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1. Ulu MO, Biceroglu H, Ozlen F, Oz B, Gazioglu N: Giant cell tumor of the frontal bone in an 18-month-old girl: a case report. Cent Eur Neurosurg; 2010 May;71(2):104-7
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the frontal bone in an 18-month-old girl: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumors (GCT) are benign, but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasms, that frequently occur in the epiphyses of the long bones.
  • CASE REPORT: The authors report the management of a GCT involving the frontal bone in an 18-month-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Frontal Bone / pathology. Frontal Bone / surgery. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 20072990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-4912
  • [Journal-full-title] Central European neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Eur Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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2. Liu XM, Wang WC, Liu MH, Zhou QC: [Diagnostic value of 2-dimentional ultrasonography and color Doppler flow imaging in primary bone tumor]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Jun;31(3):420-3
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic value of 2-dimentional ultrasonography and color Doppler flow imaging in primary bone tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnostic value of 2-dimentional ultrasonography and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) in primary bone tumor.
  • METHODS: The hemodynamic parameters such as systolic maximum velocity (Vmax), diastolic minimum velocity (Vmin), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of intratumoral folw in 93 patients with primary bone tumors proved by histopathology were studied using 2-dimentional ultrasonography and CDFI techniques.
  • RESULTS: The bone destruction periosteum response and soft tissue mass were essentially revealed with 2-dimentional ultrasonography techniques.
  • The Vmax and Vmin in malignant bone tumor were significantly higher than those in benign one (P < 0.01).
  • RI and PI in malignant bone tumor were lower than those in benign one (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Observing the features of bone tumor and hemodynamic parameters by 2-dimentional ultrasonography and CDFI has a great clinical value in diagnosing primary bone tumor and distinguishing the malignant and benign bone tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Osteosarcoma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blood Flow Velocity. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex / methods

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  • (PMID = 16859139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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3. Tarng YW, Yang SW, Hsu CJ: Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report. J Hand Surg Am; 2009 Feb;34(2):262-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report.
  • We report a rare case of multifocal giant cell tumor of bone involving the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and scaphoid with soft tissue extension.
  • Following intralesional resection, an autogenous corticocancellous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill the resultant defect and preserve carpal height and radiocarpal motion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Carpal Bones / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ilium / transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19135808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-6564
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Ozcan C, Apaydin FD, Görür K, Apa DD: Peripheral giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle presenting as a preauricular mass. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar;262(3):178-81
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  • [Title] Peripheral giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle presenting as a preauricular mass.
  • Preauricular mass is a common symptom for patients presenting to the otorhinolaryngologist with parotid disease.
  • Giant cell granuloma (GCG) was first described by Jaffe in 1953.
  • Central GCG (CGCG) is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous lesion generally presenting as an expansible mass with cortical bone defect.
  • The brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism and giant cell tumor must be ruled out because of the microscopic similarities of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15133683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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5. Jakobs M, Häupl T, Krenn V, Guenther R: [MMP- and FAP-mediated non-inflammation-related destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis]. Z Rheumatol; 2009 Oct;68(8):683-94
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  • [Title] [MMP- and FAP-mediated non-inflammation-related destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis].
  • [Transliterated title] MMP- und FAP-vermittelte inflammationsunabhängige Destruktion von Knochen und Knorpel in der rheumatoiden Arthritis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Due to morphological similarities of high-grade synovitis in rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and mesenchymal, semimalignant tumors and the hypothesis that RA progression is not only inflammation-related, but also determined by tumor-like mechanisms, a comparison was made between expression profiles of RA, giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) and normal synovium (ND).
  • The presence of FAP in RA and in stroma of a semimalignant tumor indicates tumor-like tissue destruction in chronic synovitis associated with RA.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / immunology. Bone and Bones / immunology. Cartilage / immunology. Gelatinases / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Receptors, CCR / analysis. Serine Endopeptidases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19593575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1250
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CCR; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / fibroblast activation protein alpha; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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6. James SL, Davies AM: Giant-cell tumours of bone of the hand and wrist: a review of imaging findings and differential diagnoses. Eur Radiol; 2005 Sep;15(9):1855-66
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumours of bone of the hand and wrist: a review of imaging findings and differential diagnoses.
  • Giant-cell tumour of bone (GCTOB) is a benign, locally aggressive, primary bone tumour.
  • The role of bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carpal Bones / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Hand Bones / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15868123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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7. Guo Z, Wang Z, Li J, Li XD: [Reconstruction with a new type of combined reconstruction following excision of periacetabular tumors]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jun 15;46(12):895-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reconstructive effect of a new pattern of combined reconstruction after periacetabular tumor resections.
  • METHODS: Between March 2001 and March 2007, tumor resections and new pattern of combined reconstructions which consisted of screw-rod system, acetabular reinforcement shell, antibiotic cement and total hip arthroplasty techniques were performed in 23 patients with periacetabular tumors.
  • Other primary tumors were 2 giant cell tumors and 1 aggressive osteoblastoma.
  • Three metastatic bone tumors were also included in this study, and the original sites were thyroid, breast, and ovary.
  • Three primary benign bone tumors belonged to stage III.
  • The survival time in 3 patients with metastatic disease were between 9.6 months and 36. 6 months.
  • There were 4 patients who had local recurrence, 5 patients had pulmonary metastases, and 5 patients died of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This new combined reconstruction is an effective way to rebuild pelvic ring and maintain hip function with low complication rate after periacetabular tumor resections.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetabulum. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip. Bone Screws. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19035146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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8. May SA, Deavers MT, Resetkova E, Johnson D, Albarracin CT: Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Oct;11(5):345-9
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast.
  • Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) arising in breast is exceedingly rare.
  • We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary breast giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone and had a clinically malignant course.
  • Histopathological evaluation revealed a neoplasm composed of mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells resembling giant cell tumor of bone.
  • These features were most consistent with GCT-ST, an uncommon neoplasm of low malignant potential.
  • This case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting clinical behavior of GCT-ST of breast on the basis of histological features and depth of tumor alone.
  • The distinction of this entity from other more common primary breast tumors with giant cell morphology is also emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17870021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vimentin
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9. Gebre-Medhin S, Broberg K, Jonson T, Gorunova L, von Steyern FV, Brosjö O, Jin Y, Gisselsson D, Panagopoulos I, Mandahl N, Mertens F: Telomeric associations correlate with telomere length reduction and clonal chromosome aberrations in giant cell tumor of bone. Cytogenet Genome Res; 2009;124(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Telomeric associations correlate with telomere length reduction and clonal chromosome aberrations in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is characterized cytogenetically by frequent telomeric associations (tas).
  • Clonal aberrations were found to be restricted to the group with a high level of tas, and the same group showed a significantly larger reduction in telomere length in tumor cells compared to peripheral blood cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Telomere / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19420923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-859X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytogenetic and genome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytogenet. Genome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / POT1 protein, human; 0 / TERF1 protein, human; 0 / TERF2 protein, human; 0 / Telomere-Binding Proteins; 0 / Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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10. Fayad LM, Wang X, Salibi N, Barker PB, Jacobs MA, Machado AJ, Weber KL, Bluemke DA: A feasibility study of quantitative molecular characterization of musculoskeletal lesions by proton MR spectroscopy at 3 T. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jul;195(1):W69-75
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  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three subjects with 34 musculoskeletal lesions (four histologically proven malignant, 13 histologically proven benign or proven benign by follow-up analysis, and 17 posttreatment fibrosis with documented stability for 6-36 months) underwent single-voxel 3-T MRS studies.
  • The choline concentrations of benign and malignant lesions were compared using the Mann-Whitney test.
  • For five benign lesions (two neurofibromas, two schwannomas, and one enchondroma), the choline concentrations were 0.11, 0.28, 0.13, 0.8, and 1.2 mmol/kg, respectively.
  • For seven benign lesions (two hematomas, two bone cysts, one lipoma, one giant cell tumor, and one pigmented villonodular synovitis), the spectra showed negligible choline content.
  • Average choline concentrations were different for malignant and benign lesions (2.7 vs 0.5 mmol/kg; p = 0.01).

