, with 91% having liver hemangioma and 55% having severe lesions by 7 months of age.
  • Similarly, an increased frequency and severity of liver hemangiomas was seen in Tsc1+/- males treated with estrogen.
  • In contrast, tamoxifen treatment for 9 months significantly reduced the frequency and severity of hemangiomas in Tsc1+/- female mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Estradiol / pharmacology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Tamoxifen / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15781664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS24279; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS31535
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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8. Masui T, Katayama M, Nakagawara M, Shimizu S, Kojima K: Exophytic giant cavernous hemangioma of the liver with growing tendency. Radiat Med; 2005 Mar;23(2):121-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Exophytic giant cavernous hemangioma of the liver with growing tendency.
  • Hepatic hemangioma is a common benign tumor, but its exophytic and expansile forms may be atypical.
  • We report a case of exophytic hemangioma of the liver with a growing tendency, demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) combined with angiography.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15827530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0288-2043
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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9. Miliaras D, Conroy J, Pervana S, Meditskou S, McQuaid D, Nowak N: Karyotypic changes detected by comparative genomic hybridization in a stillborn infant with chorioangioma and liver hemangioma. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol; 2007 Mar;79(3):236-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Karyotypic changes detected by comparative genomic hybridization in a stillborn infant with chorioangioma and liver hemangioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Placental hemangioma (chorioangioma) and congenital hemangioma are relatively common tumors, which on rare occasions may occur together.
  • CASE: Herein we describe a rare case of a stillborn infant with chorioangioma, placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and liver cavernous hemangioma.
  • The chromosomal abnormalities that we found were deletions at 2q13 and 7p21.1 and were common to both placental and liver lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: None of the identified chromosomal aberrations have been previously associated with chorioangiomas or hemangiomas.
  • Important genes that lie in these DNA regions may be implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital hemangiomas and mesenchymal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Hemangioma / genetics. Hemangioma, Cavernous / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Placenta Diseases / genetics. Stillbirth / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17203486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-0752
  • [Journal-full-title] Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016056-30
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Matsushita M, Takehara Y, Nasu H, Hirai Y, Yamashita S, Souda K, Kobayashi Y, Miura K: Atypically enhanced cavernous hemangiomas of the liver: centrifugal enhancement does not preclude the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma. J Gastroenterol; 2006 Dec;41(12):1227-30
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  • [Title] Atypically enhanced cavernous hemangiomas of the liver: centrifugal enhancement does not preclude the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma.
  • The imaging features of an atypically enhanced hepatic hemangioma have not been well described in the literature, and the presence of such atypia may sometimes cause clinical problems in the differential diagnosis.
  • Herein, we report a case of hepatic hemangioma demonstrating a previously unreported atypical enhancement pattern.
  • On dynamic computed tomography during hepatic arteriography, a centrifugal enhancement pattern and subsequent peritumoral ring-shaped enhancement mimicking corona enhancement were found in cavernous hemangiomas of the liver in a 68-year-old Japanese man.
  • Histopathological diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the liver was made on a biopsy specimen.
  • Considering the importance of differentiating benign hepatic tumor from various forms of malignancy, radiologists and hepatologists should be aware of rare enhancement patterns sometimes seen in hepatic hemangioma.
  • Establishing knowledge of the entire spectrum of atypical hepatic hemangioma may benefit the rational approach to future cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Image Enhancement. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17287903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Zhang WJ, Wu LQ, Liu HL, Ye LY, Xin YL, Grau GE, Lou JN: Abnormal blood vessels formed by human liver cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells in nude mice are suitable for drug evaluation. Microvasc Res; 2009 Dec;78(3):379-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Abnormal blood vessels formed by human liver cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells in nude mice are suitable for drug evaluation.
  • Cavernous hemangioma is vascular malformation with developmental aberrations.
  • It was assumed that the abnormality of endothelial cells contributed greatly to the occurrence of cavernous hemangioma.
  • In our previous study, we have found distinct characteristics of endothelial cells derived from human liver cavernous hemangioma (HCHEC).
  • HCHEC was isolated from a human liver cavernous hemangioma specimen, and the HCHEC generated a red hemangioma-like mass 7 days after subcutaneously co-inoculating HCHEC and human liver cancer cells (Bel-7402) in nude mice.
  • And the pathological features of vascular vessels formed by HCHEC were very similar to clinical cavernous hemangioma.
  • Moreover, podophyllotoxin was also effective for destroying the abnormal vascular vessels in the hemangioma-like mass in nude mice.
  • In summary, the HCHEC can form abnormal blood vessels in nude mice, and we can evaluate drugs for cavernous hemangioma by using HCHEC in vitro and in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Blood Vessels / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Podophyllotoxin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19729028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Microvascular research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microvasc. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; L36H50F353 / Podophyllotoxin
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12. Huang TR, Yu JH, Li JL, Zhang ZQ, Deng W, Zhang CY, Zhao SF: [A cross-sectional study on liver diseases in the rural residents in southern Guangxi, China]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Jun;41 Suppl:123-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A cross-sectional study on liver diseases in the rural residents in southern Guangxi, China].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiological characteristics of liver diseases in a rural population in Southern Guangxi, China.
  • Liver morphological changes were measured with ultrasonography of type B.
  • The prevalence rates of viral hepatitis B, cirrhosis, primary liver cancer, clonorchiasis, fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease were 1.1% (173/15,701), 0.4% (63/15,701), 299.3 per 100,000 (47/15,701), 6.6% (1036/15,701), 4.8% (754/15,701) and 0.3% (47/15,701), respectively.
  • The positive rates of HBsAg and the prevalence rates of viral hepatitis B, cirrhosis, primary liver cancer, clonorchiasis, fatty liver disease in male were significantly higher as compared with those in female (5.98 < or = chi(2) < or = 394.78, P < 0.01).
  • No difference was observed in the prevalence rates of liver cavernous hemangioma and hepatic cysts between male and female.
  • But the prevalence rates of cirrhosis, primary liver cancer, fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, liver cavernous hemangioma, hepatic cysts and intrahepatic bile duct stones were increased with age.
  • CONCLUSION: The rural areas in the southern Guangxi are high prevalence regions of liver illness, and the male resident are even at high risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. China / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Fatty Liver / epidemiology. Female. Hepatitis B / epidemiology. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Rural Population

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  • (PMID = 17767876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-9624
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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13. Zincirkeser S, Celen ZY, Yilmaz M, Topalhan F, Sahin E: A false negative by planar scintigraphy liver hemangioma, diagnosed by technetium-99m-red blood cells and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid single photon emission tomography scan. Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 May-Aug;9(2):109-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A false negative by planar scintigraphy liver hemangioma, diagnosed by technetium-99m-red blood cells and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid single photon emission tomography scan.
  • Ultrasonography showed a 4.7 cm solid hepatic mass on the right lateral side of the right lobe of the liver.
  • The patient was then sent to the Nuclear Medicine Department of Gaziantep University for liver scan.
  • After injecting autologous red blood cells labeled with 740 MBq of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-RBC), early and delayed anterior planar images of the liver showed no significant findings because of the right kidney shine through the liver.
  • Two days later, after injecting again 740 MBq of (99m)Tc-RBC, we performed a single photon emission tomography (SPET) scan but still this scan was nondiagnostic even in the delayed images of the liver.
  • Three days later, after the iv injection of 185 MBq of technetium-99m-sulphur colloid ((99m)Tc-SC), we observed in the delayed SPET images of the liver, a mismatch defect with decreased focal uptake of (99m)Tc-SC at 60 min while the uptake of (99m)Tc-RBC at the same area was normal or slightly increased.
  • A cavernous hemangioma was found, confirmed by histology.
  • In conclusion, the mismatch of the SPET delayed images between the (99m)Tc-RBC and the (99m)Tc-SC scans indicated that this procedure was effective for the diagnosis of liver cavernous hemangioma located in this unusual position.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrocytes / radionuclide imaging. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2009 May-Aug;12(2):177-8 [19675879.001]
  • [CommentIn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2006 Sep-Dec;9(3):187 [17160164.001]
  • (PMID = 16894416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid; 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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14. Shimada K, Nakamoto Y, Isoda H, Saito H, Arizono S, Shibata T, Togashi K: FDG PET for giant cavernous hemangioma: important clue to differentiate from a malignant vascular tumor in the liver. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Dec;35(12):924-6
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  • [Title] FDG PET for giant cavernous hemangioma: important clue to differentiate from a malignant vascular tumor in the liver.
  • Giant cavernous hemangioma of the liver sometimes has a very inhomogeneous appearance with intratumoral degeneration on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and may mimic a malignant hepatic tumor, including angiosarcoma.
  • There are many reports about F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of angiosarcoma; however, knowledge regarding positron emission tomography findings with FDG for giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma is still limited.
  • We herein present 2 cases of giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma in which low FDG uptake was considered helpful to differentiate from malignant hepatic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Hemangioma, Cavernous / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21206221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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15. van Gorcum M, van Buuren HR, Hussain SM, Zondervan PE, IJzermans JN, de Man RA: [Fever as a sign of inflammatory syndrome in a female patient with hepatic haemangioma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 May 28;149(22):1227-30
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  • [Title] [Fever as a sign of inflammatory syndrome in a female patient with hepatic haemangioma].
  • [Transliterated title] Koorts als uiting van inflammatoir syndroom bij een patiënte met een leverhemangioom.
  • Diagnostic imaging revealed a hepatic haemangioma with a diameter of 20 cm.
  • Because such giant haemangiomas of the liver can lead to inflammatory syndrome, the tumour was surgically removed.
  • Pathological analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and evidence of extensive thrombosis and other vascular defects was found.
  • In patients with a giant haemangioma in the liver who present with an inflammatory syndrome, the haemangioma should be considered as the causal factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fever / etiology. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Weight Loss

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  • (PMID = 15952499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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16. Ito K, Taira K, Arii S: Intrahepatic bile duct dilatation with a liver cyst and hemangioma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2009;39(3):256-60
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  • [Title] Intrahepatic bile duct dilatation with a liver cyst and hemangioma: report of a case.
  • We report a case of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation with a liver cyst and hemangioma.
  • A 58-year-old woman was referred for investigation of a cystic lesion and peripheral intrahepatic bile duct dilatation in the left lateral segment of the liver.
  • Microscopically, the cyst was lined with a single layer of flattened epithelial cells and a spongy tumor was diagnosed as cavernous hemangioma, which compressed the bile duct.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was biliary stenosis associated with cavernous hemangioma of the liver.
  • Invasive surgery may be avoided by awareness of this unusual benign pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Diseases / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19280288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Katada Y, Yasumoto M, Ishii C, Tanaka H, Nakamoto K, Ohashi I, Nozaki M: Differentiation between hepatic haemangiomas and cysts with an inversion recovery single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSTSE) sequence using the TI nulling value of hepatic haemangioma with sensitivity encoding. Eur Radiol; 2010 Sep;20(9):2241-7
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  • [Title] Differentiation between hepatic haemangiomas and cysts with an inversion recovery single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSTSE) sequence using the TI nulling value of hepatic haemangioma with sensitivity encoding.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the additional value of inversion recovery (IR) single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSTSE) imaging with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) using the inversion time (TI) value of hepatic haemangioma as a supplement to conventional T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging for the discrimination of hepatic haemangiomas and cysts.
  • METHODS: A total of 134 lesions (77 hepatic haemangiomas, 57 hepatic cysts) in 59 patients were evaluated.
  • CONCLUSION: The introduction of IR-SSTSE with SENSE sequences significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy of the differentiation of hepatic haemangioma and cysts while increasing the time required for routine abdominal imaging by only 20 s.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Cysts / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Liver Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted. Spin Labels

