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1. Bezdekova M, Brychtova S, Sedlakova E, Steigerova J, Hlobilkova A, Bienova M, Kucerova R, Brychta T, Krejci V, Kolar Z: Immunohistochemical assessment of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; 2007 Dec;151(2):251-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas are benign skin neoplasms originating from hair follicle cells.
  • They result from defects in the signaling pathways that regulate hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration.
  • AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate their involvement in benign hair follicle tumor development.
  • RESULTS: The intensity of E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression in tumor cells did not differ from controls.
  • However, normal hair follicles cells exhibited membranous E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression, whereas both types of tumors, particularly trichoepitheliomas, showed E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression with a predominantly cytoplasmic localization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that this dystopic distribution of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex in hair follicle tumor cells may be a marker of cell-cell adhesion disruption which may contribute to the tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / analysis. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18345259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1213-8118
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / beta Catenin
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2. Sengul D, Sengul I, Astarci MH, Ustun H, Mocan G: CD10 for the distinct differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and benign tumours of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicle. Pol J Pathol; 2010;61(3):140-6
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  • [Title] CD10 for the distinct differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and benign tumours of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicle.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 30 cases of benign tumours of cutaneous appendages originating from the hair follicle and 30 cases of basal cell carcinoma were retrieved from the archives deposited from 2004 to 2008.
  • The stromal CD10 immunopositivity of benign tumours of cutaneous appendages originating from the hair follicle was stronger than the other (p = 0.003) regarding both the numerical and the degree of expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neprilysin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21225496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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3. Sengul D, Sengul I, Astarci MH, Ustun H, Mocan G: Differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and benign tumors of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicles by using CD34. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(6):1615-9
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and benign tumors of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicles by using CD34.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Differential diagnosis of the group of benign trichoblastomas, trichofolliculomas, trichoadenomas and trichoepitheliomas, and basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is troublesome for the clinician as well as the pathologist, especially when only small biopsy specimens are available.
  • METHODS: Thirty benign tumors of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicles (BTCOHF) and 30 BCCs were retrieved from our archives and immunohistochemically stained.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21338206.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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4. Simi CM, Rajalakshmi T, Correa M: Pilomatricoma: a tumor with hidden depths. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2010 Sep-Oct;76(5):543-6
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  • [Title] Pilomatricoma: a tumor with hidden depths.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomatricoma is a benign tumor of hair matrix differentiation and has been classically described as comprising of basaloid and shadow cells admixed with multinucleated giant cells and areas of calcification.
  • However, there are a diverse range of histologic features this tumor displays that are often unrecognized.
  • CONCLUSION: Pilomatricoma, although considered a tumor of hair matrix differentiation, can show cellular evolution toward the other parts of the hair follicle, such as the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous and infundibular components and, therefore, can be considered a panfollicular neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20826995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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5. Siddha M, Budrukkar A, Shet T, Deshpande M, Basu A, Patil N, Bhalavat R: Malignant pilar tumor of the scalp: a case report and review of literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Oct-Dec;3(4):240-3
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  • [Title] Malignant pilar tumor of the scalp: a case report and review of literature.
  • Pilar tumor is a rare neoplasm arising from the external root sheath of the hair follicle and is most commonly observed on the scalp.
  • These tumors are largely benign, often cystic, and are characterized by trichilemmal keratinization.
  • In this report, we present a case of malignant pilar tumor of the scalp with multiple nodal metastases at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / secondary. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18270401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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6. Kizawa K, Toyoda M, Ito M, Morohashi M: Aberrantly differentiated cells in benign pilomatrixoma reflect the normal hair follicle: immunohistochemical analysis of Ca-binding S100A2, S100A3 and S100A6 proteins. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Feb;152(2):314-20
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  • [Title] Aberrantly differentiated cells in benign pilomatrixoma reflect the normal hair follicle: immunohistochemical analysis of Ca-binding S100A2, S100A3 and S100A6 proteins.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomatrixoma is a common benign cutaneous tumour containing differentiated hair matrix cells.
  • This tumour is mainly composed of basophilic, transitional, shadow and squamoid cells.
  • Although some S100 proteins are expressed in a tissue-specific manner in the hair follicle (e.g.
  • RESULTS: Tissue-specific distribution of the S100 proteins investigated was preserved in the morphologically disordered tumour tissues.
  • Anti-S100A2 antibody stained squamoid cells and putative outer root sheath cells; basophilic and potential hair matrix cells were occasionally stained.
  • S100A3 staining was found in transitional cells and putative cortical cells, and was strong in both dispersed cells and hair-like structures surrounding cells which were presumably cuticular cells.
  • Our results show that pilomatrixomas retain a certain degree of differentiation indicative of distinct hair-forming cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Pilomatrixoma / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Basophils / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Chemotactic Factors / metabolism. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15727645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chemotactic Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100A2 protein, human; 0 / S100A3 protein, human; 105504-00-5 / S100A6 protein, human
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7. Ramos-Ceballos FI, Pashaei S, Kincannon JM, Morgan MB, Smoller BR: Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 May;35(5):477-83
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  • [Title] Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation.
  • Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome (GBFHS) is a rare, recently-described, autosomal-dominantly inherited disorder that presents with disseminated milia, palmoplantar pitting, hypotrichosis and basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFH).
  • BFH is a benign adnexal tumor that resembles basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • In this study, we report two cases of GBFHS and stain BFH, a vellus hair hamartoma (VHH) and a neurofollicular hamartoma (NH) with CD34, bcl-2 and CD10 to characterize and compare the staining patterns of these follicular tumors.
  • These results show the similarities in differentiation between these benign follicular neoplasms and trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Epidermal Cyst / metabolism. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Female. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 May;36(5):603; author reply 604 [19476535.001]
  • (PMID = 18399809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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8. Izikson L, Bhan A, Zembowicz A: Androgen receptor expression helps to differentiate basal cell carcinoma from benign trichoblastic tumors. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):91-5
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  • [Title] Androgen receptor expression helps to differentiate basal cell carcinoma from benign trichoblastic tumors.
  • Histologic differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and benign trichoblastic neoplasms such as trichoepithelioma and trichoblastoma can be difficult on small biopsies.
  • In contrast, androgen receptor expression was absent in mature hair follicles or the few trichogenic neoplasms studied to date.
  • These findings suggested that androgen receptor expression might be a useful adjunct in the histologic differential diagnosis between basal cell carcinoma and benign trichoblastic neoplasms.
  • Therefore, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of androgen receptor expression in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 10 benign trichoblastic tumors (6 trichoepitheliomas and 4 trichoblastomas).
  • These results confirm the lack of expression of androgen receptor in benign trichoblastic neoplasms and indicate that androgen receptor expression by tumor cells points to basal cell carcinoma as the most likely diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15798431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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9. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9

