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1. Coenegrachts K, Orlent H, ter Beek L, Haspeslagh M, Bipat S, Stoker J, Rigauts H: Improved focal liver lesion detection: comparison of single-shot spin-echo echo-planar and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Jan;27(1):117-24
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  • [Title] Improved focal liver lesion detection: comparison of single-shot spin-echo echo-planar and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MRI.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively compare single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SSSE-EPI) using b = 0, 10, 150, and 400 seconds/mm(2) with standard MRI techniques after intravenous super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions with focus on small (<10 mm) focal liver lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25 patients suspected for colorectal liver metastases were included.
  • RESULTS: Reference standard demonstrated 25 hemangiomas and 70 metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: This preliminary study shows the potential of SSSE-EPI as a stand-alone sequence for the detection of liver hemangiomas and metastases when compared with SPIO-enhanced imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Iron / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Oxides / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18050350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Magnetite Nanoparticles; 0 / Oxides; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; G6N3J05W84 / ferumoxides; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
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2. Laverdiere M, Aggarawal R, Blei F: Hemangiomatosis in two sets of premature twins. Am J Perinatol; 2008 May;25(5):295-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We attempted to identify the association of multifocal hemangiomas, specifically hepatic hemangiomatosis, in twins.
  • We retrospectively reviewed our database of infants with hemangiomas, identifying those twins who both had hemangiomas, and we report two cases of twins with hemangiomatosis, including hepatic hemangiomas.
  • Of 39 sets of twins in our Hemangioma Program, both twins had hemangiomas in seven twin sets.
  • There were also five sets of triplets, with one set having two siblings affected by hemangiomas.
  • We concluded that although hemangiomas in multiple gestation infants is well known, hemangiomatosis including hepatic hemangiomatosis is unusual.
  • [MeSH-major] Diseases in Twins. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Infant, Premature, Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


3. Alomari AI: Comments on imaging and management of hepatic hemangiomas. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Jun;39(6):637-8
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  • [Title] Comments on imaging and management of hepatic hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Pediatr Radiol. 2009 Mar;39(3):277-81 [19083217.001]
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  • (PMID = 19387632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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4. Oto A, Kulkarni K, Nishikawa R, Baron RL: Contrast enhancement of hepatic hemangiomas on multiphase MDCT: Can we diagnose hepatic hemangiomas by comparing enhancement with blood pool? AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Aug;195(2):381-6
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  • [Title] Contrast enhancement of hepatic hemangiomas on multiphase MDCT: Can we diagnose hepatic hemangiomas by comparing enhancement with blood pool?
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to determine whether enhancement of nodular foci within hemangiomas is homogeneous and matches blood vessels at different phases on contrast-enhanced MDCT.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiphase (unenhanced, arterial, portal venous, and delayed phases) MDCT images of 58 hemangiomas were reviewed by two radiologists.
  • Nodular-enhancing foci within hemangiomas were evaluated for enhancement pattern and were subjectively compared with enhancement of the aorta, inferior vena cava, hepatic vein, and portal vein for each contrast-enhanced phase.
  • RESULTS: Qualitative analysis showed heterogeneously enhancing nodules in 79.3% and 65.5% of hemangiomas in the arterial phase and in 74.1% and 53.4% of hemangiomas in the portal venous phase, according to readers 1 and 2, respectively.
  • In the portal venous phase, 15.4% and 21.7%, 16.8% and 18.2%, 14.1% and 23.8%, and 19.5% and 25.9% of nodules were scored with enhancement similar to that in the aorta, inferior vena cava, hepatic vein, and portal vein by readers 1 and 2, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Attenuation of enhancing foci within hemangiomas does not match vessel density qualitatively or quantitatively.
  • Although persistent enhancement without washout is a useful CT criterion, specific criteria to match the blood pool cannot be used to confirm a diagnosis of hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20651193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Shimada K, Nakamoto Y, Isoda H, Saito H, Arizono S, Shibata T, Togashi K: FDG PET for giant cavernous hemangioma: important clue to differentiate from a malignant vascular tumor in the liver. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Dec;35(12):924-6
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  • [Title] FDG PET for giant cavernous hemangioma: important clue to differentiate from a malignant vascular tumor in the liver.
  • Giant cavernous hemangioma of the liver sometimes has a very inhomogeneous appearance with intratumoral degeneration on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and may mimic a malignant hepatic tumor, including angiosarcoma.
  • There are many reports about F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of angiosarcoma; however, knowledge regarding positron emission tomography findings with FDG for giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma is still limited.
  • We herein present 2 cases of giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma in which low FDG uptake was considered helpful to differentiate from malignant hepatic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Hemangioma, Cavernous / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21206221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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6. Gallix B, Aufort S: [Incidentalomas]. J Radiol; 2007 Jul-Aug;88(7-8 Pt 2):1048-60
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  • A liver incidentaloma corresponds to a liver lesion detected during work-up of for unrelated pathology.
  • The frequency of incidentalomas is directly related to the incidence of liver tumors in the general population.
  • After detection of an incidental liver lesion, the goal is to assess if diagnosis can be made based on imaging features alone or if biopsy is required.
  • As such, radiologists must be familiar with the imaging features of different types of liver lesions, irrespective of the imaging modality.
  • Cystic lesions are usually benign.
  • Incidental solid liver lesions are typically benign, but detection of a malignant lesion, hepatocellular carcinoma and metastases, is possible.
  • The most frequent benign incidental solid liver lesions are hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia and liver cell adenoma.
  • Accurate imaging diagnosis may not always be achievable, and biopsy, percutaneous or surgical, may be required.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Incidental Findings. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnosis. Algorithms. Biopsy. Contrast Media. Cysts / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 17762834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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7. Jain V, Ramachandran V, Garg R, Pal S, Gamanagatti SR, Srivastava DN: Spontaneous rupture of a giant hepatic hemangioma - sequential management with transcatheter arterial embolization and resection. Saudi J Gastroenterol; 2010 Apr-Jun;16(2):116-9
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of a giant hepatic hemangioma - sequential management with transcatheter arterial embolization and resection.
  • Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of liver and is often asymptomatic.
  • Emergent hepatic resection has been the treatment of choice but has high operative mortality.
  • We report a case of spontaneous rupture of giant hepatic hemangioma that presented with abdominal pain and shock due to hemoperitoneum.
  • TAE is an effective procedure in symptomatic hemangiomas, and should be considered in such high risk patients prior to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy. Hemoperitoneum / therapy. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / diagnosis. Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Risk Assessment. Rupture, Spontaneous. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20339183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4049
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3016500
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8. Sylvestre VT, Dunton CJ: Treatment of recurrent endometrial stromal sarcoma with letrozole: a case report and literature review. Horm Cancer; 2010 Apr;1(2):112-5
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  • She had a computed tomography that showed a pelvic mass, an enlarged right internal iliac lymph node, an atypical liver hemangioma, and a severe left hydronephrosis.

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  • (PMID = 21761354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-8500
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 7LKK855W8I / letrozole
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9. Mzali R, Affess N, Gharbi A, Boujelbene S, Beyrouti MI: [Enucleation of an hepatic hemangioma: case report]. Tunis Med; 2008 Jan;86(1):89-91
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  • [Title] [Enucleation of an hepatic hemangioma: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Enucléation d'un angiome du foie: a propos d'un cas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19472713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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10. Ontachi Y, Asakura H, Omote M, Yoshida T, Matsui O, Nakao S: Kasabach-Merritt syndrome associated with giant liver hemangioma: the effect of combined therapy with danaparoid sodium and tranexamic acid. Haematologica; 2005 Nov;90 Suppl:ECR29
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  • [Title] Kasabach-Merritt syndrome associated with giant liver hemangioma: the effect of combined therapy with danaparoid sodium and tranexamic acid.
  • A 39-year-old woman with an enlarging giant liver hemangioma was diagnosed as having KMS with DIC.
  • Rapid improvement of the bleeding tendency and coagulopathy occurred in response to this treatment - that is, DIC was controlled without removing the giant hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Chondroitin Sulfates / therapeutic use. Dermatan Sulfate / therapeutic use. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Hemangioma / complications. Hemorrhagic Disorders / etiology. Heparitin Sulfate / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Tranexamic Acid / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Proteins / analysis. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Hepatic Artery / surgery. Humans. Ligation. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16266920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifibrinolytic Agents; 0 / Blood Proteins; 24967-94-0 / Dermatan Sulfate; 6T84R30KC1 / Tranexamic Acid; 83513-48-8 / danaproid; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates; 9050-30-0 / Heparitin Sulfate
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11. Au WY, Liu CL: Growth of giant hepatic hemangioma after triplet pregnancy. J Hepatol; 2005 May;42(5):781
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  • [Title] Growth of giant hepatic hemangioma after triplet pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / etiology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver / blood supply. Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular / pathology. Triplets

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  • (PMID = 15826730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Yu F, Wang K, Yan ZL, Zhang XF, Li J, Dong H, Cong WM, Shi LH, Shen F, Wu MC: [Clinical study of 169 patients with hepatic angiomyolipoma]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Nov 1;48(21):1621-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical study of 169 patients with hepatic angiomyolipoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To review and investigate the optimal preoperative diagnostic means and treatment principles of hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML).
  • The overall preoperative diagnostic rate was 13.6% and 119 patients (70.4%) were misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatic cavernous hemangioma.
  • Postoperative pathology confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic angiomyolipoma.
  • Follow-up study showed a benign course and no signs of recurrence.
  • (4) the tumor located at 1, 4, 5, 8 segments of liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21211255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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13. Forner A, Vilana R, Ayuso C, Bianchi L, Solé M, Ayuso JR, Boix L, Sala M, Varela M, Llovet JM, Brú C, Bruix J: Diagnosis of hepatic nodules 20 mm or smaller in cirrhosis: Prospective validation of the noninvasive diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology; 2008 Jan;47(1):97-104
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of hepatic nodules 20 mm or smaller in cirrhosis: Prospective validation of the noninvasive diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • This study prospectively evaluates the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of nodules 20 mm or smaller detected during ultrasound (US) surveillance.
  • Hepatic MRI, CEUS, and fine-needle biopsy (gold standard) (FNB) were performed at baseline.
  • Final diagnoses were: HCC (n = 60), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1), and benign lesions (regenerative/dysplastic nodule, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia) (n = 28).
  • Sex, cirrhosis cause, liver function, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were similar between HCC and non-HCC groups.
  • Thus, diagnosis of HCC 20 mm or smaller can be established without a positive biopsy if both CEUS and MRI are conclusive.
  • These results validate the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD) guidelines.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Liver / pathology. Liver Cirrhosis / complications. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • [CommentIn] Hepatology. 2008 Jun;47(6):2145-6; author reply 2146-7 [18508292.001]
  • [CommentIn] Hepatology. 2008 Jun;47(6):2145; author reply 2146-7 [18508306.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Hepatology. 2008 Feb;47(2):769
  • (PMID = 18069697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 1R01DK076986-0
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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14. Chang X, Han J, Pang L, Zhao Y, Yang Y, Shen Z: Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:40
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  • However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver.
  • ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with various malignant tumors compared to those in patients with chronic inflammation and benign tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19183436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithrombins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 29VT07BGDA / Citrulline; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; EC 3.5.3.15 / peptidylarginine deiminase type IV
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2637889
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15. Kim EH, Park SY, Ihn YK, Hwang SS: Diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis without extrahepatic involvement in an adult patient. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Nov-Dec;9(6):559-62
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  • [Title] Diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis without extrahepatic involvement in an adult patient.
  • We report an extremely rare case of a diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis without extrahepatic involvement in an adult.
  • The imaging findings of this tumor were similar to those of a hepatic hemangioma and included contrast enhancement with a centripetal filling pattern of the entire hepatic tumor on the delayed phase of a dynamic CT and inhomogeneous diffuse uptake of the entire tumor on blood-pool images obtained five hours later on a 99mTc-labeled red blood cell scan.
  • Despite its rarity, diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis can be suggested in adult patients with diffusely involved hepatic tumors showing the radiological findings of a hepatic hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19039274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627242
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16. Bruegel M, Holzapfel K, Gaa J, Woertler K, Waldt S, Kiefer B, Stemmer A, Ganter C, Rummeny EJ: Characterization of focal liver lesions by ADC measurements using a respiratory triggered diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar MR imaging technique. Eur Radiol; 2008 Mar;18(3):477-85
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  • [Title] Characterization of focal liver lesions by ADC measurements using a respiratory triggered diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar MR imaging technique.
  • The aim of this study was to determine apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of focal liver lesions on the basis of a respiratory triggered diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar MR imaging sequence (DW-SS-EPI) and to evaluate whether ADC measurements can be used to characterize lesions.
  • One hundred and two patients with focal liver lesions [11 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 82 metastases, 4 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH), 56 hemangiomas and 51 cysts; mean size, 16.6 mm; range 5-92 mm] were examined on a 1.5-T system using respiratory triggered DW-SS-EPI (b-values: 50, 300, 600 s/mm2).
  • Mean ADCs (x10(-3)mm2/s) were 1.24 and 1.04 for normal and cirrhotic liver parenchyma and 1.05, 1.22, 1.40, 1.92 and 3.02 for HCCs, metastases, FNHs, hemangiomas and cysts, respectively.
  • Overall, 88% of lesions were correctly classified as benign or malignant using a threshold value of 1.63 x 10(-3)mm2/s.
  • Measurements of the ADCs of focal liver lesions on the basis of a respiratory triggered DW-SS-EPI sequence may constitute a useful supplementary method for lesion characterization.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Diffusion. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Respiration