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  • (PMID = 20309552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Spin Labels
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18. Romero FR, Wagner AA, Bagga HS, Muntener M, Brito FA, Kavoussi LR: Laparoscopic treatment of simultaneous tumors in the liver and kidney. Urol Int; 2007;79(2):142-4
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic treatment of simultaneous tumors in the liver and kidney.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To report our experience with laparoscopic treatment of liver tumors during right-sided transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy.
  • METHODS: Two patients undergoing transperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy on the right side each had a concomitant tumor in the right lobe of the liver.
  • The second had a known asymptomatic giant hemangioma of the liver.
  • The first patient had bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma and concomitant fibroadipose tissue within the liver.
  • The second patient presented with clear cell carcinoma of the right kidney and a cavernous hemangioma of the liver.
  • CONCLUSIONS: When indicated, simultaneous right-sided kidney and liver tumors may be treated by a combined laparoscopic transperitoneal approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17851284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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19. Limawararut V, Davis G, Crompton J, Leibovitch I, Selva D: Recurrent multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit in association with systemic tumors. Am J Ophthalmol; 2006 May;141(5):943-5
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  • [Title] Recurrent multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit in association with systemic tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To report the clinical findings and management of multiple, recurrent cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit in a patient with concurrent liver involvement.
  • RESULTS: A 35-year-old woman with blurry vision and proptosis was found to have multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit.
  • Fifteen years later, the patient had recurrent, multiple cavernous hemangiomas in the same orbit.
  • Further investigations for vague back pain revealed a presumed cavernous hemangioma in the liver and a presumed schwannoma arising from the neural foramen of the spine at the level of T2 through T4.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple cavernous hemangiomas may recur after complete excision and may exist with concurrent systemic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16678512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Patriti A, Graziosi L, Sanna A, Gullà N, Donini A: Laparoscopic treatment of liver hemangioma. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2005 Dec;15(6):359-62
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic treatment of liver hemangioma.
  • Cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign liver tumor.
  • When it becomes symptomatic, enucleation is considered the treatment of choice because of its lower morbidity compared with liver resection.
  • Therefore, although there have been many series of laparoscopic liver resection, only a few cases of laparoscopic enucleation of liver hemangiomas have been reported.
  • We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with a symptomatic 4-cm liver hemangioma of the left lobe who underwent laparoscopic enucleation, with complete relief of the symptoms at the 3-month follow-up.
  • Neither liver mobilization nor ligament division was necessary.
  • Laparoscopic enucleation is easy to perform in suitable lesions, and its advantage with respect to liver resection is the preservation of healthy parenchyma and liver ligaments.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16340570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Pudil J, Martínek J, Belsan T, Ryska M: [Atypically localised hepatic haemangioma as a cause of dyspeptic syndrome]. Rozhl Chir; 2006 Jul;85(7):354-6
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  • [Title] [Atypically localised hepatic haemangioma as a cause of dyspeptic syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Atypicky lokalizovaný hemangiom jater jako prícina dyspeptického syndromu.
  • INTRODUCTION: Haemangioma is a benign mesenchymal tumor growing from the endothehum of blood vessels.
  • Most hepatic haemangiomas are asymptomatic while symptomatic haemangioma are usually manifested by non-specific pain dyspeptic syndrome, quite rarely also by hemorrhage, or icterus Symptomatic haemangiomas or large haemangiomas with fast growth, are indicated for surgical treatment.
  • USG, CT, MR, CT angiography and EUS have all shown two lesiones (haemangioma of the left hepatic lobe, a tumor in the left subphrenic area of uncertain origin).
  • We proposed an operational solution, and, surprisingly, the finding was a single haemangioma (2 parts-- intra- and extraparenchymatous--connected by a vascular bridge).
  • DISCUSSION: In the diagnosis of haemangioma, MR is a method of choice with high specificity and sensitivity.
  • Why did not it yield the correct diagnosis?
  • The structure, the signal and the type of postcontrast enhancement of the second lesion corresponded to a haemangioma, but the extraparenchymatous location and also the considerable remoteness from the liver invalidated this possibility before operation.
  • Regarding to the differential diagnostics of the lesiones in the subphrenic area, which according to the imaging techniques are not related to the hepatic parenchyma, it is advisable to consider the possibility of the incidence of pedunculated hepatic haemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dyspepsia / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17044281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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22. Muthamilselvan S, Vinoth PN, Vilvanathan V, Ninan B, Amboiram P, Sai V, Anand V, Scott JX: Hepatic haemangioma of infancy: role of propranolol. Ann Trop Paediatr; 2010;30(4):335-8
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  • [Title] Hepatic haemangioma of infancy: role of propranolol.
  • A newborn girl with a haemangioma of the liver failed to respond to cortico-steroid therapy.
  • Ultrasonic evidence of the haemangioma disappeared after 2 months of treatment with propranolol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Hemangioma / drug therapy. Infant, Premature, Diseases / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Propranolol / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21118629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3281
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of tropical paediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Trop Paediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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23. Borse R, Mahapatra GN, Meht R, Plumber S, Dhuri S, Ali S: Scintigraphic finding of a silent hepatic haemangioma. J Assoc Physicians India; 2010 Oct;58:637-40
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  • [Title] Scintigraphic finding of a silent hepatic haemangioma.
  • Hepatic haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of liver.
  • Tc 99m RBC blood pool imaging is highly specific diagnostic modality of choice for hepatic haemangioma as its hypervascular nature may create equivocal result on CT or MRI.
  • Therefore all patients suspected of having hepatic haemangioma should undergo Tc 99m blood pool imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrocytes / radionuclide imaging. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 21510118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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24. Di Carlo I, Sofia M, Toro A: Does the psychological request of the patient justify the surgery for hepatic hemangioma? Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 May-Jun;52(63):657-61
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  • [Title] Does the psychological request of the patient justify the surgery for hepatic hemangioma?
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The incidental finding of hemangiomas has increased, but the problem of the correct surgical indications of this tumor has yet to be solved.
  • The aim of this work is to establish whether the psychological request of surgery from patients known to have a benign tumor of the liver must be avoided or not.
  • METHODOLOGY: Age, sex, symptoms, estroprogestinic oral therapy, methods of diagnosis, surgical procedures, morbidity, mortality, postoperative hospital stay and follow-up of the patients affected by hepatic hemangioma, observed from 1992 to 2002 in our institution, have been considered.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients, with a mean age of 44 years (range 26-72), were hospitalized for hepatic hemangioma, 8 (47%) of them were operated on and 9 (53%) were managed by observation.
  • One patient was operated on for traumatic rupture of the hemangioma.
  • The types of surgical procedures were 5 enucleations, and 3 hepatic resections.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that liver hemangiomas should be operated for symptoms well related to the tumor or for bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / psychology. Sick Role

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  • (PMID = 15966176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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25. Dardenne S, Hubert C, Sempoux C, Annet L, Jouret-Mourin A, Horsmans Y, Van Beers BE, Zech F, Gigot JF: Conservative and operative management of benign solid hepatic tumours: a successful stratified algorithm. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Nov;22(11):1337-44
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  • [Title] Conservative and operative management of benign solid hepatic tumours: a successful stratified algorithm.
  • BACKGROUND: The progress of modern imaging studies has improved the diagnostic approach of benign liver tumours, leading to a tailored approach with increased conservative management.
  • METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two patients suffering from benign hepatic tumours were enrolled in this study, including an operative (group I, 49 patients) and a conservative (group II, 83 patients) management.
  • Indication for resection based on diagnosis of tumour nature (hepatic cell adenoma or uncertain diagnosis) and significant tumour-related abdominal pain was 15% out of 33 patients with hepatic haemangioma, 21.7% out of 60 patients with focal nodular hyperplasia and 78.4% out of 37 patients with hepatocellular adenoma.
  • Interestingly, 87.9% of all observed benign liver tumours remained stable, decreased in size or disappeared.
  • CONCLUSION: A restrictive policy of surgical management of benign liver tumours based on clinical symptoms, tumour size and nature on imaging studies (including dubious lesions) and tumour biopsies in selected cases is safe and reliable with a low-operative mortality in resected patients and satisfactory disease-control in the vast majority of observed benign liver tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / therapy. Algorithms. Critical Pathways. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / therapy. Hemangioma / therapy. Hepatectomy. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20683192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5687
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Cha EY, Kim KW, Choi YJ, Song JS, Cho KJ, Lee MG: Multicystic cavernous haemangioma of the liver: ultrasonography, CT, MR appearances and pathological correlation. Br J Radiol; 2008 Feb;81(962):e37-9
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  • [Title] Multicystic cavernous haemangioma of the liver: ultrasonography, CT, MR appearances and pathological correlation.
  • Among the hepatic haemangiomas with atypical features when studied radiologically, the multicystic type is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of multicystic hepatic haemangioma in a 62-year-old woman, which was found incidentally during ultrasound screening.
  • Because the tumour showed atypical features on ultrasonography, CT and MRI, the correct diagnosis was not made until the surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18238911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Vokaer B, Kothonidis K, Delatte P, De Cooman S, Pector JC, Liberale G: Should ruptured liver haemangioma be treated by surgery or by conservative means? A case report. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Nov-Dec;108(6):761-4
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  • [Title] Should ruptured liver haemangioma be treated by surgery or by conservative means? A case report.
  • Spontaneous rupture of a liver haemangioma is a rare but life-threatening acute clinical situation following haemorrhage within the liver, the subcapsular space and the peritoneal cavity in cases of capsular rupture.
  • Rupture of a liver haemangioma has been reported to occur spontaneously in the majority of cases.
  • We report a case of spontaneous rupture of hepatic haemangioma treated by arterial embolisation and conservative means.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Embolization, Therapeutic. Female. Hepatic Artery / radiography. Humans. Middle Aged. Rupture, Spontaneous. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19241936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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28. Dong KR, Zheng S, Xiao X: Conservative management of neonatal hepatic hemangioma: a report from one institute. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Jun;25(6):493-8
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  • [Title] Conservative management of neonatal hepatic hemangioma: a report from one institute.
  • PURPOSE: To summarize the conservative treatment of neonatal hepatic hemangioma at one institute.
  • PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen cases of neonatal hepatic hemangioma were managed in our hospital during the previous 5 years.
  • Initial symptoms, combination symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment were analyzed.
  • Combination symptoms were multiple skin hemangiomas, pneumonia, and cardiac insufficiency.
  • Ultrasound and CT showed the typical characteristics of the liver hemangioma.
  • There were three types of hepatic hemangioma: nine cases had a single focus, four cases were multiple foci, and two had diffuse changes in the liver.
  • One patient having multi-focus in the liver gave up the treatment after biopsy.
  • In those who received conservative therapy, all hemangiomas disappeared within 1 year.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma can be made from symptomology, ultrasound, and CT; pathologic samples are not necessary.
  • Proactive therapy for congestive heart failure is helpful for those endangering liver hemangioma.
  • Surgery can increase the risk of complications and is not advised for treatment of neonatal hepatic hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Cites] J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;18(5):511-4 [15921182.001]
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  • (PMID = 19415303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
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29. Seitz K, Strobel D, Bernatik T, Blank W, Friedrich-Rust M, Herbay Av, Dietrich CF, Strunk H, Kratzer W, Schuler A: Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions - prospective comparison in clinical practice: CEUS vs. CT (DEGUM multicenter trial). Parts of this manuscript were presented at the Ultrasound Dreiländertreffen 2008, Davos. Ultraschall Med; 2009 Aug;30(4):383-9
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  • [Title] Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions - prospective comparison in clinical practice: CEUS vs. CT (DEGUM multicenter trial). Parts of this manuscript were presented at the Ultrasound Dreiländertreffen 2008, Davos.
  • AIM: The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions in a prospective multi-center study in clinical practice.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1349 patients with unclear liver lesions after fundamental ultrasound diagnostics including color doppler analysis were examined with standardized CEUS (pulse inversion method, mechanical index < 0.4) from May 2004 to December 2006 in 14 hospitals in a prospective study.
  • The enhancement of contrast medium in the liver tumors was analyzed according to known tumor-specific vascular patterns, using standardized documentation and analysis methods for the differentiation of tumor differentiation (malign or benign) and tumor specification (entity).
  • Final diagnosis was based on histology, SCT or MRI in typical findings of liver hemangioma and FNH and on proved clinical data and additional follow up.
  • In 109 of these patients (subgroup A) there was no histological verification, diagnoses based on clear SCT-findings in 79 cases of hemangioma or FNH, as well as in 20 cases with a clear clinical diagnosis.
  • In 158 patients (subgroup B) a histological finding was also present, only in 4 cases no definitive tumor diagnosis was achieved.
  • The analysis of particular tumor specification showed a statistically non significant slight advantage in tumor differentiation for CEUS in the case of hemangioma, FNH, HCC and metastases.
  • CEUS should be employed before computed tomography is performed for the differentiation of liver tumors, because radiation exposure and invasive biopsies can be avoided in veritable numbers of cases, when precise clinical evaluation of the findings is implemented.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / blood supply. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / blood supply. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Child. Female. Humans. Liver / blood supply. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 19688670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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30. Artiko MV, Sobić-Saranović PD, Perisić-Savić SM, Stojković VM, Radoman BI, Knezević SJ, Petrović SN, Obradović BV, Milović V: 99mTc-red blood cells SPECT and planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2008;55(4):23-6
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  • [Title] 99mTc-red blood cells SPECT and planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas.
  • The aim of the study is the assessment of the value of SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) using 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in the detection of liver hemangioma, in comparison to planar imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Erythrocytes. Female. Humans. Liver / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19245136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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31. Fiscon V, Portale G, Isoardi R, Frigo F, Migliorini G: Spontaneous rupture of giant gastric GIST presenting as hemoperitoneum and mimicking cavernous liver angioma. Tumori; 2009 Mar-Apr;95(2):233-5
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of giant gastric GIST presenting as hemoperitoneum and mimicking cavernous liver angioma.
  • A CT scan suggested rupture of a cavernous angioma of the liver and the patient was brought to the operating room for an explorative laparoscopy, which revealed hemoperitoneum from a ruptured giant gastric GIST.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / complications. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemoperitoneum / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparoscopy. Laparotomy. Male. Necrosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / complications. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19579871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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32. Gourgiotis S, Moustafellos P, Zavos A, Dimopoulos N, Vericouki C, Hadjiyannakis EI: Surgical treatment of hepatic haemangiomas: a 15-year experience. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Sep;76(9):792-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of hepatic haemangiomas: a 15-year experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatic haemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations.
  • They are the most common benign tumours of the liver and are often asymptomatic.
  • We present our experience over the last 15 years with the surgical management of 15 liver haemangiomas to clarify the safety and effectiveness of this treatment.
  • METHODS: There were 15 patients with hepatic haemangiomas who were surgically treated from 1990 to 2004.
  • Indications for the operation were spontaneous or traumatic rupture, consumption coagulopathy, rapid growth, abdominal pain and uncertain diagnosis.
  • Methods for diagnosis included ultrasonography, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging and selective hepatic arteriography or combinations of more than one technique.
  • CONCLUSION: The resection of the hepatic haemangioma is safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16922900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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33. Han SL, Wu XL, Jia ZR, Wang PF: Adult hepatic cavernous haemangioma with highly elevated alpha-fetoprotein. Hong Kong Med J; 2010 Oct;16(5):400-2
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  • [Title] Adult hepatic cavernous haemangioma with highly elevated alpha-fetoprotein.
  • Laboratory examination revealed that his serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 1890 microg/L (reference range, 0-20 microg/L), and computed tomographic scan showed a hypodense lesion in the left liver lobe.
  • At laparotomy, a dark reddish soft tumour (3.0 x 3.5 cm in diameter) was found in the medial segment of the liver (segment III).
  • Intra-operative pathology and postoperative histopathology examinations revealed that the tumour was a cavernous haemangioma of the liver.
  • Clinicians should be aware that some rare tumours besides hepatocellular carcinoma and endodermal sinus tumours (yolk sac tumour), for example, hepatic haemangioma, can produce alpha-fetoprotein.