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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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10. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • The lesion had the characteristics of hair germ tumors; however, most lobules depicted a distinctive pattern of rounded nests of concentrically arranged clear cells.
  • Small follicle bulb-like basophilic structures, foci of sebaceous differentiation, and areas of infundibulocystic, isthmic, and outer sheath keratinization were also seen.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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11. Tierney E, Ochoa MT, Rudkin G, Soriano TT: Mohs' micrographic surgery of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor in a young black man. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Mar;31(3):359-63
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  • [Title] Mohs' micrographic surgery of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor in a young black man.
  • BACKGROUND: Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is an uncommon tumor of the follicular isthmus of the hair follicle.
  • Although these lesions typically behave in a benign fashion, recurrences and metastasis after local excision have been reported.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor in a young black man, which was excised using Mohs' micrographic surgery.
  • RESULTS: Mohs' micrographic surgery demonstrated an irregular extension of the tumor beyond a 1 cm surgical margin.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / surgery. Hair Follicle. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15841643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Chaichamnan K, Satayasoontorn K, Puttanupaab S, Attainsee A: Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumors with CD34 expression. J Med Assoc Thai; 2010 Nov;93 Suppl 6:S28-34
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  • Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumors (MPTT) are rare neoplasm arising from outer root sheath of hair follicle, the diagnosis of which is base essentially on histological features resulting in occasionally misdiagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In difficult cases, however evaluation of additional parameters may be needed to differentiate benign proliferating trichilemmal tumor from MPTT or differentiate PTT and MPTT from squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21280514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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13. Cardoso JC, Reis JP, Figueiredo P, Tellechea O: Infundibulomatosis: a case report with immunohistochemical study and literature review. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(1):14
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  • Tumor of the follicular infundibulum was first described in 1961 by Mehregan and Butler in a patient presenting with multiple papules.
  • Clinical presentation is variable, requiring histology for the diagnosis, which reveals typically a plate-like proliferation of keratinocytes in continuity with the epidermis and hair follicles; some morphological features are reminiscent of the outer root sheath of the hair follicle.
  • A well defined network of elastic fibers surrounding the tumor is usually present using the appropriate staining and this finding is specific because it is not found in other benign follicular tumors.
  • Histopathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of tumor of the follicular infundibulum.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypopigmentation / etiology. Keratinocytes / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20137756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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14. Fukushima M, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Akasu H, Shimizu K, Miyauchi A: Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule. World J Surg; 2009 May;33(5):963-8
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  • [Title] Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule.
  • However, in our experience, some MTC may be diagnosed as a follicular tumor or a benign nodule on ultrasonography because ultrasonographic findings of malignancy are lacking.
  • Of these patients, 54 were diagnosed as having thyroid carcinoma (malignant, or M-type) but the remaining 23 were diagnosed as having follicular tumor or benign nodule (benign, or B-type) on ultrasonography.
  • RESULTS: Clinically apparent lateral node metastasis, extrathyroid extension, and extranodal tumor extension were observed in 37%, 17%, and 11% of M-type patients, respectively, but none of the B-type patients showed any of these features.
  • Lymph node metastasis was pathologically confirmed in 38 and 65% of B-type and M-type patients, respectively.
  • However, thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection for B-type MTC should be the same as for M-type MTC because 38% of B-type MTC showed pathologic node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19198929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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15. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • In addition, there were occasional germinative cells in the palisade, and scattered hair papilla-like structures showing follicular differentiation.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Rosa N, Lanza M, Cennamo G, Accardo M: Pilomatrixoma of the eyelid. J Dermatol Case Rep; 2008 Jul 7;2(2):21-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomatrixoma is a benign tumor of the hair follicle that can transform into a malignant lesion, the pilomatrix carcinoma.
  • Results of both examinations were consistent with a benign pilomatrixoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though the lesion had malignant clinical appearance, histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a benign pilomatrixoma, supporting the decision not to make a more extensive surgery.