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  • (PMID = 17960390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Kim GE, Thung SN, Tsui WM, Ferrell LD: Hepatic cavernous hemangioma: underrecognized associated histologic features. Liver Int; 2006 Apr;26(3):334-8
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  • [Title] Hepatic cavernous hemangioma: underrecognized associated histologic features.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cavernous hemangiomas (CH) are typically described as solitary, well-circumscribed lesions and are reported to have a distinct fibrous interface.
  • This study describes underrecognized histological changes of large hepatic hemangiomas that contradict this long-standing view.
  • METHODS: Nineteen cases of hepatic resections for CH were reviewed.
  • Stains for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR), MIB-1, alpha-smooth muscle actin, collagen IV, and elastic Van Gieson stains were applied to the lesions.
  • Sixteen (84%) CHs had an irregular interface with the liver parenchyma while only three had the well-defined fibrous capsule typically described for CH.
  • Fifteen (79%) CHs had dilated vascular spaces filled with blood 0.1-2.0 cm beyond the confines of the main CH, which we have designated hemangioma-like vessels (HLVs).
  • CONCLUSION: Irregular edges of CH and HLVs in the liver parenchyma adjacent to CH have been underrecognized.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16584396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-3223
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Banton KL, D'Cunha J, Laudi N, Flynn C, Hammerschmidt D, Humar A, Sielaff T: Postoperative severe microangiopathic hemolytic anemia associated with a giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma. J Gastrointest Surg; 2005 May-Jun;9(5):679-85
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  • [Title] Postoperative severe microangiopathic hemolytic anemia associated with a giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma.
  • Complications related to liver hemangioma are rare.
  • We herein describe the case of a patient with three giant cavernous hemangiomas of the liver, of which two were resected for symptoms.
  • Surgeons should be aware of the potential for hemolytic complications after major surgery when giant hepatic hemangiomas are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Hemolytic / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15862263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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19. Nigri G, Bellagamba R, Giaccaglia V, Felicioni F, Aurello P, D'Angelo F, Del Gaudio M, Ramacciato G: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy for incidentally discovered cavernous hemangioma. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol; 2008;17(4):255-8
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive adrenalectomy for incidentally discovered cavernous hemangioma.
  • Cavernous hemangiomas are rare, benign, non-functioning neoplastic lesions that often involve liver and skin.
  • Hemangiomas of the adrenal gland are very uncommon, and usually found accidentally in otherwise asymptomatic patients.
  • This paper reports the only case of a large cavernous hemangioma removed with transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy and reviews the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18686171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2931
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. Kadri Aribas B, Dingil G, Ungul U, Sahin G, Nil Unlu D, Dogan K, Simsek Z, Kaya G, Yilmaz K, Yucel E, Demir P: Accuracy and safety of percutaneous US-guided needle biopsies in liver metastasis and hemangiomas. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol; 2010 Dec;56(4):377-82
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  • [Title] Accuracy and safety of percutaneous US-guided needle biopsies in liver metastasis and hemangiomas.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to compare small size aspiration and large size cutting needles on the diagnostic yield in the biopsies of liver and especially to investigate the reliability on percutaneous biopsy of liver hemangiomas.
  • METHODS: Nine hundred fifty patients with percutaneous ultrasonography-guided liver biopsies were evaluated retrospectively.
  • Further evaluation was performed in 312 patients with metastasis and 48 patients with hemangiomas.
  • RESULTS: Diagnostic yield was higher in the large size cutting needle group (96.8%, 150/155) than in the small size aspiration needle group (84.1%, 132/157) in liver metastasis (P<0.001).
  • Accuracy rate was 77.9% (208/267) in benign and 89.5% (514/574) in malignant diseases.
  • CONCLUSION: The authors suggest the use of large size cutting needles, because they provide more accurate diagnosis, and should be used in liver metastasis instead of small aspiration needles, if there is no on-site pathologist at aspiration biopsies or a more specific diagnosis is required.
  • All the needles, including the large cutting type, were found safe in the biopsies of liver hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 21139536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-421X
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Corsale I, Buccianelli E, Rigutini M, Mori P, Bartolomei M, Aloise F, Sorce S, Veltroni A: [Liver haemangioma: current surgical indications. Our experience]. G Chir; 2005 Apr;26(4):153-6
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  • [Title] [Liver haemangioma: current surgical indications. Our experience].
  • Hemangiomas are the more frequent benign liver tumours.
  • Therapeutic approach at these neoplasms is changed in the last years because has resulted that massive haemoperitoneum from a spontaneous rupture of the hemangiomas is a rare occurrence.
  • From a personal review of 124 liver resection performed for traumatic and organic, benign and malignant, pathologies, the Authors present two cases of symptomatic liver haemangioma surgically treated Excluding emergency induced by tumour hemorrhage, actually indications to surgical treatment are controversial.
  • In all patients the right approach is choice by the integrated evaluation of general conditions of the patient, liver functionality and from anatomical location of the neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy / standards. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16035251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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22. Du X, Bao G, He X, Zhao H, Yu F, Qiao Q, Lu J, Ma Q: Expression and biological significance of c-FLIP in human hepatocellular carcinomas. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2009;28:24
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  • RESULTS: Positive immunostaining was detected for c-FLIP in 83.72% (72/86) human HCC tissues, 14.81% (4/27) hepatic cirrhosis, 11.11% (2/18) hepatic hemangioma tissues, and absent in normal hepatic tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19232089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein; 0 / CFLAR protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2654864
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23. Fernández-Pineda I, Bernabeu-Wittel J: [Hepatic hemangiomas]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Jun-Jul;33(6):473-4; author reply 474-5
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  • [Title] [Hepatic hemangiomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Hemangiomas hepáticos.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / classification. Hepatic Veins / abnormalities. Liver Neoplasms / classification. Terminology as Topic. Vascular Malformations / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age of Onset. Child. Embolization, Therapeutic. Female. Hemangioma, Capillary / classification. Hemangioma, Capillary / therapy. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Portacaval Shunt, Surgical. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentOn] Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 May;33(5):391-7 [20096966.001]
  • (PMID = 20537429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents
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24. Wang QS, Liu L, Dong L, Shen ZL, Zhou DH, Hu CX: Laparoscopic Heller-Dor operation for patients with achalasia. Chin Med J (Engl); 2006 Mar 20;119(6):443-7; discussion 447-8
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  • All the patients received upper gastrointestinal series (barium swallow), esophagogastroscopy, esophageal manometry to exclude esophageal carcinoma and to confirm the diagnosis, and 21 patients also had 24-hour ambulatory pH studies.
  • In addition, 2 of them had combined laparoscopic cholecystectomy + excision of hepatic hemangioma and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16584640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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25. Zakavi R: How should we image liver hemangioma? Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 Sep-Dec;9(3):187
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  • [Title] How should we image liver hemangioma?
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrocytes / radionuclide imaging. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • [CommentOn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2006 May-Aug;9(2):109-10 [16894416.001]
  • (PMID = 17160164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid; 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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26. Kaliciński P, Ismail H, Broniszczak D, Teisserye J, Bacewicz L, Markiewicz-Kijewska M, Szymczak M, Nachulewicz P, Dembowska-Bagińska B, Kluge P, Kościesza A, Kowalski A, Stefanowicz M, Kasprzyk W, Krawczyk M: Non-resectable hepatic tumors in children - role of liver transplantation. Ann Transplant; 2008;13(2):37-41
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  • [Title] Non-resectable hepatic tumors in children - role of liver transplantation.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a group of children with primary hepatic tumors which can not be resected by conventional partial liver resection.
  • Total hepatectomy followed by liver transplantation may be the only solution in such cases.
  • Authors reviewed own experience with the liver transplantation for unresectable tumors in children and assessed the possible indications and role of transplantation in these patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Liver transplantation was performed in 17 children with unresectable hepatic tumors out of total number of 350 children transplanted.
  • Hepatocarcinoma was present in 8 children, hepatoblastoma in 6 and benign giant hemangioma in 3.
  • All patients with giant hemangiomas were infants transplanted urgently due to circulatory and then multiorgan failure.
  • All 3 children with benign tumors are alive and well.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Liver transplantation should be considered as option in the treatment of all children with unresectable hepatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy. Hepatoblastoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation