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  • [Cites] Eur Radiol. 2000;10(2):213-23 [10663750.001]
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  • (PMID = 20566784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01CA100184; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100184-01A2; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL090019-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100184-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100184-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA103175; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA EB000072-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA103175; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Protons; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245710; NLM/ PMC3035623
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11. Moskovszky L, Dezsö K, Athanasou N, Szendröi M, Kopper L, Kliskey K, Picci P, Sápi Z: Centrosome abnormalities in giant cell tumour of bone: possible association with chromosomal instability. Mod Pathol; 2010 Mar;23(3):359-66
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  • [Title] Centrosome abnormalities in giant cell tumour of bone: possible association with chromosomal instability.
  • Giant cell tumour of bone, a benign but potentially aggressive neoplasm, shows an increasing rate of chromosomal aneusomy that correlates with clinical course.
  • Mechanisms that generate chromosomal instability in giant cell tumour of bone are poorly understood.
  • To gain an insight into the possible mechanism for the generation of chromosomal instability in giant cell tumour of bone, we analysed 100 cases, including 57 primary nonrecurrent, 35 recurrent and 8 malignant giant cell tumour of bone cases. gamma-Tubulin immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays of 59 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cases, whereas pericentrin and gamma-tubulin fluorescent immunocytochemistry was carried out on 41 frozen smears.
  • Centrosome amplification was significantly higher in recurrent and malignant giant cell tumour of bones compared with nonrecurrent tumours (P<0.001).
  • These findings indicate that centrosome alteration and frequency of aneusomy correlate with clinical behaviour; the lack of an association between centrosome amplification and chromosome number alteration suggests that alternative causative mechanisms produce genetic instability in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Centrosome / pathology. Chromosomal Instability. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20062006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / pericentrin
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12. Zheng JP, Shao GL, Chen YT, Fan SF, Yang JM: [Feasibility study on CT guided percutaneous incisional needle biopsy for deep pelvic masses by different puncture approaches]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Oct;31(10):786-9
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  • Sixty-four malignant lesions were confirmed by pathology, including 30 adenocarcinomas, 19 squamous cell carcinomas, 5 unclassified malignant tumors, 3 small cell carcinomas, 2 malignant giant cell tumors of bone, 2 hepatocellular carcinomas and 3 false negative lesions which were confirmed at the second PINBs as malignant tumors, respectively.
  • Benign neoplasms were confirmed in 8 cases, including fibrosis tissue in 6 lesions, bone tuberculosis in 1 and ovarian cyst in 1.
  • No hematoma, nerve damage, infection, and tumor transplantation in pelvic cavity developed after the PINB procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20021836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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13. Jarkiewicz-Kochman E, Gołebiowski M, Swiatkowski J, Pacholec E, Rajewski R: Tumours of the metatarsus. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2007 May-Jun;9(3):319-30
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  • [Title] Tumours of the metatarsus.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumours of the metatarsus are rare and more frequently affect males.
  • Single cases of the following tumours have been discussed: giant cell tumour, metastases (lung, prostate gland), chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Ewing's sarcoma, clear cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, intraosseous ganglion, chondromyxoid fibroma and granuloma.
  • We present our own clinical experience with metatarsal tumours during the period of the last 20 years.
  • The aim of the present study was to carry out a systematic examination of metatarsal tumours with regard to methods of diagnosis (location) and morphology.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with metatarsal tumours were diagnosed in the Department of Orthopaedics in Warsaw.
  • RESULTS: Most of the metatarsal tumours were benign.
  • Bone tumours are rarely located in the metatarsus.
  • 2. The presenting clinical and radiological signs of metatarsal tumours are usually not characteristic and may be difficult to detect.
  • 4. The frequently unequivocal presentation of metatarsal tumours requires a multidisciplinary diagnosis involving a clinician, a radiologist and a histopathologist.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Metatarsal Bones / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Osteoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Synovial / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17721430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng; pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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14. Guo QC, Shen JN, Wang J, Huang G, Zou CY, Jin S, Yin JQ, Liao WM: [Analysis of the factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun 15;44(12):797-800
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  • [Title] [Analysis of the factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumors (GCT) of bone.
  • The two factors of surgery method and burst out of bone-envelope appearance were related with the recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16889722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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15. Turcotte RE: Giant cell tumor of bone. Orthop Clin North Am; 2006 Jan;37(1):35-51
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor is a common benign bone tumor that possesses specific features including location at the end of long bone, a strong tendency toward local recurrence, and the rare capacity to metastasize to the lungs.
  • Preferred treatment usually consists of extensive curettage and filling of the cavity with bone graft or cement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Fractures, Spontaneous / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Bone Transplantation / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Curettage / methods. Female. Humans. Incidence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16311110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-5898
  • [Journal-full-title] The Orthopedic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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16. Li WX, Ye ZM, Yang DS, Tao HM, Lin N, Yang ZM: [Endoprosthetic reconstruction after wide resection of primary bone tumor around the knee]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May 15;45(10):665-8
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  • [Title] [Endoprosthetic reconstruction after wide resection of primary bone tumor around the knee].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect and complication of the endoprosthetic reconstruction after wide resection of primary bone tumor around the knee.
  • METHODS: The retrospective analysis was performed on 83 patients undergoing the prosthetic reconstruction after the resection of the primary tumor around the knee between December 1995 and December 2005.
  • All the diagnoses were pathologically confirmed (58 patients with osteosarcoma, 2 with osteosarcomatosis, 1 with parosteal osteosarcoma, 4 with malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 13 with giant cell tumor of bone, 1 with leiomyosarcoma, 2 with Ewing's sarcoma, 2 with chondrosarcoma).
  • After operation, the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score was used to evaluate the recovery of their corresponding functions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the tumor prosthesis gives a satisfactory functional outcome after the tumor around the knee is removed with a lower incidence of complication.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / methods. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Knee

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  • (PMID = 17688816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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17. Singh S, Mak I, Power P, Cunningham M, Turcotte R, Ghert M: Gene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone. Stem Cells Cloning; 2010;3:129-34
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  • [Title] Gene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The neoplastic stem-like stromal cell of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) survives for multiple passages in primary culture with a stable phenotype, and exhibits multipotent characteristics.
  • The pathophysiology of this tumor has been studied through the primary culture of these cells.

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  • [ErratumIn] Stem Cells Cloning. 2011;4:23. Cunnigham, Melissa [corrected to Cunningham, Melissa]
  • (PMID = 24198518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-6957
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells and cloning : advances and applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells Cloning
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3781737
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TWIST / gene / giant cell tumor / primary cells / transfection
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18. Zeng J, Liu H, Song Y: [Total spondylectomy and reconstruction for thoracolumbar spinal tumors with neurological deficit]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May;21(5):445-8
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  • There were 10 cases of primary tumors of spine (4 giant cell tumor of bone, 3 chondrosarcoma, 2 recurrent aneurysmal bone cyst, and 1 osteosarcoma), and 6 cases of solitary metastasis of thoracic or lumbar spine.
  • Among the 10 patients with primary spinal tumor, nine patients survived with tumor-free, and one with osteosarcoma died because of lung metastases 18 months after surgery.
  • Among the 6 patients with spinal metastasis, three patients survived with tumor-free, and lung metastasis occurred in 1 case 10 months after surgery, two died because of multiple metastases of internal organs 10 months and 32 months after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Total spondylectomy and reconstruction is a safe and effective surgery for thoracolumbar spinal tumors with neurological deficit, with pain relief, neurological improvement and minimum tumor recurrence.
  • It will be an optimal choice for patients with primary malignant, aggressive benign, or solitary metastatic bone tumors of the thoracolumbar spine with Tomita surgical classification type 3 to 5.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Transplantation / methods. Chondrosarcoma / mortality. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Chondrosarcoma / surgery. Decompression, Surgical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17578278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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19. Singhal V, Sharma SC, Anil J, Sachan PK, Harsh M, Singhal S, Raghuvanshi S: Giant benign nodular hidradenoma of the shoulder: A rare tumor in orthopedic practice. Int J Shoulder Surg; 2010 Oct;4(4):93-6
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  • [Title] Giant benign nodular hidradenoma of the shoulder: A rare tumor in orthopedic practice.
  • A clear cell hidradenoma is a rare dermal tumor, which is believed to originate from the apical portion of the sweat glands.
  • We present a giant benign nodular hidradenoma presenting as painful restriction of the right shoulder joint in a 35-year-old male.

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  • [Cites] Korean J Radiol. 2010 Jul-Aug;11(4):490-2 [20592936.001]
  • [Cites] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990 Dec;155(6):1251-5 [2122675.001]
  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1982 Jun;64(5):780-2 [6282887.001]
  • (PMID = 21655004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-6042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of shoulder surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Shoulder Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3100814
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Axillary mass / nodular hidradenoma
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20. Futani H, Okumura Y, Fukuda Y, Fukunaga S, Hasegawa S, Yoshiya S: Giant cell tumor of the sternum: a case report and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6B):4117-20
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the sternum: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a relatively common and locally aggressive benign bone tumor.
  • Extended curettage of the tumor was performed followed by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) filing.
  • In conclusion, even though sternal benign tumors are rare, GCT should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in a patient presenting with a sternal lesion in the 5th or 6th decade of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Sternum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Cements. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymethyl Methacrylate. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 19192670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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21. Lazaretti NS, Dallagasperina VW, Villaroel RU, Schlittler LA: [Giant cell tumour of distal femur with pulmonary metastases]. Rev Port Pneumol; 2010 Mar-Apr;16(2):331-7
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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumour of distal femur with pulmonary metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células gigantes de fémur distal com metástases pulmonares.
  • Gian cell is normally a benign primary skeletal lesion located in the epiphysis of the long bones.
  • It is more frequente in the third and fourth decades of life but can exhibit the behaviour of a malignant tumour with distal metatasis.
  • The treatment of primary tumour is extensive surgical resection.
  • We report a case of a 35-year-old patient with lung metatases 21 months after curettage of giant cell tumour in distal femur.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20437009.001).
  • [ISSN] 2172-6825
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de pneumologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Pneumol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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22. Janes S, Cid J, Kaye P, Doran J: Pancreatic osteoclastoma: immunohistochemical evidence of a reactive histiomonocytic origin. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Mar;76(3):198-9
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  • [Title] Pancreatic osteoclastoma: immunohistochemical evidence of a reactive histiomonocytic origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Osteoclasts / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16626367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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23. Hunter CL, Pacione D, Hornyak M, Murali R: Giant-cell tumors of the cervical spine: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Nov;59(5):E1142-3; discussion E1143
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumors of the cervical spine: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Giant-cell tumors of bone are rare, benign neoplasms that occur infrequently in the spine above the sacrum, and their presence in the cervical vertebrae is even more exceptional.
  • The authors report two cases of giant-cell tumors in the cervical vertebrae that were treated successfully with surgical excision and postoperative radiation as well as long-term follow-up.
  • INTERVENTION: In one case, the tumor was treated by anterior resection, then by laminectomy and instrumented fusion, and finally by adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy.
  • However, the tumor recurred, and, after several surgical procedures, external beam radiotherapy was administered.
  • The patients have been followed for 17 and 11 years, respectively, with no evidence of tumor recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: Radical resection of giant-cell tumors is generally agreed to be the best treatment option.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Laminectomy / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17143206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Murphey MD, Rhee JH, Lewis RB, Fanburg-Smith JC, Flemming DJ, Walker EA: Pigmented villonodular synovitis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5):1493-518
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  • Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) represents an uncommon benign neoplastic process that may involve the synovium of the joint diffusely or focally (PVNS) or that may occur extraarticularly in a bursa (pigmented villonodular bursitis [PVNB]) or tendon sheath (pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis [PVNTS]).
  • PVNTS is also referred to as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS).
  • PVNTS is the most common form of this disease by a ratio of approximately 3:1.
  • Extrinsic erosion of bone (on both sides of the joint) may also be seen and is most frequent with intraarticular involvement of the hip (>90% of cases).
  • Recurrence is more common with diffuse intraarticular disease and is difficult to distinguish, both pathologically and radiologically, from the rare complication of malignant PVNS.


25. Ng PK, Tsui SK, Lau CP, Wong CH, Wong WH, Huang L, Kumta SM: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression. J Cell Biochem; 2010 May 15;110(2):438-46
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  • [Title] CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is an aggressive non-cancerous tumor, which consists of multi-nucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, stromal cells, and monocytes.
  • It is believed that stromal cells are the neoplastic component of this tumor.
  • Expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) in the stromal cells stimulates the monocytes to form giant multi-nucleated osteoclast-like cells, causing bone over-resorption at the tumor site.
  • Previously, our group has reported the up-regulation of RANKL in GCT of bone stromal cells, but the mechanism is unknown.
  • Using stromal cell culture of GCT obtained from patients, we demonstrated the up-regulation of the transcriptional activator CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta).
  • To conclude, our study has shown that C/EBPbeta is a RANKL promoter activator in stromal cells of GCT of bone and we have proposed a model in which C/EBPbeta plays an important role in the osteolytic characteristics and pathological causes of GCT of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. RANK Ligand / genetics. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20225273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4644
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta; 0 / CEBPB protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human
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26. Minami A, Iwasaki N, Nishida K, Motomiya M, Yamada K, Momma D: Giant-cell tumor of the distal ulna treated by wide resection and ulnar support reconstruction: a case report. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:871278
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumor of the distal ulna treated by wide resection and ulnar support reconstruction: a case report.
  • Giant-cell tumor of bone occurred in the distal end of the ulna is extremely uncommon.
  • A 23-year-old male had a giant-cell tumor occurred in the distal end of the ulna.
  • After wide resection of the distal segment of the ulna including giant-cell tumor, ulnar components of the wrist joint were reconstructed with modified Sauvé-Kapandji procedure using the iliac bone graft, preserving the triangular fibrocartilage complex and ulnar collateral ligament in order to maintain ulnar support of the wrist, and the proximal stump of the resected ulna was stabilized by tenodesis using the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon.
  • Postoperative X-rays showed no abnormal findings including recurrence of the giant-cell tumor and ulnar translation of the entire carpus.