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  • (PMID = 21886706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1898-7249
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dermatological case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3157770
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; eyelid / pilomatrixoma / skin neoplasm
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17. Mendes MH, Souza Lde P: [Recurrent pilomatricoma on the left eyebrow: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2009 May-Jun;72(3):380-3
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  • [Transliterated title] Pilomatricoma recidivado em região superciliar esquerda: relato de caso.
  • Pilomatricoma is a benign neoplasm originated in the pilosebaceous follicle which appears as an intradermal nodule during childhood, in most cases.
  • Eight months after the first surgical intervention, there was a new tumor growth in the region, this time quicker and worsen, with ulceration on the small skin area that covered the lesion, thus leading to malignity suspicion.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyebrows. Hair Diseases. Pilomatrixoma. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19668971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-2925
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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18. Katona TM, Ravis SM, Perkins SM, Moores WB, Billings SD: Expression of androgen receptor by fibroepithelioma of Pinkus: evidence supporting classification as a basal cell carcinoma variant? Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Feb;29(1):7-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tumor-associated Merkel cells, a feature of benign follicular tumors, was identified by cytokeratin 20 stains.
  • Merkel cells were identified in 85% (11/13) of fibroepitheliomas of Pinkus, 27% (3/11) of basal cell carcinoma cases, and 73% (11/15) of benign follicular tumors.
  • Cytokeratin 20 expression was significantly higher in fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and benign follicular tumors compared with basal cell carcinomas (P = 0.0111 and P = 0.025, respectively).
  • Conversely, fibroepithelioma of Pinkus demonstrates retention of Merkel cells, a feature of benign follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Variation / genetics. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Keratin-20 / genetics. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Merkel Cells / metabolism. Merkel Cells / pathology. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2007 Oct;29(5):494 [17890926.001]
  • (PMID = 17284955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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19. Krishna Swaroop DS, Ramakrishna BA, Bai SJ, Shanthi V: Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Apr-Jun;51(2):277-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a rare benign cutaneous tumor, which is usually solitary, nodular and occurs on the face or buttocks any time during adult life.
  • The morphological differentiation of trichoadenoma is situated between a trichofolliculoma and a trichoepithelioma with hair follicle-like direction of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Buttocks. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18603709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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20. Zamanian A, Farshchian M, Farshchian M: Clinical and histopathologic study of pilomatricoma in Iran between 1992 and 2005. Pediatr Dermatol; 2008 Mar-Apr;25(2):268-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pilomatricoma (calcifying epithelioma of Malherb) is a tumor of hair follicle matrix cells and is almost always benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18429799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Murakami T, Sano F, Huang Y, Komiya A, Baba M, Osada Y, Nagashima Y, Kondo K, Nakaigawa N, Miura T, Kubota Y, Yao M, Kishida T: Identification and characterization of Birt-Hogg-Dubé associated renal carcinoma. J Pathol; 2007 Apr;211(5):524-31
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  • The Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) gene is responsible for BHD syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by benign hair follicle tumours, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal neoplasms with diverse histology.
  • We found one germline insertion mutation in the C8 hotspot of exon 11 (c.1733insC), which is known to have a strong association with renal tumour occurrence.
  • The tumour revealed heterogeneous cytomorphology, mainly a mixture of eosinophilic and focally clear cells with tubulopapillary architecture.
  • In this tumour, both BHD alleles were inactivated by germline mutation concomitant with loss of heterozygosity, and the amount of BHD mRNA detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) was very low.
  • Renal tumour subtype/nephron segment-specific gene expression detected by RQ-PCR demonstrated that the tumour expressed relatively high amounts of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) and the KIT oncogene, but relatively low amounts of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), aquaporin 1 (AQP1), claudin 7 (CLDN7), parvalbumin (PVALB), chloride channel Kb (CLCNKB) and 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (HSD11B2), suggesting diverse mRNA signatures.
  • Further clustering analysis of 88 renal tumours based on expression of these eight genes sub-classified the tumour as close to oncocytomas and chromophobe RCCs, which are considered distal nephron-associated tumours.
  • The BHD-mutated RCC identified in this study, which exhibits heterogeneous biological features in both morphology and gene expression signatures, seems to deviate from our current understanding of renal tumour classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cluster Analysis. Eosinophilia / genetics. Eosinophilia / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Hair Diseases / genetics. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Pneumothorax / genetics. Pneumothorax / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Syndrome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17323425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FLCN protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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22. Kim YS, Shin DH, Choi JS, Kim KH: The Immunohistochemical Patterns of the beta-Catenin Expression in Pilomatricoma. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Aug;22(3):284-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomatricoma is a benign follicular tumor that is composed of basaloid cells, transitional cells and shadow cells. beta-Catenin is a 92-kDa protein, and it plays important roles in cell-cell adhesion at the cell membrane and signal transduction in the nucleus. beta-Catenin has recently been shown to play an important role in the formation of hair follicle-related tumors, including pilomatricoma.