27. Brody JM, Schafer L, Tung GA, Breuer J, Shamsi K: Conspicuity of liver hemangiomas: short tau inversion recovery, T1, and T2 imaging with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Apr;21(4):391-7
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  • [Title] Conspicuity of liver hemangiomas: short tau inversion recovery, T1, and T2 imaging with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid.
  • PURPOSE: To compare conspicuity of liver hemangiomas on STIR, T1-weighted, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images before and after administration of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) (hepatocellular contrast agent), using contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen hemangiomas were imaged using breath-hold gradient echo (GRE) T1, fat-saturated turbo spin echo (TSE)-T2, and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences.
  • Background noise and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for liver and hemangioma, along with CNR for normal liver and hemangioma, were measured on each sequence before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA.
  • Hemangioma conspicuity was also evaluated qualitatively.
  • RESULTS: After Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, the quantitative liver SNR decreased 54% on STIR, increased 45% on T1-weighted images, and increased 14.5% on TSE-T2-weighted images.
  • The CNR for liver and hemangioma increased 50% on STIR images (P < 0.0001), increased 46% on T1-weighted imaging (P = 0.0033), and increased 22% on TSE-T2-weighted MR imaging (MRI) (P = 0.0083).
  • Qualitatively, signal change was visually apparent in the liver on T1 and STIR, but not on T2 images or in the hemangiomas on any sequence.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the statistically significant T1 and STIR increase in CNR, liver hemangiomas were most conspicuous on TSE-T2 images after Gd-EOB-DTPA.
  • This pilot study with hemangiomas highlights the newly recognized potential benefit of TSE-T2 imaging with hepatocellular contrast.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Gadolinium DTPA. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15778951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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28. Willenbrock K, Kriener S, Oeschger S, Hansmann ML: Nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver with simultaneous focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma: discrimination from primary hepatic MALT-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Virchows Arch; 2006 Feb;448(2):223-7
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  • [Title] Nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver with simultaneous focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma: discrimination from primary hepatic MALT-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Nodular lymphoid lesion (NLL) of the liver is a rare but unique entity and has also been termed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver.
  • We describe the histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biologic findings of a case with NLL and two other tumors of the liver.
  • The nodular lymphoid mass found in the liver was composed of heterogeneous small lymphocytes forming reactive follicles.
  • The lymphoid infiltrate displaced the adjacent hepatic parenchyma.
  • The diagnosis of NLL was made.
  • In addition to NLL, focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma were detected.
  • The discrimination of NLL from primary hepatic malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type may pose diagnostic difficulties and may require the use of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques.
  • The simultaneous occurrence of NLL with focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma in the liver has not been described before.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD20 / analysis. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. B-Lymphocytes / chemistry. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Clone Cells / chemistry. Clone Cells / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphocytes / chemistry. Lymphocytes / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / metabolism. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. T-Lymphocytes / chemistry. T-Lymphocytes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16331470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. Tian QH, Yun JP, Miao J, Chen G, Fu J, Zhang CQ, Su SG, Zhang MF, Wu QL: [High expression of nucleophosmin/B23 in hepatocellular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;35(7):407-11
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  • Immunohistochemical study for B23 was performed on 103 cases of HCC, 12 cases of focal nodular hyperplasia and 17 cases of native liver tissue adjacent to hepatic hemangioma.
  • Fresh specimens from 10 cases of HCC and the adjacent liver tissue were also collected for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis.
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that B23 expression in HCC was higher than that in adjacent liver tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: B23 expression in HCC was significantly higher than that in liver tissues with non-malignant diseases.
  • B23 may be used as a marker for neoplastic changes in liver cells and thus has potential clinicopathologic application.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / genetics. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / metabolism. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17069676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 117896-08-9 / nucleophosmin
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30. Trillaud H, Bruel JM, Valette PJ, Vilgrain V, Schmutz G, Oyen R, Jakubowski W, Danes J, Valek V, Greis C: Characterization of focal liver lesions with SonoVue-enhanced sonography: international multicenter-study in comparison to CT and MRI. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Aug 14;15(30):3748-56
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  • [Title] Characterization of focal liver lesions with SonoVue-enhanced sonography: international multicenter-study in comparison to CT and MRI.
  • AIM: To evaluate in a multicenter study whether the sonographic characterization of focal liver lesions can be improved using SonoVue-enhancement; and to compare this method with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • METHODS: One hundred and thirty four patients with one focal liver lesion detected in baseline ultrasound (US) were examined with conventional US, contrast-enhanced US (n = 134), contrast-enhanced CT (n = 115) and/or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (n = 70).
  • The lesions were classified as malignant, benign or indeterminate and the type of lesion was determined.
  • The final diagnosis based on the combined information of all imaging examinations, clinical information and histology (n = 32) was used.
  • Comparisons were made to see whether the addition of contrast-enhanced US led to the improvement of the characterization of doubtful focal liver lesions.
  • RESULTS: In comparison with unenhanced US, SonoVue markedly improves sensitivity and specificity for the characterization (malignant/benign) of focal liver lesions.
  • In comparison with CT and/or dynamic MRI, SonoVue-enhanced sonography applied for characterization of focal liver lesions was 30.2% more sensitive in the recognition of malignancy and 16.1% more specific in the exclusion of malignancy and overall 22.9% more accurate.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of CEUS for the identification of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hemangiomas was 100% and 87%, resulting in an accuracy of 94.5%.
  • CONCLUSION: SonoVue-enhanced sonography emerges as the most sensitive, most specific and thus most accurate imaging modality for the characterization of focal liver lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia. Hemangioma. Liver. Liver Neoplasms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography


31. van Gorcum M, van Buuren HR, Hussain SM, Zondervan PE, IJzermans JN, de Man RA: [Fever as a sign of inflammatory syndrome in a female patient with hepatic haemangioma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 May 28;149(22):1227-30
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  • [Title] [Fever as a sign of inflammatory syndrome in a female patient with hepatic haemangioma].
  • [Transliterated title] Koorts als uiting van inflammatoir syndroom bij een patiënte met een leverhemangioom.
  • Diagnostic imaging revealed a hepatic haemangioma with a diameter of 20 cm.
  • Because such giant haemangiomas of the liver can lead to inflammatory syndrome, the tumour was surgically removed.
  • Pathological analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and evidence of extensive thrombosis and other vascular defects was found.
  • In patients with a giant haemangioma in the liver who present with an inflammatory syndrome, the haemangioma should be considered as the causal factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fever / etiology. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Weight Loss

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  • (PMID = 15952499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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32. Skalicky T, Treska V, Liska V, Sutnar A, Molacek J, Mirka H, Ferda J, Ohlidalova K: The rare benign liver tumors. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2007;108(4-5):229-32
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  • [Title] The rare benign liver tumors.
  • As opposed to malignant secondary tumors, metastases of the colorectal carcinoma are benign tumors of the liver that are quite rare in the Czech Republic.
  • From the 55 patients operated on since 2000 at our department for benign liver tumors, the most frequent are haemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocelular adenoma.
  • The authors describe three cases of rather rare liver tumors with benign behavior that have the potential of becoming malignant.
  • It concerns mucin producing biliary tumors, which correspond to the pancreatic intraductal papillary mucin tumor, hepatic cystadenoma with ovarian stroma and a liver hamartoma in an adult patient (Ref 13).
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / surgery. Cystadenoma / diagnosis. Cystadenoma / surgery. Female. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Ducts. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17694811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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33. Trojan J, Hammerstingl R, Engels K, Schneider AR, Zeuzem S, Dietrich CF: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of malignant mesenchymal liver tumors. J Clin Ultrasound; 2010 Jun;38(5):227-31
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of malignant mesenchymal liver tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can differentiate malignant from benign hepatic tumors, but has not been studied in malignant mesenchymal liver tumors.
  • METHODS: We describe the findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in a cohort of five patients with histological-proven malignant hepatic mesenchymal tumors.
  • RESULTS: The presence of imaging features such as peripheral (nodular) enhancement, chaotic central vascularization, and absence of contrast enhancement in the late phase allowed differentiation from hemangiomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: If these findings are demonstrated in large hepatic tumors, then the diagnosis of hemangioma is unlikely and further workup is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Hemangiosarcoma / ultrasonography. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement / methods. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Phospholipids. Sulfur Hexafluoride
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Liver / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • (PMID = 20336772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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34. Terkivatan T, Hussain SM, De Man RA, Ijzermans JN: Diagnosis and treatment of benign focal liver lesions. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl; 2006;(243):102-15
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of benign focal liver lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: With the routine use of improved imaging modalities, more benign liver lesions are detected nowadays.
  • METHODS: A Medline search of studies relevant to imaging diagnosis and management of the most common, benign, solid and non-solid liver lesions was undertaken.
  • The authors' own experiences with benign liver lesions were also taken into account.
  • RESULTS: Although atypical imaging features are the exception rather than the rule, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, and knowledge of their imaging features is essential if unnecessary work-up is to be avoided.
  • The use of tissue-specific contrast media, which has clearly improved the accuracy of highly advanced radiological techniques, may be helpful during differential diagnosis.
  • Once having established an accurate diagnosis, surgery is rarely indicated for a benign liver lesion because of its asymptomatic nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma, Liver Cell / therapy. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Echinococcosis, Hepatic / diagnosis. Echinococcosis, Hepatic / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / therapy. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy. Hepatectomy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16782629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-5928
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 144
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35. Herman P, Costa ML, Machado MA, Pugliese V, D'Albuquerque LA, Machado MC, Gama-Rodrigues JJ, Saad WA: Management of hepatic hemangiomas: a 14-year experience. J Gastrointest Surg; 2005 Jul-Aug;9(6):853-9
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  • [Title] Management of hepatic hemangiomas: a 14-year experience.
  • Hemangioma is the most common primary tumor of the liver and its diagnosis has become increasingly prevalent.
  • Large hemangiomas are often symptomatic and reports of surgical intervention are becoming increasingly frequent.
  • We present our experience, over the last 14 years, with diagnosis and management of 249 liver hemangiomas, with special attention to a conservative strategy.
  • Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcome are analyzed.
  • Diagnosis was based on a radiologic algorithm according to the size and characteristics of the tumor; diagnosis by this method was not possible in only one case (0.4 %).
  • Giant hemangiomas (>4 cm) were found in 68 patients (27.3%) and in 16 were larger than 10 cm.
  • Patients who did not undergo surgery (n = 241) did not present any complication related to the hemangioma during long-term follow-up (mean = 78 months).
  • Hemangioma is a benign course disease with easy diagnosis and management.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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36. Assy N, Nasser G, Djibre A, Beniashvili Z, Elias S, Zidan J: Characteristics of common solid liver lesions and recommendations for diagnostic workup. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 14;15(26):3217-27
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  • [Title] Characteristics of common solid liver lesions and recommendations for diagnostic workup.
  • Due to the widespread clinical use of imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), previously unsuspected liver masses are increasingly being found in asymptomatic patients.
  • This review discusses the various characteristics of the most common solid liver lesions and recommends a practical approach for diagnostic workup.
  • Likely diagnoses include hepatocellular carcinoma (the most likely; a solid liver lesion in a cirrhotic liver) and hemangioma (generally presenting as a mass in a non-cirrhotic liver).
  • Focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatic adenoma should be ruled out in young women.
  • If the patient is known to have a primary malignancy and the lesion was found at tumor staging or follow up, histology is required only when the nature of the liver lesion is doubtful.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Liver Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Incidental Findings. Liver Cirrhosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19598296.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 131
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2710776
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37. Di Valentino M, Menafoglio A, Mazzucchelli L, Siclari F, Gallino A: Rapid-growing left intraventricular cardiac hemangioma. J Am Soc Echocardiogr; 2006 Jul;19(7):939.e5-7
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  • [Title] Rapid-growing left intraventricular cardiac hemangioma.
  • A 62 years old man with Child B liver cirrhosis, prostate cancer and a recent colon carcinoma resection was referred to our cardiology department for trans-thoracic-echocardiography (TTE) in order to establish left ventricular function before starting chemotherapy.
  • Among different pathologies a rapid growing benign tumor with a high risk of systemic embolisation or an endocardial blood cyst were retained as possible diagnoses.
  • Histological examination revealed a mixed capillary/cavernous hemangioma.
  • This case shows the unusual concomitant appearance of a rapid growing cavernous hemangioma which rarely located at ventricular level and the feasibility of cardiac resection without further sequelae in a poly-morbid patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Heart Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Heart Ventricles / surgery. Heart Ventricles / ultrasonography. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Hemangioma, Cavernous / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16825010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6795
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Soc Echocardiogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Scialpi M, Piscioli I, Brunese L, Lupattelli L: Cavernous malformation or cavernous hemangioma: an appropriate term to define liver hemangioma. Eur Radiol; 2008 Dec;18(12):2854; author reply 2854
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  • [Title] Cavernous malformation or cavernous hemangioma: an appropriate term to define liver hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver / abnormalities. Liver / diagnostic imaging. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Radiography

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  • [CommentOn] Eur Radiol. 2007 Jun;17(6):1544-54 [17260159.001]
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  • (PMID = 18618123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Comment
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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39. Arkadopoulos N, Stafyla V, Karapanos K, Yiallourou AI, Koureas A, Kondi-Pafiti A, Smyrniotis V: Recurrent pulmonary embolism due to giant hepatic hamangioma treated with hepatectomy under vascular exclusion. Ann Vasc Surg; 2010 Aug;24(6):827.e1-3
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  • [Title] Recurrent pulmonary embolism due to giant hepatic hamangioma treated with hepatectomy under vascular exclusion.
  • Giant hepatic hemangiomas are benign tumors that measure more than 4 cm and are usually asymptomatic.
  • Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an extremely rare manifestation of giant hepatic hemangiomas.
  • We report a case of a 44-year-old woman who suffered of recurrent pulmonary emboli that, after thorough work up, were attributed to thrombi formation inside a giant hepatic hemangioma.
  • A right hepatectomy under vascular exclusion was performed and the hemangioma, measuring 17 cm, was resected.
  • The report highlights the value of investigating giant liver hemangiomas in case of PE.
  • In such cases, the hemangioma should be resected preferably under occlusion of the venous outflow of the liver to avoid PE intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy. Hepatic Veins / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Portal System / surgery. Pulmonary Embolism / prevention & control