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  • (PMID = 20592994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Behzatoğlu K, Durak H, Canberk S, Aydin O, Huq GE, Oznur M, Ozyalvaçli G, Yildiz P: Giant cell tumor-like lesion of the urinary bladder: a report of two cases and literature review; giant cell tumor or undifferentiated carcinoma? Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:48
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor-like lesion of the urinary bladder: a report of two cases and literature review; giant cell tumor or undifferentiated carcinoma?
  • Giant cell tumor, excluding its prototype in bone, is usually a benign but local aggressive neoplasm originating from tendon sheath or soft tissue.
  • Giant cell tumors in visceral organs usually accompany epithelial tumors and the clinical behavior of giant cell tumor in urinary bladder is similar to its bone counterpart.
  • Here, we report two cases of giant cell tumor located in urinary bladder in comparison with nine reported cases in the English literature.
  • Concurrent noninvasive urothelial carcinoma was also described in all these previous reports and only one patient with follow-up died of disease.
  • One of the two cases we present had no concurrent urothelial tumor at the time of diagnosis but had a history of a low grade noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with three recurrences.
  • The histology of these two cases was similar to the giant cell tumor of bone and composed of oval to spindle mononuclear cells with evenly spaced osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Immunohistochemically, the giant cells showed staining with osteoclastic markers including CD68, TRAP, and LCA.
  • The histologic and immunohistochemical properties in our cases as well as their clinical courses were consistent with a giant cell tumor.
  • Consequently, tumors in urinary bladder showing features of giant cell tumor of bone may also be considered and termed "giant cell tumor".

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  • (PMID = 20043822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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28. Cribb GL, Cool P, Hill SO, Mangham DC: Distal tibial giant cell tumour treated with curettage and stabilisation with an Ilizarov frame. Foot Ankle Surg; 2009;15(1):28-32
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  • [Title] Distal tibial giant cell tumour treated with curettage and stabilisation with an Ilizarov frame.
  • Imaging and biopsy confirmed this to be a giant cell tumour of bone.
  • After a prolonged course of rehabilitation he has excellent function and has returned to hill walking and there is no evidence of recurrence of the giant cell tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Curettage. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ilizarov Technique. Tibia

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  • (PMID = 19218062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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29. Refai D, Dunn GP, Santiago P: Giant cell tumor of the thoracic spine: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2009 Feb;71(2):228-33; discussion 233
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the thoracic spine: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumors are benign tumors of the bone that most commonly occur at the ends of the long bones; they are rarely found in the spine above the sacrum.
  • The management of patients with giant cell tumors of the spine represents a challenge, and the clinical approach to this problem continues to evolve with improvements in surgical and adjunctive therapies.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 19-year-old woman with localized back pain and a spinal compression deformity was found to harbor a giant cell tumor of the T7 vertebral body.
  • To optimize local disease control, the patient underwent IMRT delivered to the site of tumor resection.
  • She remains neurologically intact at 1 year postoperatively without evidence of disease recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: The literature and approaches to the management of spinal giant cell tumors are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • (PMID = 18207522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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30. Ngan KW, Chuang WY, Yeh CJ: Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation. Pathology; 2008 Apr;40(3):312-3
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  • [Title] Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18428057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Muramatsu K, Ihara K, Taguchi T: Treatment of giant cell tumor of long bones: clinical outcome and reconstructive strategy for lower and upper limbs. Orthopedics; 2009 Jul;32(7):491
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  • [Title] Treatment of giant cell tumor of long bones: clinical outcome and reconstructive strategy for lower and upper limbs.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone is a rare and unpredictable lesion.
  • Twenty-three consecutive cases of giant cell tumor of long bones were treated in 10 years.
  • The most common tumor sites were the proximal tibia (10 cases), distal femur (8), and distal radius (3).
  • Functional outcomes as evaluated by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society measure were successful, with an average score of 26.6 points (range, 22-30 points).
  • For giant cell tumor of the upper limb or for young patients, biological reconstruction should be applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Lower Extremity / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Upper Extremity / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19634852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Saikia KC, Bhuyan SK, Saikia SP, Rongphar R, Jitesh P: Resection and arthrodesis of the knee joint for giant cell tumours of bone. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2010 Aug;18(2):208-14
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  • [Title] Resection and arthrodesis of the knee joint for giant cell tumours of bone.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate functional outcomes and complications following resection and arthrodesis of the knee for giant cell tumours (GCTs) of bone, in comparison to treatment by endoprosthetic replacements reported elsewhere.
  • METHODS: 18 men and 14 women aged 18 to 40 (mean, 28) years underwent resection and arthrodesis of the knee for GCTs of bone involving the distal femur (n=17) and proximal tibia (n=15).
  • Cancellous bone grafts were placed transversely along the struts and circumferentially over the host-graft junctions.
  • The mean size of the tumours was 10x8x6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthrodesis / instrumentation. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Plates. Bone Transplantation / methods. Fibula / transplantation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint

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  • (PMID = 20808014.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-4990
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Balke M, Hardes J: Denosumab: a breakthrough in treatment of giant-cell tumour of bone? Lancet Oncol; 2010 Mar;11(3):218-9
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  • [Title] Denosumab: a breakthrough in treatment of giant-cell tumour of bone?
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. RANK Ligand / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [CommentOn] Lancet Oncol. 2010 Mar;11(3):275-80 [20149736.001]
  • (PMID = 20149737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RANK Ligand; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab
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34. Asavamongkolkul A, Waikakul S, Phimolsarnti R, Kiatisevi P: Functional outcome following excision of a tumour and reconstruction of the distal radius. Int Orthop; 2009 Feb;33(1):203-9
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  • [Title] Functional outcome following excision of a tumour and reconstruction of the distal radius.
  • We retrospectively studied the functional and oncological results of 15 patients after reconstruction of the distal radius with osteoarticular allograft or non-vascularised fibular graft following wide excision of an aggressive benign or malignant tumour.
  • There was no tumour recurrence after follow up over 41.5-95.5 (average 60.5) months.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / methods. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / surgery. Osteosarcoma / surgery. Radius / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Cysts / surgery. Bone Plates. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17724593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-5195
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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35. Matsumoto Y, Okada Y, Fukushi J, Kamura S, Fujiwara T, Iida K, Koga M, Matsuda S, Harimaya K, Sakamoto A, Iwamoto Y: Role of the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway in the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction of giant cell tumors of bone. J Orthop Surg Res; 2010;5:85
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  • [Title] Role of the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway in the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction of giant cell tumors of bone.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone are primary benign bone tumors that are characterized by a high number of osteoclast-like multinuclear giant cells (MNCs).
  • Recent studies suggest that the spindle-shaped stromal cells in GCTs are tumor cells, while monocyte-like cells and MNCs are reactive osteoclast precursor cells (OPCs) and osteoclasts (OCs), respectively.
  • In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction in GCTs by focusing on the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-Flt-1 (type-1 VEGF receptor)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway.
  • METHODS: The motility of OPCs cells was assessed by a chemotaxis assay and the growth of OPCs was examined using a cell proliferation assay.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of bone destruction of GCTs.


36. Lang S: [Differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone]. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:245-9
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  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone].
  • The diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone is often problematic even for the experienced pathologist.
  • The diagnostic key lies in multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells and a mononuclear stroma.
  • From the histological picture alone it is often difficult to distinguish between individual entities such as conventional giant-cell tumor of bone, non-ossifying fibroma, giant-cell tumor in hyperparathyroidism or an aneurysmal bone cyst.
  • Furthermore, these lesions can be confused with malignant bone tumors such as giant cell-rich osteosarcoma.
  • In most cases diagnosis is made on the basis of intraoperative frozen-section, but even in this setting, due to the poor quality of the material, it is very difficult to make a correct diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions without X-ray and clinical data.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone and Bones / pathology. Child. Connective Tissue / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] Pathologe. 1996 Jan;17(1):1-5 [8685089.001]
  • (PMID = 18836722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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37. Morgan T, Atkins GJ, Trivett MK, Johnson SA, Kansara M, Schlicht SL, Slavin JL, Simmons P, Dickinson I, Powell G, Choong PF, Holloway AJ, Thomas DM: Molecular profiling of giant cell tumor of bone and the osteoclastic localization of ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB. Am J Pathol; 2005 Jul;167(1):117-28
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  • [Title] Molecular profiling of giant cell tumor of bone and the osteoclastic localization of ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a generally benign, osteolytic neoplasm comprising stromal cells and osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • The osteoclastic cells, which cause bony destruction, are thought to be recruited from normal monocytic pre-osteoclasts by stromal cell expression of the ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (RANKL).
  • Using expression profiling, we identified both osteoblast and osteoclast signatures within GCTs, including key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and function such as RANKL, a C-type lectin, osteoprotegerin, and the wnt inhibitor SFRP4.
  • These data raise questions regarding the role of RANKL in GCTs that may be relevant to the development of molecularly targeted therapeutics for this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Lineage. DNA Primers. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyosarcoma / genetics. Liposarcoma / genetics. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Proteins / analysis. RANK Ligand. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sarcoma, Synovial / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15972958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / TNFRSF11A protein, human; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1603441
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38. Puri A, Agarwal MG, Shah M, Srinivas CH, Shukla PJ, Shrikhande SV, Jambhekar NA: Decision making in primary sacral tumors. Spine J; 2009 May;9(5):396-403
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  • Appropriate decision making is crucial to obtain the best possible outcome in terms of maximizing disease control while attempting to minimize neurological dysfunction.
  • OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated the outcome in terms of local disease control, residual neurological dysfunction, and complications as a result of surgical intervention.
  • The diagnosis included chordoma in six patients, giant cell tumor in seven patients, aneurysmal bone cyst in two patients, and a chondrosarcoma and an osteoblastoma in one patient each.
  • Six benign lesions were treated with curettage.
  • The other two cases in whom the disease extended up to S1 had curettage.
  • CONCLUSION: Wide resection with adequate margins gives the best chance of local control and should be the surgery of choice for all malignant primary sacral tumors and in benign lesions involving lower segments when preservation of both S3 roots is possible.
  • To retain bladder and bowel control and minimize neurological dysfunction, it may be worthwhile managing benign sacral tumors that extend above S3 with serial embolization.
  • The administration of parenteral bisphosphonates may prove beneficial in cases of giant cell tumor managed with serial embolization.