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  • (PMID = 20890007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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34. Hamaloglu E, Altun H, Ozdemir A, Ozenc A: Giant liver hemangioma: therapy by enucleation or liver resection. World J Surg; 2005 Jul;29(7):890-3
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  • [Title] Giant liver hemangioma: therapy by enucleation or liver resection.
  • Hemangioma is the most common primary tumor of the liver.
  • The widespread use of ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) has made the diagnosis more common.
  • Although the vast majority of hemangiomas are diagnosed incidentally and are asymptomatic, treatment is still controversial.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice, especially in giant, symptomatic hemangiomas and uncertainty of diagnosis.
  • Twenty-two patients (median age: 46 years) underwent resection (n = 12) or enucleation (n = 10) for liver hemangioma from 1989 to 2002.
  • Ten patients who were treated by enucleation were compared with twelve patients who were treated by liver resection.
  • There were no statistically significant differences in tumor size, preoperative liver function tests, hemoglobin levels, and platelet counts between the two groups.
  • There were three postoperative complications, 1 in the enucleation group (pleural effusion), 2 in the resection group (liver abscess and wound infection).
  • Although most hemangiomas can be removed by enucleation or liver resection with low morbidity and mortality, if the location and number of hemangiomas are appropriate, enucleation is the choice of the therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15951941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Abaalkhail F, Castonguay M, Driman DK, Parfitt J, Marotta P: Lobular capillary hemangioma of the liver. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Jun;8(3):323-5
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  • [Title] Lobular capillary hemangioma of the liver.
  • BACKGROUND: Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) is a benign vascular tumor that is rare in adults and has never been reported in the liver.
  • METHODS: LCH as a large asymptomatic hepatic mass was seen in a 35-year-old female.
  • RESULTS: A large vascular hepatic lesion was observed in an asymptomatic 35-year-old female.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of lobular capillary hemangioma seen as a liver lesion in an adult.
  • Large vascular hepatic lesions pose significant difficulties in discerning benign from potentially malignant conditions.
  • In this report we describe the pitfalls and radiological uncertainties with interpreting vascular lesions of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Pyogenic / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19502177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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36. Colović N, Cemerikić-Martinović V, Micev M, Radak V, Colović R: [Hemangioma of the spleen]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 Jul-Aug;134(7-8):325-7
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  • [Title] [Hemangioma of the spleen].
  • Although the most frequent benign tumors of the spleen, hemangiomas are very rare, much rarer than hemangiomas of the liver.
  • They manifest as localized (either single or multiple) or diffuse lesions, vary from solid to cystic, histologically from capillary to cavernous.
  • The spleen weighing 2600 grams was removed, in which the number of lesions histologically corresponded to hemangioma of the spleen.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Splenic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Splenic Neoplasms / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17009613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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37. Ontachi Y, Asakura H, Omote M, Yoshida T, Matsui O, Nakao S: Kasabach-Merritt syndrome associated with giant liver hemangioma: the effect of combined therapy with danaparoid sodium and tranexamic acid. Haematologica; 2005 Nov;90 Suppl:ECR29
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  • [Title] Kasabach-Merritt syndrome associated with giant liver hemangioma: the effect of combined therapy with danaparoid sodium and tranexamic acid.
  • A 39-year-old woman with an enlarging giant liver hemangioma was diagnosed as having KMS with DIC.
  • Rapid improvement of the bleeding tendency and coagulopathy occurred in response to this treatment - that is, DIC was controlled without removing the giant hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Chondroitin Sulfates / therapeutic use. Dermatan Sulfate / therapeutic use. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Hemangioma / complications. Hemorrhagic Disorders / etiology. Heparitin Sulfate / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Tranexamic Acid / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Proteins / analysis. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Hepatic Artery / surgery. Humans. Ligation. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16266920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifibrinolytic Agents; 0 / Blood Proteins; 24967-94-0 / Dermatan Sulfate; 6T84R30KC1 / Tranexamic Acid; 83513-48-8 / danaproid; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates; 9050-30-0 / Heparitin Sulfate
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38. Yun JP, Miao J, Chen GG, Tian QH, Zhang CQ, Xiang J, Fu J, Lai PB: Increased expression of nucleophosmin/B23 in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Br J Cancer; 2007 Feb 12;96(3):477-84
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  • In this study, we examined NPM expression in 103 paired cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 12 cases of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia, 17 cases of liver tissue adjacent to a hepatic haemangioma, and series of array tissues from normal human organs and malignancies using a monoclonal antibody against NPM and reverse transcription-PCR techniques, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytofluorescence.
  • Moreover, enhanced expression of NPM in HCC correlated with the level of PCNA (R(2)=0.5639) and with the clinical prognostic parameters such as serum alpha fetal protein level, tumour pathological grading, and liver cirrhosis (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemistry. Liver Neoplasms / chemistry. Nuclear Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17245342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 117896-08-9 / nucleophosmin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360035
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39. Luo SM, Tan WM, Deng WX, Zhuang SM, Luo JW: Expression of albumin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jul 21;11(27):4272-6
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  • ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA in liver tissues (including tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues) were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • Liver Ki67 immunohistochemistry staining was studied.
  • At the same time, 12 patients with cholelithiasis or liver angioma who underwent operation were segregated as normal control.
  • RESULTS: In HCC patients with cirrhosis, hepatic ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA of tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were lower than the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues, hepatic ALB mRNA and IGFBP-3 mRNA were lower, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues.
  • Liver Ki67 labeling index (Ki67 LI) in tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were higher than that in the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues it was higher than that in adjacent non-tumor tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: Imbalance of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 may play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor development of liver cirrhosis patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Albumins / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / physiopathology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / genetics. Liver Cirrhosis / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16015705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4615458
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40. Sahiner UM, Senel S, Erkek N, Karacan C, Yoney A: Rubinstein Taybi syndrome with hepatic hemangioma. Med Princ Pract; 2009;18(2):162-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rubinstein Taybi syndrome with hepatic hemangioma.
  • OBJECTIVE: It was the aim of our study to present a case of Rubinstein Taybi syndome (RTS) associated with hepatic hemangioma.
  • He had large areas of cutaneous capillary hemangiomas.
  • Radiological examination revealed a hepatic hemangioma.
  • A multidisciplinary follow-up program was commenced and hepatic ultrasound examinations were performed periodically.
  • CONCLUSION: This case shows an association between RTS and hepatic hemangioma, and hence, we recommend regular hepatic ultrasound examination when RTS is suspected or diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19204439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0151
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Princ Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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41. Valdés Mas M, Ortiz Sánchez ML, Rodrigo Agudo JL, Miras López M, Pons Miñano JA, Carballo Alvarez F: [Giant hepatic hemangioma associated with Kasabach-Merrit syndrome]. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2008 Aug;100(8):511-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant hepatic hemangioma associated with Kasabach-Merrit syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Hemangioma hepático gigante asociado a síndrome de Kasabach-Merrit.
  • Hepatic hemangioma is the most frequent liver's tumor.
  • We present a patient with a giant hepatic hemangioma with multiple hemangimatosis associated to Kasabach-Merrit syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / complications. Hemangioma / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18942906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-0108
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Enferm Dig
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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42. Pinkernelle J, Neumann U, Hänninen EL: An unusual cause of epigastric pain: infected giant liver hemangioma. Acta Radiol; 2007 Mar;48(2):142-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual cause of epigastric pain: infected giant liver hemangioma.
  • Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a giant hemangioma of the liver with an intralesional central mass, which was documented by diameter progression of the central mass on follow-up CT.
  • After liver resection, the diagnosis was an abscess in a giant liver hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / radiography. Liver Abscess / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17354132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
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43. Chung EM, Cube R, Lewis RB, Conran RM: From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric liver masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation part 1. Benign tumors. Radiographics; 2010 May;30(3):801-26
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric liver masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation part 1. Benign tumors.
  • Benign hepatic tumors in children include lesions that are unique to the pediatric age group and others that are more common in adults.
  • Infantile hemangioendothelioma, or infantile hepatic hemangioma, is a benign vascular tumor that may cause serious clinical complications.
  • Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver occurs in young children and is characterized pathologically by mesenchymal proliferation with fluid-containing cysts of varying size and number.
  • Benign epithelial tumors that are common in adults may infrequently occur in childhood.
  • All are composed of hyperplastic hepatocytes similar to surrounding liver parenchyma and may be difficult to discern at imaging.
  • Preferential hepatic arterial phase enhancement helps distinguish FNH and hepatic adenoma from uninvolved liver.
  • Hepatic adenoma often has intracellular fat and a propensity for intratumoral hemorrhage, neither of which are seen in FNH.
  • Knowledge of how the pathologic features of these tumors affect their imaging appearances helps radiologists offer an appropriate differential diagnosis and management plan.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20462995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Quaia E, Bartolotta TV, Midiri M, Cernic S, Belgrano M, Cova M: Analysis of different contrast enhancement patterns after microbubble-based contrast agent injection in liver hemangiomas with atypical appearance on baseline scan. Abdom Imaging; 2006 Jan-Feb;31(1):59-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of different contrast enhancement patterns after microbubble-based contrast agent injection in liver hemangiomas with atypical appearance on baseline scan.
  • BACKGROUND: We describe different possible enhancement patterns in liver hemangiomas with atypical appearance on baseline ultrasound after microbubble-based contrast agent injection.
  • METHODS: From a series of 253 consecutive lesions that were indeterminate on baseline ultrasound and then scanned after injection of air-filled microbubble contrast agent, 65 focal liver lesions were retrospectively selected on the basis of a diagnosis of liver hemangioma on multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (n = 23), magnetic resonance imaging (n = 27), or histology (n = 15).
  • RESULTS: Centripetal fill-in preceded (n = 50) or not preceded (n = 3) by peripheral nodular/rim-like enhancement was the prevalently observed contrast-enhancement pattern, equivalent to the typical enhancement pattern of liver hemangiomas on contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • CONCLUSION: Different contrast-enhancement patterns are possible in atypical liver hemangiomas after microbubble injection.
  • Typical centripetal fill-in is the prevalent pattern and its evidence allows diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement. Liver Cirrhosis / ultrasonography. Male. Microbubbles. Middle Aged. Polysaccharides / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16333704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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45. Aksenov IV, Fedorchenko AN: [Hepatic hemangioma: the choice of treatment]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2010;(6):40-2
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  • [Title] [Hepatic hemangioma: the choice of treatment].
  • 117 patients with hepatic hemangioma were treated.
  • The possibility and technical features of liver resections by hepatic hemangiomas are discussed.
  • Authors state the necessity of reduction of surgical treatment of hepatic hemangiomas and substantiate the need of dynamic observation of such lesions of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20559223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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46. R Aglyamov S, R Skovoroda A, Xie H, Kim K, M Rubin J, O'Donnell M, W Wakefield T, Myers D, Y Emelianov S: Model-based reconstructive elasticity imaging using ultrasound. Int J Biomed Imaging; 2007;2007:35830
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  • The model-based approach is illustrated using two potential clinical applications: differentiation of liver hemangioma and staging of deep venous thrombosis.