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  • (PMID = 20711264.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2917681
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemical stain / Pilomatricoma / β-Catenin
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23. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33(9):634-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that the cytokeratin 15 (CK15)-positive stem cells located in the hair follicle bulge are also involved in sebaceous gland renewal.
  • METHODS: We studied the CK15 expression in 30 sebaceous neoplasms including 10 sebaceomas (sebaceoma defined as a distinct benign neoplasm with sebaceous differentiation), 10 sebaceous neoplasms of Muir-Torre syndrome, and 10 sebaceous carcinomas, in addition to that in the mantles of normal hair follicles.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CK15 may be a useful marker for stem cells with a sebaceous fate, and a constant CK15 expression in sebaceomas supported the hypothesis that sebaceoma is a benign neoplasm of sebaceous germinative cells in the mantles.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Keratins / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2006.
  • (PMID = 16965339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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24. Samaila MO: Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med; 2008 Mar;7(1):6-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Only two cases had a clinical diagnosis of adnexal tumor.
  • Tumours of hair follicle were 4 (7.7%) and included trichoepithelioma, characterized microscopically by multiple horn cysts and epithelial tracts connecting abortive pilar structures and a trichofolliculoma.
  • Forty-six lesions (88.5%) were benign and six (11.5%) malignant.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / epidemiology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hair Follicle / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18702242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1596-3519
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of African medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Afr Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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25. Lumachi F, Fabbro M, Tregnaghi A, Antunovic L, Bui F, Cecchin D, Zucchetta P, Fassina A: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy together in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jul;30(7):3083-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • FNAC distinguished 3 groups of TN (benign, follicular neoplasm, cancer), while patients with 'cold' TN were considered at risk of having a thyroid tumor.
  • In conclusion, patients with 'cold' TN and FNAC suggesting follicular neoplasm should be considered at risk of having cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20683059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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26. Shi Y, Ding X, Klein M, Sugrue C, Matano S, Edelman M, Wasserman P: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category? Cancer; 2009 Oct 25;117(5):298-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These cases were reinterpreted blindly by 2 experienced reviewers, who eliminated atypia of undetermined significance as a diagnostic possibility and reclassified these cases as either benign, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, or malignant.
  • In those atypia of undetermined significance cases that were reclassified as benign, 37% had PTC.
  • In those reclassified as follicular neoplasm or suspicious for malignancy, 38% were histologically proven to be benign lesions.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19711470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Sanjuán NA, Símula S, Casas J, Woscoff A: Detection of polyomavirus major capsid antigen (VP-1) in human pilomatricomas. Medicina (B Aires); 2010;70(2):159-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The family Polyomaviridae is composed of small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses widely used to study cell transformation in vitro and tumor induction in vivo.
  • This tumor, even uncommon, is one of the most frequent benign hair follicle tumors in humans and is composed of proliferating matrix cells that undergo keratinization, and form cystic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Capsid Proteins / analysis. Hair Diseases / virology. Pilomatrixoma / virology. Polyomavirus Infections / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 20447899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / VP1 protein, polyomavirus
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28. Steff M, Bourillon A, Frebourg T, Balderi X, Descamps V, Joly P, Piette F, Crestani B, Grandchamp B, Soufir N: [Intra- and interfamilial phenotype variation in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: Consequences for therapy]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Mar;137(3):203-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Variation phénotypique intra- et interfamiliale dans le syndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé : conséquences sur la prise en charge.
  • BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited genodermatosis that predisposes to the development of benign hair follicle tumours, lung cysts, kidney tumours, and possibly colonic cancers, due to mutations in the FLCN gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Frameshift Mutation. Hair Follicle / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adult. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Emphysema / genetics. Female. Hair Diseases / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Phenotype. Pneumothorax / genetics. Sequence Analysis, Protein