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  • (PMID = 19059810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Nahal A, Ajlan A, Alcindor T, Turcotte R: Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up. Curr Oncol; 2010 Aug;17(4):71-6
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  • [Title] Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign tumour.
  • It can, however, undergo dedifferentiation, either de novo or secondarily after local recurrence or radiation.
  • Whether spontaneously occurring or induced by previous irradiation, this malignant transformation is typically defined as a high-grade anaplastic sarcoma devoid of giant cells.
  • Here, we describe the first case of dedifferentiated GCT in the appearance of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma with distant bone metastases.
  • This disease progression occurred without previous irradiation.
  • We confirm the aggressive behaviour of this tumour despite the deceptively bland appearance of the malignant component.

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  • (PMID = 20697518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1718-7729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913833
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumour / dedifferentiation / malignancy / osteogenic sarcoma
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40. Forsyth RG, De Boeck G, Baelde JJ, Taminiau AH, Uyttendaele D, Roels H, Praet MM, Hogendoorn PC: CD33+ CD14- phenotype is characteristic of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells in giant cell tumor of bone. J Bone Miner Res; 2009 Jan;24(1):70-7
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  • [Title] CD33+ CD14- phenotype is characteristic of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign bone tumor with a shown clinical behavior of local recurrences and rare distant metastases.
  • GCTB is composed of uniformly distributed osteoclastic giant cells, thought to originate from the fusion of monocyte-macrophage lineage cells, in a background consisting of mononuclear rounded cells and spindle-shaped cells.
  • Several reports showed the specific expression of markers, such as CD14 on the mononuclear rounded cell population, however, lacking osteoclastic giant cells.
  • Nineteen GCTB tumor samples of 19 patients were studied.
  • The mononuclear rounded cell population was positive for RANK, CD51, CD14, and CD33.
  • The osteoclastic giant cell population expressed RANK and CD51, as well as CD33, but was consistently negative for CD14 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD14 / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumors / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Integrin alphaV / biosynthesis. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / biosynthesis. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3

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  • (PMID = 18767926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Integrin alphaV; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3
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41. Baud'huin M, Renault R, Charrier C, Riet A, Moreau A, Brion R, Gouin F, Duplomb L, Heymann D: Interleukin-34 is expressed by giant cell tumours of bone and plays a key role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. J Pathol; 2010 May;221(1):77-86
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  • [Title] Interleukin-34 is expressed by giant cell tumours of bone and plays a key role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
  • M-CSF, the main ligand for c-fms, is required for osteoclastogenesis and has been already identified as a critical contributor of the pathogenesis of giant cell tumours of bone (GCTs), tumours rich in osteoclasts.
  • In contrast to osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts showed very strong staining for IL-34, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of GCTs by facilitating osteoclast formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / metabolism. Interleukins / biosynthesis. Osteoclasts / cytology. RANK Ligand / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Anisoles / pharmacology. Antigens, CD11b / analysis. Bone Resorption / metabolism. Bone Resorption / pathology. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20191615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-(3-methoxy-4-((4-methoxybenzyl)oxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine; 0 / Anisoles; 0 / Antigens, CD11b; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 0 / interleukin-34, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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42. Dohi O, Ohtani H, Hatori M, Sato E, Hosaka M, Nagura H, Itoi E, Kokubun S: Histogenesis-specific expression of fibroblast activation protein and dipeptidylpeptidase-IV in human bone and soft tissue tumours. Histopathology; 2009 Oct;55(4):432-40
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  • [Title] Histogenesis-specific expression of fibroblast activation protein and dipeptidylpeptidase-IV in human bone and soft tissue tumours.
  • The aim was to identify cell types that express FAP and DPP-IV in human bone and soft tissue tumours, and to determine whether there are any correlations between the expression of FAP and DPP-IV and the malignant potential of tumours.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: This study analysed in situ expression in 25 malignant and 13 benign human bone and soft tissue tumours.
  • Among benign tumours, non-ossifying fibromas, desmoid tumours and chondroblastomas expressed both FAP and DPP-IV.
  • Giant cells expressed DPP-IV in giant cell tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that FAP and DPP-IV are consistently expressed in bone and soft tissue tumour cells that are histogenetically related to activated fibroblasts and/or myofibroblasts, irrespective of their malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 / metabolism. Gelatinases / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19817894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.14.5 / Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / fibroblast activation protein alpha; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2784039
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43. Camargo OP, Croci AT, Oliveira CR, Baptista AM, Caiero MT: Functional and radiographic evaluation of 214 aggressive benign bone lesions treated with curettage, cauterization, and cementation: 24 years of follow-up. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2005 Dec;60(6):439-44
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  • [Title] Functional and radiographic evaluation of 214 aggressive benign bone lesions treated with curettage, cauterization, and cementation: 24 years of follow-up.
  • PURPOSE: Treatment with curettage, cauterization, and methylmethacrylate of aggressive benign bone lesions is a method now widely accepted in most orthopedic oncology centers.
  • However, one of the controversies regarding this technique is the possible complications that may arise from the use of methylmethacrylate, which has caused some authors to remove it 2 years after the surgery and replace it with bone graft.
  • The objective of this paper is to present a functional and radiographic evaluation of 214 patients presenting with aggressive benign bone lesions treated with curettage, cauterization, and methylmethacrylate from 1974 to 1998, with some of them having 24 years of follow-up.
  • All cases involved aggressive benign lesions.
  • The patients were evaluated according to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score (MSTS) functional evaluation system, and the complications are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Cementation / adverse effects. Curettage. Giant Cell Tumors / therapy. Methylmethacrylate / adverse effects. Postoperative Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Cements / adverse effects. Cautery. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16358131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1807-5932
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 196OC77688 / Methylmethacrylate
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44. Knowles HJ, Athanasou NA: Canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation. Histol Histopathol; 2009 03;24(3):337-46
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  • Physiological and pathological bone resorption is mediated by osteoclasts, multinucleated cells which are formed by the fusion of monocyte / macrophage precursors.
  • Both canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation play a role in the formation of osteolytic lesions where there is increased osteoclast formation and activity, such as in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytokines / metabolism. Humans. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Models, Biological. Osteolysis. RANK Ligand / metabolism. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19130404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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45. Yu XC, Xu M, Song RX, Fu ZH, Liu XP: Long-term outcome of giant cell tumors of bone around the knee treated by en bloc resection of tumor and reconstruction with prosthesis. Orthop Surg; 2010 Aug;2(3):211-7
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of giant cell tumors of bone around the knee treated by en bloc resection of tumor and reconstruction with prosthesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term outcomes and complications of giant cell tumors around the knee treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with prosthesis.
  • The affected limb functions were evaluated by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scoring system.
  • CONCLUSION: En bloc resection and reconstruction with prosthesis is a feasible method for treating giant cell tumor of bone around the knee.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint / surgery. Tibia / surgery

