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1. Vergara HF, Ortiz DA, Martínez BH, Mosiñoz RM, Arellano JA: [Hand reconstructive surgery secondary to giant cell tumor]. Acta Ortop Mex; 2010 Sep-Oct;24(5):345-50
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  • [Title] [Hand reconstructive surgery secondary to giant cell tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Cirugía reconstructiva de mano secundario a tumor de células gigantes.
  • The giant cell tumor of the bone is a neoplastic low grade lesion that usually appears in the epiphyseal or metaphyseal region of the long bones.
  • The lesion is usually solitary and becomes symptomatic when a considerable proportion of the bone has been destroyed.
  • It is thought to represent approximately 19% of the benign bone tumors and 9% of all the primary bone tumors, according to a review by Schajowicz.
  • The treatment of the giant cell tumor is controversial and the literature is confusing.
  • The giant cell tumor is located mainly in the hand.
  • Its potential aggressiveness makes us consider it in the differential diagnosis of the tumor lesions affecting the hand.
  • The purpose of this research work is to describe our experience with the treatment of the giant cell tumor in three cases that presented as a lytic, expansive lesion affecting the bones of the hand.
  • They were treated with tumor resection and a bone graft to fill the defect.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Finger Phalanges. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21246807.001).
  • [ISSN] 2306-4102
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ortopédica mexicana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ortop Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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2. Cordeiro SZ, Cordeiro Pde B, Sousa AM, Lannes DC, Pierro GS: Giant cell tumor of the rib occupying the entire hemithorax. J Bras Pneumol; 2008 Mar;34(3):185-8
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the rib occupying the entire hemithorax.
  • The authors report the case of a 28-year-old female patient with a giant cell tumor originating from the rib.
  • The tumor, measuring 25 x 17 cm, occupied the entire hemithorax and caused atelectasis of the left lung.
  • This tumor was a benign mesenchymal neoplasm, which rarely affects the ribs.
  • A thoracotomy involving en bloc resection of the chest wall and tumor was performed.
  • Despite the large dimensions of the tumor, complete resection was possible, and lung function was restored.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Ribs

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  • (PMID = 18392468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça̋o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Pneumol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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3. Behzatoğlu K, Durak H, Canberk S, Aydin O, Huq GE, Oznur M, Ozyalvaçli G, Yildiz P: Giant cell tumor-like lesion of the urinary bladder: a report of two cases and literature review; giant cell tumor or undifferentiated carcinoma? Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:48

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant cell tumor-like lesion of the urinary bladder: a report of two cases and literature review; giant cell tumor or undifferentiated carcinoma?
  • Giant cell tumor, excluding its prototype in bone, is usually a benign but local aggressive neoplasm originating from tendon sheath or soft tissue.
  • Giant cell tumors in visceral organs usually accompany epithelial tumors and the clinical behavior of giant cell tumor in urinary bladder is similar to its bone counterpart.
  • Here, we report two cases of giant cell tumor located in urinary bladder in comparison with nine reported cases in the English literature.
  • One of the two cases we present had no concurrent urothelial tumor at the time of diagnosis but had a history of a low grade noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with three recurrences.
  • The histology of these two cases was similar to the giant cell tumor of bone and composed of oval to spindle mononuclear cells with evenly spaced osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Immunohistochemically, the giant cells showed staining with osteoclastic markers including CD68, TRAP, and LCA.
  • The histologic and immunohistochemical properties in our cases as well as their clinical courses were consistent with a giant cell tumor.
  • Consequently, tumors in urinary bladder showing features of giant cell tumor of bone may also be considered and termed "giant cell tumor".

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  • (PMID = 20043822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2811699
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4. Haque AU, Moatasim A: Giant cell tumor of bone: a neoplasm or a reactive condition? Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(6):489-501

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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone: a neoplasm or a reactive condition?
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor of young adults.
  • Microscopically areas of frank hemorrhage, numerous multinucleated giant cells and spindly stromal cells are present.
  • While giant cells and stromal cells have been extensively studied, little attention has been paid to the overwhelming hemorrhagic component.
  • If examined carefully intact and partially degenerated red blood cells are almost invariably seen in many giant cells as well as in the stroma.
  • While hemorrhage in many patients may be resolved without leaving any trace over time, in some it gives rise to giant cell formation, and in others it may lead to proliferation of fibroblasts and histiocytes.
  • Malignancy usually does not occur in GCTB and when discover, it usually represents primary bone sarcomas missed at original diagnosis.
  • Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) shares many features with GCTB.
  • There had been unique karyotypic changes in some aneurysmal bone cysts making it distinct from GCTB.
  • However these changes may be in the endothelial cells which are quite different from stromal or giant cells.
  • Enhanced telomerase activity and karyotypic aberrations may be necessary for rapid division of the nuclei of the giant cells in order to be able to deal with significant in situ intraosseous hemorrhage.

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  • (PMID = 18787633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480584
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumor / aneurysmal bone cyst / bone / bone matrix / hemorrhage / osteoclast / osteoclastoma / telomerase
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5. Swanger R, Maldjian C, Murali R, Tenner M: Three cases of benign giant cell tumor with unusual imaging features. Clin Imaging; 2008 Sep-Oct;32(5):407-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Three cases of benign giant cell tumor with unusual imaging features.
  • OBJECTIVE: Imaging findings for giant cell tumors (GCT) of the spine displaying aggressive characteristics have not been widely reported.
  • CONCLUSION: Acute fracture, subluxation, and extension through the disc space have not been previously described and, while atypical for benign lesions, may in fact be typical for GCT of the spine.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Compression / diagnosis. Spinal Fractures / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Low Back Pain / diagnosis. Low Back Pain / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18760733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Dominkus M, Ruggieri P, Bertoni F, Briccoli A, Picci P, Rocca M, Mercuri M: Histologically verified lung metastases in benign giant cell tumours--14 cases from a single institution. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):499-504
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  • [Title] Histologically verified lung metastases in benign giant cell tumours--14 cases from a single institution.
  • From 1975 to 1997, 649 cases of benign giant cell tumours of the bone were treated at the Istituto Rizzoli.
  • The time interval between the diagnosis and the appearance of the lung metastases ranged from 3 months to 11.9 years.
  • Histologically, the metastases were identical to the primary bone lesions.
  • Local recurrence of the bone lesion occurred in seven patients before or simultaneously to the metastases.
  • In contrast to previous reports, we could not detect a predominance of the distal radius, but all of the patients had a stage III tumour according to the Enneking criteria of benign lesions.
  • We conclude that even metastatic benign giant cell tumours have an excellent prognosis after adequate resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16909252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3172731
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7. Meyer A, Bastian L, Bruns F: Benign giant cell tumor of the spine: an unusual indication for radiotherapy. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2006 Oct;126(8):517-21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign giant cell tumor of the spine: an unusual indication for radiotherapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumors are rare primary bone tumors.
  • CASE REPORT: We report about a 64-year-old female patient presenting with history of three osseous and one pulmonal manifestation of a benign giant cell tumor that have manifested metachronously within 23 years.
  • The two periphery bone and the one pulmonal manifestation were treated surgically with success.
  • Nine months later, local recurrence of this benign giant cell tumor developed at the thoracic spine and was treated with radiotherapy with a total dose of 45 Gy.
  • Due to neurological deficits a laminectomy and a stabilization of the destroyed sixth vertebra with bone cement was carried out.
  • Histopathological examination again showed benign giant cell tumor without suspicion of malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: In the literature the use of radiation therapy remains an appropriate therapy option in benign giant cell tumors with minimal adverse sequelae if primary surgical treatment is not feasible or fails.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16810546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Lee CH, Espinosa I, Jensen KC, Subramanian S, Zhu SX, Varma S, Montgomery KD, Nielsen TO, van de Rijn M, West RB: Gene expression profiling identifies p63 as a diagnostic marker for giant cell tumor of the bone. Mod Pathol; 2008 May;21(5):531-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gene expression profiling identifies p63 as a diagnostic marker for giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTOB) is a primary bone tumor that occurs mainly in young adults and is capable of locally aggressive growth.
  • Its histologic appearance can resemble a number of benign and malignant tumors but no useful diagnostic marker is known currently.
  • To identify diagnostic markers for this tumor, global gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray was performed on 6 fresh-frozen GCTOB, 3 aneurysmal bone cysts, 4 fibrous dysplasias and 12 giant cell tumors of tendon sheath/diffuse-type giant cell tumors.
  • The diagnostic utility of p63 was subsequently confirmed using anti-p63 antibody on a series of 26 GCTOB, 25 aneurysmal bone cysts, 15 chondroblastomas, 13 giant cell reparative granulomas, 13 chondromyxoid fibromas, 4 brown tumors, 4 fibrous dysplasias, 53 giant cell tumors of tendon sheath/diffuse-type giant cell tumors and 385 additional mesenchymal tumors in tissue microarrays.
  • Strong p63 nuclear staining was present in 18 of 26 (69%) GCTOB, 3 of 15 (20%) chondroblastomas and in 1 of 25 (4%) aneurysmal bone cysts while none of the other tumors commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of GCTOB showed any detectable p63 staining.
  • Strong p63 staining is rare in bone and soft-tissue tumors in general.
  • These findings altogether show that p63 can be used as a diagnostic marker to aid the clinical diagnosis of GCTOB.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18192965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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9. Pavlovic S, Valyi-Nagy T, Profirovic J, David O: Fine-needle aspiration of brown tumor of bone: cytologic features with radiologic and histologic correlation. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Feb;37(2):136-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of brown tumor of bone: cytologic features with radiologic and histologic correlation.
  • We report the case of a 40-year-old man with tertiary hyperparathyroidism due to end stage renal disease who initially presented with acute-onset paraplegia, elevated serum parathyroid hormone, and multiple bone abnormalities, including a large extradural intraspinal mass seen by magnetic resonance imaging.
  • In contrast with imaging features, fine-needle aspiration cytology showed numerous benign-appearing multinucleated osteoclast-type giant cells that are the characteristics of either brown tumor or benign giant cell tumor of bone.
  • A core-needle biopsy confirmed the diagnostic features of brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Male. Osteoclasts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19021196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Ech-Charif S, Aubert S, Buob D, Verhulst P, Blomme V, Migaud H, Leroy X: [Giant cell tumor of soft tissues. Report of two cases]. Ann Pathol; 2006 Feb;26(1):26-9