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20471202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-5947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of vascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Vasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Aksenov IV, Fedorchenko AN: [Hepatic hemangioma: the choice of treatment]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2010;(6):40-2
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  • [Title] [Hepatic hemangioma: the choice of treatment].
  • 117 patients with hepatic hemangioma were treated.
  • The possibility and technical features of liver resections by hepatic hemangiomas are discussed.
  • Authors state the necessity of reduction of surgical treatment of hepatic hemangiomas and substantiate the need of dynamic observation of such lesions of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20559223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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41. Artiko MV, Sobić-Saranović PD, Perisić-Savić SM, Stojković VM, Radoman BI, Knezević SJ, Petrović SN, Obradović BV, Milović V: 99mTc-red blood cells SPECT and planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2008;55(4):23-6
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  • [Title] 99mTc-red blood cells SPECT and planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas.
  • The aim of the study is the assessment of the value of SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) using 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in the detection of liver hemangioma, in comparison to planar imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Erythrocytes. Female. Humans. Liver / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19245136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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42. Heiken JP: Distinguishing benign from malignant liver tumours. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7 Spec No A:S1-14
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  • [Title] Distinguishing benign from malignant liver tumours.
  • Liver masses are very common and most are benign.
  • It is therefore important to avoid unnecessary interventions for benign lesions, while at the same time ensuring accurate diagnosis of hepatic malignancies.
  • Many cancer patients, like the general population, have incidental benign liver lesions.
  • In planning treatment for cancer patients, it is critical to avoid inappropriate treatment decisions based on misdiagnosis of a benign lesion as a metastasis or primary liver malignancy.
  • This article describes the salient imaging features of the common benign liver masses and outlines a general approach to distinguishing between benign and malignant hepatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17921080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 132
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2727979
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43. Berloco P, Bruzzone P, Mennini G, Della Pietra F, Iappelli M, Novelli G, Rossi M: Giant hemangiomas of the liver: surgical strategies and technical aspects. HPB (Oxford); 2006;8(3):200-1
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  • [Title] Giant hemangiomas of the liver: surgical strategies and technical aspects.
  • The incidence of hemangiomas is 2-7% in the general population.
  • We evaluated more than 300 patients with hepatic hemangiomas.
  • Surgical removal of hepatic hemangiomas was performed in 48 cases due to uncertain diagnosis (2 cases), intractable symptoms (26 cases), size increase (18 cases), and liver failure in 2 cases that were treated by hepatic transplantation.
  • In all, 26 patients underwent enucleation of hemangiomas or segmentectomies, while the remaining 20 patients underwent right lobectomies or left lateral segmentectomies.
  • Blood transfusions were required in four cases (including two liver transplants); mean post-resection hospital stay was 6.3 days.
  • Our experience confirms that, after adequate patient selection, surgical treatment of hepatic hemangiomas is a very effective therapeutic choice with no mortality and low morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 18333276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2131674
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44. Chung JJ, Kim MJ, Kim KW: Mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MRI for the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions: is delayed imaging useful? J Magn Reson Imaging; 2006 May;23(5):706-11
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  • [Title] Mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MRI for the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions: is delayed imaging useful?
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the usefulness of early and delayed hepatic MRI after mangafodipir trisodium (Mn-DPDP) administration for the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients (31 males and 14 females, mean age = 61 years) with a total of 113 hepatic lesions (mean size = 3.5 cm) were included in this study (15 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, N = 35), 20 with hepatic metastasis (N = 63), five with hemangioma (N = 10), three with cholangiocarcinoma (CC, N = 3), and two with liver abscess (N = 2)).
  • A qualitative analysis (including the size and signal intensity (SI)) and quantitative analysis (including enhancement and lesion-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)) were performed on pre- and postcontrast early and delayed MR images.
  • All 63 metastases, 10 hemangiomas, three CCs, and two abscesses showed no SI change.
  • On delayed imaging, ring enhancement was noted in 53 metastases (84.1%), three hemangiomas (30.0%), and one abscess (50.0%), but was not seen in HCCs or CCs.
  • No newly detected hepatic lesions were revealed on postcontrast delayed MR images compared to postcontrast early images.
  • However, none of the metastases, hemangiomas, CCs, and abscesses showed a significant increase of CNR from postcontrast early to delayed images.
  • CONCLUSION: Postcontrast delayed MR images after Mn-DPDP administration were helpful in distinguishing hepatocellular from nonhepatocellular lesions, but were not useful for lesion detection and had limited utility for lesion characterization, since benign and malignant hepatic lesions looked the same.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Edetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pyridoxal Phosphate / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Liver Abscess / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Time Factors

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Disodium EDTA .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETHYLENEDIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DISODIUM CALCIUM EDTA .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16565954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 5V5IOJ8338 / Pyridoxal Phosphate; 9G34HU7RV0 / Edetic Acid; P28BIW0UTB / N,N'-bis(pyridoxal-5-phosphate)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid
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45. Gouedard C, Dupré-Goetghebeur D, Gagneur A, Sannier K, Misery L: [Neonatal haemangiomatosis in identical twins with twin-twin transfusion syndrome]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Nov;134(11):863-6
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  • INTRODUCTION: Benign natal haemangiomatosis is characterised by the presence of multiple congenital haemangiomas restricted to the skin.
  • Abdominal ultrasound and whole-body MRI performed in the two children revealed multiple angiomatous hepatic nodular lesions in I.
  • Subsequent routine clinical and ultrasound monitoring (hepatic and cardiac) showed increased size of the haemangiomatous lesions over the first 4 months followed by stabilisation and gradual regression.
  • In twin I an episode of ulceration of a neck haemangioma occurred at 5 months and a favourable outcome was obtained on administration of topical hydrocolloid therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Diseases in Twins / congenital. Fetofetal Transfusion / genetics. Hemangioma / congenital. Infant, Premature. Infant, Premature, Diseases / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Twins, Monozygotic
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Fetal Growth Retardation / etiology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Male. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Pregnancy


46. Kim KW, Kim AY, Kim TK, Kim SY, Kim MJ, Park MS, Park SH, Lee KH, Kim JK, Kim PN, Ha HK, Lee MG: Hepatic hemangiomas with arterioportal shunt: sonographic appearances with CT and MRI correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Oct;187(4):W406-14
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  • [Title] Hepatic hemangiomas with arterioportal shunt: sonographic appearances with CT and MRI correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to summarize and illustrate the sonographic appearance of hepatic hemangiomas with arterioportal shunt and to correlate them with CT and MRI findings.
  • CONCLUSION: High-flow hepatic hemangiomas tend to be seen as hypoechoic lesions at sonography.
  • In the presence of fatty infiltration in the liver, they may accompany peritumoral low-echoic areas presumably caused by peritumoral sparing of fatty infiltration similar to a hyperattenuating or hyperintense peritumoral rim on unenhanced CT or MR chemical shift imaging.
  • Knowledge of such sonographic findings may ensure an accurate sonographic diagnosis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatty Liver / complications. Fatty Liver / radiography. Fatty Liver / ultrasonography. Female. Hepatic Artery / radiography. Hepatic Artery / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Portal Vein / radiography. Portal Vein / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16985113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Blondet A, Ridereau-Zins C, Michalak S, Pessaux P, Aubertin A, Aubé C: [Multiple pedunculated liver hemangiomas presenting with volvulus]. J Radiol; 2007 Jun;88(6):891-4
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  • [Title] [Multiple pedunculated liver hemangiomas presenting with volvulus].
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / complications. Intestinal Volvulus / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17652983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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48. Seitz K, Strobel D, Bernatik T, Blank W, Friedrich-Rust M, Herbay Av, Dietrich CF, Strunk H, Kratzer W, Schuler A: Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions - prospective comparison in clinical practice: CEUS vs. CT (DEGUM multicenter trial). Parts of this manuscript were presented at the Ultrasound Dreiländertreffen 2008, Davos. Ultraschall Med; 2009 Aug;30(4):383-9
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  • [Title] Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions - prospective comparison in clinical practice: CEUS vs. CT (DEGUM multicenter trial). Parts of this manuscript were presented at the Ultrasound Dreiländertreffen 2008, Davos.
  • AIM: The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions in a prospective multi-center study in clinical practice.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1349 patients with unclear liver lesions after fundamental ultrasound diagnostics including color doppler analysis were examined with standardized CEUS (pulse inversion method, mechanical index < 0.4) from May 2004 to December 2006 in 14 hospitals in a prospective study.
  • The enhancement of contrast medium in the liver tumors was analyzed according to known tumor-specific vascular patterns, using standardized documentation and analysis methods for the differentiation of tumor differentiation (malign or benign) and tumor specification (entity).
  • Final diagnosis was based on histology, SCT or MRI in typical findings of liver hemangioma and FNH and on proved clinical data and additional follow up.
  • In 109 of these patients (subgroup A) there was no histological verification, diagnoses based on clear SCT-findings in 79 cases of hemangioma or FNH, as well as in 20 cases with a clear clinical diagnosis.
  • In 158 patients (subgroup B) a histological finding was also present, only in 4 cases no definitive tumor diagnosis was achieved.
  • The analysis of particular tumor specification showed a statistically non significant slight advantage in tumor differentiation for CEUS in the case of hemangioma, FNH, HCC and metastases.
  • CEUS should be employed before computed tomography is performed for the differentiation of liver tumors, because radiation exposure and invasive biopsies can be avoided in veritable numbers of cases, when precise clinical evaluation of the findings is implemented.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / blood supply. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / blood supply. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Child. Female. Humans. Liver / blood supply. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 19688670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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49. Bernini GP, Moretti A, Mannelli M, Ercolino T, Bardini M, Caramella D, Taurino C, Salvetti A: Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1032-7
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  • [Title] Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene.
  • In addition, CT and MR revealed a vertebral and two hepatic hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Ganglioneuroma / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Spinal Neoplasms / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16483185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.3.2.27 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein; EC 6.3.2.- / VHL protein, human
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50. Gönül M, Gul U, Gunduz H, Artantas S, Demiriz M: Disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma: two case reports. J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;32(12):996-9
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  • [Title] Disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma: two case reports.
  • Lobular capillary hemangioma, also known as pyogenic granuloma, is a common, solitary, benign neoplasm of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Lobular capillary hemangioma can present rarely in a disseminated form, usually associated with other disorders.
  • Two patients, aged 17 and 33, were admitted to the dermatology clinic with disseminated lobular capillary hemangiomas which appeared suddenly.
  • The histopathology of the lesions was consistent with lobular capillary hemangioma.
  • No associated disorders were found in physical and laboratory examinations other than mental retardation in one patient and a small hemangioma in the liver in the other.
  • We report two cases of disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma without an associated disorder.