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 22009951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-7861
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopaedic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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46. Boneschi V, Parafioriti A, Armiraglio E, Gaiani F, Brambilla L: Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:20-4
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  • [Title] Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration.
  • BACKGROUND: Soft tissue giant cell tumor (GCT-ST) of low malignant potential is an uncommon neoplasm, considered the soft tissue counterpart of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Histologically, this tumor is characterized by a mixture of uniformly scattered osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells intimately admixed with short fascicles of spindled cells.
  • Complete excision with negative surgical margins is associated with a benign clinical course in most cases.
  • RESULTS: Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a multinodular growth pattern with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells admixed with spindle cells partially arranged in a storiform pattern, fibrosis and foci of haemorrhage and mature bone.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed CD68 reactivity of the multinucleated giant cells.
  • CONCLUSION: GCT-ST is a rare neoplasm characterized by benign clinical course if excised adequately, as shown by our case of exceptionally long duration.
  • Emphasis is placed on the importance of differential diagnosis with other giant cell-rich soft tissue neoplasms because clinical behaviour, prognosis and treatment significantly differ.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Groin / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19222697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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47. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Knochentumoren, Becker WT, Dohle J, Bernd L, Braun A, Cserhati M, Enderle A, Hovy L, Matejovsky Z, Szendroi M, Trieb K, Tunn PU: Local recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone after intralesional treatment with and without adjuvant therapy. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 2008 May;90(5):1060-7
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  • [Title] Local recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone after intralesional treatment with and without adjuvant therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of adjuvants after curettage has been well established for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the rates of recurrence following different types of treatment as well as the influence of various factors of tumor presentation on those rates.
  • METHODS: The data regarding benign giant cell tumors of the appendicular skeleton from ten bone tumor centers were evaluated.
  • The recurrence rates associated with the different treatment modalities were analyzed, and hazard ratios for a recurrence were calculated for multiple factors of tumor presentation.
  • The recurrence rate following curettage of a primary tumor without the use of adjuvants (55%) was higher than that following the same treatment of a recurrent tumor (39%) (p = 0.033).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Use of polymethylmethacrylate as an adjuvant significantly reduces the recurrence rate following intralesional treatment of benign giant cell tumors, and it appears to be the therapy of choice for primary as well as recurrent giant cell tumors of bone.
  • The significantly better results following treatment of recurrent tumors without adjuvants compared with the results of the same treatment of primary tumors were probably related to increased surgical thoroughness brought about by the surgeon's awareness of dealing with a riskier tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Polymethyl Methacrylate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cautery. Combined Modality Therapy. Curettage. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / prevention & control. Phenol / administration & dosage. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18451399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-1386
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Cements; 339NCG44TV / Phenol; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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48. Gibbs CP, Lewis VO, Peabody T: Beyond bone grafting: techniques in the surgical management of benign bone tumors. Instr Course Lect; 2005;54:497-503
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  • [Title] Beyond bone grafting: techniques in the surgical management of benign bone tumors.
  • The traditional surgical treatment of benign bone tumors has been curettage and autologous bone graft or marginal resection of expendable bones.
  • Recently, however, surgeons have been evaluating the results of treatments using limited surgical approaches, including percutaneous treatments, alternatives to autograft bone, and thermal or cytotoxic adjuvant therapies.
  • This process has been facilitated by the availability of multiple bone grafting materials and substitutes, the use of cross-sectional imaging, and technology such as that used with radiofrequency ablation.
  • Techniques using these therapies in two benign bone tumor models are described.
  • The use of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, now used for both benign and malignant disease, is reviewed as a surgical alternative for osteoid osteoma.
  • The role of adjuvant therapies such as liquid nitrogen and phenol, as well as the indications for resection, are described in the management of giant cell tumors of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Osteoma, Osteoid / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Transplantation / methods. Humans. Prosthesis Implantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 15948474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-6895
  • [Journal-full-title] Instructional course lectures
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Instr Course Lect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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49. Bhadani PP, Sah SP, Sen R, Singh RK: Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology in gouty tophi: a report of 7 cases. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):101-4
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  • Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, giant cell tumor of bone and metastatic tumor with multicentric involvement of bone were the clinical diagnoses in 1 case each.
  • Bright field microscopy of FNA smears revealed singly scattered or stacks of MSU crystals with variable number of inflammatory cells, with or without foreign body giant cells in 6 cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Crystallization. Diagnosis, Differential. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Polarization. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tendons. Uric Acid / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16514850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 268B43MJ25 / Uric Acid
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50. Qin H, Cai J, Fang J, Xu H, Gong Y: Could MTA be a novel medicine on the recurrence therapy for GCTB? Med Hypotheses; 2010 Feb;74(2):368-9
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  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign locally aggressive bone tumor with a shown clinical behavior of local recurrences and rare distant metastases.
  • Due to the high rate of pulmonary metastases recurrent GCTB may be considered as a severe disease.
  • If the tumor reaches close to the articulating surface a subchondral bone graft can be performed without risking a higher recurrence rate.
  • MTA is a powder aggregate containing mineral oxides with a good biological action and may facilitate the regeneration of the periodontal ligament and formation of bone.
  • MTA used was able to induce bone regeneration and had its action optimized.
  • For the clinical point of view, we can apply MTA in the GCTB to induce bone production, then to inhibit the recurrent of the cases.
  • MTA may be the therapy of choice for primary as well as recurrent giant cell tumors of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / physiopathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / physiopathology. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19656634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2777
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine
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51. Roberts DS, Faquin WC, Deschler DG: Giant cell tumors of the temporal bone and infratemporal fossa: a case report and review of the literature. Laryngoscope; 2010;120 Suppl 4:S180
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumors of the temporal bone and infratemporal fossa: a case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report a giant cell tumor (GCT) of temporal bone and infratemporal fossa and to review the literature pertinent to the care of such patients.
  • METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted using Pubmed and the key words temporal bone, GCT, infratemporal fossa, and recurrent GCT.
  • RESULTS: Six case reports over 23 years illustrate that these benign locally destructive lesions may originate in the temporal bone with extension into the infratemporal fossa.
  • We present a 30 year-old male who developed a temporal bone GCT with infratemporal fossa extension 12 years after undergoing successful surgical treatment of a GCT of the femur.
  • The patient is disease free after 24 months without facial nerve deficits.
  • CONCLUSION: Due to the risk for recurrence, complete resection of GCTs of the temporal bone and infratemporal fossa is advocated.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Temporal Bone / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21225778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Dickson BC, Li SQ, Wunder JS, Ferguson PC, Eslami B, Werier JA, Turcotte RE, Kandel RA: Giant cell tumor of bone express p63. Mod Pathol; 2008 Apr;21(4):369-75
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone express p63.
  • p63 contributes to skeletal development and tumor formation; however, little is known regarding its activity in the context of bone and soft tissue neoplasms.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate p63 expression in giant cell tumor of bone and to determine whether it can be used to discriminate between other giant cell-rich tumors.
  • Seventeen cases of giant cell tumor of bone were examined to determine the cell type expressing p63 and identify the isoforms present.
  • Total RNA or cell protein was extracted from mononuclear- or giant cell-enriched fractions or intact giant cell tumor of bone and examined by RT-PCR or western blot, respectively.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate p63 expression in paraffin embedded sections of giant cell tumor of bone and in tumors containing multinucleated giant cells, including: giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondroblastoma, and central giant cell granuloma.
  • The mononuclear cell component in all cases of giant cell tumor of bone was found to express all forms of TAp63 (alpha, beta, and gamma), whereas only low levels of the TAp63 alpha and beta isoforms were detected in multinucleated cells; DeltaNp63 was not detected in these tumors.
  • Western blot analysis identified p63 protein as being predominately localized to mononuclear cells compared to giant cells.
  • This was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tumor sections, with expression identified in all cases of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Only a proportion of cases of aneurysmal bone cyst and chondroblastoma showed p63 immunoreactivity whereas it was not detected in central giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, or pigmented villonodular synovitis.
  • The differential expression of p63 in giant cell tumor of bone and central giant cell granuloma suggest that these two tumors may have a different pathogenesis.
  • Moreover, p63 may be a useful biomarker to differentiate giant cell tumor of bone from central giant cell granuloma and other giant cell-rich tumors, such as giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and pigmented villonodular synovitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Protein Isoforms / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18311114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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53. Haque AU, Moatasim A: Giant cell tumor of bone: a neoplasm or a reactive condition? Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(6):489-501
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone: a neoplasm or a reactive condition?
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor of young adults.
  • Microscopically areas of frank hemorrhage, numerous multinucleated giant cells and spindly stromal cells are present.
  • While giant cells and stromal cells have been extensively studied, little attention has been paid to the overwhelming hemorrhagic component.
  • If examined carefully intact and partially degenerated red blood cells are almost invariably seen in many giant cells as well as in the stroma.
  • While hemorrhage in many patients may be resolved without leaving any trace over time, in some it gives rise to giant cell formation, and in others it may lead to proliferation of fibroblasts and histiocytes.
  • Malignancy usually does not occur in GCTB and when discover, it usually represents primary bone sarcomas missed at original diagnosis.
  • Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) shares many features with GCTB.
  • There had been unique karyotypic changes in some aneurysmal bone cysts making it distinct from GCTB.
  • However these changes may be in the endothelial cells which are quite different from stromal or giant cells.
  • Enhanced telomerase activity and karyotypic aberrations may be necessary for rapid division of the nuclei of the giant cells in order to be able to deal with significant in situ intraosseous hemorrhage.

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  • (PMID = 18787633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480584
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumor / aneurysmal bone cyst / bone / bone matrix / hemorrhage / osteoclast / osteoclastoma / telomerase
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54. Kumar A, Varshney MK, Trikha V, Rastogi S: An unusual presentation of a rare chest wall tumour: giant cell tumour of bone. Joint Bone Spine; 2007 Jan;74(1):100-2
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  • [Title] An unusual presentation of a rare chest wall tumour: giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Giant cell tumour of bone is an aggressive benign bone tumour.
  • We report a case of giant cell tumour of the anterior end of the rib masquerading as a sub-mammary abscess in lactating women.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Thoracic Wall

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  • (PMID = 17197221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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55. Matsuo T, Hiyama E, Sugita T, Shimose S, Kubo T, Mochizuki Y, Adachi N, Kojima K, Sharman P, Ochi M: Telomerase activity in giant cell tumors of bone. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2896-902
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  • [Title] Telomerase activity in giant cell tumors of bone.
  • BACKGROUND: A giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a histologically benign neoplasma that has an unpredictable pattern of biological aggressiveness.
  • Telomerase activity was detected in 81% of tumor samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that telomere length correlates with roentgenographic grade as a result of the frequency of cell division, and high telomerase activity indicates the aggressiveness of GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Telomerase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blotting, Southern. Bone and Bones / pathology. Bone and Bones / surgery. Extremities / surgery. Female. Femoral Neoplasms / genetics. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Femoral Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length / genetics. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17653593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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56. Baker JF, Perera A, Kiely PD, Lui DF, Stephens MM: Giant cell tumour in the foot of a skeletally immature girl: a case report. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2009 Aug;17(2):248-50
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumour in the foot of a skeletally immature girl: a case report.
  • We present a case of delayed diagnosis of a benign giant cell tumour (GCT) of the third metatarsal in a skeletally immature girl.
  • The patient underwent en bloc excision of the tumour.
  • The tumour had replaced the third metatarsal and had infiltrated the surrounding soft tissue and the second and fourth metatarsal bases.
  • A high index of suspicion is needed when evaluating any tumours of the foot, because the compact structure of the foot may delay diagnosis.
  • Tumours grow faster in the foot than in other bones.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Metatarsal Bones / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19721166.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-4990
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Mohanty S, Jhamb A: Central giant cell lesion of mandible managed by intralesional triamcinolone injections. A report of two cases and literature review. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2009 Feb;14(2):E98-102
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  • [Title] Central giant cell lesion of mandible managed by intralesional triamcinolone injections. A report of two cases and literature review.
  • Central giant cell lesion (CGCL) is a benign lesion which has unpredictable biologic behaviour and is amenable to a plethora of treatment alternatives.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Mandibular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triamcinolone Acetonide / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19179958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; F446C597KA / Triamcinolone Acetonide
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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58. Lee VN, Nithyananth M, Cherian VM, Amritanand R, Venkatesh K, Sundararaj GD, Raghuram LN: Preoperative embolisation in benign bone tumour excision. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2008 Apr;16(1):80-3
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  • [Title] Preoperative embolisation in benign bone tumour excision.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the role of preoperative embolisation in benign bone tumour excision.
  • METHODS: 3 men and 3 women aged 19 to 35 (mean 23) years with either a giant cell tumour or an aneurysmal bone cyst in limb girdle sites underwent preoperative embolisation a day prior to wide local excision by the same surgeon.
  • Tumour size, blood loss, wound healing, infection, and tumour recurrence were assessed.
  • No tumour recurred within a minimum 5-year follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative embolisation is useful in the management of vascular and aggressive bone tumours located at limb girdle sites where a tourniquet cannot be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Preoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18453665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5536
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Kiralj A, Ilić M, Markov B, Dedić S, Pejaković B, Nalić B: [Chondroma of the skull base and maxilla]. Med Pregl; 2007 Nov-Dec;60(11-12):649-51
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  • INTRODUCTION: Chondromas are uncommon benign tumors of cartilaginous origin.
  • A chondroma is a painless, slow growing tumor causing destruction and exfoliation of teeth.
  • On a radiograph, the tumor appears as a cyst-like radiolucent lesion, while some are sclerotic.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare, benign cartilaginous tumor that often occurs in the metaphyses of proximal tibia, proximal and distal femur and small bones of the foot.
  • The differential diagnosis is wide and includes simple or aneyrismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, nonossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, enchondroma, chondroblastoma, eosinophilic granuloma and fibrous cortical defect.
  • In the diagnosis of an intracranial chondrocytic tumor, it is important to distinguish it from enchondroma and chondrosarcoma.
  • MR provides a detailed assessment of soft tissue masses of the craniofacial region, while CT offers superior analysis of bone structure involvement.