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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumor of soft tissues. Report of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur à cellules géantes des tissus mous.
  • We report two cases of giant-cell tumour of soft tissue (TCG-TM).
  • The first case occurred in a 26-year-old woman presenting with a subcutaneous tumour of the left leg.
  • Pathological study revealed a tumour comparable to benign giant cell tumour of bone.
  • The patient is well without recurrence 10 months after the diagnosis.
  • Microscopically, the tumour was composed of sheets of mononuclear and multinucleated cells.
  • TCG-TMs are uncommon and represent a distinct entity whose clinical behaviour and histological features are similar to giant-cell tumour of bone.
  • The differential diagnosis includes other tumours rich in osteoclast-like cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16841007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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11. Kapoor SK, Jain V, Agrawal M, Singh S, Mandal AK: Primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone: a series of three rare cases. J Surg Orthop Adv; 2007;16(2):89-92
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  • [Title] Primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone: a series of three rare cases.
  • The purpose of this research was to study incidence; clinical, histological, and radiological features; and outcome of primary malignant giant cell tumor (PMGCT).
  • The authors retrospectively reviewed all cases of giant cell tumor (GCT) in which a diagnosis of GCT was related to sarcoma treated in their department between 1997 and 2004.
  • In these three cases of PMGCT, the initial clinical and radiological findings were the same as those for benign giant cell tumor.
  • Wide excision of the tumor was performed in all three cases.
  • Awareness about this entity, adequate biopsy, and sampling of specimen can aid in early diagnosis, which may improve the overall prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17592717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-825X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical orthopaedic advances
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Orthop Adv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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12. Gruenwald N, Demos TC, Lomasney LM, Rapp T: The case. Giant-cell tumor. Orthopedics; 2006 Feb;29(2):94, 167-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The case. Giant-cell tumor.
  • Giant-cell tumor is a benign but locally aggressive primary bone tumor that requires surgical management.
  • Most giant-cell tumors initially are demonstrated on radiographs as distal, subarticular, geographic osteolytic lesions.
  • Abundant giant cells on histology are reactive secondary to a neoplastic fibroblast-like stromal cell.
  • Giant cells are present in many neoplastic and non-neoplastic bone lesions; therefore the diagnosis of giant-cell tumors requires correlation of clinical, imaging, and pathologic data to exclude other lesions that demonstrate a similar histologic pattern.
  • A small number of giant-cell tumors result in lung lesions, many of which have benign histology, can be treated by wedge resection, and do not affect long-term outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiography. Knee

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  • (PMID = 16485448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-7447
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Mendenhall WM, Zlotecki RA, Scarborough MT, Gibbs CP, Mendenhall NP: Giant cell tumor of bone. Am J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb;29(1):96-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the treatment and outcomes for giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone.
  • RESULTS: GCT is a rare benign bone lesion most often found in the extremities of women in the third and fourth decades of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Curettage. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 16462511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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14. McGough RL, Rutledge J, Lewis VO, Lin PP, Yasko AW: Impact severity of local recurrence in giant cell tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2005 Sep;438:116-22
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  • [Title] Impact severity of local recurrence in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 183 consecutive patients diagnosed with giant cell tumor at the three most common sites (distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal radius) to determine the pattern of local tumor recurrence and the impact severity of the recurrence on adjacent joint function.
  • The primary tumor was treated in all patients with intralesional excision of tumor by curettage.
  • The intrainstitutional recurrences were salvaged by a repeat curettage (n = 12) or en bloc osteoarticular resection (n = 10) for bone recurrences and wide local excision for soft tissue recurrence (n = 1).
  • The prereferral recurrences were salvaged by a repeat curettage (n = 7) and en bloc osteoarticular resection (n = 15) for bone recurrences.
  • Incomplete initial surgery, a delay in diagnosis of the recurrence of greater than 6 months, and subchondral recurrence of tumor were contributing factors in the failure to salvage the joint.
  • Despite its benign histology, giant cell tumor of bone is an aggressive tumor that demands meticulous attention to surgical detail and close postoperative surveillance for successful local tumor control and durable, joint-preserving function.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16131879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-921X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Cai G, Ramdall R, Garcia R, Levine P: Pulmonary metastasis of giant cell tumor of the bone diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jun;35(6):358-62
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  • [Title] Pulmonary metastasis of giant cell tumor of the bone diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Giant cell tumor is a benign but locally aggressive tumor that primarily affects the epiphyses of long bones of young adults.
  • Pulmonary metastases in giant cell tumor are rare (about 1-9%).
  • Here, we report a case of metastatic pulmonary giant cell tumor in a patient who had a previous history of giant cell tumor of the distal femur with multiple recurrences.
  • The diagnosis of pulmonary metastasis was achieved by cytologic evaluation with concurrent immunohistochemical studies in material obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • The aspirate smears contained clustered and dispersed mononuclear and osteoclast-like giant cells that had bland nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli.
  • The pulmonary metastasis was similar morphologically and immunophenotypically to the recurrent giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17497658.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Sah PL, Sharma R, Kandpal H, Seith A, Rastogi S, Bandhu S, Jagannathan NR: In vivo proton spectroscopy of giant cell tumor of the bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Feb;190(2):W133-9
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  • [Title] In vivo proton spectroscopy of giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • OBJECTIVE: The proton MR spectroscopic finding of elevated choline has been reported to be useful in the differentiation of malignant from benign musculoskeletal tumors.
  • This study was designed to evaluate the MR spectroscopy features of giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone, primarily to determine whether the presence of choline is a frequent occurrence in these tumors and whether MR spectroscopy features can be correlated with clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy were performed in 33 patients with bone tumors on a 1.5-T MR scanner.
  • Of these, 12 patients who had GCT of the bone form the subject material for this study.
  • RESULTS: Although all 12 tumors were benign on histopathology, four had elevated choline levels.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that GCT of bone may show raised choline levels on proton MR spectroscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / metabolism. Choline / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18212197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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17. Sioud S, Bertolus C, Gruffaz F, Ghoul S, Menard P, Bertrand JC, Ruhin B: [Giant-cell tumors: three recurrent cases in young patients]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2007 Apr;108(2):131-4