51. Aseni P, Lauterio A, Slim AO, Giacomoni A, Lamperti L, De Carlis L: Life-saving super-urgent liver transplantation with replacement of retrohepatic vena cava by dacron graft. HPB Surg; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Life-saving super-urgent liver transplantation with replacement of retrohepatic vena cava by dacron graft.
  • We describe a modified technique of side-to-side cavo-cavostomy by Dacron interposition prosthesis during a super urgent liver transplantation.
  • A liver graft from a deceased donor was immediately requested on a top priority basis as a consequence of massive bleeding during extended left hepatectomy for a huge hepatic haemangioma arising from the caudate lobe.
  • A liver graft from a deceased donor was available 16 hours later.
  • Due to the shortness of the vena cava of the donor liver graft, the removal of the Dacron graft was impossible and a modified side-to-side cavo-cavostomy between the Dacron interposition graft and the vena cava of the donor liver was than performed.
  • Liver transplantation was uneventful and the patient is doing well 25 months after the surgical procedure.
  • Although the use of synthetic vascular prosthesis should usually be discouraged during organ transplantation, its exceptional use during liver transplantation is possible with long-term good results.

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  • (PMID = 20811479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8462
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB surgery : a world journal of hepatic, pancreatic and biliary surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2926580
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52. Ng WW, Cheung YS, Lee KF, Wong J, Yu SC, Lee PS, Lai PB: Is regular follow-up scan for giant liver haemangioma necessary? Hong Kong Med J; 2007 Oct;13(5):353-8
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  • [Title] Is regular follow-up scan for giant liver haemangioma necessary?
  • OBJECTIVES: To review the reliability of radiological diagnosis and need of regular scans for giant liver haemangioma, in terms of long-term outcome and management options.
  • PATIENTS: Patients with giant liver haemangioma noted on initial imaging from February 1996 to July 2006.
  • RESULTS: There were 42 female and 22 male patients with a median age of 49 (range, 27-84) years with a suspected haemangioma.
  • Besides regular follow-up scans, 22 patients were investigated further to confirm the diagnosis/exclude malignancy.
  • Finally, 63 patients had a haemangioma and one had a hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Most (54%) of the patients were asymptomatic, but in 17% the haemangioma enlarged to exceed its original size by more than 20%.
  • There were no haemangioma-associated complications.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Majority of patients having giant liver haemangioma are asymptomatic and do not suffer complications.
  • If the diagnosis is uncertain, selective further investigations may be necessary.
  • Lesions with a confirmed diagnosis tend to remain static in size; performing regular scans for asymptomatic giant liver haemangiomas may not be necessary.

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  • (PMID = 17914140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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53. Malagari K, Alexopoulou E, Dourakis S, Kelekis A, Hatzimichail K, Sissopoulos A, Delis S, Letsou D, Kelekis D: Transarterial embolization of giant liver hemangiomas associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome: a case report. Acta Radiol; 2007 Jul;48(6):608-12
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  • [Title] Transarterial embolization of giant liver hemangiomas associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome: a case report.
  • Of 22 patients with symptomatic giant liver hemangiomas referred for embolization, two females (52 and 74 years) had Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS).
  • Hepatic angiography revealed excessive vascular lakes typical of cavernous hemangiomas.
  • Coil packing of the feeding hepatic artery was additionally used in one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Coagulation Disorders / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Hemangioma / complications. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Fibrinogen. Follow-Up Studies. Hematocrit / methods. Hepatic Artery / radiography. Humans. Microspheres. Middle Aged. Platelet Count. Rare Diseases. Syndrome. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17611866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen
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54. Andronikou S, Soin S, Nafoos O, Platt K, Lakhoo K: Hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma mimicking hemangioma on multiple-phase gadolinium-enhanced MRI. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 May;28(5):322-4
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  • [Title] Hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma mimicking hemangioma on multiple-phase gadolinium-enhanced MRI.
  • Mesenchymal Hamartoma [MH] is a cystic benign liver mass occurring in children.
  • We demonstrate one such case with progressive centripetal enhancement of a liver mass with Gadolinium enhanced multiple phase gradient-echo MRI, in a child with raised alpha-feto protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Mesoderm / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Gadolinium. Humans. Infant. Male. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16772885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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55. Miliaras D, Conroy J, Pervana S, Meditskou S, McQuaid D, Nowak N: Karyotypic changes detected by comparative genomic hybridization in a stillborn infant with chorioangioma and liver hemangioma. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol; 2007 Mar;79(3):236-41
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  • [Title] Karyotypic changes detected by comparative genomic hybridization in a stillborn infant with chorioangioma and liver hemangioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Placental hemangioma (chorioangioma) and congenital hemangioma are relatively common tumors, which on rare occasions may occur together.
  • CASE: Herein we describe a rare case of a stillborn infant with chorioangioma, placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and liver cavernous hemangioma.
  • The chromosomal abnormalities that we found were deletions at 2q13 and 7p21.1 and were common to both placental and liver lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: None of the identified chromosomal aberrations have been previously associated with chorioangiomas or hemangiomas.
  • Important genes that lie in these DNA regions may be implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital hemangiomas and mesenchymal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Hemangioma / genetics. Hemangioma, Cavernous / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Placenta Diseases / genetics. Stillbirth / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17203486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-0752
  • [Journal-full-title] Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016056-30
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Celik H, Ozdemir H, Yücel C, Gultekin S, Oktar SO, Arac M: Characterization of hyperechoic focal liver lesions: quantitative evaluation with pulse inversion harmonic imaging in the late phase of levovist. J Ultrasound Med; 2005 Jan;24(1):39-47
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  • [Title] Characterization of hyperechoic focal liver lesions: quantitative evaluation with pulse inversion harmonic imaging in the late phase of levovist.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate hyperechoic focal liver lesions with pulse inversion harmonic imaging in the late phase of SH U 508A (Levovist; Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) and to determine whether quantitative evaluation improves the characterization of the lesions.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients with hyperechoic liver lesions were enrolled in this study.
  • The intensity was measured in decibels in regions of interest drawn within the lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma.
  • The lesion-liver ratios were than calculated.
  • After contrast agent administration, a ratio equal to or greater than 1 was presumed benign, whereas a ratio of less than 1 was considered malignant.
  • RESULTS: Nine malignant (7 metastases, 1 hepatocellular carcinoma, and 1 cholangiocarcinoma) and 17 benign (14 hemangioma, 1 focal nodular hyperplasia, 1 focal fatty change, and 1 inflammatory pseudotumor) hyperechoic lesions were quantitatively evaluated.
  • All malignant (n = 9) and 2 benign lesions (1 hemangioma and 1 inflammatory pseudotumor) had ratios of less than 1.
  • In 15 of 17 benign lesions, the ratios were equal to or greater than 1.
  • The intensity ratios calculated for benign and malignant lesions showed a statistically significant difference (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pulse inversion harmonic imaging with quantitative evaluation facilitates the differential diagnosis of hyperechoic focal liver lesions.
  • A lesion-liver ratio equal to or greater than 1 predicts a benign nature, assuming that malignant lesions show a ratio of less than 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Liver / ultrasonography. Liver Diseases / ultrasonography. Polysaccharides

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  • (PMID = 15615927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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57. Yamamoto K, Shiraki K, Nakanishi S, Fuke H, Hashimoto A, Shimizu A, Nakano T: The usefulness of 1.5 harmonic imaging ultrasonography with Levovist in the diagnosis of focal hepatic tumors. Int J Oncol; 2005 Oct;27(4):989-95
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  • [Title] The usefulness of 1.5 harmonic imaging ultrasonography with Levovist in the diagnosis of focal hepatic tumors.
  • In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of 1.5 harmonic imaging sonography with the use of the contrast agent Levovist for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastatic hepatic tumor, and hepatic hemangioma.
  • The subjects in this study were 64 patients with 70 nodules of hepatic tumors (42 nodules in 36 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 20 nodules in 20 cases of metastatic hepatic tumor, and 8 nodules in 8 cases of hepatic hemangioma).
  • 1.5 harmonic imaging sonography of metastatic hepatic tumor showed hypervascular enhancement of the margin of 20 nodules (100%) in the early and portal phases, which changed to images with no contrast enhancement in the late phase.
  • 1.5 harmonic imaging sonography of hepatic hemangiomas maintained hypervascular enhancement on the tumor margin of 5 nodules (62.5%) in the early and portal phases.
  • 1.5 harmonic imaging sonography of hepatic tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic hepatic tumor and hepatic hemangioma) provided characteristic findings of contrast enhancement in the early, portal, and late phases, and will contribute to differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Contrast Media / pharmacology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Polysaccharides. Ultrasonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiography. Carbon Dioxide / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16142315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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58. Tak WY, Park SY, Jeon SW, Cho CM, Kweon YO, Kim SK, Choi YH, Chung JM: Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for treatment of a huge symptomatic hepatic cavernous hemangioma. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2006 Feb;40(2):167-70
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  • [Title] Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for treatment of a huge symptomatic hepatic cavernous hemangioma.
  • Hepatic cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver.
  • We have accumulated a number of cases with successful management of local hepatic tumors.
  • Here we report a case where we performed an ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of a symptomatic hemangioma.
  • A 36-year-old female patient visited Kyungpook National University Hospital because of persistent right upper abdominal pain caused by an enlarging hemangioma.
  • After two sessions of radiofrequency ablation, the hemangioma was significantly reduced in size.
  • After 36 months, a follow-up abdominal CT revealed remarkably diminished necrotic areas of ablated hemangioma.
  • The size of hemangioma was decreased to almost one third of the original longitudinal diameter.
  • The patient remains asymptomatic in regards to the hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 16394880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Meguro M, Soejima Y, Taketomi A, Ikegami T, Yamashita Y, Harada N, Itoh S, Hirata K, Maehara Y: Living donor liver transplantation in a patient with giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by Kasabach-Merritt syndrome: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(5):463-8
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  • [Title] Living donor liver transplantation in a patient with giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by Kasabach-Merritt syndrome: report of a case.
  • We herein present a case of unresectable giant hepatic hemangiomas with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome which was successfully treated by living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft.
  • The hepatic tumors were thus judged untreatable and the only option for a cure was to offer living donor liver transplantation, because of the tumor size, its location, and the association with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • A left lobe graft with the middle hepatic vein donated by her 47-year-old brother was transplanted under venovenous bypass.
  • In conclusion, living donor liver transplantation was found to be an effective option for the treatment of a patient with unresectable giant hepatic hemangiomas complicated by Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Living Donors


60. Regula J, Wronska E, Pachlewski J: Vascular lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2008;22(2):313-28
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  • Diagnosis may be difficult.
  • Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), a capillary lesion, can be safely biopsied; it coincides with several diseases (including liver cirrhosis), may cause chronic iron-deficiency anaemia, and is best treated by argon plasma coagulation.
  • Haemangiomas, benign neoplastic lesions, usually occur as part of other specific syndromes; they are difficult to manage due to the multiplicity and size of the lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiodysplasia / therapy. Digestive System / blood supply. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Gastrointestinal Diseases / therapy. Hemangioma / therapy. Vascular Malformations / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18346686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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61. Limawararut V, Davis G, Crompton J, Leibovitch I, Selva D: Recurrent multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit in association with systemic tumors. Am J Ophthalmol; 2006 May;141(5):943-5
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  • [Title] Recurrent multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit in association with systemic tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To report the clinical findings and management of multiple, recurrent cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit in a patient with concurrent liver involvement.
  • RESULTS: A 35-year-old woman with blurry vision and proptosis was found to have multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit.
  • Fifteen years later, the patient had recurrent, multiple cavernous hemangiomas in the same orbit.
  • Further investigations for vague back pain revealed a presumed cavernous hemangioma in the liver and a presumed schwannoma arising from the neural foramen of the spine at the level of T2 through T4.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple cavernous hemangiomas may recur after complete excision and may exist with concurrent systemic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16678512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Vasconcelos L, Silva S, Garcia A, Medeiros D, Albuquerque E Castro J, Capitão LM: [Visceral artery aneurysms: alternative therapeutic approach]. Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc; 2006 Jul-Sep;13(3):155-8
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  • Case number 2 was a 72 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for hepatic angioma and hypothyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 17057828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-7215
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-torácica e vascular : órgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Torácica e Vascular
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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63. Muthamilselvan S, Vinoth PN, Vilvanathan V, Ninan B, Amboiram P, Sai V, Anand V, Scott JX: Hepatic haemangioma of infancy: role of propranolol. Ann Trop Paediatr; 2010;30(4):335-8
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  • [Title] Hepatic haemangioma of infancy: role of propranolol.
  • A newborn girl with a haemangioma of the liver failed to respond to cortico-steroid therapy.
  • Ultrasonic evidence of the haemangioma disappeared after 2 months of treatment with propranolol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Hemangioma / drug therapy. Infant, Premature, Diseases / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Propranolol / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21118629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3281
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of tropical paediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Trop Paediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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64. Han SL, Wu XL, Jia ZR, Wang PF: Adult hepatic cavernous haemangioma with highly elevated alpha-fetoprotein. Hong Kong Med J; 2010 Oct;16(5):400-2
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  • [Title] Adult hepatic cavernous haemangioma with highly elevated alpha-fetoprotein.
  • Laboratory examination revealed that his serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 1890 microg/L (reference range, 0-20 microg/L), and computed tomographic scan showed a hypodense lesion in the left liver lobe.
  • At laparotomy, a dark reddish soft tumour (3.0 x 3.5 cm in diameter) was found in the medial segment of the liver (segment III).
  • Intra-operative pathology and postoperative histopathology examinations revealed that the tumour was a cavernous haemangioma of the liver.
  • Clinicians should be aware that some rare tumours besides hepatocellular carcinoma and endodermal sinus tumours (yolk sac tumour), for example, hepatic haemangioma, can produce alpha-fetoprotein.