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  • (PMID = 18666612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pregl.
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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60. Szalay K, Antal I, Kiss J, Szendroi M: Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):505-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to compare and assess the effect of bone grafting and cementing techniques--two common applications used in the treatment of subchondral giant cell tumours of bone (GCTs)--on the development of degenerative changes in the weight-bearing joints of the lower extremity.
  • Eighty patients were included in this follow-up study, 44 of whom underwent curettage followed by bone grafting, and 36 who had curettage followed by cementation.
  • At the 24-month post-operative examination, significantly less degenerative change was found in patients with bone cement than in those with bone grafting.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / adverse effects. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Joints / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Femur / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Tibia / pathology. Weight-Bearing

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  • (PMID = 16969579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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61. Junming M, Cheng Y, Dong C, Jianru X, Xinghai Y, Quan H, Wei Z, Mesong Y, Dapeng F, Wen Y, Bin N, Lianshun J, Huimin L: Giant cell tumor of the cervical spine: a series of 22 cases and outcomes. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2008 Feb 1;33(3):280-8
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the cervical spine: a series of 22 cases and outcomes.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A consecutive series of 22 giant cell tumor (GCTs) of the cervical spine which underwent surgical treatment was observed from 1990-2003.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the clinical patterns and follow-up data of (GCT) of bone arising in the cervical spine which underwent surgical treatment.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: GCTs of bone are common, aggressive, or low-grade malignant tumors that occur infrequently in the spine above the sacrum, and their presence in the cervical vertebrae is even more exceptional.
  • Though surgical resection of GCT arising in the cervical spine is commonly regarded as a recommended treatment method, it is still a challenge to achieve satisfactory results, especially for the late or recurrent cases, and there are few large series of cases reported with long-term follow-up of this tumor that are found in special segments in the literature.
  • For reconstructing the stability of the cervical spine, we used autologous ilium for pure bone graft, or titanium plate and titanium mesh for anterior instrumented fusion or anterior and posterior combined instrumented fusion.
  • RESULTS: One patient with C1-C2 GCT (vertebral body and posterior element involvement) who received subtotal resection of the tumor showed aggravation of neurologic deficit and died shortly after the surgery.
  • The rate of fusion for the bone graft is 100%.
  • As a kind of benign but local aggressive or low potential malignancy tumor, we should take an aggressive attitude to excise the tumor as much as possible while reserving the neural function as a precondition.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diskectomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Spinal Fusion. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


62. Campanacci DA, Scoccianti G, Beltrami G, Mugnaini M, Capanna R: Ankle arthrodesis with bone graft after distal tibia resection for bone tumors. Foot Ankle Int; 2008 Oct;29(10):1031-7
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  • [Title] Ankle arthrodesis with bone graft after distal tibia resection for bone tumors.
  • Ankle arthrodesis has proven to be an effective treatment in primary and post-traumatic joint arthritis, but few papers have addressed the feasibility and techniques of ankle arthrodesis in tumor surgery after long bone resections.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resection of the distal tibia and reconstruction by ankle fusion using non-vascularized structural bone grafts was performed in 8 patients affected by malignant (5 patients) or aggressive benign (3 patients) tumors.
  • Bone defects were reconstructed with cortical structural autografts (from contralateral tibia) or allografts or both, plus autologous bone chips.
  • CONCLUSION: Resection of the distal tibia and arthrodesis of the ankle with non-vascularized structural bone grafts, combined with autologous bone chips, can be an effective procedure in bone tumor surgery with durable and satisfactory functional results.
  • In shorter resections, autologous cortical structural grafts can be used; in longer resections, allograft structural bone grafts are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ankle Joint / surgery. Arthrodesis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Tibia / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Nails. Bone Plates. Female. Fibula / transplantation. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Hemangioendothelioma / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Humans. Ilium / transplantation. Limb Salvage. Male. Middle Aged. Pain Measurement. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / surgery. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18851821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Jonathan A, Rajshekhar V, Chacko G: Chondromyxoid fibroma of the seventh cervical vertebra. Neurol India; 2008 Jan-Mar;56(1):84-7
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  • Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare benign bone tumor representing less than 0.5% of all bone tumors.
  • A presumptive diagnosis of a bony tumor such as an aneurysmal bone cyst or a giant cell tumor involving the seventh vertebral body was made on plain X-rays, MRI and bone scan.
  • He underwent C7 central corpectomy, incomplete intralesional curettage with iliac bone grafting and C6 to T1 interspinous wiring.
  • On eight years' follow-up, CT scan showed no progression of the tumor with good alignment and fusion of the graft at the site of the corpectomy.
  • The authors conclude that corpectomy and iliac bone grafting for chondromyxoid fibroma has a good outcome on long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Chondromatosis / complications. Fibroma / complications. Fibroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18310848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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64. Zhang Z, Zhu B, Sun T: [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):1007-10
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  • [Title] [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features, treatment methods, and recurrence factors of giant cell tumor of the bone and to investigate the surgical therapy choice for the tumor around the knees.
  • METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females; average age 31.1 years, range 14-59 years) with giant cell tumor of the bone were treated and followed up from January 1993 to January 2005.
  • The intralesional excision (curettage) with the bone grafting was performed on 4 patients; the curettage with some adjuvant treatments (high-speed burring, phenol, alcohol, cement, hydrogen peroxide, 50% ZnCl2, 3% iodine tincture, or bone cement) was used in 26 patients; and resection of the whole tumor was performed on 8 patients.
  • RESULTS: The follow-up of the 38 patients for 12-144 months (average, 67 months) revealed that giant cell tumor of the bone was found around the knees in 29 of the 38 patients (13 at the distal femur, 16 at the proximal tibia), at the proximal femur in 2, at the proximal ulna in 2, at the distal radius in 2, at the sacroiliac area in 2, and at lumbar spine in 1.
  • Of the 38 patients, 4 had a recurrence after simple curettage, 8 had no recurrence after resection of the whole tumor, and 8 of the remaining 26 patients had a recurrence after curettage with some adjuvant treatments.
  • Of the patients with the recurrence, 12 underwent reoperations (8 by the total resection of the recurrent tumor, 4 by the curettage with adjuvant treatments), and there was no recurrence after the reoperation.
  • CONCLUSION: Giant cell tumor of the bone usually recurs around the knee joint, especially at the proximal tibia, usually graded as Grade II or III by the Campanacci's radiological grading system.
  • Simple curettage has a higher recurrence rate; therefore, extensive curettage and resection of the lesions combined with some adjuvant treatments after the correct diagnosis can be used to reduce the high recurrence rate of giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17140075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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65. Balke M, Streitbuerger A, Budny T, Henrichs M, Gosheger G, Hardes J: Treatment and outcome of giant cell tumors of the pelvis. Acta Orthop; 2009 Oct;80(5):590-6
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  • [Title] Treatment and outcome of giant cell tumors of the pelvis.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone rarely affect the pelvis.
  • METHODS: 20 patients with histologically benign GCT of the pelvis were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: 1 patient with a pubic tumor developed a local recurrence 1 year after intralesional resection and additional curettage of the margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Pelvic Bones
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bone Cements. Bone Transplantation. Curettage. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ilium / pathology. Ilium / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19916695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-3682
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2823344
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66. Cozzolino A, Balleri P, Ruggiero G, Veltri M: Use of short implants for functional restoration of the mandible after giant cell tumor removal. Case report. Minerva Stomatol; 2006 May;55(5):307-14
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  • [Title] Use of short implants for functional restoration of the mandible after giant cell tumor removal. Case report.
  • The giant cell tumor of the jaws is a rare benign lesion, it has a slow and progressive evolution and it is locally aggressive.
  • The clinical case of a 28-year-old man affected by a giant cell tumor of the mandible with an aggressive clinical and radiographical behaviour is reported.
  • The patient showed a jaw swelling covered by hyperemic fibro-mucous tissue from tooth 4.6 to 3.4, absence of cortical bone and mobility of teeth.
  • The giant cell tumor diagnosis was made with orthopantomography (OPT), computed tomography (CT) and needle biopsy.
  • In spite of the wide loss of bony substance after surgery, the patient was provided with an implant supported fixed prosthesis without previous bone graft.
  • In this case short implants allowed the prosthetic rehabilitation of a mandible with severe ''resorption'' due to surgical removal of a tumor.
  • Implants were placed in the residual bone volume and successfully used to support a fixed prosthesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dental Implantation, Endosseous. Dental Implants. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Mandibular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Resorption. Equipment Design. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Tooth Extraction. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 16688107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4970
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva stomatologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Stomatol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dental Implants
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67. Wahane RN, Lele VR, Bobhate SK: Fine needle aspiration cytology of bone tumors. Acta Cytol; 2007 Sep-Oct;51(5):711-20
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of bone tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of bone tumors and its impact on therapeutic decisions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A group of 122 cases of bone tumor were evaluated by FNAC.
  • FNAC could differentiate between various round cell tumors such as Ewing's sarcoma and myeloma, among various giant cell-rich lesions of bone and between the benign and malignant chondroid bone tumors.
  • In metastatic bone tumors, the source of primary malignancy could not be indicated in the majority (52.9%) because of the poorly differentiated morphology.
  • CONCLUSION: FNAC plays an important role in the early diagnosis of bone tumors by its accuracy, ease of use and rapidity and is helpful in making the therapeutic decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone and Bones / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibroma / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17910340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. George S, Merriam P, Maki RG, Van den Abbeele AD, Yap JT, Akhurst T, Harmon DC, Bhuchar G, O'Mara MM, D'Adamo DR, Morgan J, Schwartz GK, Wagner AJ, Butrynski JE, Demetri GD, Keohan ML: Multicenter phase II trial of sunitinib in the treatment of nongastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Jul 01;27(19):3154-60
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  • [Title] Multicenter phase II trial of sunitinib in the treatment of nongastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas.
  • PURPOSE To evaluate the potential benefit of continuous daily dosing sunitinib in patients with advanced nongastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) sarcomas.
  • Secondary end points were stable disease at 16 and 24 weeks.
  • One patient (desmoplastic round cell tumor [DSRCT]) achieved a confirmed partial response (PR) and remained on study for 56 weeks.
  • Ten patients (20%) achieved stable disease for at least 16 weeks.
  • Metabolic stable disease was seen in 11 (52%) of 21.
  • The relevance of disease control observed in subtypes with an indolent natural history is unknown, however, the durable disease control observed in DSRCT, solitary fibrous tumor, and giant cell tumor of bone suggests that future evaluation of sunitinib in these subtypes may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


69. Sakayama K, Sugawara Y, Kidani T, Miyawaki J, Fujibuchi T, Kamei S, Aizawa J, Yamamoto H: Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of giant cell tumor in the proximal femur. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2007 Dec;127(10):867-72
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of giant cell tumor in the proximal femur.
  • Primaly giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) in the proximal femur is relatively rare, and can prove difficult to diagnose, and can require therapeutic methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Femoral Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arthrodesis. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / methods. Biopsy. Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Female. Femur / pathology. Femur / surgery. Hip Joint / surgery. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Osteolysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17713773.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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70. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Livadas S, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Lyberopoulos K, Tantalaki E, Palioura H, Giannopoulos A, Kostakis A: Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature. Endocrine; 2007 Dec;32(3):345-9
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  • [Title] Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • The rare appearance of this entity in everyday practice is troublesome for both patients and physicians, because whenever it emerges, diagnosis could be mistaken for a giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • However, clinical, biochemical, and radiologic findings can easily guide the diagnosis if one considers the full continuum of findings and their association with subject's medical history, instead of focusing only on bone lesion.
  • In this report we present a case of brown tumor in the fibula with a short literature review, whose aggressive presentation and unawareness of the skeletal findings of hyperparathyroidism puzzled the caring doctors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18246453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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71. de Lange J, van den Akker HP, van den Berg H: Central giant cell granuloma of the jaw: a review of the literature with emphasis on therapy options. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2007 Nov;104(5):603-15
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  • [Title] Central giant cell granuloma of the jaw: a review of the literature with emphasis on therapy options.
  • Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign lesion of the jaws with an unknown etiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Giant Cell / therapy. Jaw Diseases / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Age Distribution. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzamides. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Calcitonin / therapeutic use. Denosumab. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Interferons / therapeutic use. Osteoprotegerin / therapeutic use. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. RANK Ligand. Subgingival Curettage