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  • [Title] [Giant-cell tumors: three recurrent cases in young patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs à cellules géantes: à propos de trois cas récidivants chez des sujets jeunes.
  • INTRODUCTION: True giant-cell tumor is a rare jaw osteolytic benign tumor belonging to the larger family of giant-cell tumors.
  • OBSERVATION: Since 1973, we have managed four cases of true giant-cell tumors in our unit.
  • DISCUSSION: Based on a literature review we defined this entity among the other giant-cell tumors.
  • We emphasize the importance of early definitive diagnosis based on rigorous clinical and radiological confrontations.
  • Because of its benign nature, the most conservative surgical treatment (tumorectomy-curettage) is generally proposed for the young patient.
  • We noted however that in the three cases presented here, more radical surgical treatment with an enlarged tumorectomy removing the adjacent bone was advisable because of the high risk of recurrence and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Jaw Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17320127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1768
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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18. Notarianni C, Abreo F, Nanda A: Cranial vault metastasis of giant cell tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Aug;12(4):286-9
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  • [Title] Cranial vault metastasis of giant cell tumor.
  • Giant cell tumors are benign bony tumors involving the epiphysis of long bones.
  • Here, we present a case of giant cell tumor involving the parietal bone that had metastasized from the sacrum.
  • As we have presented here, cranial vault metastases can occur and should be considered in a differential diagnosis of bony lesions found in this location.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Parietal Bone / pathology. Sacrum / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18620997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Marioni G, Marchese-Ragona R, Guarda-Nardini L, Stramare R, Tognazza E, Marino F, Staffieri A: Giant cell tumour (central giant cell lesion) of the maxilla. Acta Otolaryngol; 2006 Jul;126(7):779-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant cell tumour (central giant cell lesion) of the maxilla.
  • The giant cell tumour (GCT) is a benign, locally invasive lesion that accounts for about 20% of benign bone tumours.
  • Giant cell lesions in the craniofacial skeleton other than the jaws are uncommon; the majority of them occur in the sphenoid, ethmoid and temporal bones.
  • Our successful maxillary reconstruction based on the association between autologous calvarial bone sticks bent with titanium miniplates and a temporalis muscle pedicled flap allowed the involvement of only one donor area for both hard and soft tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Maxillary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Maxillary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16803721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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20. Albores-Saavedra J, Grider DJ, Wu J, Henson DE, Goodman ZD: Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;30(4):495-500
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • We report four previously undescribed primary giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree and morphologically compare them with 10 anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells of the gallbladder.
  • Two giant cell tumors were located in the distal common bile duct; one in the cystic duct and one in the gallbladder.
  • The 3 patients with bile duct tumors were male, and the only patient with a gallbladder tumor was a female.
  • The patients with bile duct tumors presented with biliary obstruction, and the patient with a gallbladder tumor presented with symptoms of cholelithiasis and a gallbladder mass.
  • Histologically, the tumors were similar to giant cell tumors of bone.
  • They consisted of a mixture of mononuclear and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • The mononuclear cells showed no atypical features, and their nuclei were similar to those of the multinucleated giant cells.
  • CD163 immunoreactivity was restricted to the mononuclear cells, whereas CD68 and HAM 56 labeled only the multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • The anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas contained a fewer number of osteoclast-like giant cells, and their mononuclear cells showed considerable variation in size and shape, marked cytologic atypia, and numerous mitotic figures.
  • The benign osteoclast-like giant cells showed immunoreactivity for CD68 and HAM 56 but were negative for CD163 and cytokeratins.
  • Giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree are benign true histiocytic neoplasms that should be distinguished from the highly lethal anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells by detailed cytologic analysis and immunohistochemical stains for CD163, CD68, HAM 56, and cytokeratins.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Feb;32(2):335-7; author response 337 [18223338.001]
  • (PMID = 16625096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Kumar A, Varshney MK, Trikha V, Rastogi S: An unusual presentation of a rare chest wall tumour: giant cell tumour of bone. Joint Bone Spine; 2007 Jan;74(1):100-2
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  • [Title] An unusual presentation of a rare chest wall tumour: giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Giant cell tumour of bone is an aggressive benign bone tumour.
  • We report a case of giant cell tumour of the anterior end of the rib masquerading as a sub-mammary abscess in lactating women.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Thoracic Wall
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / diagnosis. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lactation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17197221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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22. Chekrine T, Tawfiq N, Bourhaleb Z, Benchakroun N, Jouhadi H, Sahraoui S, Benider A: [Giant-cell bone tumors of the spine: report of two cases and literature review]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Sep;13(5):451-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant-cell bone tumors of the spine: report of two cases and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Deux cas de tumeurs osseuses à cellules géantes du rachis et revue de la littérature.
  • Giant cell tumours (GCT) are relatively rare neoplasms, most often benign.
  • We report two observations of GCT, the spine in a 51-year-old woman and a 14-year-old boy.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination in two cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19615930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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23. Bayar MA, Erdem Y, Gokcek C, Koktekir E, Kilic C, Yasitli U, Tekiner A: Giant cell reparative granuloma of the axis. Turk Neurosurg; 2009 Oct;19(4):423-7
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  • [Title] Giant cell reparative granuloma of the axis.
  • Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a rare, benign fibroosseous lesion.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was GCRG.
  • We filled the tumor cavity with a bone graft and the patient was discharged with a halo brace without any neurological deficits.
  • The follow-up CT revealed one year after the surgery showed sclerosis at the tumor site.
  • The etiopathogenesis of GCRG is still controversial and the differential diagnosis, especially from giant cell tumor of bone is quite difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Axis, Cervical Vertebra / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19847766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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24. Refai D, Dunn GP, Santiago P: Giant cell tumor of the thoracic spine: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2009 Feb;71(2):228-33; discussion 233

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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the thoracic spine: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumors are benign tumors of the bone that most commonly occur at the ends of the long bones; they are rarely found in the spine above the sacrum.
  • The management of patients with giant cell tumors of the spine represents a challenge, and the clinical approach to this problem continues to evolve with improvements in surgical and adjunctive therapies.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 19-year-old woman with localized back pain and a spinal compression deformity was found to harbor a giant cell tumor of the T7 vertebral body.
  • To optimize local disease control, the patient underwent IMRT delivered to the site of tumor resection.
  • CONCLUSION: The literature and approaches to the management of spinal giant cell tumors are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • (PMID = 18207522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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25. Cozzolino A, Balleri P, Ruggiero G, Veltri M: Use of short implants for functional restoration of the mandible after giant cell tumor removal. Case report. Minerva Stomatol; 2006 May;55(5):307-14

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  • [Title] Use of short implants for functional restoration of the mandible after giant cell tumor removal. Case report.
  • The giant cell tumor of the jaws is a rare benign lesion, it has a slow and progressive evolution and it is locally aggressive.
  • Diagnosis is made by radiological and histological examination and surgical treatment is necessary.
  • The clinical case of a 28-year-old man affected by a giant cell tumor of the mandible with an aggressive clinical and radiographical behaviour is reported.
  • The patient showed a jaw swelling covered by hyperemic fibro-mucous tissue from tooth 4.6 to 3.4, absence of cortical bone and mobility of teeth.
  • The giant cell tumor diagnosis was made with orthopantomography (OPT), computed tomography (CT) and needle biopsy.
  • The lesion was surgically removed and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis.
  • In spite of the wide loss of bony substance after surgery, the patient was provided with an implant supported fixed prosthesis without previous bone graft.
  • In this case short implants allowed the prosthetic rehabilitation of a mandible with severe ''resorption'' due to surgical removal of a tumor.
  • Implants were placed in the residual bone volume and successfully used to support a fixed prosthesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dental Implantation, Endosseous. Dental Implants. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Mandibular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Resorption. Equipment Design. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Tooth Extraction. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 16688107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4970
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva stomatologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Stomatol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dental Implants
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26. Emanuel PO, Shim H, Phelps RG: Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with osteoclastic giant-cell-like proliferation. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Dec;34(12):930-3
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with osteoclastic giant-cell-like proliferation.
  • Although osteoclast giant-cell-like proliferations have been reported in a diverse range of human malignancies, to the best of our knowledge, they have never been described in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Histologically, osteoclastic giant cell tumors within extraosseous malignancy resemble their bony and soft tissue counterparts, with round to spindle-shaped cells admixed with osteoclast-like multinucleate cells.
  • These cells should be distinguished from sarcomatoid differentiation within a carcinoma; they have a benign morphology with a low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, minimal pleomorphism/mitoses and negative immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin.
  • The authors report the rare occurrence of osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) and accompanying epithelioid histiocytes lacking overtly malignant features in association with a poorly differentiated SCC occurring on sun-damaged skin.
  • The histological differential diagnosis and the origin of the proliferation are discussed in this article.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Lip / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18001416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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27. Ulu MO, Biceroglu H, Ozlen F, Oz B, Gazioglu N: Giant cell tumor of the frontal bone in an 18-month-old girl: a case report. Cent Eur Neurosurg; 2010 May;71(2):104-7