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  • (PMID = 18256732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4188
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL068658
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1986825
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47. Plackett TP, Lin-Hurtubise KM: Hepatic hemangiomas and parachuting. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2008 Oct;79(10):986-8
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  • [Title] Hepatic hemangiomas and parachuting.
  • Hepatic hemangiomas are relatively common benign hepatic tumors.
  • The following case report discusses an individual patient incidentally found to have large hepatic hemangiomas on CT scan during work-up for a traumatic minimally displaced pelvic fracture from parachuting.
  • Interventional radiology was also consulted regarding his fitness to continue parachuting given his large hepatic hemangiomas.
  • Consequently, a hepatic hemangioma should not exclude an individual from parachuting.
  • [MeSH-major] Aerospace Medicine. Aviation. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Accidents, Aviation. Adult. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous. Humans. Incidental Findings. Liver / injuries. Male. Pubic Bone / injuries. Rupture

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  • (PMID = 18856190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Bartolotta TV, Taibbi A, Galia M, Lo Re G, La Grutta L, Grassi R, Midiri M: Centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement of liver hemangiomas: a possible atypical appearance on contrast-enhanced US. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Dec;64(3):447-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement of liver hemangiomas: a possible atypical appearance on contrast-enhanced US.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence and to describe the atypical centrifugal (inside-out) appearance of contrast-enhancement of liver hemangiomas on contrast-enhanced sonography.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline and SonoVue-enhanced ultrasonography of 92 patients with 158 liver hemangiomas - considered atypical at grey-scale examination and confirmed by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound follow-up - were reviewed in consensus by two experienced radiologists, who evaluated baseline echogenicity and the dynamic enhancement pattern of each lesion looking for the presence of central enhancing foci in the arterial phase followed by a centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement in the portal-venous and late phases.
  • RESULTS: After administration of SonoVue, 12/158 hemangiomas (7.6%) (size range: 1-7cm; mean: 3.2cm) in seven patients (5 women, 2 men; age range: 34-71 years, mean: 50.8 years) showed a central enhancing focus in the arterial phase followed by a centrifugal enhancement in the portal-venous and late phases.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiologist should be aware that centrifugal (inside-out) appearance on contrast-enhanced sonography is a rare but possible feature of liver hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement / methods. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatic Artery / pathology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microbubbles. Middle Aged. Phospholipids. Portal Vein / pathology. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17433596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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49. Qin J, Wang ZW, Ni QC, Wang Y, Chen L, Lu MD, Shen AG: [Expression and significance of c-jun-activation-domain binding protein (JAB1) in hepatocellular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Sep 23;88(36):2533-6
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  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used on 76 specimens of HCC tissues and native liver tissues adjacent to the HCC tissues, and 10 specimens of normal liver tissues near the liver angioma to detect the expression of JAB1 and the cell proliferative factor Ki67.
  • RESULTS: The expression rate of JAB1 in the HHC tissues was 68.85%, significantly higher than that in the adjacent liver tissues and normal liver tissues near liver angioma (38.72% and 34.36% respectively, both P < 0.001).
  • The expression rate of Ki67 protein in the HCC tissues was 41.45%, significantly higher than that in the adjacent liver tissues and normal liver tissues near liver angioma (2.11% and 2.01% respectively, both P < 0.001).
  • JAB1 may be used as a marker for neoplastic change in liver cells and thus has potential clinicopathologic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Peptide Hydrolases / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19080643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases; EC 3.4.-.- / COPS5 protein, human
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50. Romano F, Messinesi G, Tana F, Uggeri F: Recurrent giant hemangioma causing severe respiratory distress. Dig Dis Sci; 2007 Dec;52(12):3526-9
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  • [Title] Recurrent giant hemangioma causing severe respiratory distress.
  • Hemangioma is a common benign tumor of the liver that is usually asymptomatic.
  • If >4 cm (giant hemangioma), it could present symptoms related to bleeding, thrombosis, consumptive coagulopathy, or adjacent abdominal organ compression.
  • If symptomatic surgical treatment should be considered, liver resection as well as enucleation are considered.
  • She had undergone 2 surgical resections of liver hemangiomas.
  • The respiratory syndrome, as showed by chest x-ray, computed tomography scan, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, was related to a recurrent giant multiple hemangioma, creating a prominent compression of right lung with left mediastinal shift and left heart dislocation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Constriction, Pathologic. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] J Am Coll Surg. 2005 Mar;200(3):470-1 [15737860.001]
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  • (PMID = 17404885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Kornasiewicz O, Debski M, Stepnowska M, Szałas A, Bar-Andziak E, Krawczyk M: The enzymatic activity of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) is low in liver hemangioma: a preliminary study. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz); 2010 Feb;58(1):77-80
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  • [Title] The enzymatic activity of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) is low in liver hemangioma: a preliminary study.
  • However, there are few available data about D1 enzyme activity in benign tumors such as hemangioma, which is the most common primary liver tumor.
  • Hence this study aimed to determine the enzymatic activity of D1 in hemangiomas in relation to healthy liver tissue.
  • Seven tumors and healthy control tissues were obtained from patients who had liver resection due to hemangioma.
  • It was found that D1 activity was significantly lower in the hemangiomas than in the healthy surrounding tissue (p = 0.0017).
  • Healthy liver tissue expresses a high level of D1, but disturbed D1 activity may result in changes in the local concentration of T3 which may impair gene transcription.
  • These finding demonstrate a low enzymatic activity of D1 in liver hemangioma and suggest an as yet unknown role of thyroid hormones in this type of benign liver tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / enzymology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Liver / enzymology. Liver Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20049650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-4917
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816262
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52. Jiang WS, Lu BY, Cai XY, Lu WQ, Liu ZJ, Huang F, Jin XJ: [Laparoscope hepatectomy for hepatic hemangioma: a report of 18 cases]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Oct 1;45(19):1311-3
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  • [Title] [Laparoscope hepatectomy for hepatic hemangioma: a report of 18 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and practicality of laparoscopic hepatectomy for hepatic hemangioma.
  • METHODS: Candidate for laparoscopic liver resection were 18 cases of hepatic hemangioma from January 2002 to October 2006.
  • The Electric-cautery and ultracision were used for liver transection.
  • Operative procedures included anatomical left hepatectomy in 2 cases, non-anatomical left hepatectomy 1 case, left lobectomy 5 cases, local liver resection 10 cases.
  • Two cases of hepatic hemangioma associated with gallbladder stone were performed cholecystectomy synchronously, 1 case associated with chronic appendicitis were performed appendectomy synchronously.
  • RESULTS: Laparoscopic left liver resection was successfully performed in all 18 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscope hepatectomy for hepatic hemangioma is safe and feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18241562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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53. Vlahovic A, Simic R, Djokic D, Ceran C: Diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis treatment with cyclophosphamide: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Nov;31(11):858-60
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  • There were 63 cutaneous hemangiomas over the scalp, face, trunk, and extremities.
  • Computed tomography scan revealed the presence of hemangiomas in the liver and kidneys; laryngobronchoscopy identified the presence of hemangioma in tracheobronchial tree.
  • After 4 cycles of cyclophosphamide, the liver was notably decreased in size and the cardiac failure was resolved.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed the marked decrease in size of the liver hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Hemangioma / drug therapy. Hemangioma / pathology. Mesna / administration & dosage. Protective Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19829152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Protective Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; NR7O1405Q9 / Mesna
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54. Turowski C, Feist H, Alzen G, Glüer S, Petersen C: Conversion of a neonatal hepatic hemangioma to focal nodular hyperplasia. Pathol Int; 2009 Apr;59(4):251-4
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  • [Title] Conversion of a neonatal hepatic hemangioma to focal nodular hyperplasia.
  • Hepatic hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia are both frequently observed benign lesions of the liver.
  • Whereas hepatic hemangioma is the most frequent benign liver tumor in children, focal nodular hyperplasia occurs predominantly in adult patients.
  • We report on a 6-month-old child with a continuously shrinking hepatic hemangioma after interventional therapy and a growing hepatic mass 5 years later, which emerged as focal nodular hyperplasia at the site of the former hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19351369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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55. Dickie B, Dasgupta R, Nair R, Alonso MH, Ryckman FC, Tiao GM, Adams DM, Azizkhan RG: Spectrum of hepatic hemangiomas: management and outcome. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Jan;44(1):125-33
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  • [Title] Spectrum of hepatic hemangiomas: management and outcome.
  • PURPOSE: Infants with multiple cutaneous hemangiomas often present with hepatic hemangiomas.
  • They can follow a benign clinical course or require complex management.
  • We reviewed our experience in the management of hepatic hemangiomas.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients (1996-2007) with hepatic hemangiomas treated in our institution.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with hepatic hemangiomas as follows: 8 focal, 12 multiple, and 6 diffuse lesions.
  • Nineteen (73%) patients had associated cutaneous hemangiomas.
  • Sixteen patients had multiple and 3 patients had single cutaneous hemangiomas.
  • All patients with multiple or diffuse liver lesions were screened for heart failure and hypothyroidism.
  • Two patients went on to surgical resection for failed response to medical management and worsening heart failure (left lobectomy, liver transplant).
  • Five patients had a previously undescribed constellation of rapidly involuting cutaneous hemangiomas (gone by 3 months, glut-1-negative) with associated liver lesions also resolving at a faster pace (mean resolution of cutaneous hemangiomas, 1.9 vs 7.9 months; P = .001; liver, 5.8 vs 25.3 months; P = .004).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with multiple cutaneous hemangiomas should be screened for hepatic lesions.
  • Patients with diffuse or multifocal liver hemangiomas should be screened for congestive heart failure and hypothyroidism.
  • A subgroup of rapidly involuting cutaneous hemangiomas have a significantly shorter time for involution of hepatic lesions.
  • The status of cutaneous lesions can be used as indicators for the liver hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / classification. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / classification. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19159729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids
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56. Goshima S, Kanematsu M, Watanabe H, Kondo H, Shiratori Y, Onozuka M, Moriyama N: Hepatic hemangioma and metastasis: differentiation with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced 3-T MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Oct;195(4):941-6
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  • [Title] Hepatic hemangioma and metastasis: differentiation with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced 3-T MRI.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI findings of hepatic hemangioma and to investigate the diagnostic performance in differentiating hepatic hemangioma and metastasis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images of 32 hepatic hemangiomas in 25 patients and of 29 hepatic metastatic lesions in 20 patients were retrospectively reviewed.
  • MRI findings and performance with respect to the differential diagnosis of hemangioma and metastasis were assessed.
  • RESULTS: During the hepatic arterial phase, 11 of the 32 hemangiomas (34%) exhibited early total enhancement, and nine (28%) exhibited peripheral nodular enhancement.
  • Twenty-three of the 29 metastatic lesions (79%) exhibited ring enhancement during the hepatic arterial phase.
  • Twenty-nine hemangiomas (91%) and all of the metastatic lesions exhibited homogeneous or heterogeneous hypointensity during the hepatobiliary phase.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of hemangioma were 76%, 81%, and 0.87 for the hepatobiliary phase alone; 97%, 88%, and 0.97 for the dynamic extracellular phase alone; and 97%, 88%, and 0.98 for the combination.
  • Five nodules smaller than 1 cm (four hemangiomas, one metastatic lesion) that exhibited no enhancement during the arterial phase and minimal enhancement during the late dynamic phase were not differentiated.
  • CONCLUSION: Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI was found useful for differentiating hepatic hemangiomas and metastatic lesions, especially during the dynamic extracellular phase.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Gadolinium DTPA. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20858822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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57. Losanoff JE, Millis JM: Liver hemangioma complicated by obstructive jaundice. Am J Surg; 2008 Sep;196(3):e3-4
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  • [Title] Liver hemangioma complicated by obstructive jaundice.
  • This report describes a liver hemangioma causing obstructive jaundice, an extremely rare condition that has been reported on 3 previous occasions.
  • A hemangioma can compress the major bile ducts and require partial hepatectomy for a successful outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / complications. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18519125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Seitz K, Bernatik T, Strobel D, Blank W, Friedrich-Rust M, Strunk H, Greis C, Kratzer W, Schuler A: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions in clinical practice (DEGUM Multicenter Trial): CEUS vs. MRI--a prospective comparison in 269 patients. Ultraschall Med; 2010 Oct;31(5):492-9
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions in clinical practice (DEGUM Multicenter Trial): CEUS vs. MRI--a prospective comparison in 269 patients.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the diagnostic role of CEUS in the diagnosis of newly discovered focal liver lesions in clinical practice.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 05 / 2004 to 12 / 2006, standardized CEUS was performed prospectively on 1349 patients with focal liver lesions that had been newly detected by fundamental ultrasound in order to determine tumor differentiation and tumor entity.
  • In typical liver hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), the definitive diagnosis was based on the MRI as the "diagnostic gold standard" and on clinical evidence and additional follow-up (subgroup A) or on histology (subgroup B).
  • RESULTS: In the subcollective (n = 262), the tumor differentiation (malignant or benign) of CEUS and MRI was concordant in 225 cases (85.9%), and the assessment of tumor entity in 204 cases (77.9%).
  • Liver hemangiomas (n = 122) and FNH (n = 43) were most frequent.
  • Subgroup B (n = 82) comprised mainly malignant liver lesions (n = 55), with only a few of hemangiomas (n = 8) or FNH (n = 5).
  • CONCLUSION: CEUS and MRI are of equal value for the differentiation and specification of newly discovered liver tumors in clinical practice.
  • CEUS and MRI are extremely reliable for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions, the diagnosis of liver hemangiomas and FNH.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Dextrans. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium. Gadolinium DTPA. Heterocyclic Compounds. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver Cirrhosis / diagnosis. Liver Cirrhosis / pathology. Magnetite Nanoparticles. Male. Middle Aged. Organometallic Compounds. Phospholipids. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Software. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 20652854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Heterocyclic Compounds; 0 / Magnetite Nanoparticles; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; 0199MV609F / gadoteridol; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium; G6N3J05W84 / ferumoxides; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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59. Jr MA, Papaiordanou F, Gonçalves JM, Chaib E: Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature. World J Hepatol; 2010 Dec 27;2(12):428-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature.
  • Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size.
  • Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life.
  • As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture.
  • Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies.
  • In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination.
  • In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21191518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3010512
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant hepatic hemangioma / Hepatic hemangioma / Liver tumor / Spontaneous rupture / Surgery
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60. Akamatsu N, Sugawara Y, Komagome M, Ishida T, Shin N, Cho N, Ozawa F, Hashimoto D: Giant liver hemangioma resected by trisectorectomy after efficient volume reduction by transcatheter arterial embolization: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:283