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  • (PMID = 17703964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Osteoprotegerin; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
  • [Number-of-references] 113
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72. Liang X, Jiang D, Ni W: [Clinical observation on nano-hydroxyapatite and polyamide 66 composite in repairing bone defect due to benign bone tumor]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;21(8):785-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical observation on nano-hydroxyapatite and polyamide 66 composite in repairing bone defect due to benign bone tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect and safety of the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite in repairing the bone defects due to benign bone tumors.
  • METHODS: From January 2003 to May 2005, 38 patients (21 males, 16 females; age, 19-58 years, averaged 38.5 years) with the bone defects due to benign bone tumors were treated with the n-HA/PA66 grains.
  • Among the 37 patients, 11 had fibrous dysplasia, 14 had bone cyst, 10 had giant cell tumor of the bone (Grade I ), and 2 had enchondroma.
  • The tumors ranged in size from 1.0 cm x 0.7 cm x 0.4 cm to 10.0 cm x 4.0 cm x 3.0 cm, with the location of the proximal femur in 12 patients, the distal femur in 7, the proximal tibia in 9, the proximal humerus in 5, the phalanges of the finger in 2, the metacarpal bone in 1, and the calcaneus in 1.
  • All the benign bone tumors underwent the curettage treatment, and then the tumor cavities were filled up with the n-HA/PA66 grains.
  • The incision healing, local inflammatory reaction, rejection, toxic reaction, tumor cavity healing, and function recovery of the limbs were all observed after operation.
  • CONCLUSION: The n-HA/PA66 grains have great biological safety, good biocompatibility, and good bone conduction, which are good materials for the bone repair and reconstruction, and can be safely, and effectively used for repairing the bone defects due to benign bone tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Substitutes. Hydroxyapatites. Nylons
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biocompatible Materials. Bone Cysts / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nanostructures. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Treatment Outcome. Wound Healing. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17882867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Bone Substitutes; 0 / Hydroxyapatites; 0 / Nylons
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73. Bianchi G, Donati D, Staals EL, Mercuri M: Osteoarticular allograft reconstruction of the distal radius after bone tumour resection. J Hand Surg Br; 2005 Aug;30(4):369-73
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  • [Title] Osteoarticular allograft reconstruction of the distal radius after bone tumour resection.
  • Resection of the distal end of the radius is indicated in the treatment of locally aggressive primary benign and malignant bone tumours.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the technique of osteoarticular allograft reconstruction of this bone defect.
  • Three patients had a malignant tumour and nine had a giant cell tumour.
  • Non-union of the osteotomy line was diagnosed 6 months after surgery in one case and needed bone grafting.
  • Subchondral bone alterations and joint narrowing were present in all cases but were painful in only one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Radius / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15951074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0266-7681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hand surgery (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Br
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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74. Brimo F, Aziz M, Rosen G, Turcotte R, Nahal A: Malignancy in giant cell tumour of bone: is there a reproducible histological threshold? A study of three giant cell tumours with worrisome features. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):864-6
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  • [Title] Malignancy in giant cell tumour of bone: is there a reproducible histological threshold? A study of three giant cell tumours with worrisome features.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18042075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Karpik M: Giant Cell Tumor (tumor gigantocellularis, osteoclastoma) - epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2010 May-Jun;12(3):207-15
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  • [Title] Giant Cell Tumor (tumor gigantocellularis, osteoclastoma) - epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment.
  • The author presents the epidemiology, classification, clinical features and strategies of treatment of Giant Cell Tumor.
  • Giant Cell Tumor of Bone accounts for 4-8% of primary bone tumors.
  • Increasing pain at the tumor site is the most common presenting symptom.
  • The recurrence rate is high (12-50%) during the first 2-3 years after surgery, regardless of pre-operative tumor stage.
  • 5-7% cases of giant cell tumor produce malignant recurrences, usually after five to more than 10 years after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Secondary Prevention. Sex Distribution. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20675862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng; pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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76. Toy PC, France J, Randall RL, Neel MD, Shorr RI, Heck RK: Reconstruction of noncontained distal femoral defects with polymethylmethacrylate and crossed-screw augmentation: a biomechanical study. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 2006 Jan;88(1):171-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Curettage and cementation with polymethylmethacrylate are frequently used in the treatment of aggressive benign bone lesions such as giant-cell tumors, but strength and stiffness of the reconstructed bone have been concerns.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this in vitro cadaver study, augmentation of polymethylmethacrylate cement with crossed screws resulted in a stronger reconstruction of distal femoral tumor defects than that obtained with cement alone or with cement and intramedullary Steinmann pins.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Screws. Femur / surgery. Polymethyl Methacrylate / therapeutic use. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomechanical Phenomena. Bone Nails. Cadaver. Case-Control Studies. Curettage. Elasticity. Femoral Fractures / classification. Femoral Fractures / physiopathology. Humans. Weight-Bearing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16391262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9355
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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77. Knowles HJ, Athanasou NA: Acute hypoxia and osteoclast activity: a balance between enhanced resorption and increased apoptosis. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):256-64
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  • Osteoclasts are the primary mediators of pathological bone resorption in many conditions in which micro-environmental hypoxia is associated with disease progression.
  • Mature human osteoclasts were differentiated from peripheral blood or obtained from giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Transient reoxygenation returned the percentage of trypan blue-positive cells to normoxic levels, suggesting that osteoclasts can recover from the early stages of cell death.
  • These data suggest that in diseased bone, where the pO(2) may fall to <or=2% O(2), a delicate balance between hypoxia-induced osteoclast activation and hypoxia-induced osteoclast apoptosis mediates pathological bone resorption.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Resorption / pathology. Cell Hypoxia / physiology. Osteoclasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers / analysis. Cathepsin K. Cathepsins / analysis. Cathepsins / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Coloring Agents / analysis. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / analysis. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / genetics. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Oxygen / pharmacology. RNA Interference. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Receptors, Thrombin / analysis. Receptors, Thrombin / metabolism. Trypan Blue / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19291710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Thrombin; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.38 / CTSK protein, human; EC 3.4.22.38 / Cathepsin K; I2ZWO3LS3M / Trypan Blue; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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78. Cordeiro SZ, Cordeiro Pde B, Sousa AM, Lannes DC, Pierro GS: Giant cell tumor of the rib occupying the entire hemithorax. J Bras Pneumol; 2008 Mar;34(3):185-8
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the rib occupying the entire hemithorax.
  • The authors report the case of a 28-year-old female patient with a giant cell tumor originating from the rib.
  • The tumor, measuring 25 x 17 cm, occupied the entire hemithorax and caused atelectasis of the left lung.
  • This tumor was a benign mesenchymal neoplasm, which rarely affects the ribs.
  • A thoracotomy involving en bloc resection of the chest wall and tumor was performed.
  • Despite the large dimensions of the tumor, complete resection was possible, and lung function was restored.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Ribs