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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the frontal bone in an 18-month-old girl: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumors (GCT) are benign, but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasms, that frequently occur in the epiphyses of the long bones.
  • CASE REPORT: The authors report the management of a GCT involving the frontal bone in an 18-month-old girl.
  • CONCLUSION: Although rare, GCTs should be taken into consideration as a differential diagnosis of rapidly enlarging cranial mass lesions in pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Frontal Bone / pathology. Frontal Bone / surgery. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 20072990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-4912
  • [Journal-full-title] Central European neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Eur Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Hunter CL, Pacione D, Hornyak M, Murali R: Giant-cell tumors of the cervical spine: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Nov;59(5):E1142-3; discussion E1143
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumors of the cervical spine: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Giant-cell tumors of bone are rare, benign neoplasms that occur infrequently in the spine above the sacrum, and their presence in the cervical vertebrae is even more exceptional.
  • The authors report two cases of giant-cell tumors in the cervical vertebrae that were treated successfully with surgical excision and postoperative radiation as well as long-term follow-up.
  • INTERVENTION: In one case, the tumor was treated by anterior resection, then by laminectomy and instrumented fusion, and finally by adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy.
  • However, the tumor recurred, and, after several surgical procedures, external beam radiotherapy was administered.
  • The patients have been followed for 17 and 11 years, respectively, with no evidence of tumor recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: Radical resection of giant-cell tumors is generally agreed to be the best treatment option.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Laminectomy / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17143206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Rudic M, Grayeli AB, Cazals-Hatem D, Cyna-Gorse F, Bouccara D, Sterkers O: Temporal bone central giant-cell granuloma presenting as a serous otitis media. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2008 May;265(5):587-91
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  • [Title] Temporal bone central giant-cell granuloma presenting as a serous otitis media.
  • Central giant cell granuloma is a benign intraosseous lesion that most commonly occurs in the facial bones.
  • Its location in the temporal bone is extremely rare and only 20 cases have been reported in the literature.
  • CT-scan and MRI revealed a temporal bone tumor involving the mastoid, and surrounding the right temporo-mandibular joint.
  • Tumor was totally removed after a canal-wall-down mastoidectomy and middle ear exclusion.
  • Pathology revealed a central giant cell granuloma.
  • Central giant cell granuloma is a rare temporal bone lesion, with non specific clinical and imaging signs but characteristic pathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / diagnosis. Granuloma, Giant Cell / diagnosis. Otitis Media with Effusion / diagnosis. Temporal Bone

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  • (PMID = 18004584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Skubitz KM, Manivel JC: Giant cell tumor of the uterus: case report and response to chemotherapy. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:46
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the uterus: case report and response to chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is usually a benign but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasm in which monocytic macrophage/osteoclast precursor cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells infiltrate the tumor.
  • The etiology of GCT is unknown, however the tumor cells of GCT have been reported to produce chemoattractants that can attract osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumors / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17359524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 57
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1832205
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31. James SL, Davies AM: Giant-cell tumours of bone of the hand and wrist: a review of imaging findings and differential diagnoses. Eur Radiol; 2005 Sep;15(9):1855-66
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumours of bone of the hand and wrist: a review of imaging findings and differential diagnoses.
  • Giant-cell tumour of bone (GCTOB) is a benign, locally aggressive, primary bone tumour.
  • GCTOB involving the bones of the hand most commonly occurs in a central location, which differs from the usual eccentric location seen in GCTOB at other sites.
  • The role of bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carpal Bones / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Hand Bones / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15868123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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32. Boneschi V, Parafioriti A, Armiraglio E, Gaiani F, Brambilla L: Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:20-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration.
  • BACKGROUND: Soft tissue giant cell tumor (GCT-ST) of low malignant potential is an uncommon neoplasm, considered the soft tissue counterpart of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Histologically, this tumor is characterized by a mixture of uniformly scattered osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells intimately admixed with short fascicles of spindled cells.
  • Complete excision with negative surgical margins is associated with a benign clinical course in most cases.
  • RESULTS: Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a multinodular growth pattern with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells admixed with spindle cells partially arranged in a storiform pattern, fibrosis and foci of haemorrhage and mature bone.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed CD68 reactivity of the multinucleated giant cells.
  • CONCLUSION: GCT-ST is a rare neoplasm characterized by benign clinical course if excised adequately, as shown by our case of exceptionally long duration.
  • Emphasis is placed on the importance of differential diagnosis with other giant cell-rich soft tissue neoplasms because clinical behaviour, prognosis and treatment significantly differ.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Groin / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age of Onset. Aged. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Biopsy. Diagnostic Errors. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19222697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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33. Riddle ND, Yamauchi H, Caracciolo JT, Cheong D, Khakpour N, Bui MM: Giant cell tumor of the anterior rib masquerading as a breast mass: a case report and review of current literature. Cases J; 2010;3:51
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the anterior rib masquerading as a breast mass: a case report and review of current literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is an aggressive, but usually benign bone neoplasm most commonly arising in the metaphysis/epiphyses of long bones.
  • While they are categorized as benign tumors, they can be locally aggressive and clinically have metastatic potential.
  • The most common locations of this tumor include the distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal radius.
  • Histological examination of the biopsy specimen showed bland multi-nucleated giant cells and mononuclear cells whose nuclei were morphologically similar.
  • CONCLUSION: The histological features of bland mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells along with the lack of any additional mesenchymal elements led to the diagnosis of giant cell tumor.
  • Resection of tumor was performed.
  • This case is important as it shows where the physician must keep this diagnosis in mind whenever a deeply located breast mast is present.

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  • (PMID = 20205847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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34. Farzaneh AH, Pardis PM: Central giant cell granuloma and fibrous dysplasia occurring in the same jaw. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2005;10 Suppl 2:E130-2
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  • [Title] Central giant cell granuloma and fibrous dysplasia occurring in the same jaw.
  • Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a developmental tumor like condition that is characterized by replacement of normal bone by an excessive proliferation of cellular fibrous connective tissue intermixed with irregular bony trabeculae.
  • Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is described as a benign lesion affecting the mandible and maxilla that consists of a massive fibrohistiocytic proliferation with numerous heavily hemosiderin-laden multinucleate-giant cells.
  • Our differential diagnosis was osteoma, osteoid osteoma and Fd.
  • The histological feature reveal Central giant cell granuloma fibrous dysplasia.
  • Central giant cell granuloma and fibrous dysplasia occurring in the same jaw is rarely reported in the literatures.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrous Dysplasia, Monostotic / complications. Granuloma, Giant Cell / complications. Mandibular Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Osteoma / diagnosis. Osteoma, Osteoid / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15995572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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35. Donthineni R, Boriani L, Ofluoglu O, Bandiera S: Metastatic behaviour of giant cell tumour of the spine. Int Orthop; 2009 Apr;33(2):497-501
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  • [Title] Metastatic behaviour of giant cell tumour of the spine.
  • Lung metastases from giant cell tumours (GCT) of the spine have not been specifically addressed in the literature.
  • When there is a recurrence of GCT, with or without metastases, the local and possibly the metastases should be biopsied to confirm the original diagnosis.
  • Progression of benign GCT into an aggressive sarcoma has been documented, and the method of management should be altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18461324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-5195
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899057
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36. Baker JF, Perera A, Kiely PD, Lui DF, Stephens MM: Giant cell tumour in the foot of a skeletally immature girl: a case report. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2009 Aug;17(2):248-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant cell tumour in the foot of a skeletally immature girl: a case report.
  • We present a case of delayed diagnosis of a benign giant cell tumour (GCT) of the third metatarsal in a skeletally immature girl.
  • The patient underwent en bloc excision of the tumour.
  • The tumour had replaced the third metatarsal and had infiltrated the surrounding soft tissue and the second and fourth metatarsal bases.
  • A high index of suspicion is needed when evaluating any tumours of the foot, because the compact structure of the foot may delay diagnosis.
  • GCT in this location and age-group are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a destructive bony lesion in skeletally immature patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Metatarsal Bones / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19721166.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-4990
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Mondal SK: Cytodiagnosis of benign fibrous histiocytoma of rib and diagnostic dilemma: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jun;38(6):457-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytodiagnosis of benign fibrous histiocytoma of rib and diagnostic dilemma: a case report.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) of bone is rare in occurrence, and rib is an unusual site.
  • There are limited case reports of this entity in the literature, and cytodiagnosis of this tumor is not described.
  • Radiological investigations (plain radiograph and computed tomography) revealed a lytic bone lesion involving the 5th rib.
  • Radiologically, giant cell tumor (GCT), BFH, and plasmacytoma were suspected.
  • In fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), admixture of benign stromal cells and scattered osteoclast type giant cells were found in the smears.
  • Differential diagnoses of BFH, GCT (non-epiphyseal type), fibrous dysplasia, and aneurysmal bone cyst were made on cytology.
  • Subsequent histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of BFH.
  • Cytologic diagnosis of BFH of rib is difficult as this tumor may mimic other giant cell containing tumors of bone in FNAC.
  • The final diagnosis should always be made after correlation with histological, radiological, and clinical features.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Ribs / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / pathology. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Humans. Male. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20014125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Ozcan C, Apaydin FD, Görür K, Apa DD: Peripheral giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle presenting as a preauricular mass. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar;262(3):178-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peripheral giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle presenting as a preauricular mass.
  • Some rare extraparotid lesions, originating from the temporomandibular joint and the mandible itself, also share the same localization and therefore are to be taken into consideration for the differential diagnosis with parotid lesions.
  • Giant cell granuloma (GCG) was first described by Jaffe in 1953.
  • Central GCG (CGCG) is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous lesion generally presenting as an expansible mass with cortical bone defect.
  • The brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism and giant cell tumor must be ruled out because of the microscopic similarities of these lesions.
  • The first case of PGCG of the mandible condyle is presented, and attention is drawn to mandibular diseases for the differential diagnosis of the preauricular mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15133683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Bharatnur SS, Naik CN, Swethadri GK, Fernandes H, Shekhar JC, Marla NJ: Fine needle aspiration cytology of benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jan-Feb;54(1):89-91