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant liver hemangioma resected by trisectorectomy after efficient volume reduction by transcatheter arterial embolization: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Liver hemangiomas are the most common benign liver tumors, usually small in size and requiring no treatment.
  • Giant hemangiomas complicated with consumptive coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome) or causing severe incapacitating symptoms, however, are generally considered an absolute indication for surgical resection.
  • Here, we present the case of a giant hemangioma, which was, to the best of our knowledge, one of the largest ever reported.
  • Examinations at the first visit revealed a right liver hemangioma occupying the abdominal cavity, protruding into the right diaphragm up to the right thoracic cavity and extending down to the pelvic cavity, with a maximum diameter of 43 cm, complicated with "asymptomatic" Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • Based on the tumor size and the anatomic relationship between the tumor and hepatic vena cava, primary resection seemed difficult and dangerous, leading us to first perform transcatheter arterial embolization to reduce the tumor volume and to ensure the safety of future resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To date, there have been several reports of aggressive surgical treatments, including extra-corporeal hepatic resection and liver transplantation, for huge hemangiomas like the present case, but because of its benign nature, every effort should be made to avoid life-threatening surgical stress for patients.
  • Our experience demonstrates that a pre-operative arterial embolization may effectively enable the resection of large hemangiomas.

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  • (PMID = 20731839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2936318
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61. Doo KW, Lee CH, Choi JW, Lee J, Kim KA, Park CM: "Pseudo washout" sign in high-flow hepatic hemangioma on gadoxetic acid contrast-enhanced MRI mimicking hypervascular tumor. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Dec;193(6):W490-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GADOPENTETATE DIMEGLUMINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] "Pseudo washout" sign in high-flow hepatic hemangioma on gadoxetic acid contrast-enhanced MRI mimicking hypervascular tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe the "pseudo washout" sign of high-flow hepatic hemangioma that mimics hypervascular tumor on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.
  • CONCLUSION: High-flow hemangiomas might show relatively low signal intensity because of gadoxetic acid contrast uptake in the surrounding normal liver parenchyma during the equilibrium (3-minute delay) phase.
  • Such findings are called pseudo washout and can mimic hypervascular hepatic tumors.
  • However, high-flow hemangioma can be diagnosed by observing bright signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, arterial phase-dominant enhancement, pseudo washout sign during the equilibrium phase, and isointense or slightly increased signal intensity on subtraction images.
  • [MeSH-major] Gadolinium DTPA. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Organometallic Compounds. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 19933623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; 1BJ477IO2L / gadobutrol; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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62. Ramia JM, Muffak K, Villar J, Garrote D, Ferrón JA: [Benign solid liver tumors]. Cir Esp; 2005 May;77(5):247-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Benign solid liver tumors].
  • Benign solid liver tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions (adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hemangioma, etc.) with highly varied epidemiological characteristics.
  • Advances in diagnostic methods have improved preoperative diagnosis.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging has become the key test, but there is still a percentage of cases in which definitive preoperative diagnosis is not feasible.
  • Surgery is indicated when diagnosis is uncertain or there are complications (rupture, hemorrhage, etc.).
  • Morbidity and mortality after resection of these tumors is very low since excision is limited, performed in young people without concomitant disease, and in healthy liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Hemangioma, Cavernous. Liver Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16420928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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63. Banton KL, D'Cunha J, Laudi N, Flynn C, Hammerschmidt D, Humar A, Sielaff T: Postoperative severe microangiopathic hemolytic anemia associated with a giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma. J Gastrointest Surg; 2005 May-Jun;9(5):679-85
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postoperative severe microangiopathic hemolytic anemia associated with a giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma.
  • Complications related to liver hemangioma are rare.
  • We herein describe the case of a patient with three giant cavernous hemangiomas of the liver, of which two were resected for symptoms.
  • Surgeons should be aware of the potential for hemolytic complications after major surgery when giant hepatic hemangiomas are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Hemolytic / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15862263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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64. Brogna A, Ferrara R, Bucceri AM, Virgilio C, Scalisi G: An atypical case of hepatic cavernous hemangioma. Cases J; 2009;2:181

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An atypical case of hepatic cavernous hemangioma.
  • INTRODUCTION: The case of an atypical hepatic angiocavernoma is referred.
  • Abdominal ultrasound showed a large, roughly round-shaped lesion (diameter 14 cm) in the VIII hepatic segment diagnosed as hepatic angiocavernoma, which turned unexpectedly in a cystic like lesion one year later.
  • CONCLUSION: The atypical angioma's degeneration could account for one of the causes of the patient's exitus.
  • It could be related to blood seizure by the large hepatic angioma due to the intratumoural haemorrhage.