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  • (PMID = 20890007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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65. Kim TK, Jang HJ, Wilson SR: Benign liver masses: imaging with microbubble contrast agents. Ultrasound Q; 2006 Mar;22(1):31-9
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  • [Title] Benign liver masses: imaging with microbubble contrast agents.
  • Benign focal liver lesions are frequently encountered in routine ultrasound (US) scanning as well as in staging US examination for the patients with known malignancy.
  • Noninvasive characterization of benign liver masses by imaging features has been a challenge for the radiologist.
  • Some benign liver masses show typical findings on US; however, these findings are not highly specific.
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is useful to make an instant, confident diagnosis of benign liver masses.
  • Contrast-enhanced multiphasic computed tomography (CT) is an excellent imaging technique to detect and characterize focal liver masses.
  • But there are a considerable number of indeterminate focal liver lesions, which require further evaluation.
  • CEUS provides the evaluation of perfusion and hemodynamics of nodular liver lesions as well as real-time morphologic evaluation of lesion vascularity.
  • Most benign liver masses show characteristic features on CEUS, allowing an accurate diagnosis.
  • This review article describes typical enhancement features of common benign liver masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Liver Diseases / ultrasonography. Microbubbles. Ultrasonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Humans. Liver Abscess / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16641791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-8771
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound quarterly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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66. Zenzen W, Perez-Atayde AR, Elisofon SA, Kim HB, Alomari AI: Hepatic failure in a rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma of the liver: failure of embolotherapy. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Oct;39(10):1118-23
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  • [Title] Hepatic failure in a rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma of the liver: failure of embolotherapy.
  • We report the clinical course, imaging findings, and management of a rare case of rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma of the liver in a newborn girl.
  • The baby presented with severe progressive hepatic dysfunction and cardiomegaly.
  • Multimodality imaging demonstrated a large hypervascular solitary hepatic mass with marked transhepatic shunting, consistent with rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma.
  • Because medical therapy failed, transarterial and transvenous embolization was performed with the main intention to improve the hepatic perfusion and function.
  • Unfortunately, despite improvement in the cardiac overload, liver function continued to deteriorate.
  • The baby eventually underwent successful liver transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Liver Failure / diagnosis. Liver Failure / etiology. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Acta Paediatr Taiwan. 2003 Jan-Feb;44(1):8-13 [12800377.001]
  • [Cites] Turk J Gastroenterol. 2007 Sep;18(3):182-7 [17891692.001]
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  • (PMID = 19588131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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67. Sandrasegaran K, Akisik FM, Lin C, Tahir B, Rajan J, Aisen AM: The value of diffusion-weighted imaging in characterizing focal liver masses. Acad Radiol; 2009 Oct;16(10):1208-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The value of diffusion-weighted imaging in characterizing focal liver masses.
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To determine if focal liver masses could be differentiated as benign or malignant on the basis of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 104 patients with focal liver masses were scanned using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the largest liver lesion was measured.
  • The liver masses were diagnosed on histology or had characteristic computed tomography/MRI findings and follow up of more than 6 months.
  • The analyzed lesions were hemangioma (n = 17), cysts (n = 5), hepatocellular cancer (HCC) (n = 41), adenoma (n = 3), focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) (n = 6), and metastases (n = 4).
  • RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) ADC values (10(-5) mm(2)/second) of hemangiomas, cysts, FNH, and HCC were 156.8 (54.1), 190.2 (43.0), 130.1 (81.9), and 107.6 (32.7).
  • The ADC of cysts and hemangiomas were significantly higher than that of other lesions (P = .0003, t-test).
  • There was no significant difference between ADC values of solid, benign liver lesions (FNH, adenoma) and malignant lesions (HCC, metastases) (P = .62).
  • CONCLUSION: Solid liver lesions have a lower ADC than cysts and hemangiomas.
  • However, there is no significant difference in ADC between solid benign and malignant lesions.
  • DWI appears to have only minimal additional value over currently used MRI sequences in characterizing liver masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19608435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-4046
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Wan P, Susman J, Kandel J, Jan D, Jerome EH, Parravicini E: Neonatal hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma causing cardiac failure and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Am J Perinatol; 2009 Sep;26(8):601-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neonatal hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma causing cardiac failure and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.
  • Even with advance prenatal diagnostic tools, differentiating among specific types of hepatic masses continues to challenge many physicians.
  • Here, we report a neonate with life-threatening hepatic mass, cardiac failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, which clinically resembled hepatic hemangioma.
  • A hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma was detected by postmortem pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Hamartoma / complications. Hamartoma / congenital. Heart Failure / etiology. Liver Diseases / complications. Liver Diseases / congenital

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  • [Copyright] Thieme Medical Publishers.
  • (PMID = 19370509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-8785
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of perinatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Perinatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Patriti A, Graziosi L, Sanna A, Gullà N, Donini A: Laparoscopic treatment of liver hemangioma. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2005 Dec;15(6):359-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic treatment of liver hemangioma.
  • Cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign liver tumor.
  • When it becomes symptomatic, enucleation is considered the treatment of choice because of its lower morbidity compared with liver resection.
  • Therefore, although there have been many series of laparoscopic liver resection, only a few cases of laparoscopic enucleation of liver hemangiomas have been reported.
  • We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with a symptomatic 4-cm liver hemangioma of the left lobe who underwent laparoscopic enucleation, with complete relief of the symptoms at the 3-month follow-up.
  • Neither liver mobilization nor ligament division was necessary.
  • Laparoscopic enucleation is easy to perform in suitable lesions, and its advantage with respect to liver resection is the preservation of healthy parenchyma and liver ligaments.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16340570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Park SM, Shin SM, Seo HE, Kim SH, Kim HS, Park JH, Kim JH, Sohn KR: [A case of sclerosed hemangioma mimicking intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec;54(6):399-403
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  • [Title] [A case of sclerosed hemangioma mimicking intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma].
  • Hemangioma is one of the most frequently encountered benign hepatic neoplasm which can develop secondary degeneration.
  • Sclerosed hemangioma is a rare disease histologically characterized by large amount of collagen and elastic fibril between sclerosed small vessels.
  • Its differential diagnosis is very difficult.
  • It should be included in the differential diagnosis of other hepatic lesions such as hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and metastatic hepatic tumor.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography revealed GB stone, dilated common bile duct with bile duct stone, and a 4.6 cm sized hyperechoic mass at segment 5 and 6 of the liver.
  • We removed common bile duct stone with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography then decided to undergo right lower segmentectomy of liver due to possibility of cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Histopathological examination of hepatic mass showed large amount of fibrous tissue with occasional residual vascular channels.
  • We describe one case of sclerosed hemangioma mimicking cholangiocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography


72. van den Bos IC, Hussain SM, de Man RA, Zondervan PE, Ijzermans JN, Preda A, Krestin GP: Magnetic resonance imaging of liver lesions: exceptions and atypical lesions. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2008 May-Jun;37(3):95-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of liver lesions: exceptions and atypical lesions.
  • In this article, six challenging hepatic lesions will be discussed and evaluated on the most important magnetic resonance imaging sequences, with histological correlation when available.
  • By reading this article, the reader will be able to (1) categorize the lesion in solid and fluid-containing lesions, based on the T2 signal intensity; and (2) define the benign or malignant nature of the lesion, in relation to the signal intensity and dynamic enhancement pattern, despite the presence of atypical characteristics of some lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18436109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6302
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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73. Maizlin ZV, Vos PM, Cooperberg PL: Is it a fibroid? Are you sure? Sonography with MRI assistance. Ultrasound Q; 2007 Mar;23(1):55-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Uterine fibroids are common benign lesions.
  • Other common benign masses include renal cysts, renal angiomyolipomas, hepatic cysts, hepatic hemangiomas, thyroid cysts, adrenal incidentalomas, pulmonary granulomas and hamartomas, ovarian cysts, and dermoids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17558230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-8771
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound quarterly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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74. Colli A, Fraquelli M, Massironi S, Colucci A, Paggi S, Conte D: Elective surgery for benign liver tumours. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2007;(1):CD005164
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Elective surgery for benign liver tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Benign liver tumours (haemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatic adenoma) have different prevalence and prognosis.
  • Spontaneous rupture and malignant transformation can complicate hepatic adenoma.
  • Elective surgery is controversial, and indications are represented by uncertain diagnosis, presence of symptoms, and prevention of major complications.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of elective surgery of benign liver tumours.
  • A further search included the proceedings of major hepatological and surgical congresses (Annual Meetings of the American Association for the Study of the Liver (AASLD) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL)), and examination of the references of relevant papers and reference lists of the identified studies.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials in adult patients with benign liver tumours without indications for emergency surgery in which elective surgery (resection) versus no intervention or sham operation are compared.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to find evidence supporting or refuting elective surgery for patients with benign liver tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / surgery. Elective Surgical Procedures. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / surgery. Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17253542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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75. Romano F, Messinesi G, Tana F, Uggeri F: Recurrent giant hemangioma causing severe respiratory distress. Dig Dis Sci; 2007 Dec;52(12):3526-9
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  • [Title] Recurrent giant hemangioma causing severe respiratory distress.
  • Hemangioma is a common benign tumor of the liver that is usually asymptomatic.
  • If >4 cm (giant hemangioma), it could present symptoms related to bleeding, thrombosis, consumptive coagulopathy, or adjacent abdominal organ compression.
  • If symptomatic surgical treatment should be considered, liver resection as well as enucleation are considered.
  • She had undergone 2 surgical resections of liver hemangiomas.
  • The respiratory syndrome, as showed by chest x-ray, computed tomography scan, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, was related to a recurrent giant multiple hemangioma, creating a prominent compression of right lung with left mediastinal shift and left heart dislocation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Constriction, Pathologic. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Stephenson JA, Norwood M, Al-Leswas D, Al-Taan O, Beable R, Lloyd DM, Dennison AR: Hepatic haemangioma masquerading as the gallbladder in a case of gallbladder agenesis: a case report and literature review. HPB Surg; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Hepatic haemangioma masquerading as the gallbladder in a case of gallbladder agenesis: a case report and literature review.
  • In contrast, liver haemangiomas are the most common type of benign liver lesions.
  • Subsequent operative findings revealed a solitary haemangioma of the liver sited in the normal position of the gallbladder fossa but with absence of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder / abnormalities. Gallbladder Diseases / congenital. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Unnecessary Procedures. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20706539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8462
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB surgery : a world journal of hepatic, pancreatic and biliary surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Noda T, Sasaki Y, Yamada T, Eguchi H, Takachi K, Noura S, Miyashiro I, Murata K, Doki Y, Ohigashi H, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S, Mitani H, Ishiguro S: Adult capillary hemangioma of the liver: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(9):796-9
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  • [Title] Adult capillary hemangioma of the liver: report of a case.
  • We report a rare case of capillary hemangioma of the liver in an adult.
  • The patient was a 55-year-old man, admitted for investigation of a hepatic tumor.
  • Computed tomography (CT) showed an enhancement pattern different from that of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or cavernous hemangioma.
  • We could not establish whether the tumor was HCC or cavernous hemangioma by the imaging findings, so we performed a hepatic resection.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of capillary hemangioma.
  • Ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging showed an intermediate pattern between cavernous hemangioma and HCC.
  • Thus, we must be aware of the possibility of capillary hemangioma when finding an atypical liver tumor inconsistent with HCC or cavernous hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Capillary / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Capillary / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
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  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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78. Ersoz F, Ozcan O, Toros AB, Culcu S, Bektas H, Sari S, Pasaoglu E, Arikan S: Torsion of a giant pedunculated liver hemangioma mimicking acute appendicitis: a case report. World J Emerg Surg; 2010;5:2
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  • [Title] Torsion of a giant pedunculated liver hemangioma mimicking acute appendicitis: a case report.
  • Hemangiomas are the most common benign neoplasms affecting the liver.
  • Rarely, hemangiomas can be pedunculated.
  • At laparotomy a normal appendix was observed and a torsioned pedinculated liver hemangioma turned out to be the cause.