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND; Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) of bone is a very rare tumor, and almost all reported cases were diagnosed after surgical resection by histologic examination.
  • We report a case in which cytologic features of BFH of bone were established preoperatively by fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • To the best of our knowledge, FNA findings of BFH of bone have not been previously reported.
  • Multinucleate giant cells were occasionally seen.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of Giant cell tumor of bone with a BFH component was rendered.
  • Histology revealed a pure BFH of bone.
  • CONCLUSION: The current case reveals the cytomorphologic features of BFH of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20306998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Moser A, Hoffmann KM, Walch C, Sovinz P, Lackner H, Schwinger W, Benesch M, Fritz G, Urban C: Intracranial reparative giant cell granuloma secondary to cholesteatoma in a 15-year-old girl. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Dec;30(12):935-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracranial reparative giant cell granuloma secondary to cholesteatoma in a 15-year-old girl.
  • Imaging studies revealed an intracranial mass of the right temporal bone causing temporal lobe displacement.
  • A first biopsy led to the diagnosis of intracranial giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), a rare benign tumor of the bone or soft tissue that can show expansive growth.
  • Cholesteatoma should be considered as a trigger for intracranial GCRG growth, especially if adjacent to the temporal bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / etiology. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / complications. Granuloma, Giant Cell / etiology. Temporal Bone

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  • (PMID = 19131785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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41. Wootton-Gorges SL: MR imaging of primary bone tumors and tumor-like conditions in children. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am; 2009 Aug;17(3):469-87, vi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MR imaging of primary bone tumors and tumor-like conditions in children.
  • This article provides a review of the MR imaging features of the major primary malignant and benign bone tumors and tumorlike conditions encountered in the pediatric population.
  • Benign lesions discussed include simple bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, giant cell tumor, osteochondroma, enchondroma, chondroblastoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, nonossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, osteofibrous dysplasia, hemangioma, and histiocytosis.
  • The use of MR imaging in the diagnosis of these lesions is discussed, and the text is enhanced with imaging examples of the lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Cysts / diagnosis. Bone Cysts / pathology. Cartilage Diseases / diagnosis. Cartilage Diseases / pathology. Child. Contrast Media. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19524197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9786
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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42. Abdel MP, Papagelopoulos PJ, Morrey ME, Wenger DE, Rose PS, Sim FH: Surgical management of 121 benign proximal fibula tumors. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2010 Nov;468(11):3056-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of 121 benign proximal fibula tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumors of the fibula comprise only 2.5% of primary bone lesions.
  • Patients with aggressive benign tumors in the proximal fibula may require en bloc resection.
  • QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We therefore analyzed the incidence of peroneal nerve palsy, knee stability, and local recurrence following surgical treatment of benign proximal fibula tumors.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 120 patients (121 tumors) with histologically confirmed aggressive benign tumors of the proximal fibula.
  • The most common diagnosis was osteochondroma (38%) followed by giant cell tumor (19%).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Fibula / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20625947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2947668
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43. Campbell K, Wodajo F: Case report: two-step malignant transformation of a liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2008 Nov;466(11):2873-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case report: two-step malignant transformation of a liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor of bone.
  • We present the case of a patient with malignant transformation of a liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor.
  • The patient had a histologically confirmed liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor that, during a course of 22 months, spontaneously transformed into a lesion appearing like a benign giant cell reactive lesion and subsequently into a high-grade bone sarcoma.
  • Few such cases of spontaneous malignant transformation of liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor have been reported.
  • We report what we believe to be the first case documenting spontaneous transformation of a liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor into an intermediate lesion with benign-appearing histologic features and then into a high-grade malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis. Liposarcoma, Myxoid / diagnosis. Myxoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Femur / pathology. Femur / radiography. Follow-Up Studies. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18607664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2565027
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44. Fraquet N, Faizon G, Rosset P, Phillipeau J-, Waast D, Gouin F: Long bones giant cells tumors: treatment by curretage and cavity filling cementation. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res; 2009 Oct;95(6):402-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long bones giant cells tumors: treatment by curretage and cavity filling cementation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Giant cell tumors (GCT) of bone are benign tumors with local aggressiveness that most of the time occur around the metaphyseal area of long bones, often in contact with the articular cartilage.
  • Preoperative radiological evaluation with standard X-rays showed that the tumor measured a mean 71x45mm, for a mean volume of 78cm(3).
  • Two cases of minor osteoarthritis progression were noted (one less than 50% and a simple densification of subchondral bone), requiring no specific treatment.
  • Diagnosis of recurrence can be made earlier because of the thin scalable border at the bone-cement interface.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Femur / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Tibia / surgery

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19767256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1877-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop Traumatol Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100201
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45. Eyesan SU, Ugwoegbulem OA, Obalum DC: Bone cement in the management of cystic tumour defects of bone at National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos. Niger J Clin Pract; 2009 Dec;12(4):367-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bone cement in the management of cystic tumour defects of bone at National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos.
  • BACKGROUND: Cystic bony defects are characteristics of bone tumours especially benign ones e.g.
  • Giant cell tumours of bone [GCT] and some metastatic tumours to bone.
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcome of filling these defects with bone cement augmented with plate and screw for stability.
  • METHOD: A seven year prospective study was carried out in patients presenting with large cystic bony defects secondary to bone tumours at the oncology unit of the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos.
  • Data such as age, sex, anatomic location of lesions, histological type of tumours, x-ray findings, operation performed with the number of packets of bone cement used to fill the resultant bony defects were retrieved from prepared proforma.
  • Giant cell tumour was the most common histological diagnosis 78.6%.
  • Bone cement was effective in meeting the local requirements of limb salvage, early functional recovery and as a temporising measure until the patients can avail themselves of better options.
  • CONCLUSION: Bone cement augmented with appropriate implants has proven valuable as a stop gap in filling large cystic bony defects resulting from tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements. Bone Cysts / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Humerus / surgery. Leg Bones / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20329673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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46. Wang J, Pei F, Tu C, Zhang H, Qiu X: Serum bone turnover markers in patients with primary bone tumors. Oncology; 2007;72(5-6):338-42
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  • [Title] Serum bone turnover markers in patients with primary bone tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: It was the aim of this study to investigate parameters of bone turnover such as serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and N-terminal midfragment of osteocalcin (N-MID), as well as serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in patients with primary bone tumors and to investigate their validity in differentiating malignant from benign bone tumors.
  • METHODS: A total of 219 patients with primary bone tumors entered the study.
  • In each group, the patients were divided into several subgroups (osteosarcoma, benign bone tumors or tumor-like lesions, giant cell tumor, and other primary malignant bone tumors).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A high serum BALP level is valuable for the diagnosis of adult osteosarcoma, but its use in the development of a differential diagnosis in the teenage patients is not advised because serum BALP levels are also affected by age, pubertal stage and growth velocity.
  • Both serum N-MID and serum CTX are hardly useful in the differential diagnosis of primary bone tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18187955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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47. Wahane RN, Lele VR, Bobhate SK: Fine needle aspiration cytology of bone tumors. Acta Cytol; 2007 Sep-Oct;51(5):711-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of bone tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of bone tumors and its impact on therapeutic decisions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A group of 122 cases of bone tumor were evaluated by FNAC.
  • FNAC could differentiate between various round cell tumors such as Ewing's sarcoma and myeloma, among various giant cell-rich lesions of bone and between the benign and malignant chondroid bone tumors.
  • In metastatic bone tumors, the source of primary malignancy could not be indicated in the majority (52.9%) because of the poorly differentiated morphology.
  • CONCLUSION: FNAC plays an important role in the early diagnosis of bone tumors by its accuracy, ease of use and rapidity and is helpful in making the therapeutic decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone and Bones / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibroma / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17910340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Chadha M, Agarwal A, Wadhwa N: Chondroid chordoma of the L5 spinous process and lamina: a case report. Eur Spine J; 2005 Oct;14(8):803-6
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  • Chordoma is a rare bone tumor that originates from the remnants of the notochord.
  • A differential diagnosis of a benign tumor (giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone cyst or osteoblastoma) was made initially.
  • The tumor was removed enbloc.
  • Histopathological examination revealed the tumor mass to be chordoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Chordoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology