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  • (PMID = 19946491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2783136
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65. Kobayashi S, Maruyama H, Okugawa H, Yoshizumi H, Matsutani S, Ebara M, Yokosuka O: Contrast-enhanced US with Levovist for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma: time-related changes of enhancement appearance and the hemodynamic background. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 Jul-Aug;55(85):1222-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced US with Levovist for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma: time-related changes of enhancement appearance and the hemodynamic background.
  • BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: To elucidate the diagnostic confidence of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with Levovist for hepatic hemangioma.
  • METHODOLOGY: The subjects were 34 patients with 38 hemangiomas and 12 patients with 15 hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas.
  • The early-phase (15-60 second) and liver-specific phase (after 5 min) were observed by the first injection.
  • The 2nd injection was done for solo-phase method to observe liver-specific phase images without taking early-phase sonograms.
  • The 3rd injection was done for changing posture method to observe liver-specific sonograms under left lateral ducubitus position.
  • RESULTS: In the early-phase of hemangioma, nodular enhancement (NE) was found transiently in 13 lesions (34%) and continuously in 25 lesions (66%), while hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 15) did not show this pattern.
  • Two enhancement patterns were observed in the liver-specific phase of hemangioma, diffuse in 12 lesions (31%) and partial in 26 lesions (69%), which were dependent on the early-phase enhancement.
  • Liver-specific findings were also affected by taking early-phase sonograms or changing the posture of the patient.
  • This method provided sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 100% for the diagnosis of hemangioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CEUS with Levovist may be promising method for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Hemangioma, Cavernous / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Polysaccharides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18795661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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66. Ardeshiri A, Ardeshiri A, Beiras-Fernandez A, Steinlein OK, Winkler PA: Multiple cerebral cavernous malformations associated with extracranial mesenchymal anomalies. Neurosurg Rev; 2008 Jan;31(1):11-7; discussion 17-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple cerebral cavernous malformations associated with extracranial mesenchymal anomalies.
  • Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are common hamartous dysplasias characterized by abnormally dilated vascular channels.
  • CCM mostly occur sporadically, and multiple occurrence of CCM is highly suggestive of a genetic origin of the disorder.
  • An illustrative case is presented in which CCM occurred together with different dysplasias (multiple CCM, liver cavernoma, and cardiac atrial myxoma), which are all thought to arise from abnormal mesenchymal cell differentiation processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary
  • [MeSH-minor] Carrier Proteins / genetics. Female. Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Middle Aged. Myxoma / diagnosis. Myxoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17957396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCM2 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / KRIT1 protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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67. Vasconcelos L, Silva S, Garcia A, Medeiros D, Albuquerque E Castro J, Capitão LM: [Visceral artery aneurysms: alternative therapeutic approach]. Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc; 2006 Jul-Sep;13(3):155-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Case number 2 was a 72 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for hepatic angioma and hypothyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 17057828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-7215
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-torácica e vascular : órgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Torácica e Vascular
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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68. Bessho K, Etani Y, Ichimori H, Miyoshi Y, Namba N, Yoneda A, Ooue T, Chihara T, Morii E, Aoki T, Murakami M, Mushiake S, Ozono K: Increased type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase activity in a regrown hepatic hemangioma with consumptive hypothyroidism. Eur J Pediatr; 2010 Feb;169(2):215-21
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  • [Title] Increased type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase activity in a regrown hepatic hemangioma with consumptive hypothyroidism.
  • INTRODUCTION: Infantile hepatic hemangioma with consumptive hypothyroidism is a rare condition.
  • CASE REPORT: A 4-month-old girl presented with diffuse hepatic hemangiomas during treatment of congenital hypothyroidism.
  • Serum reverse triiodothyronine was elevated, and her hypothyroidism improved concomitant with involution of the hemangioma following prednisolone and interferon-alpha administration.
  • At 20 months of age, 7 months after discontinuing prednisolone and interferon-alpha, a focal hemangioma regrew from one of the previous lesions and was surgically resected.
  • DISCUSSION: Here, we describe a patient with consumptive hypothyroidism and diffuse infantile hepatic hemangiomas, one of which regrew after involution following pharmacotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: It is important to identify infantile hepatic hemangioma in patients with hypothyroidism refractory to hormone replacement therapy, who have low free triiodothyronine despite high thyrotropin and normal free thyroxine levels, and long-term follow-up will be needed for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / enzymology. Hypothyroidism / complications. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Infant. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Time Factors

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  • [Cites] Liver Int. 2008 Aug;28(7):1043-4 [18783545.001]
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  • (PMID = 19548001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1076
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type III; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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69. Jennings RT, Garriott OK, Bogomolov VV, Pochuev VI, Morgun VV, Garriott RA: Giant hepatic hemangioma and cross-fused ectopic kidney in a spaceflight participant. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2010 Feb;81(2):136-40
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  • [Title] Giant hepatic hemangioma and cross-fused ectopic kidney in a spaceflight participant.
  • During the evaluation for the left single cross-fused ectopic kidney, a giant hepatic hemangioma was also discovered.
  • In order to medically qualify for flight, the giant hepatic hemangioma was surgically removed.
  • This case summary investigat*es the implications of a single cross-fused left ectopic kidney and the decision process and treatment implications for spaceflight medical certification in an individual with an asymptomatic giant hepatic hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Kidney / abnormalities. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Space Flight
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decision Making. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. International Cooperation. Male. Postoperative Period. Russia. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20131656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Chen RC, Li CS, Lii JM, Chen WT, Tu HY: Peritumoral fat-spared area is well correlated with the presence of temporal peritumoral enhancement in hepatic hemangioma in fatty liver. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jul;22(1):86-91
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  • [Title] Peritumoral fat-spared area is well correlated with the presence of temporal peritumoral enhancement in hepatic hemangioma in fatty liver.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between temporal peritumoral enhancement and peritumoral focal fat sparing adjacent to hepatic hemangiomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: On the basis of MRI and sonographic imaging follow-up, 51 hepatic hemangiomas were identified in 37 patients, who had both hepatic hemangiomas and focal fat-sparing areas in fatty liver.
  • The association between the temporal peritumoral enhancement in the early arterial phase of dynamic MRI and peritumoral fat sparing in the same hemangioma was investigated.
  • RESULTS: A total of 31 out of 36 hemangiomas (86.1%) showed both peritumoral focal fat spares and temporal peritumoral enhancement.
  • The remaining 10 hemangiomas showed similar shape but slightly different size in these two imaging characteristics.
  • CONCLUSION: Temporal peritumoral enhancement seen in hepatic hemangioma might be related to focal fatty sparing adjacent to the hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15971182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Yeh WC, Yang PM, Huang GT, Sheu JC, Chen DS: Long-term follow-up of hepatic hemangiomas by ultrasonography: with emphasis on the growth rate of the tumor. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Mar;54(74):475-9
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up of hepatic hemangiomas by ultrasonography: with emphasis on the growth rate of the tumor.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is not rare to find hepatic hemangiomas in people in Taiwan where hepatitis B is endemic during ultrasonographic examinations for the screening of hepatocellular carcinoma, and we can therefore monitor these hemangiomas longitudinally since detected.
  • METHODOLOGY: Totally 180 hepatic hemangiomas in 130 adult patients were followed up for more than 5 years with at least twice ultrasound examinations in our hospital.
  • The diagnosis of hemangiomas was made by typical ultrasonographic findings as well as compatible findings in other imaging modalities.
  • The doubling time of tumor volume was calculated for the enlarging hepatic hemangiomas.
  • RESULTS: The diameters of the 180 hemangiomas ranged from <8 cm - >4 cm in 11 (6.1%), < or =4 cm - >2 cm in 55 (30.6%), and < or =2 cm in 114 (63.3%).
  • Among them, the diameter of 14 (7.7%) hemangiomas in 13 patients increased.
  • The tumor volume doubling time of these hemangiomas ranged from 17.3 to 178.1 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although hepatic hemangiomas are benign, some of them indeed grow slowly.
  • The growth rates of these hemangiomas varied and were definitely slower as compared with those of malignant hepatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17523302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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72. Ersoz F, Ozcan O, Toros AB, Culcu S, Bektas H, Sari S, Pasaoglu E, Arikan S: Torsion of a giant pedunculated liver hemangioma mimicking acute appendicitis: a case report. World J Emerg Surg; 2010;5:2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Torsion of a giant pedunculated liver hemangioma mimicking acute appendicitis: a case report.
  • Hemangiomas are the most common benign neoplasms affecting the liver.
  • Rarely, hemangiomas can be pedunculated.
  • At laparotomy a normal appendix was observed and a torsioned pedinculated liver hemangioma turned out to be the cause.

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  • [Cites] Dig Liver Dis. 2010 Jun;42(6):456 [19155194.001]
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  • (PMID = 20148116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-7922
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of emergency surgery : WJES
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Emerg Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2820011
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73. Rodríguez-Peláez M, Menéndez De Llano R, Varela M: [Benign liver tumors]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 May;33(5):391-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Benign liver tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores benignos del hígado.
  • There is a wide range of benign liver tumors that behave in very different ways and require a management strategy specifically tailored to each.
  • The most common benign solid liver tumor is hemangioma followed by focal nodular hyperplasia; the most common cystic tumor is the simple cyst.
  • The differential diagnosis with malignant liver tumors is sometimes difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Diseases / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Mutation

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  • [CommentIn] Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Jun-Jul;33(6):473-4; author reply 474-5 [20537429.001]
  • (PMID = 20096966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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74. Kim TK, Jang HJ, Wilson SR: Benign liver masses: imaging with microbubble contrast agents. Ultrasound Q; 2006 Mar;22(1):31-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign liver masses: imaging with microbubble contrast agents.
  • Benign focal liver lesions are frequently encountered in routine ultrasound (US) scanning as well as in staging US examination for the patients with known malignancy.
  • Noninvasive characterization of benign liver masses by imaging features has been a challenge for the radiologist.
  • Some benign liver masses show typical findings on US; however, these findings are not highly specific.
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is useful to make an instant, confident diagnosis of benign liver masses.
  • Contrast-enhanced multiphasic computed tomography (CT) is an excellent imaging technique to detect and characterize focal liver masses.
  • But there are a considerable number of indeterminate focal liver lesions, which require further evaluation.
  • CEUS provides the evaluation of perfusion and hemodynamics of nodular liver lesions as well as real-time morphologic evaluation of lesion vascularity.
  • Most benign liver masses show characteristic features on CEUS, allowing an accurate diagnosis.
  • This review article describes typical enhancement features of common benign liver masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Liver Diseases / ultrasonography. Microbubbles. Ultrasonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Humans. Liver Abscess / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16641791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-8771
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound quarterly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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75. Skalicky T, Treska V, Liska V, Sutnar A, Molacek J, Mirka H, Ferda J, Ohlidalova K: The rare benign liver tumors. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2007;108(4-5):229-32
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  • [Title] The rare benign liver tumors.
  • As opposed to malignant secondary tumors, metastases of the colorectal carcinoma are benign tumors of the liver that are quite rare in the Czech Republic.
  • From the 55 patients operated on since 2000 at our department for benign liver tumors, the most frequent are haemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocelular adenoma.
  • The authors describe three cases of rather rare liver tumors with benign behavior that have the potential of becoming malignant.
  • It concerns mucin producing biliary tumors, which correspond to the pancreatic intraductal papillary mucin tumor, hepatic cystadenoma with ovarian stroma and a liver hamartoma in an adult patient (Ref 13).
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / surgery. Cystadenoma / diagnosis. Cystadenoma / surgery. Female. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Ducts. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17694811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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76. Choi BY, Nguyen MH: The diagnosis and management of benign hepatic tumors. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 May-Jun;39(5):401-12
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and management of benign hepatic tumors.
  • Benign hepatic tumors include a broad spectrum of regenerative and true neoplastic processes.
  • Because of advances in imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as progress in immunohistochemistry, accurate diagnosis can now be made in a large percentage of patients without surgical laparotomy or resection.
  • This article will focus on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of focal benign lesions of the liver.
  • The most common benign hepatic tumors include cavernous hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatic adenoma, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia.
  • In the majority of cases of benign hepatic tumors, patients are asymptomatic, and no treatment is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma, Liver Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / therapy. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 15815209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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77. Sampol Bas C, Peña Viloria C: [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2005 May-Jun;24(3):191-4
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  • [Title] [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion].
  • [Transliterated title] Captación de 123I-MIBG en un hemangioma hepático en el estudio gammagráfico de una lesión suprarrenal.
  • MRI confirmed the presence of a mass in the left adrenal gland suggestive of an adenoma and found a lesion in the right hepatic area at the level of the previously seen MIBG image.
  • This lesion was labelled as a hemangioma and would explain the findings of the isotopic study with MIBG.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antidepressive Agents / adverse effects. Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology. Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use. Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects. Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Interactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fibula / injuries. Fibula / radiography. Fractures, Bone / complications. Fractures, Bone / radiography. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Psychotic Disorders / complications. Psychotic Disorders / drug therapy. Tibial Fractures / complications. Tibial Fractures / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15847786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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78. Paradis V: Benign liver tumors: an update. Clin Liver Dis; 2010 Nov;14(4):719-29
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  • [Title] Benign liver tumors: an update.
  • One of the consequences of extensive use of abdominal imaging, and especially liver ultrasonography, is the detection of asymptomatic liver tumors.
  • In the absence of underlying chronic liver disease, the vast majority of these lesions correspond to benign liver tumors including solid and cystic lesions.
  • This article is dedicated to hepatocellular tumors and also addresses hemangiomas as the most common benign liver tumors, and angiomyolipomas as a rare tumor often misdiagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21055692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8224
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in liver disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Raszeja-Wyszomirska J, Wasilewicz MP, Zasada-Cedro K, Golanowska M, Wiechowska-Kozłowska A: [Benign solid tumors of the liver--review of current knowledge]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2009 Jul;27(157):62-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Benign solid tumors of the liver--review of current knowledge].
  • Benign solid tumors of the liver may be one of the great diagnostic difficulties among the hepatic problems.
  • This article presents a summary of the main information on benign solid tumors of the liver based on internet database MEDLINE.
  • Also, it contains some proceedings of treatment and control for patients with those lesions, which can help to differentiate benign and malignant hepatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / therapy. Humans. Hyperplasia. Liver Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19650434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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80. Lanthaler M, Freund M, Nehoda H: Laparoscopic resection of a giant liver hemangioma. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2005 Dec;15(6):624-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a giant liver hemangioma.
  • We present a case report of hepatic resection performed laparoscopically for a giant symptomatic hemangioma.
  • The patient was a 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a giant hemangioma 20 cm in diameter.
  • As in the case of our patient, laparoscopic resection of hepatic hemangiomas can be performed successfully, even when dealing with giant hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16366871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Takahashi K, Iida K, Okimura Y, Takahashi Y, Naito J, Nishikawa S, Kadowaki S, Iguchi G, Kaji H, Chihara K: A novel mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene identified in a Japanese family with pheochromocytoma and hepatic hemangioma. Intern Med; 2006;45(5):265-9
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  • [Title] A novel mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene identified in a Japanese family with pheochromocytoma and hepatic hemangioma.
  • A heterozygous VHL gene-disrupted model (vhl +/-) developed hepatic vascular lesions; in contrast, hepatic hemangioma is a rare manifestation of human VHL syndrome.
  • One of the members demonstrated hepatic hemangiomas, suggesting that there may be a relationship between the mutation of the VHL gene and hepatic vascular lesions, even in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics