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • (PMID = 20227563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FLCN protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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29. Wygledowska-Kania M, Kamińska-Winciorek G, Krauze E, Brzezińska-Wcisło L, Kajor M: Multifocal type of pilomatrixoma. Adv Med Sci; 2007;52:251-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pilomatrixoma is a benign skin neoplasm that arises from hair follicle matrix cells.
  • The skin lesion occurs usually as a solitary tumor and the multifocal types are very rare.
  • Skin changes can be described as a firm to hard, non-painful, oval-shaped tumor that is covered by normal skin.

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  • (PMID = 18217427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1896-1126
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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30. Roche NA, Monstrey SJ, Matton GE: Pilomatricoma in children: common but often misdiagnosed. Acta Chir Belg; 2010 Mar-Apr;110(2):250-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A pilomatricoma, also known as pilomatrixoma or calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a benign skin tumor arising from the hair follicle matrix.
  • This tumor is common in children and young adults, especially in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20514848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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31. Bengtzen AR, Grossniklaus HE, Bernardino CR: Multiple pilomatrixoma in Turner syndrome. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 May-Jun;25(3):229-30
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  • Pilomatrixoma is typically an isolated benign tumor of the hair follicle matrix with very low recurrence rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / complications. Hair Diseases / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary / complications. Pilomatrixoma / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Turner Syndrome / complications


32. Hamsch C, Hartschuh W: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Apr;8(4):275-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance.
  • Histologic characteristics are follicular and glandular differentiation, as well as bland cytologic features.
  • The benign histologic appearance, particularly in the upper level of the tumor, can be confused with syringoma or benign follicular neoplasm.
  • We report two patients with microcystic adnexal carcinoma, using them as a basis to discuss, pathogenesis, diagnosis, histology and therapy of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19788582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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33. Rouiller DG: [Hirsutism]. Rev Med Suisse; 2005 Feb 9;1(6):420-4

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  • The presence of terminal hair with a male pattern of distribution in a women is called hirsutism, and is either due to increased androgen production or to increased sensitivity of the hair follicle to androgens.
  • In more than 95% of cases, it is a benign condition, generally a polycystic ovarian syndrome.
  • The brisk apparition and extension of hirsutism, together with signs of virilisation and high levels of circulating androgens, suggest the presence of a tumor, extremely rare, but almost always malignant.