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  • [Cites] Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000 Oct 1;25(19):2537-40 [11013508.001]
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  • (PMID = 15895260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-6719
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3489257
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49. Bourhaleb Z, Chekrine T, Bouamama I, Bouchbika Z, Benchakroun N, Jouhadi H, Tawfiq N, Sahraoui S, Benider A: [A rare tumor of the infratemporal fossa]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2010 Jun;111(3):165-7

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  • [Title] [A rare tumor of the infratemporal fossa].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur rare de la fosse infratemporale.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumors of bone (GCT) are usually benign and relatively rare.
  • We report a giant cell infratemporal fossa tumor.
  • Surgical excision was incomplete because of the subtemporal tumor localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Middle / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20605177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-257X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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50. Yoshioka K, Kawahara N, Murakami H, Demura S, Kawaguchi M, Oda M, Matsumoto I, Tomita K: Cervicothoracic giant cell tumor expanding into the superior mediastinum: total excision by combined anterior-posterior approach. Orthopedics; 2009 Jul;32(7):531
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  • [Title] Cervicothoracic giant cell tumor expanding into the superior mediastinum: total excision by combined anterior-posterior approach.
  • This article describes a case of cervicothoracic giant cell tumor expanding into the superior mediastinum treated by total spondylectomy.
  • The spinal cord was severely compressed by the tumor mass.
  • The tumor had spread from T2 to the mediastinum, so that the tumor was in contact with many vital structures.
  • To resect the tumor completely, total spondylectomy from T1 to T3 was performed through a combined anterior-posterior approach.
  • The tumor was dissected from the vital structures using an anterior low cervical approach and splitting one-third of the sternum.
  • En bloc vertebral resection from Th1 to Th3, including the tumor pseudocapsule, was possible through a posterior approach.
  • The tumor around the nerve roots or dura was resected piece by piece since it was possible to separate the capsulated tumor from the dura.
  • Splitting one-third of the sternum allowed separation of the tumor from the anterior vital structures, under direct vision.
  • This allowed en bloc vertebral resection of the tumor that had spread to the mediastinum from T2 and in the craniocaudal direction from T1 to T3.
  • Although giant cell tumor is benign, it can be locally aggressive.
  • Complete excision of a giant cell tumor is the best treatment option even for the cervicothoracic spine, to protect the vital structures or neural function.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Osteotomy / methods. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 19634835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Kao HL, Chang WC, Lee CH, Lee HS, Huang GS: Missed brown tumors in a young adult with decreased bone density. South Med J; 2010 Apr;103(4):371-3
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  • [Title] Missed brown tumors in a young adult with decreased bone density.
  • Brown tumors, a benign osteolytic process, are most commonly caused by hyperparathyroidism.
  • Multiple bone involvement is relatively rare.
  • There are many similarities in the radiologic and histological features of brown tumors and giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone.
  • Herein, the case of a 32-year-old man with multiple osteolytic lesions of the left tibia and fibula as well as the fourth metacarpal bone of the left hand, previously misdiagnosed with multiple GCTs, is presented.
  • Based on the radiographic findings and biochemistry results in a young adult patient, brown tumor was suspected and subsequently definitively diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Diseases, Metabolic / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Fibula / pathology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Male. Osteolysis / diagnosis. Osteolysis / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Tibia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20224492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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52. Burnei G, Burnei C, Hodorogea D, Gavriliu S, Georgescu I, Vlad C: Osteoarticular reconstructive surgery in malignant bone tumors: the importance of external fixators. J Med Life; 2008 Jul-Sep;1(3):295-306
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  • [Title] Osteoarticular reconstructive surgery in malignant bone tumors: the importance of external fixators.
  • The patients with malignant bone tumors (table 1.) were studied by sex, tumor type, location, age at the moment of diagnosis, age at the moment of the last evaluation, type of surgery, external fixator implanted, complications, results and survival period.
  • We also considered for each patient the extent of the tumor to diaphysis, soft tissue involvement, involvement of physis and epiphyseal invasion, articular extent, vessels and nerves invasion, presence of metastases and local skin invasion.
  • The certain diagnosis was based on pathological anatomy exam, because clinical and imagistic data were not decisive in each case.
  • The development of reconstructive bone surgery is sustained by the possibility to delineate the tumor by diagnosis based on imaging and by the possibility to use modern preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Limb conservation was possible only in aggressive benign tumors up to 1970.
  • Since then the same treatment was preferred also in malignant bone tumors, because the relapse appeared as frequent as in cases with amputation but the physical and psychological comfort made the patients to accept it readily.
  • The goal of malignant bone tumors treatment is to save the life of the patient, to preserve the affected limb, to maintain the length and function of the limb.
  • Oncologic surgery consists of "en bloc" tumor resection followed by bone reconstruction or modular prosthetic replacement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Chondrosarcoma / surgery. External Fixators. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Osteosarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20108507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1844-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicine and life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Life
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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53. Settakorn J, Lekawanvijit S, Arpornchayanon O, Rangdaeng S, Vanitanakom P, Kongkarnka S, Cheepsattayakorn R, Ya-In C, Thorner PS: Spectrum of bone tumors in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand according to WHO classification 2002: A study of 1,001 cases. J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Jun;89(6):780-7
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  • [Title] Spectrum of bone tumors in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand according to WHO classification 2002: A study of 1,001 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the spectrum, frequency and demographics of bone tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study of the 1,001 bone tumor specimens from the files at the Pathology Department of the Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand from 2000 to 2004.
  • In the primary tumor group, 654 (76%) cases were of hematologic origin, and 202 (24%) were non-hematologic.
  • The most common benign bone tumors were giant cell tumor (n = 37), osteochondroma (n = 25), and chondroma (n = 15).
  • The most common malignant bone tumors were lymphoma-leukemia (n = 583), metastatic malignancy (n = 104), plasma cell myeloma (n = 71), and osteosarcoma (n = 58).
  • CONCLUSION: The present study showed a higher frequency of osteosarcoma (68%), lower frequencies of chondrosarcoma (12%) and Ewing sarcoma (4%) among primary non-hematologic malignant bone tumors when compared with similar studies based on Western patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / epidemiology. Hospitals, University. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Osteochondroma / epidemiology. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Thailand / epidemiology. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16850677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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54. Qi ZH, Li CF, Ma XX, Li ZF, Zhang K, Yu DX: [Changes of 3-tesla 31P-MR spectroscopy of bone and soft tissue tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Jun;31(6):442-6
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  • [Title] [Changes of 3-tesla 31P-MR spectroscopy of bone and soft tissue tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristic changes of 31P-MR spectroscopy of bone and soft tissue tumors.
  • METHODS: 41 patients were examined by phosphorus surface coil of 3 tesla MR machine, including 18 benign tumor foci and 28 malignant foci, and adjacent normal muscles.
  • RESULTS: The ratios of Pcr/PME and PME/NTP in benign and malignant tumor groups were significantly different from those of the normal group (P<0.05).
  • Between benign and malignant tumor groups, the ratios of PME/beta-ATP and PME/NTP were significantly different (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Pcr/PME and PME/NTP are potential diagnostic indexes of bone and soft tissue tumors.
  • PME/beta-ATP and PME/NTP are potential indexes of differential diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Fibroma / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organophosphates / metabolism. Phosphocreatine / metabolism. Phosphorus / metabolism. Phosphorus Isotopes. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Ewing / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19950555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphates; 0 / Phosphorus Isotopes; 020IUV4N33 / Phosphocreatine; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate
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55. Van Dyck P, Vanhoenacker FM, Vogel J, Venstermans C, Kroon HM, Gielen J, Parizel PM, Bloem JL, De Schepper AM: Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors. Eur Radiol; 2006 Dec;16(12):2644-51
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  • [Title] Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors.
  • Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels.
  • Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%).
  • Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), "brown tumor" (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases).
  • Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%).
  • Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma "not otherwise specified" (2 cases).
  • In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively.
  • Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can occur in a wide range of bone and soft tissue tumors, both benign and malignant.
  • Therefore, they cannot be considered diagnostic of any particular type of tumor, and the diagnosis should be made on the basis of other radiological and clinical findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16612549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Balke M, Schremper L, Gebert C, Ahrens H, Streitbuerger A, Koehler G, Hardes J, Gosheger G: Giant cell tumor of bone: treatment and outcome of 214 cases. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Sep;134(9):969-78
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone: treatment and outcome of 214 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Two hundred and fourteen patients with benign giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), treated from 1980 to 2007 at the Department of Orthopedics of the University of Muenster (Germany), were analyzed in a retrospective study.
  • The effects of bone cement (PMMA), burring and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were statistically analyzed and the influence of a subchondral bone graft on the recurrence rate was evaluated.
  • If the tumor reaches close to the articulating surface a subchondral bone graft (n = 42) can be performed without risking a higher recurrence rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18322700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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57. Bello Báez A, López Pino MA, Azorín Cuadrillero D, Sirvent Cerdá S: [Aneurysmatic bone cyst coexisting with osteosarcoma. Radiopathologic discussion]. Radiologia; 2010 May-Jun;52(3):247-50
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  • [Title] [Aneurysmatic bone cyst coexisting with osteosarcoma. Radiopathologic discussion].
  • Aneurysmatic bone cysts are benign lesions of unknown origin.
  • It has been postulated that they might occur in reaction to trauma or to a primary benign (giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, etc.) or malignant (osteosarcoma) bone tumor that results in local hemodynamic changes.
  • We present a case of low grade osteosarcoma with a radiologic progression that was indistinguishable from that of an aneurysmatic bone cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / radiography. Humerus. Osteosarcoma / radiography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20304449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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58. Jarkiewicz-Kochman E, Gołebiowski M, Swiatkowski J, Pacholec E, Rajewski R: Tumours of the metatarsus. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2007 May-Jun;9(3):319-30
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  • Single cases of the following tumours have been discussed: giant cell tumour, metastases (lung, prostate gland), chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Ewing's sarcoma, clear cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, intraosseous ganglion, chondromyxoid fibroma and granuloma.
  • The aim of the present study was to carry out a systematic examination of metatarsal tumours with regard to methods of diagnosis (location) and morphology.
  • RESULTS: Most of the metatarsal tumours were benign.
  • Bone tumours are rarely located in the metatarsus.
  • 4. The frequently unequivocal presentation of metatarsal tumours requires a multidisciplinary diagnosis involving a clinician, a radiologist and a histopathologist.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Metatarsal Bones / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Osteoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Synovial / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17721430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng; pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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59. Jackson WF, Theologis TN, Gibbons CL, Mathews S, Kambouroglou G: Early management of pathological fractures in children. Injury; 2007 Feb;38(2):194-200
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  • The indications for surgical treatment are unclear and the need for histological diagnosis before or after definitive treatment is not clearly defined.
  • We reviewed retrospectively the records of all patients under the age of 16 years who presented over the past 7 years with a fracture as the first manifestation of bone pathology.
  • There were nine cases of fracture through a simple bone cyst, five cases of fibrous dysplasia, two giant cell tumours, three aneurysmal bone cysts, one chondroblastoma, and three cases of Ewings sarcoma.
  • We recommend that primary fixation of pathological fractures should be avoided until histological diagnosis is obtained.
  • However, if radiographic appearances are reassuringly benign, biopsy can be delayed until conservative fracture management is completed.
  • Definitive treatment of benign lesions with protective intra medullary nailing or curettage and grafting can follow frozen section under the same anaesthetic.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Algorithms. Bone Cysts / complications. Bone Cysts / diagnosis. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / complications. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / complications. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / complications. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Ewing / complications. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17054958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-1383
  • [Journal-full-title] Injury
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Injury
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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60. Panasiuk M, Iwański A: Diagnostic difficulties in pigmented villonodular synovitis. Presentation of cases. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2008 Nov-Dec;10(6):613-9
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  • In the literature, this condition has been called xanthoma, xanthogranuloma, villous arthritis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, xanthomatous giant cell tumour, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, giant cell fibrohemangioma, benign synovioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular / diagnosis. Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Ankle Joint. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Knee Joint / blood supply. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Synovial Membrane / surgery. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 19153550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng; pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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61. Eyichukwu GO, Ogugua PC: Osteoclastoma in an infant. Niger J Med; 2007 Oct-Dec;16(4):378-80