82. Faccioli N, D'Onofrio M, Comai A, Cugini C: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the characterization of benign focal liver lesions: activity-based cost analysis. Radiol Med; 2007 Sep;112(6):810-20
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the characterization of benign focal liver lesions: activity-based cost analysis.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform a cost analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the study of benign focal liver lesions (BFLL) with indeterminate appearance on ultrasonography (US).
  • We analysed the cost effectiveness of CEUS, considering whether or not computed tomography (CT) was necessary for the diagnosis.
  • There were 398 patients with 213 angiomas, 41 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH) and 154 pseudolesions (focal fatty sparing, focal fatty areas).
  • For diagnosis of haemangiomas, we saved 1,406.97 euros in 2002, 5,315.22 euros in 2003, 10,317.78 euros in 2004 and 9,536.13 euros in 2005.
  • For diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasias, we saved 781.65 euros in 2003, 781.65 euros in 2004 and 1,406.97 euros in 2005.
  • For diagnosis of pseudolesions, we saved 2,813.94 euros in 2002, 5,158.89 euros in 2003, 5,158.89 euros in 2004 and 4,220.91 euros in 2005.
  • In the period 2002-2005, the introduction of CEUS allowed us to save a total of 47,055.33 euros in the diagnosis of benign focal hepatic liver lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This cost analysis shows that CEUS is the least expensive second-line modality after baseline US for the diagnosis of BFLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Liver Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Liver Diseases / economics. Phospholipids. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Ultrasonography / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Costs and Cost Analysis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnostic imaging. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / economics. Hemangioma / diagnostic imaging. Hemangioma / economics. Humans. Italy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / economics

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  • (PMID = 17891342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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83. Herman P, Costa ML, Machado MA, Pugliese V, D'Albuquerque LA, Machado MC, Gama-Rodrigues JJ, Saad WA: Management of hepatic hemangiomas: a 14-year experience. J Gastrointest Surg; 2005 Jul-Aug;9(6):853-9
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  • [Title] Management of hepatic hemangiomas: a 14-year experience.
  • Hemangioma is the most common primary tumor of the liver and its diagnosis has become increasingly prevalent.
  • Large hemangiomas are often symptomatic and reports of surgical intervention are becoming increasingly frequent.
  • We present our experience, over the last 14 years, with diagnosis and management of 249 liver hemangiomas, with special attention to a conservative strategy.
  • Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcome are analyzed.
  • Diagnosis was based on a radiologic algorithm according to the size and characteristics of the tumor; diagnosis by this method was not possible in only one case (0.4 %).
  • Giant hemangiomas (>4 cm) were found in 68 patients (27.3%) and in 16 were larger than 10 cm.
  • Patients who did not undergo surgery (n = 241) did not present any complication related to the hemangioma during long-term follow-up (mean = 78 months).
  • Hemangioma is a benign course disease with easy diagnosis and management.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15985244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Park SM, Shin SM, Seo HE, Kim SH, Kim HS, Park JH, Kim JH, Sohn KR: [A case of sclerosed hemangioma mimicking intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec;54(6):399-403
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  • [Title] [A case of sclerosed hemangioma mimicking intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma].
  • Hemangioma is one of the most frequently encountered benign hepatic neoplasm which can develop secondary degeneration.
  • Sclerosed hemangioma is a rare disease histologically characterized by large amount of collagen and elastic fibril between sclerosed small vessels.
  • Its differential diagnosis is very difficult.
  • It should be included in the differential diagnosis of other hepatic lesions such as hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and metastatic hepatic tumor.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography revealed GB stone, dilated common bile duct with bile duct stone, and a 4.6 cm sized hyperechoic mass at segment 5 and 6 of the liver.
  • We removed common bile duct stone with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography then decided to undergo right lower segmentectomy of liver due to possibility of cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Histopathological examination of hepatic mass showed large amount of fibrous tissue with occasional residual vascular channels.
  • We describe one case of sclerosed hemangioma mimicking cholangiocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20026896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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85. Christison-Lagay ER, Burrows PE, Alomari A, Dubois J, Kozakewich HP, Lane TS, Paltiel HJ, Klement G, Mulliken JB, Fishman SJ: Hepatic hemangiomas: subtype classification and development of a clinical practice algorithm and registry. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Jan;42(1):62-7; discussion 67-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic hemangiomas: subtype classification and development of a clinical practice algorithm and registry.
  • PURPOSE: Hepatic hemangiomas, though histologically benign, may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in afflicted infants.
  • The literature presents much confusion regarding the natural history and treatment options for hepatic hemangiomas.
  • Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic self-limiting lesions to congestive heart failure associated with high-volume vascular shunting to fulminant hepatic failure with hypothyroidism, abdominal compartment syndrome, and death.
  • There has been little rationale to choose among observation, corticosteroid, other pharmacologic agents, arterial embolization, hepatic artery ligation, resection, or liver transplantation for any given patient.
  • METHODS: We analyzed several recent retrospective radiologic analyses and pathologic studies to determine whether hepatic hemangiomas could be categorized, allowing prediction of their natural history and rational choice of therapies based upon their clinical presentation and radiographic appearance.
  • RESULTS: We propose that hepatic hemangiomas do not represent a single entity but, rather, 3 principle categories of lesions: focal, multifocal, and diffuse.
  • With input from international multidisciplinary authorities on hemangiomas, we developed and proposed a clinical practice algorithm for the evaluation and management of hepatic hemangiomas.
  • Toward that end, we propose a plan to institute a web-based international hepatic hemangioma registry.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / classification. Liver Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 17208542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Caseiro-Alves F, Brito J, Araujo AE, Belo-Soares P, Rodrigues H, Cipriano A, Sousa D, Mathieu D: Liver haemangioma: common and uncommon findings and how to improve the differential diagnosis. Eur Radiol; 2007 Jun;17(6):1544-54
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  • [Title] Liver haemangioma: common and uncommon findings and how to improve the differential diagnosis.
  • Haemangiomas are common focal liver lesions, generally detected in the work-up of asymptomatic patients.
  • From the pathological point of view, they can be classified as small (capillary) or large, with cavernous vascular spaces that may show thrombosis, calcifications and hyalinisation.
  • The widespread use of cross-sectional imaging has allowed an increased detection rate and a better characterisation of this benign tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17260159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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87. Heiken JP: Distinguishing benign from malignant liver tumours. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7 Spec No A:S1-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distinguishing benign from malignant liver tumours.
  • Liver masses are very common and most are benign.
  • It is therefore important to avoid unnecessary interventions for benign lesions, while at the same time ensuring accurate diagnosis of hepatic malignancies.
  • Many cancer patients, like the general population, have incidental benign liver lesions.
  • In planning treatment for cancer patients, it is critical to avoid inappropriate treatment decisions based on misdiagnosis of a benign lesion as a metastasis or primary liver malignancy.
  • This article describes the salient imaging features of the common benign liver masses and outlines a general approach to distinguishing between benign and malignant hepatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17921080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 132
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2727979
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88. Lee J, Lim HK, Jeon YH: Multiple hepatic hemangiomas with fluid-fluid levels. Australas Radiol; 2007 Dec;51 Suppl:B310-2
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  • [Title] Multiple hepatic hemangiomas with fluid-fluid levels.
  • Hepatic haemangiomas with fluid-fluid levels are known to be rare with only five cases reported in the English literature.
  • According to the previous reports, the presence of fluid-fluid level could attribute to the separation of blood cells and serous fluid because of the extremely slow flow in cavernous haemangioma of the liver.
  • We describe the imaging features of multiple hepatic haemangiomas with fluid-fluid levels, which was pathologically proven with ultrasonography guided biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17991093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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89. Terkivatan T, Hussain SM, De Man RA, Ijzermans JN: Diagnosis and treatment of benign focal liver lesions. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl; 2006;(243):102-15
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of benign focal liver lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: With the routine use of improved imaging modalities, more benign liver lesions are detected nowadays.
  • METHODS: A Medline search of studies relevant to imaging diagnosis and management of the most common, benign, solid and non-solid liver lesions was undertaken.
  • The authors' own experiences with benign liver lesions were also taken into account.
  • RESULTS: Although atypical imaging features are the exception rather than the rule, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, and knowledge of their imaging features is essential if unnecessary work-up is to be avoided.
  • The use of tissue-specific contrast media, which has clearly improved the accuracy of highly advanced radiological techniques, may be helpful during differential diagnosis.
  • Once having established an accurate diagnosis, surgery is rarely indicated for a benign liver lesion because of its asymptomatic nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma, Liver Cell / therapy. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Echinococcosis, Hepatic / diagnosis. Echinococcosis, Hepatic / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / therapy. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy. Hepatectomy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16782629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-5928
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 144
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90. Winterer JT, Kotter E, Ghanem N, Langer M: Detection and characterization of benign focal liver lesions with multislice CT. Eur Radiol; 2006 Nov;16(11):2427-43
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  • [Title] Detection and characterization of benign focal liver lesions with multislice CT.
  • MDCT is a rapidly evolving technique that significantly improves CT imaging for several indications including depiction of focal benign lesions.
  • This review provides an overview of the current status of MDCT with respect to liver imaging and the implications for characterizing benign focal liver lesions.
  • MDCT currently allows the acquisition of thin slices in daily routine diagnostics providing an improved detection rate of small liver lesions.
  • Whereas large benign focal liver lesions exhibit typical patterns of morphology, attenuation and perfusion, which also may be assessed with single-slice scanners, small lesions remain challenging even with MDCT, since the specific criteria for confident diagnosis become more ambiguous.
  • Here, MR imaging provides more detailed information about tissue components and the availability of liver-specific contrast agents, adding further impact to this technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnostic imaging. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnostic imaging. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Contrast Media. Hemangioma / diagnostic imaging. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Liver Circulation. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16724204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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91. Brody JM, Schafer L, Tung GA, Breuer J, Shamsi K: Conspicuity of liver hemangiomas: short tau inversion recovery, T1, and T2 imaging with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Apr;21(4):391-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GADOPENTETATE DIMEGLUMINE .