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  • (PMID = 15786646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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34. Kazakov DV, Soukup R, Mukensnabl P, Boudova L, Michal M: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case with combined lesions containing cylindromatous, spiradenomatous, trichoblastomatous, and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):27-33
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  • The histopathological survey revealed a plethora of benign adnexal neoplasms showing apocrine, follicular, and sebaceous differentiation occurring independently and conjointly.
  • By far the most common composite tumor was spiradenocylindroma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / surgery. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Diseases / surgery. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 15677973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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35. Ohtani N, Imamura Y, Yamakoshi K, Hirota F, Nakayama R, Kubo Y, Ishimaru N, Takahashi A, Hirao A, Shimizu T, Mann DJ, Saya H, Hayashi Y, Arase S, Matsumoto M, Kazuki N, Hara E: Visualizing the dynamics of p21(Waf1/Cip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor expression in living animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Sep 18;104(38):15034-9
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  • We also applied this system to chemically induced skin carcinogenesis and found that the levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression rise dramatically in benign skin papillomas, suggesting that p21(Waf1/Cip1) plays a preventative role(s) in skin tumor formation.
  • Surprisingly, moreover, we found that the level of p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression strikingly increased in the hair bulb and oscillated with a 3-week period correlating with hair follicle cycle progression.
  • This approach, together with the analysis of p21(Waf1/Cip1) knockout mice, has uncovered a novel role for the p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene in hair development.

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  • (PMID = 17848507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/C508134/1
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cdkn1a protein, mouse; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Luminescent Agents; 5TBB02N29K / Firefly Luciferin; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1975854
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36. Sundaram S, Tasker AD, Morrell NW: Familial spontaneous pneumothorax and lung cysts due to a Folliculin exon 10 mutation. Eur Respir J; 2009 Jun;33(6):1510-2
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  • In 1977, Birt, Hogg and Dube (BHD) described a genodermatosis characterised by benign tumours of the hair follicle that has been associated with renal neoplasms and spontaneous pneumothorax.
  • Genetic analysis in the family has revealed a unique deletion mutation (c. 1537 del-C) involving exon 10.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / genetics. Lung Diseases / genetics. Pneumothorax / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19483054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-3003
  • [Journal-full-title] The European respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Respir. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / FLCN protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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37. Abalo-Lojo JM, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Gonzalez F: Pilomatrixoma: late onset in two periocular cases. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Jan-Feb;24(1):60-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • First described by Malherbe and Chenantais in 1880, pilomatrixoma is a benign skin neoplasm that arises from hair follicle matrix cells.
  • It is typically a tumor of younger individuals and rarely presents in older patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18209650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Baba M, Hong SB, Sharma N, Warren MB, Nickerson ML, Iwamatsu A, Esposito D, Gillette WK, Hopkins RF 3rd, Hartley JL, Furihata M, Oishi S, Zhen W, Burke TR Jr, Linehan WM, Schmidt LS, Zbar B: Folliculin encoded by the BHD gene interacts with a binding protein, FNIP1, and AMPK, and is involved in AMPK and mTOR signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Oct 17;103(42):15552-7
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, a hamartoma disorder characterized by benign tumors of the hair follicle, lung cysts, and renal neoplasia, is caused by germ-line mutations in the BHD(FLCN) gene, which encodes a tumor-suppressor protein, folliculin (FLCN), with unknown function.
  • The tumor-suppressor proteins encoded by genes responsible for several other hamartoma syndromes, LKB1, TSC1/2, and PTEN, have been shown to be involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.

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  • (PMID = 17028174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ DQ145719
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / FLCN protein, human; 0 / FNIP1 protein, human; 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1592464
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39. Haro R, González-Guerra E, Fariña MC, Martín-Moreno L, Requena L: [Trichilemmal horn: a new case and review of the literature]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):65-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Dandruff, Cradle Cap, and Other Scalp Conditions.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Cuerno tricolémico: presentación de un nuevo caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • Trichilemmal horn, or trichilemmal keratosis, is an uncommon benign neoplasm of follicular lineage with trichilemmal differentiation.
  • The essential characteristics of this tumor are its clinical presentation in the form of a cutaneous horn with trichilemmal keratinization apparent in the histology study (with a hyperplastic epithelium giving rise to dense, orthokeratotic eosinophilic keratin).
  • We present a new case of this type of tumor in an 82-year-old woman who developed a solitary lesion on her scalp after surgical removal of a trichilemmal cyst.
  • On the basis of the pathology report, the tumor was diagnosed as trichilemmal horn.
  • We review the 33 reports of this tumor in the literature to date.