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  • [ISSN] 1749-7922
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of emergency surgery : WJES
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Emerg Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2820011
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79. Koike N, Cho A, Nasu K, Seto K, Nagaya S, Ohshima Y, Ohkohchi N: Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec 14;15(46):5805-12
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  • [Title] Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions.
  • AIM: To evaluate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in screening and differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal hepatic lesions.
  • Seventy patients who had undergone MRI of the liver [29 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), four cholangiocarcinomas, 34 metastatic liver cancers, 10 hemangiomas, and eight cysts] between April 2004 and August 2008 were retrospectively evaluated.
  • Visualization of lesions, relative contrast ratio (RCR), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were compared between benign and malignant lesions on DWI.
  • RESULTS: DWI showed higher contrast between malignant lesions (especially in multiple small metastatic cancers) and surrounding liver parenchyma than did contrast-enhanced computed tomography.
  • ADCs (mean +/- SD x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in malignant lesions (HCC: 1.31 +/- 0.28 and liver metastasis: 1.11 +/- 0.22) and were significantly higher in benign lesions (hemangioma: 1.84 +/- 0.37 and cyst: 2.61 +/- 0.45) than in the surrounding hepatic tissues.
  • RCR between malignant lesions and surrounding hepatic tissues significantly improved after SPIO administration, but RCRs in benign lesions were not improved.
  • CONCLUSION: DWI is a simple and sensitive method for screening focal hepatic lesions and is useful for differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Liver Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19998501.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2791273
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80. Horii KA, Drolet BA, Baselga E, Frieden IJ, Metry DW, Morel KD, Newell BD, Nopper AJ, Garzon MC, Hemangioma Investigator Group: Risk of hepatic hemangiomas in infants with large hemangiomas. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Feb;146(2):201-3
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  • [Title] Risk of hepatic hemangiomas in infants with large hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / epidemiology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20157038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00374335
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Horii KA; Drolet BA; Baselga E; Frieden IJ; Metry DW; Morel KD; Newell BD; Nopper AJ; Garzon MC; Chamlin SL; Haggstrom AN; Lucky AW; Mancini AJ; Siegel D; Holland K; Powell J; McCuaig CM; Adams D
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81. Leone N, Saettone S, De Paolis P, Carucci P, Brunello F, De Angelis C, Menozzi G, Rizzetto M: Ectopic livers and related pathology: report of three cases of benign lesions. Dig Dis Sci; 2005 Oct;50(10):1818-22
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  • [Title] Ectopic livers and related pathology: report of three cases of benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / etiology. Choristoma / complications. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / etiology. Liver. Liver Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16187180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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82. Toldo I, Drigo P, Mammi I, Marini V, Carollo C: Vertebral and spinal cavernous angiomas associated with familial cerebral cavernous malformation. Surg Neurol; 2009 Feb;71(2):167-71
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  • [Title] Vertebral and spinal cavernous angiomas associated with familial cerebral cavernous malformation.
  • BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformations are vascular malformations that affect the CNS and have been associated with cutaneous, retinal, and hepatic lesions.
  • Until now, vertebral hemangiomas associated with CCM have been described only in one case.
  • The coexistence of intracranial and spinal cavernous angiomas in familial CCM is extremely rare.
  • In addition to previous studies, the occurrence of spinal, vertebral, and cutaneous cavernous angiomas is now described in different members of a large family with CCM.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: Our study reports a previously described family (IFCAS-07) with 12 members affected by autosomal dominant cavernous angiomas: 11 had CCM either alone or associated with hepatic or retinal angiomas, and one had only hepatic angioma.
  • Spinal MRI showed in 5 subjects spinal cavernous angiomas either alone or associated with vertebral hemangiomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest family reported with different subjects affected by CCM associated with multiple cavernous angiomas throughout (brain and spinal cord) and besides (retina, skin, liver, and vertebral column) the CNS.
  • We emphasize the importance of spinal MRI in the diagnosis of spinal and vertebral cavernous angiomas in all patients affected by familial CCM.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / etiology. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / complications. Hemangioma, Cavernous / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18207546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRIT1 protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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83. Lanthaler M, Freund M, Nehoda H: Laparoscopic resection of a giant liver hemangioma. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2005 Dec;15(6):624-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a giant liver hemangioma.
  • We present a case report of hepatic resection performed laparoscopically for a giant symptomatic hemangioma.
  • The patient was a 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a giant hemangioma 20 cm in diameter.
  • As in the case of our patient, laparoscopic resection of hepatic hemangiomas can be performed successfully, even when dealing with giant hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16366871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Dong KR, Zheng S, Xiao X: Conservative management of neonatal hepatic hemangioma: a report from one institute. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Jun;25(6):493-8
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  • [Title] Conservative management of neonatal hepatic hemangioma: a report from one institute.
  • PURPOSE: To summarize the conservative treatment of neonatal hepatic hemangioma at one institute.
  • PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen cases of neonatal hepatic hemangioma were managed in our hospital during the previous 5 years.
  • Initial symptoms, combination symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment were analyzed.
  • Combination symptoms were multiple skin hemangiomas, pneumonia, and cardiac insufficiency.
  • Ultrasound and CT showed the typical characteristics of the liver hemangioma.
  • There were three types of hepatic hemangioma: nine cases had a single focus, four cases were multiple foci, and two had diffuse changes in the liver.
  • One patient having multi-focus in the liver gave up the treatment after biopsy.
  • In those who received conservative therapy, all hemangiomas disappeared within 1 year.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma can be made from symptomology, ultrasound, and CT; pathologic samples are not necessary.
  • Proactive therapy for congestive heart failure is helpful for those endangering liver hemangioma.
  • Surgery can increase the risk of complications and is not advised for treatment of neonatal hepatic hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Cites] J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;18(5):511-4 [15921182.001]
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  • (PMID = 19415303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
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85. Celli N, Gaiani S, Piscaglia F, Zironi G, Camaggi V, Leoni S, Righini R, Bolondi L: Characterization of liver lesions by real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Jan;19(1):3-14
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  • [Title] Characterization of liver lesions by real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the most common patterns of various common liver lesions at real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with second-generation contrast agents and their role in the differentiation of malignant from benign lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The enhancement pattern in the arterial phase and its modifications in subsequent portal and sinusoidal phases were separately evaluated in (i) 171 liver lesions detected at conventional ultrasonography in 125 noncirrhotic patients (87 metastases, six cholangiocellular carcinoma, 38 focal nodular hyperplasia, 30 hemangiomas, seven focal fatty sparing/changes, two hepatocellular adenomas and one hepatocellular carcinoma) and (ii) 75 lesions detected in 67 cirrhotic patients (66 hepatocellular carcinoma and nine dysplastic nodules).
  • The final diagnosis was made by contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging or by ultrasonography-guided biopsy when the diagnosis was equivocal at conventional imaging techniques (45 lesions).
  • RESULTS: In noncirrhotic patients, the hypoechoic pattern in portal and sinusoidal phase (rapid washout) or the markedly hypoechoic or anechoic pattern in sinusoidal phase (marked late washout) showed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 96.8, 100 and 98.2% for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • In cirrhotic patients, early arterial enhancement showed a sensitivity of 93.9% for the diagnosis of malignancy, with a specificity as low as 55.5% given the presence of arterial enhancement in 5/9 nodules resulted dysplastic at histological analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography provides sensitive and specific criteria for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant liver lesions, and in most cases it may replace more expensive and invasive imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Cholangiocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Microbubbles. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • (PMID = 17206071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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86. Losanoff JE, Millis JM: Liver hemangioma complicated by obstructive jaundice. Am J Surg; 2008 Sep;196(3):e3-4
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  • [Title] Liver hemangioma complicated by obstructive jaundice.
  • This report describes a liver hemangioma causing obstructive jaundice, an extremely rare condition that has been reported on 3 previous occasions.
  • A hemangioma can compress the major bile ducts and require partial hepatectomy for a successful outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / complications. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18519125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Maksimović RM, Dunjić MS, Lilić GB, Milenković RM, Masulović DM, Milićević M: [Diagnostic value of diffusion weighted imaging in assessment of malignant focal liver lesions]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2009;56(4):121-5
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic value of diffusion weighted imaging in assessment of malignant focal liver lesions].
  • INTRODUCTION: The study was designed to determine if there was a difference between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) MRI technique between different malignant focal liver lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 63 patients with focal hepatic lesions: fourteen patients (22.2%) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 16 patients (25.4%) with hepatic metastatic colorectal tumors, 17 patients (26.9%) with cavernous haemangioma and 16 patients (25.4%) with hepatic cysts.
  • RESULTS: ADC values were statistically different among the groups (F = 70.7, p < 0.01): HCC patients 1.11 +/- 0.29 x 10(-3) s/mm2, metastatic tumours 2.18 +/- 0.15 x 10(-3) s/mm2, haemangioma 2.22 +/- 0.32 x 10(-3) s/mm, cysts 3.08 +/- 0.03 x 10(-3) s/mm2.
  • Furthermore, there was statistically significant difference between benign lesions (haemangiom and cysts, 2.36 +/- 0.43 x 10(-3) s/mm2), and malignant diseases (HCC and secondary tumors, 1.52 +/- 0.58 x 10(-3) s/mm2), t = 5,6, p < 0.01.
  • CONCLUSION: DWI technique could be helpful in defining the focal liver lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Female. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Humans. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20420007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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88. Jr MA, Papaiordanou F, Gonçalves JM, Chaib E: Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature. World J Hepatol; 2010 Dec 27;2(12):428-33
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature.
  • Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size.
  • Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life.
  • As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture.
  • Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies.
  • In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination.
  • In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21191518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3010512
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant hepatic hemangioma / Hepatic hemangioma / Liver tumor / Spontaneous rupture / Surgery
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89. Cho SH, Lee JY, Han JK, Choi BI: Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for the evaluation of focal solid hepatic lesions: preliminary findings. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2010 Feb;36(2):202-8
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  • [Title] Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for the evaluation of focal solid hepatic lesions: preliminary findings.
  • This study was designed to investigate the potential usefulness of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography to evaluate focal solid hepatic lesions.
  • In total, 51 patients with 60 focal hepatic lesions, which included 17 hemangiomas, 25 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 15 metastases and three cholangiocarcinomas, underwent ARFI elastography.
  • The lesions were classified into three groups: Group I consisted of metastatic liver tumors and cholangiocarcinomas, group II consisted of HCCs and group III consisted of hemangiomas.
  • Shear wave velocity was obtained to quantify stiffness for 36 focal hepatic lesions: 11 hemangiomas, 17 HCCs and eight other malignant lesions.
  • On ARFI elastography images, group I tumors (n=18) appeared stiffer than the background liver for 13 lesions (72%), softer for two lesions and had identical stiffness in three lesions compared with the background liver.
  • For group II tumors (n=25), 13 lesions (52%) appeared stiffer than the liver, six lesions appeared softer than the liver and the remaining six lesions showed the same stiffness as the liver.
  • For group III tumors (n=17), six lesions (35%) appeared stiffer than the liver, seven lesions appeared softer and the remaining four lesions showed the same stiffness as the liver.
  • Images obtained with ARFI elastography provided additional qualitative information regarding the stiffness and tumor margin of liver tumors.
  • By measuring shear wave velocity, quantification of stiffness was made possible and showed the potential to differentiate malignant hepatic tumors from hepatic hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20018432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Colakoğlu O, Taşkiran B, Yazici N, Buyraç Z, Unsal B: Safety of biopsy in liver hemangiomas. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2005 Dec;16(4):220-3
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  • [Title] Safety of biopsy in liver hemangiomas.
  • Hemangiomas are the most common tumors of the liver.
  • In case of inconclusive radiologic features and a history of malignancy or underlying liver disease, liver biopsy is indicated.
  • Bleeding is the most feared complication of biopsy of hemangiomas due to its highly vascular structure.
  • In our clinic, we biopsied seven patients with suspected masses and they were diagnosed histopathologically afterwards as having hemangiomas.
  • Although the case number is too small to reach a definite conclusion, we think that our report deserves attention in showing that concerns about bleeding during biopsy of hemangiomas may be overstated.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16547852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-4948
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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91. Zincirkeser S, Celen ZY, Yilmaz M, Topalhan F, Sahin E: A false negative by planar scintigraphy liver hemangioma, diagnosed by technetium-99m-red blood cells and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid single photon emission tomography scan. Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 May-Aug;9(2):109-10
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  • [Title] A false negative by planar scintigraphy liver hemangioma, diagnosed by technetium-99m-red blood cells and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid single photon emission tomography scan.
  • Ultrasonography showed a 4.7 cm solid hepatic mass on the right lateral side of the right lobe of the liver.
  • The patient was then sent to the Nuclear Medicine Department of Gaziantep University for liver scan.
  • After injecting autologous red blood cells labeled with 740 MBq of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-RBC), early and delayed anterior planar images of the liver showed no significant findings because of the right kidney shine through the liver.
  • Two days later, after injecting again 740 MBq of (99m)Tc-RBC, we performed a single photon emission tomography (SPET) scan but still this scan was nondiagnostic even in the delayed images of the liver.
  • Three days later, after the iv injection of 185 MBq of technetium-99m-sulphur colloid ((99m)Tc-SC), we observed in the delayed SPET images of the liver, a mismatch defect with decreased focal uptake of (99m)Tc-SC at 60 min while the uptake of (99m)Tc-RBC at the same area was normal or slightly increased.
  • A cavernous hemangioma was found, confirmed by histology.
  • In conclusion, the mismatch of the SPET delayed images between the (99m)Tc-RBC and the (99m)Tc-SC scans indicated that this procedure was effective for the diagnosis of liver cavernous hemangioma located in this unusual position.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrocytes / radionuclide imaging. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2009 May-Aug;12(2):177-8 [19675879.001]
  • [CommentIn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2006 Sep-Dec;9(3):187 [17160164.001]
  • (PMID = 16894416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid; 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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92. Moya Herráiz A, Torres-Quevedo R, Mir Pallardó J: [Liver transplantation in patients with benign hepatic lesions]. Cir Esp; 2008 Aug;84(2):60-6
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  • [Title] [Liver transplantation in patients with benign hepatic lesions].
  • Benign hepatic lesions are rare and liver transplantation in these cases is exceptional.
  • We present a review of the subject, commenting on the aspects that have been subsidiary to liver transplantation, of which are highlighted: adenomatosis, polycystosis and hepatic epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (although this process may be a low to intermediate malignant grade).
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Caroli Disease / surgery. Cysts / surgery. Hemangioma / surgery. Humans