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  • [Title] Osteoclastoma in an infant.
  • BACKGROUND: Conventionally, osteoclastoma is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumour with a tendency for local recurrence and rarely distant metastasis, diagnosed mainly in young adults, 15-40 years of age.
  • Diagnosis before skeletal maturity is circumspect.
  • We report a case of giant cell tumour of the clavicle (uncommon site) in a 2% year old girl that was first noticed at 6 months of age.
  • It rapidly increased in size to involve the entire clavicle with associated pain following manipulation by a traditional bone setter about 6 months after onset.
  • She had incisional biopsy; the histological report of which was osteoclastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Osteoclastoma can develop in early childhood far before skeletal maturity, may be congenital in manifestation and can affect anybone in the body.
  • [MeSH-major] Clavicle / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18080601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1115-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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62. Jonathan A, Rajshekhar V, Chacko G: Chondromyxoid fibroma of the seventh cervical vertebra. Neurol India; 2008 Jan-Mar;56(1):84-7
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  • Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare benign bone tumor representing less than 0.5% of all bone tumors.
  • A presumptive diagnosis of a bony tumor such as an aneurysmal bone cyst or a giant cell tumor involving the seventh vertebral body was made on plain X-rays, MRI and bone scan.
  • He underwent C7 central corpectomy, incomplete intralesional curettage with iliac bone grafting and C6 to T1 interspinous wiring.
  • The histological diagnosis was chondromyxoid fibroma.
  • On eight years' follow-up, CT scan showed no progression of the tumor with good alignment and fusion of the graft at the site of the corpectomy.
  • The authors conclude that corpectomy and iliac bone grafting for chondromyxoid fibroma has a good outcome on long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Chondromatosis / complications. Fibroma / complications. Fibroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18310848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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63. Raymond AK, Jaffe N: Conditions that mimic osteosarcoma. Cancer Treat Res; 2009;152:85-121
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • The differential diagnosis includes benign and malignant tumors, infection and inflammatory processes arising from the musculoskeletal system.
  • An accurate clinical history, imaging studies, and pathological evaluation are essential to establish the exact diagnosis.
  • This chapter describes many of the conditions which may mimic the diagnosis of osteosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / diagnosis. Chondrosarcoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibroma, Ossifying / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20213387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Smith SE, Keshavjee S: Primary chest wall tumors. Thorac Surg Clin; 2010 Nov;20(4):495-507
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  • The differential diagnosis of chest wall tumors is diverse, including both benign and malignant lesions (primary and malignant), local extension of adjacent disease, and local manifestations of infectious and inflammatory processes.
  • Primary chest wall tumors are best classified by their primary component: soft tissue or bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Wall
  • [MeSH-minor] Chondrosarcoma / surgery. Clavicle / surgery. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / surgery. Humans. Osteochondroma / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Ribs / surgery. Sternum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20974433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-4127
  • [Journal-full-title] Thoracic surgery clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Surg Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Chou LB, Ho YY, Malawer MM: Tumors of the foot and ankle: experience with 153 cases. Foot Ankle Int; 2009 Sep;30(9):836-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe 153 cases of foot and ankle tumors from a 20-year experience in a tertiary referral center specializing in orthopaedic oncology.
  • It is the largest reported series of both bone and soft tissue tumors in the foot and ankle.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1986 and 2006, a retrospective chart review was performed of a total of 2,660 tumors surgically treated in all anatomic sites by a single surgeon at a musculoskeletal tumor referral center.
  • RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three patients (5.75%) with bone and/or soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle were treated.
  • The tissue types included 80 soft tissue and 73 bone tumors.
  • Overall, 60 (39.2%) were malignant, and 93 (60.8%) were benign.
  • The most common diagnosis was giant cell tumor.
  • In addition, giant cell tumor was the most common bone tumor, while pigmented villonodular synovitis and giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath were the most common soft tissue tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ankle. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Foot Bones. Foot Diseases. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19755066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Cakarer S, Selvi F, Isler SC, Soluk M, Olgac V, Keskin C: Intraosseous lipoma of the mandible: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Aug;38(8):900-2