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  • (PMID = 19268114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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40. Pulvermacker B, Seroussi D, Haddad R, Mitrofanoff M: [Pilomatricoma or calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe. A pediatric review of 89 cases]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2007 Feb;52(1):39-42
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Pilomatricome ou épithélioma calcifié de Malherbe : à propos d'une série de 89 cas chez l'enfant.
  • This tumor, also known as calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is common in the pediatric population and occurs mainly on the head and neck region.
  • It is a benign skin neoplasm usually misdiagnosed and yet the most common hair follicle tumor.
  • Principal characteristics and clinical presentation of this tumor are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17030388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0294-1260
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Plast Esthet
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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41. Zhang X, Egawa K, Xie Y, Ihn H: The expression of SnoN in normal human skin and cutaneous keratinous neoplasms. Int J Dermatol; 2009 Jun;48(6):579-83
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  • Expression was observed in tumor cells with a squamoid phenotype in SK, but not in BCC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our results, it is suggested that SnoN is involved in differentiation in normal skin and benign and nonmetastatic skin tumors, but plays a proto-oncogenic role in undifferentiated SCC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Dermis / metabolism. Dermis / pathology. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sweat Glands / metabolism. Sweat Glands / pathology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.
  • Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .
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  • (PMID = 19538364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / SKIL protein, human
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42. Bordel MT, Alvarez-Fernández JC: [Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: presentation of two cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 May;97(4):260-3
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  • [Transliterated title] Tricoepitelioma desmoplásico. Presentación de dos casos.
  • Trichoepithelioma is a benign neoformation with hair follicle differentiation that may clinically present in solitary, multiple or desmoplastic form.
  • We present two cases of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, a rare adnexal tumor whose incidence is estimated at 2 per 10,000.
  • Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a benign lesion, clinically and histologically similar to other dermatoses, and presents a true diagnostic challenge.

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  • (PMID = 16801020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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43. Krengel S: Nevogenesis--new thoughts regarding a classical problem. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Oct;27(5):456-65
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  • As a consequence, there are two main perspectives to nevi: that of a hamartoma and that of a benign tumor.
  • In the light of findings from experimental embryology and stem cell biology, we discuss the histogenesis of nevi with special reference to the temporospatial sequence of melanocyte-basement membrane interactions and hair follicle genesis.

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  • (PMID = 16148419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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44. Yazdani N, Khorsandi-Ashtiani M, Rabbani-Anari M, Bassam A, Kouhi A: Nasal vestibular huge keratoacanthoma: an unusual site. Pak J Biol Sci; 2009 Oct 15;12(20):1385-7
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  • Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a rapidly growing, low-grade neoplasm of pilo-sebaceous and hair follicle units which most often appears on the sun-exposed skin of the middle aged and older persons with multiple or localized occurrence.
  • This tumor is dome-shaped nodule with a central keratinous plug.
  • The etiology of this tumor is not obvious.
  • The histological features of the KA are often very similar to those of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma; however, the tumor structure usually provides a basis for their difference.
  • For a clinician and a pathologist it is important to consider a benign lesion like Keratoacanthoma (KA) in the differential diagnosis of ulcerated nasal lesions and pay attention to differ it from Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) which has a different and aggressive management.


45. Shimanovich I, Krahl D, Rose C: Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Feb;62(2):277-83
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  • [Title] Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoadenoma is a rare benign follicular tumor first described by Nikolowski 50 years ago.
  • In trichoadenoma the cystic component predominates, while desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a mostly solid neoplasm.
  • Trichoadenoma is a distinct follicular tumor related but not identical to desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Male. Merkel Cells / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20115950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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46. Ioannidis O, Stavrakis T, Cheva A, Papadimitriou N, Kotronis A, Kakoutis E, Makrantonakis N: Pilomatricoma of the arm with extensive ossification. Adv Med Sci; 2010;55(2):340-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pilomatricoma is a benign skin tumor derived from the hair follicle, usually located in the head and neck and presenting in the first two decades of life.

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  • (PMID = 20439187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1898-4002
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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