93. Bozgeyik Z, Kocakoc E, Gul Y, Dagli AF: Evaluation of liver hemangiomas using three different b values on diffusion MR. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Sep;75(3):360-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of liver hemangiomas using three different b values on diffusion MR.
  • PURPOSE: To determine which diffusion-weighted MR technique (i.e., b-100, b-600, b-1000 s/mm(2)) is most useful in depicting liver hemangiomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion-weighed MR (DWMR) was performed for 61 hemangiomas in 32 patients.
  • ADCs were measured for each lesions and compared with normal liver parenchymal ADCs on different b values.
  • Hemangiomas were subdivided according to lesion size (less than 3 cm and 3 cm or greater).
  • Lower ADC values were obtained for higher b values in normal liver tissue and hemangiomas.
  • Although there is significant difference between normal liver tissue and hemangiomas; this is more apparent on b-1000 images (p=0.022 on b-100, p=0.003 on b-600, and p=0.000 on b-1000 images).
  • Variance analysis revealed hemangiomas had higher ADC values than normal liver tissue on b-1000 images.
  • CONCLUSION: Mean values for ADCs of hemangiomas were lower than ADCs of the normal liver except for b-1000 value.
  • Higher b values are useful for the differentiation between normal liver tissue and hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19481893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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94. Plackett TP, Lin-Hurtubise KM: Hepatic hemangiomas and parachuting. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2008 Oct;79(10):986-8
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  • [Title] Hepatic hemangiomas and parachuting.
  • Hepatic hemangiomas are relatively common benign hepatic tumors.
  • The following case report discusses an individual patient incidentally found to have large hepatic hemangiomas on CT scan during work-up for a traumatic minimally displaced pelvic fracture from parachuting.
  • Interventional radiology was also consulted regarding his fitness to continue parachuting given his large hepatic hemangiomas.
  • Consequently, a hepatic hemangioma should not exclude an individual from parachuting.
  • [MeSH-major] Aerospace Medicine. Aviation. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Accidents, Aviation. Adult. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous. Humans. Incidental Findings. Liver / injuries. Male. Pubic Bone / injuries. Rupture

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  • (PMID = 18856190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Xu HX, Liu GJ, Lu MD, Xie XY, Xu ZF, Zheng YL, Liang JY: Characterization of small focal liver lesions using real-time contrast-enhanced sonography: diagnostic performance analysis in 200 patients. J Ultrasound Med; 2006 Mar;25(3):349-61
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  • [Title] Characterization of small focal liver lesions using real-time contrast-enhanced sonography: diagnostic performance analysis in 200 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of real-time contrast-enhanced sonography in characterization of small focal liver lesions (FLLs; < or = 3.0 cm in diameter).
  • A 5-point confidence level was used to discriminate malignant from benign FLLs, and specific diagnoses were recorded.
  • RESULTS: After review of contrast-enhanced sonography, ROC analysis revealed significant improvement in differentiating between malignant and benign small FLLs that the areas under the ROC curve were 0.856 at baseline sonography versus 0.954 at contrast-enhanced sonography for reader 1 (P < .001) and 0.857 versus 0.954 for reader 2 (P = .003).
  • A better result of specific diagnosis was obtained (38.5% [77/200] at baseline sonography versus 80.5% [161/200] at contrast-enhanced sonography for reader 1 and 34.5% [69/200] versus 80.5% [161/200] for reader 2; both P < .001) after contrast agent administration, and a better interobserver agreement was achieved (kappa = 0.425 at baseline sonography versus 0.716 at contrast-enhanced sonography).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Liver / ultrasonography. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Echocardiography, Doppler, Color / methods. Female. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Microbubbles. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Prospective Studies. ROC Curve. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sulfur Hexafluoride / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16495496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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96. R Aglyamov S, R Skovoroda A, Xie H, Kim K, M Rubin J, O'Donnell M, W Wakefield T, Myers D, Y Emelianov S: Model-based reconstructive elasticity imaging using ultrasound. Int J Biomed Imaging; 2007;2007:35830
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  • The model-based approach is illustrated using two potential clinical applications: differentiation of liver hemangioma and staging of deep venous thrombosis.

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  • (PMID = 18256732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4188
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL068658
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1986825
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97. Lai HJ, Yu JC, Liu YC, Shih ML, Hsieh CB: Anterior approach for a symptomatic giant hepatic haemangioma (&gt;30 centimetre). ANZ J Surg; 2006 Sep;76(9):863-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anterior approach for a symptomatic giant hepatic haemangioma (>30 centimetre).
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16922914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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98. Rodríguez-Peláez M, Menéndez De Llano R, Varela M: [Benign liver tumors]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 May;33(5):391-7
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  • [Title] [Benign liver tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores benignos del hígado.
  • There is a wide range of benign liver tumors that behave in very different ways and require a management strategy specifically tailored to each.
  • The most common benign solid liver tumor is hemangioma followed by focal nodular hyperplasia; the most common cystic tumor is the simple cyst.
  • The differential diagnosis with malignant liver tumors is sometimes difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Diseases / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Mutation

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  • [CommentIn] Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Jun-Jul;33(6):473-4; author reply 474-5 [20537429.001]
  • (PMID = 20096966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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99. Yun JP, Miao J, Chen GG, Tian QH, Zhang CQ, Xiang J, Fu J, Lai PB: Increased expression of nucleophosmin/B23 in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Br J Cancer; 2007 Feb 12;96(3):477-84
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  • In this study, we examined NPM expression in 103 paired cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 12 cases of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia, 17 cases of liver tissue adjacent to a hepatic haemangioma, and series of array tissues from normal human organs and malignancies using a monoclonal antibody against NPM and reverse transcription-PCR techniques, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytofluorescence.
  • Moreover, enhanced expression of NPM in HCC correlated with the level of PCNA (R(2)=0.5639) and with the clinical prognostic parameters such as serum alpha fetal protein level, tumour pathological grading, and liver cirrhosis (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemistry. Liver Neoplasms / chemistry. Nuclear Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17245342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 117896-08-9 / nucleophosmin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360035
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100. Zech CJ, Herrmann KA, Reiser MF, Schoenberg SO: MR imaging in patients with suspected liver metastases: value of liver-specific contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA. Magn Reson Med Sci; 2007;6(1):43-52
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  • [Title] MR imaging in patients with suspected liver metastases: value of liver-specific contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA.
  • Because metastatic involvement of the liver in extrahepatic malignant disease may significantly change therapeutic approach, it is important to rule out such involvement with high confidence.
  • Moreover, the differentiation between incidental benign lesions, such as hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), or adenoma, is of high interest.
  • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has proved reliable for diagnostic work-up of the liver.
  • Liver-specific contrast agents have been especially helpful in detecting and precisely characterizing focal liver lesions, but the use of these agents has been limited because it has not been possible to perform both proper vascular phase and liver-specific phase within a reasonable time frame and in a single examination after a single injection of contrast agent.
  • Gd-EOB-DTPA can be injected as a bolus and shows the enhancement characteristics and vascularity of liver lesions.
  • Thus, malignant liver lesions, e.g. metastases, are spared from contrast uptake of the surrounding liver parenchyma.
  • These lesions are hypointense in contrast to the surrounding bright liver.
  • We review the current literature and present a practical approach to Gd-EOB-enhanced MR imaging using imaging examples of patients with liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Gadolinium DTPA. Image Enhancement / methods. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 17510541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medical sciences : MRMS : an official journal of Japan Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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