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  • [Title] Conspicuity of liver hemangiomas: short tau inversion recovery, T1, and T2 imaging with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid.
  • PURPOSE: To compare conspicuity of liver hemangiomas on STIR, T1-weighted, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images before and after administration of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) (hepatocellular contrast agent), using contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen hemangiomas were imaged using breath-hold gradient echo (GRE) T1, fat-saturated turbo spin echo (TSE)-T2, and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences.
  • Background noise and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for liver and hemangioma, along with CNR for normal liver and hemangioma, were measured on each sequence before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA.
  • Hemangioma conspicuity was also evaluated qualitatively.
  • RESULTS: After Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, the quantitative liver SNR decreased 54% on STIR, increased 45% on T1-weighted images, and increased 14.5% on TSE-T2-weighted images.
  • The CNR for liver and hemangioma increased 50% on STIR images (P < 0.0001), increased 46% on T1-weighted imaging (P = 0.0033), and increased 22% on TSE-T2-weighted MR imaging (MRI) (P = 0.0083).
  • Qualitatively, signal change was visually apparent in the liver on T1 and STIR, but not on T2 images or in the hemangiomas on any sequence.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the statistically significant T1 and STIR increase in CNR, liver hemangiomas were most conspicuous on TSE-T2 images after Gd-EOB-DTPA.
  • This pilot study with hemangiomas highlights the newly recognized potential benefit of TSE-T2 imaging with hepatocellular contrast.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Gadolinium DTPA. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15778951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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92. Zviniene K, Zaboriene I, Basevicius A, Jurkiene N, Barauskas G, Pundzius J: Comparative diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. Medicina (Kaunas); 2010;46(5):329-35
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE .

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  • [Title] Comparative diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas.
  • AIM: To compare the value of intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US), intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas.
  • All patients underwent intravenous contrast-enhanced US, intravenous contrast-enhanced CT, and MRI and were diagnosed with hepatic hemangioma according to the findings of these examinations.
  • RESULTS: The size of hemangiomas was < or =2.0 cm in 20 cases (41.7%) and >2.0 cm in 28 (58.3%).
  • No association between hepatic hemangioma and patient's age was found (chi(2)=0.547, df=2, P=0.761).
  • Nearly one-third of hemangiomas were located in the segment IV of the left hepatic lobe.
  • There were a few complicated hemangiomas in the study sample: 2 with calcification and 1 with necrosis.
  • The sensitivity of CT in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma was 76.92%; specificity, 33.3%; positive prognostic value, 83.3%; and negative prognostic value, 25.0%.
  • The sensitivity of intravenous contrast-enhanced US in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma was 77.8%; specificity, 100%; positive prognostic value, 100%; and negative prognostic value, 23.1%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous contrast-enhanced US is more specific than intravenous contrast-enhanced CT in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma (P=0.0005) and has a higher positive prognostic value (P=0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Ultrasonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Contrast Media. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Phospholipids. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 20679748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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93. Buell JF, Tranchart H, Cannon R, Dagher I: Management of benign hepatic tumors. Surg Clin North Am; 2010 Aug;90(4):719-35
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  • [Title] Management of benign hepatic tumors.
  • Surgery should be limited to symptomatic benign tumors or those who have a risk for complication (hemorrhage, rupture, or degeneration).
  • When surgery is indicated, patients with benign disease are the best candidates for laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia. Hemangioma. Liver Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Hepatectomy / methods. Humans. Incidence. Laparoscopy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20637943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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94. Skalický T, Treska V, Sutnar A, Liska V, Molácek J, Mírka H, Ferda J, Ohlídalová K, Slauf F, Novák M: [Surgical treatment of benign liver tumours--indications and results]. Zentralbl Chir; 2009 Apr;134(2):141-4
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of benign liver tumours--indications and results].
  • The authors present their results on the treatment of benign liver tumors.
  • Benign liver lesions were rather rare compared to malignant tumours, for which 273 patients were treated within the same period.
  • The most often found benign -lesions were hepatocellular adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hemangioma.
  • Sometimes, it was not possible to make a correct diagnosis preoperatively.
  • The surgical procedures used for benign tumours were mostly enucleation and non-anatomic parenchyma-saving resection (55.4 %).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / surgery. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / surgery. Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cystadenoma / diagnosis. Cystadenoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / surgery. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Lymphangioma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19382044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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95. Ocama P, Katwere M, Piloya T, Feld J, Opio KC, Kambugu A, Katabira E, Thomas D, Colebunders R, Ronald A: The spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infected individuals at an HIV treatment clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Afr Health Sci; 2008 Mar;8(1):8-12
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  • [Title] The spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infected individuals at an HIV treatment clinic in Kampala, Uganda.
  • BACKGROUND: Liver diseases are common in patients with HIV due to viral hepatitis B and C co-infections, opportunistic infections or malignancies, antiretroviral drugs and drugs for opportunistic infections.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of liver diseases in HIV-infected patients attending an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda.
  • METHOD: Consecutive patients presenting with jaundice, right upper quadrant pain with fever or malaise, ascites and/or tender hepatomegaly were recruited and underwent investigations to evaluate the cause of their liver disease.
  • Although 14 (61%) patients with drug-induced liver disease presented with jaundice, all recovered with drug discontinuation.
  • Other diagnoses included alcoholic liver disease, AIDS cholangiopathy, hepatocellular carcinoma, schistosomiasis, haemangioma and hepatic adenoma.
  • Twelve (16%) patients died during follow-up of which 7 (9%) died because of liver disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Drug history, liver enzyme studies, ultrasound, and hepatitis B and C investigations identified the probable etiology in 60 (78%) of 77 patients with HIV infection presenting with symptoms and/or signs of liver disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects. Antitubercular Agents / adverse effects. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Isoniazid / adverse effects. Liver Diseases / epidemiology. Nevirapine / adverse effects. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Comorbidity. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Incidence. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Prevalence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tuberculosis / drug therapy. Tuberculosis / epidemiology. Uganda

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  • (PMID = 19357726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1729-0503
  • [Journal-full-title] African health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr Health Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Uganda
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 99DK7FVK1H / Nevirapine; V83O1VOZ8L / Isoniazid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408539
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96. Petrović N, Kostić K, Artiko V, Obradović V, Pavlović S, Sobić-Saranović D, Todorović-Tirnanić M, Davidović B, Bosnjaković V: [Liver hemangioma blood pool as a function of time]. Glas Srp Akad Nauka Med; 2005;(48):137-44
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  • [Title] [Liver hemangioma blood pool as a function of time].
  • Aim of the study was to determine the time needed for establishing maximal labelled red blood cell concentration in hemangioma by scintigraphic semiquantitative blood pool estimation as a function of time.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven patients (eight females and three males) with total number of fourteen liver hemangiomas have been examined.
  • Nine of them had solitary lesions and remaininig two patients had two and three liver hemangiomas, respectively.
  • After correction for radioactive decay of 99mTc and back-ground correction blood pool indexes, as hemangioma/heart and liver/heart counting rate ratios, have been calculated.
  • RESULTS: Mean blood pool indexes obtained 40-180 minutes after in vivo red blood cell labelling did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) neither in hemangioma (0.84-0.86) nor in liver tissue (0.55-0.58).
  • In every acquisition time hemangioma blood pool index was substantialy higher than that of liver tissue (p < 0.01).
  • The concentration difference between hemangioma and liver tissue also does not differ significantly after 40th minute of blood pool examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrocytes. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium

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  • (PMID = 16405236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0371-4039
  • [Journal-full-title] Glas. Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti. Odeljenje medicinskih nauka
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glas Srp Akad Nauka Med
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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97. Nouira K, Allani R, Bougamra I, Bouzaidi K, Azaiez O, Mizouni H, Messaoud MB, Menif E: Atypical small hemangiomas of the liver: hypervascular hemangiomas. Int J Biomed Sci; 2007 Dec;3(4):302-4

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  • [Title] Atypical small hemangiomas of the liver: hypervascular hemangiomas.
  • Hyperdynamic hemangiomas (HH) are atypical hepatic hemangiomas with an incidence of approximately 16% of all hemangiomas in the liver.

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  • (PMID = 23675058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614658
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT scan / MRI / hypervascular hemangioma
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98. Loss M, Zülke C, Obed A, Stöltzing O, Schlitt HJ: [Surgical therapy of benign liver tumors]. Chirurg; 2008 Aug;79(8):722-8
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  • [Title] [Surgical therapy of benign liver tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische Therapie der benignen Lebertumoren.
  • Benign liver tumors are being detected more frequently due to the widespread use of ultrasound and complementary methods and due to improvements in diagnostic accuracy.
  • In the case of a reliable diagnosis of asymptomatic hemangioma or focal nodular hyperplasia surgery is not indicated.
  • Hepatic adenoma of considerable size should be resected primarily based on the risk of rupture.
  • In the case of an equivocal diagnosis, we advocate low-risk tumor resection instead of tumor biopsy due to the inherent complication rates of hemorrhage or tumor-cell dissemination and possible misleading histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Hepatectomy. Humans. Laparoscopy. Liver / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18563376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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99. Stephenson JA, Norwood M, Al-Leswas D, Al-Taan O, Beable R, Lloyd DM, Dennison AR: Hepatic haemangioma masquerading as the gallbladder in a case of gallbladder agenesis: a case report and literature review. HPB Surg; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Hepatic haemangioma masquerading as the gallbladder in a case of gallbladder agenesis: a case report and literature review.
  • In contrast, liver haemangiomas are the most common type of benign liver lesions.
  • Subsequent operative findings revealed a solitary haemangioma of the liver sited in the normal position of the gallbladder fossa but with absence of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder / abnormalities. Gallbladder Diseases / congenital. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Unnecessary Procedures. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20706539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8462
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB surgery : a world journal of hepatic, pancreatic and biliary surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913526
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100. Ibrahim S, Chen CL, Wang SH, Lin CC, Yang CH, Yong CC, Jawan B, Cheng YF: Liver resection for benign liver tumors: indications and outcome. Am J Surg; 2007 Jan;193(1):5-9
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  • [Title] Liver resection for benign liver tumors: indications and outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: The indications for intervention in cases of benign liver tumors include symptoms, suspicion of malignancy, or risk of malignant change.
  • METHODS: Eighty-four liver resections for benign tumors were performed in our hospital from June 1996 to December 2004.
  • RESULTS: The study group (41 females, 43 males; average age, 41.4 +/- 10.5 y) included 46 cavernous hemangiomas, 27 focal nodular hyperplasias, 5 hepatic adenomas, and 6 liver cysts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Liver resection for benign liver tumor is safe, but indications for intervention must be evaluated carefully.
  • The presence of chronic parenchymal liver disease does not increase morbidity in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy / adverse effects. Hepatitis B / etiology. Liver Diseases / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Chronic Disease. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery. Female. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Humans. Hyperplasia. Liver / pathology. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17188079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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