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  • Intraosseous lipoma is a benign tumor of the bone.
  • Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histopathological features.
  • The authors report a rare case of an intraosseous mandibular lipoma in a 45-year-old female, and review previously documented cases in the English literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Lipoma / diagnosis. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cementoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Granuloma, Giant Cell / diagnosis. Humans. Mandibular Diseases / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Odontogenic Cysts / diagnosis. Odontogenic Tumors / diagnosis. Radiography, Panoramic

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  • (PMID = 19386471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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67. Zhou H, Liu Z, Liu C, Ma Q, Liu X, Jiang L, Wei F: Cervical chordoma in childhood without typical vertebral bony destruction: case report and review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2009 Jun 15;34(14):E493-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: We present a giant cervical chordoma without typical vertebral bony destruction in an 11-year-old girl.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chordomas are rare malignant bone tumors that arise at both the cranial and the caudal ends of the axial skeleton, characteristically destroying the bone.
  • To our knowledge, there is no case of cervical chordoma in a child, presenting without vertebral body involvement, in English literature.
  • METHODS: Discussion on the patient's clinical, radiologic history, and histopathologic diagnosis of the resected tumor, with a review of the relevant background literature.
  • RESULTS: We report the first case of cervical chordoma in a child without typical vertebral bony destruction, the diagnosis of which was difficult to confirm before and after operation.
  • CONCLUSION: Giant notochordal rest and benign notochordal cell tumors (BNCTs) need to be recognized for differential diagnosis of this atypical chordoma.
  • A long-term follow-up might be necessary for the diagnosis of this nontypical patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Chordoma / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19525829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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68. Kiralj A, Ilić M, Markov B, Dedić S, Pejaković B, Nalić B: [Chondroma of the skull base and maxilla]. Med Pregl; 2007 Nov-Dec;60(11-12):649-51
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  • INTRODUCTION: Chondromas are uncommon benign tumors of cartilaginous origin.
  • A chondroma is a painless, slow growing tumor causing destruction and exfoliation of teeth.
  • On a radiograph, the tumor appears as a cyst-like radiolucent lesion, while some are sclerotic.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare, benign cartilaginous tumor that often occurs in the metaphyses of proximal tibia, proximal and distal femur and small bones of the foot.
  • The differential diagnosis is wide and includes simple or aneyrismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, nonossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, enchondroma, chondroblastoma, eosinophilic granuloma and fibrous cortical defect.
  • In the diagnosis of an intracranial chondrocytic tumor, it is important to distinguish it from enchondroma and chondrosarcoma.
  • MR provides a detailed assessment of soft tissue masses of the craniofacial region, while CT offers superior analysis of bone structure involvement.
  • The present case underlines the importance of MR examination in the diagnosis of soft tissue masses in the craniofacial region.

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  • (PMID = 18666612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pregl.
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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69. Zheng JP, Shao GL, Chen YT, Fan SF, Yang JM: [Feasibility study on CT guided percutaneous incisional needle biopsy for deep pelvic masses by different puncture approaches]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Oct;31(10):786-9

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  • Sixty-four malignant lesions were confirmed by pathology, including 30 adenocarcinomas, 19 squamous cell carcinomas, 5 unclassified malignant tumors, 3 small cell carcinomas, 2 malignant giant cell tumors of bone, 2 hepatocellular carcinomas and 3 false negative lesions which were confirmed at the second PINBs as malignant tumors, respectively.
  • Benign neoplasms were confirmed in 8 cases, including fibrosis tissue in 6 lesions, bone tuberculosis in 1 and ovarian cyst in 1.
  • No hematoma, nerve damage, infection, and tumor transplantation in pelvic cavity developed after the PINB procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / radiography. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fibrosis / pathology. Fibrosis / radiography. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20021836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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70. Fayad LM, Wang X, Salibi N, Barker PB, Jacobs MA, Machado AJ, Weber KL, Bluemke DA: A feasibility study of quantitative molecular characterization of musculoskeletal lesions by proton MR spectroscopy at 3 T. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jul;195(1):W69-75
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLINE CHLORIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three subjects with 34 musculoskeletal lesions (four histologically proven malignant, 13 histologically proven benign or proven benign by follow-up analysis, and 17 posttreatment fibrosis with documented stability for 6-36 months) underwent single-voxel 3-T MRS studies.
  • The choline concentrations of benign and malignant lesions were compared using the Mann-Whitney test.
  • For five benign lesions (two neurofibromas, two schwannomas, and one enchondroma), the choline concentrations were 0.11, 0.28, 0.13, 0.8, and 1.2 mmol/kg, respectively.
  • For seven benign lesions (two hematomas, two bone cysts, one lipoma, one giant cell tumor, and one pigmented villonodular synovitis), the spectra showed negligible choline content.
  • Average choline concentrations were different for malignant and benign lesions (2.7 vs 0.5 mmol/kg; p = 0.01).

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  • (PMID = 20566784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01CA100184; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100184-01A2; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL090019-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100184-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100184-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA103175; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA EB000072-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA103175; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Protons; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245710; NLM/ PMC3035623
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71. Murphey MD, Rhee JH, Lewis RB, Fanburg-Smith JC, Flemming DJ, Walker EA: Pigmented villonodular synovitis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5):1493-518
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  • Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) represents an uncommon benign neoplastic process that may involve the synovium of the joint diffusely or focally (PVNS) or that may occur extraarticularly in a bursa (pigmented villonodular bursitis [PVNB]) or tendon sheath (pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis [PVNTS]).
  • PVNTS is also referred to as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS).
  • Extrinsic erosion of bone (on both sides of the joint) may also be seen and is most frequent with intraarticular involvement of the hip (>90% of cases).
  • Cross-sectional imaging reveals diffuse involvement of the synovium (PVNS), an intimate relationship to the tendon (PVTNS), or a typical bursal location (PVNB), findings that suggest the diagnosis.
  • However, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of prominent low signal intensity (seen with T2-weighting) and "blooming" artifact from the hemosiderin (seen with gradient-echo sequences) are nearly pathognomonic of this diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthrography / methods. Joints / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


72. Puri A, Agarwal MG, Shah M, Srinivas CH, Shukla PJ, Shrikhande SV, Jambhekar NA: Decision making in primary sacral tumors. Spine J; 2009 May;9(5):396-403
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The diagnosis included chordoma in six patients, giant cell tumor in seven patients, aneurysmal bone cyst in two patients, and a chondrosarcoma and an osteoblastoma in one patient each.
  • Six benign lesions were treated with curettage.
  • CONCLUSION: Wide resection with adequate margins gives the best chance of local control and should be the surgery of choice for all malignant primary sacral tumors and in benign lesions involving lower segments when preservation of both S3 roots is possible.
  • To retain bladder and bowel control and minimize neurological dysfunction, it may be worthwhile managing benign sacral tumors that extend above S3 with serial embolization.
  • The administration of parenteral bisphosphonates may prove beneficial in cases of giant cell tumor managed with serial embolization.

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  • (PMID = 19059810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Zhang Q, Zhao H, Maheshwari AV, Cai L, Yu F, Niu X: Isolated cardiac metastasis from a histologically "benign" giant-cell tumor of the distal end of the femur: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 2010 Nov 17;92(16):2725-31
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  • [Title] Isolated cardiac metastasis from a histologically "benign" giant-cell tumor of the distal end of the femur: a case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Femur / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Heart Failure / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 21084583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-1386
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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