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  • (PMID = 18392468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça̋o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Pneumol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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79. Malek F, Krueger P, Hatmi ZN, Malayeri AA, Faezipour H, O'Donnell RJ: Local control of long bone giant cell tumour using curettage, burring and bone grafting without adjuvant therapy. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):495-8
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  • [Title] Local control of long bone giant cell tumour using curettage, burring and bone grafting without adjuvant therapy.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) is a benign, but aggressive, primary tumour of the bone.
  • Many surgical techniques have been employed in the treatment of this tumour.
  • In addition to curettage, various adjuvant procedures and packing materials have been advocated in order to control and reconstruct long bone defects secondary to this neoplasm.
  • We report our experience with 40 long bone GCT patients treated with curettage, burring, bone grafting and no adjuvants between 1997 and 2002.
  • The risk of local recurrence in this study is acceptable (within the range that has been historically reported for curettage and bone grafting).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / methods. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Cohort Studies. Developing Countries. Female. Humans. Iran. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Cites] Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002 Apr;(397):259-70 [11953617.001]
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  • (PMID = 16896875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3172751
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80. Rodrigues LM, Nicolau RJ, Puertas EB, Milani C: Vertebrectomy of giant cell tumor with vertebral artery embolization: case report. J Pediatr Orthop B; 2009 Mar;18(2):99-102
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  • [Title] Vertebrectomy of giant cell tumor with vertebral artery embolization: case report.
  • Giant cell tumors (GCT) are rare in the cervical spine in adolescent children.
  • This tumor is histologically benign, but there is a high recurrence rate.
  • It was necessary to study the embolization of the vertebral artery to planning the vertebrectomy surgery for resection of the entire tumor to avoid recurrence.
  • The resection of the tumor was carried out by combined access (anteriorly and posteriorly) and was stabilized with plate, posterior lateral mass screws, and autologous iliac crest graft.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy. Vertebral Artery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Plates. Bone Screws. Bone Transplantation. Female. Humans. Ilium / transplantation. Prostheses and Implants. Spinal Fusion / instrumentation. Spinal Fusion / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19276993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5865
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric orthopedics. Part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Orthop B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Ozalp T, Yercan H, Okçu G, Ozdemir O, Coskunol E, Bégué T, Calli I: [Giant-cell tumor of the hand: midterm results in five patients]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot; 2007 Dec;93(8):842-7
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  • [Title] [Giant-cell tumor of the hand: midterm results in five patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur à cellules géantes de la main: résultats du traitement: 5 cas au recul moyen de 7, 8 ans.
  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Giant-cell bone tumors are benign but have great potential for recurrence.
  • We examined the characteristic features of giant-cell tumors of the hand and analyzed the pertinence of surgical treatment.
  • We noted complications, consequences of recurrence and later operations on the same tumor site in five cases.
  • CASE REPORTS: Five patients treated between 1973 and 2000 for giant-cell tumors involving the hand bones were reviewed retrospectively.
  • The surgical procedure was curettage for two, curettage with bone graft for two and amputation for one.
  • In all six episodes of recurrent tumor were treated.
  • DISCUSSION: Treatment of giant-cell tumors involving the hand bones is designed to eradicate the tumor and also protect hand function while keeping in mind the aggressive nature of these benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumors / surgery. Hand Bones / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amputation. Bone Transplantation. Curettage. Female. Finger Phalanges / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery. Thumb / surgery. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18166957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1040
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de chirurgie orthopédique et réparatrice de l'appareil moteur
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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82. Svoboda M, Hamilton G, Thalhammer T: Steroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in benign and malignant human bone tumors. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol; 2010 Apr;6(4):427-37
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  • [Title] Steroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in benign and malignant human bone tumors.
  • IMPORTANCE IN THE FIELD: Primary bone tumors are considered as (sex steroid) hormone-dependent tumors.
  • Osteosarcoma, osteoblastoma and bone cysts are preferentially found in males, while giant cell tumors are more common in females.
  • Indeed, bone tumor development and progression are influenced by sex steroid hormones derived from in situ synthesis in bone cells.
  • An overview is given and the expression and function of these enzymes in bone tumors are discussed.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Knowledge on pathways for the in situ formation of E2 in bone cells may allow the identification of potential targets for i) novel endocrine therapeutic options in primary bone tumors and ii) future preventive interventions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / enzymology. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone and Bones / cytology. Bone and Bones / enzymology. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20102288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7607
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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83. Farzaneh AH, Pardis PM: Central giant cell granuloma and fibrous dysplasia occurring in the same jaw. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2005;10 Suppl 2:E130-2
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  • [Title] Central giant cell granuloma and fibrous dysplasia occurring in the same jaw.
  • Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a developmental tumor like condition that is characterized by replacement of normal bone by an excessive proliferation of cellular fibrous connective tissue intermixed with irregular bony trabeculae.
  • Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is described as a benign lesion affecting the mandible and maxilla that consists of a massive fibrohistiocytic proliferation with numerous heavily hemosiderin-laden multinucleate-giant cells.
  • The histological feature reveal Central giant cell granuloma fibrous dysplasia.
  • Central giant cell granuloma and fibrous dysplasia occurring in the same jaw is rarely reported in the literatures.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrous Dysplasia, Monostotic / complications. Granuloma, Giant Cell / complications. Mandibular Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15995572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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84. Donthineni R, Boriani L, Ofluoglu O, Bandiera S: Metastatic behaviour of giant cell tumour of the spine. Int Orthop; 2009 Apr;33(2):497-501
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  • [Title] Metastatic behaviour of giant cell tumour of the spine.
  • Lung metastases from giant cell tumours (GCT) of the spine have not been specifically addressed in the literature.
  • At the latest follow-up (ranging from 18 to 126 months), two had died of the disease, two had no evidence of the disease, and three were alive with disease.
  • Progression of benign GCT into an aggressive sarcoma has been documented, and the method of management should be altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18461324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-5195
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899057
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85. Balke M, Schremper L, Gebert C, Ahrens H, Streitbuerger A, Koehler G, Hardes J, Gosheger G: Giant cell tumor of bone: treatment and outcome of 214 cases. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Sep;134(9):969-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone: treatment and outcome of 214 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Two hundred and fourteen patients with benign giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), treated from 1980 to 2007 at the Department of Orthopedics of the University of Muenster (Germany), were analyzed in a retrospective study.
  • The effects of bone cement (PMMA), burring and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were statistically analyzed and the influence of a subchondral bone graft on the recurrence rate was evaluated.
  • If the tumor reaches close to the articulating surface a subchondral bone graft (n = 42) can be performed without risking a higher recurrence rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Curettage. Female. Humans. Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Polymethyl Methacrylate. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18322700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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86. Aggarwal AN, Jain AK, Kumar S, Dhammi IK, Prashad B: Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee. Indian J Orthop; 2007 Apr;41(2):129-33
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  • [Title] Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee.
  • BACKGROUND: Segmental resection of bone in Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) around the knee, in indicated cases, leaves a gap which requires a complex reconstructive procedure.
  • After resection arthrodesis with intercalary autograft and simultaneous lengthening the resultant gap (∼15cm) was partially bridged by intercalary nonvascularized dual fibular strut graft (6-7cm) and additional corticocancellous bone graft from ipsilateral patella.
  • The stress fracture fibula required DCP fixation and bone grafting.
  • CONCLUSION: Resection arthrodesis with intercalary dual fibular autograft and cortico-cancellous bone grafting with simultaneous limb lengthening achieved limb length equalization with relatively short morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 21139765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5413
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989136
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Enbloc resection / giant cell tumor / reconstruction of knee
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87. Niu XH, Hao L, Zhang Q, Ding Y: [Massive allograft replacement in management of bone tumors]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May 15;45(10):677-80
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  • [Title] [Massive allograft replacement in management of bone tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional outcome and the complications of allograft replacement in management of bone tumors.
  • METHODS: Between March 1992 and September 2002 164 patients underwent bone tumor resection and massive allograft reconstruction of bone defects.
  • The resections were classified as marginal or wide resections of the tumor on the basis of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society staging system.
  • Most of the lesions were osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor of bone and located in proximal and distal femur, proximal tibia and humerus.
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 47 months (range, 12 to 168 months) after the operation, 154 of the patients in the study were free of disease and 10 died of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Allografts can be used for reconstruction of bony defects after tumor resection.
  • Allograft has nearly similar shape, strength, osteo-conduction and osteo-induction with host bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Substitutes. Bone Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 17688819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes
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88. Nishimura M, Yuasa K, Mori K, Miyamoto N, Ito M, Tsurudome M, Nishio M, Kawano M, Komada H, Uchida A, Ito Y: Cytological properties of stromal cells derived from giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) which can induce osteoclast formation of human blood monocytes without cell to cell contact. J Orthop Res; 2005 Sep;23(5):979-87
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  • [Title] Cytological properties of stromal cells derived from giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) which can induce osteoclast formation of human blood monocytes without cell to cell contact.
  • When human blood monocytes were cocultured with stromal cells derived from human giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) and a Millipore filter (0.4 microm) was interposed between monocytes and GCTSC, multinucleated giant cell formation of monocytes was induced.
  • The multinucleated giant cells have characters as osteoclast-like cells, indicating that a soluble osteoclast-inducing factor(s) is secreted from GCTSC expressing RANK, RANKL/ODF/OPGL and TACE mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Monocytes / cytology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Stromal Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / analysis. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / physiology. Cell Communication. Cell Lineage. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Cytokines / genetics. Humans. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology. Osteocalcin / analysis. Osteogenesis. Osteopontin. RANK Ligand. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / genetics. Sialoglycoproteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16024207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASR protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / SPP1 protein, human; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 0 / TNFRSF11A protein, human; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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89. Adams SC, Potter BK, Robinson PG, Temple HT: Giant cell tumor of the distal femur associated with complete tumor necrosis. Orthopedics; 2010 Sep;33(9):688
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the distal femur associated with complete tumor necrosis.
  • Giant cell tumor is a benign tumor of bone with a predilection for juxta-articular locations.
  • Although not malignant, giant cell tumor often exhibits unpredictable and locally aggressive behavior, and in rare cases can metastasize in the absence of histologic malignancy.
  • Partial tumor necrosis has been infrequently reported within typical giant cell tumor.
  • A 17-year-old girl presented with a right distal femur giant cell tumor associated with complete tumor necrosis on histopathologic analysis.
  • The etiology, prevalence, and implications of complete necrosis in previously untreated giant cell tumor of bone remain unclear, as there are no previously published reports.
  • There were no radiographic signs of the necrotic tumor space remodeling with new bone.
  • The patient was treated with standard extended intralesional curetting through a generous cortical window permitting visualization of the entire lesion, and systematic high speed burring and thermal electrocautery ablation of the periphery, followed by micro particulate allogenic bone grafting.
  • At short-term follow-up, she had healed well with no evidence of tumor recurrence.
  • This article presents the first case, to our knowledge, of complete spontaneous tumor necrosis in a previously untreated bone giant cell tumor.
  • Increased understanding of spontaneous tumor necrosis associated with giant cell tumor may help guided future targeted medical and surgical treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 20839701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Burnei G, Burnei C, Hodorogea D, Gavriliu S, Georgescu I, Vlad C: Osteoarticular reconstructive surgery in malignant bone tumors: the importance of external fixators. J Med Life; 2008 Jul-Sep;1(3):295-306
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  • [Title] Osteoarticular reconstructive surgery in malignant bone tumors: the importance of external fixators.
  • The patients with malignant bone tumors (table 1.) were studied by sex, tumor type, location, age at the moment of diagnosis, age at the moment of the last evaluation, type of surgery, external fixator implanted, complications, results and survival period.
  • We also considered for each patient the extent of the tumor to diaphysis, soft tissue involvement, involvement of physis and epiphyseal invasion, articular extent, vessels and nerves invasion, presence of metastases and local skin invasion.
  • The development of reconstructive bone surgery is sustained by the possibility to delineate the tumor by diagnosis based on imaging and by the possibility to use modern preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Limb conservation was possible only in aggressive benign tumors up to 1970.
  • Since then the same treatment was preferred also in malignant bone tumors, because the relapse appeared as frequent as in cases with amputation but the physical and psychological comfort made the patients to accept it readily.
  • The goal of malignant bone tumors treatment is to save the life of the patient, to preserve the affected limb, to maintain the length and function of the limb.
  • Oncologic surgery consists of "en bloc" tumor resection followed by bone reconstruction or modular prosthetic replacement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Chondrosarcoma / surgery. External Fixators. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Osteosarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20108507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1844-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicine and life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Life
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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91. Tarrass F, Ayad A, Benjelloun M, Anabi A, Ramdani B, Benghanem MG, Zaid D: Cauda equina compression revealing brown tumor of the spine in a long-term hemodialysis patient. Joint Bone Spine; 2006 Dec;73(6):748-50
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  • [Title] Cauda equina compression revealing brown tumor of the spine in a long-term hemodialysis patient.
  • Brown tumors, or osteoclastomas, are erosive bony lesions arising as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT).
  • In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), brown tumors are classic skeletal manifestations usually seen in severe forms of secondary HPT.
  • We report a long-term hemodialysis case, in which cauda equina compression developed due to a sacral brown tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16650789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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92. Guliaeva SS, Voloshchuk IN, Mokrysheva NG, Rozhinskaia LIa: [Maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor of the bone in a patient with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy]. Arkh Patol; 2009 Sep-Oct;71(5):53-5
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  • [Title] [Maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor of the bone in a patient with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy].
  • The paper describes a case of maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor in a patient with parathyroid osteodystrophy, in this connection elbow joint resection and replacement were made.
  • Progression of diseases was accompanied by severe bone changes and the development of urolithiasis complicated by chronic renal failure.
  • Thus, the interpretation of bone tissue changes without considering clinical and laboratory data led to the unwarranted surgical intervention and the late diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Differential diagnosis of a giant-cell tumor should be made, by obligatorily considering clinical and laboratory data, including the parameters of calcium metabolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases, Metabolic / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19938706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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93. Fraquet N, Faizon G, Rosset P, Phillipeau J-, Waast D, Gouin F: Long bones giant cells tumors: treatment by curretage and cavity filling cementation. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res; 2009 Oct;95(6):402-6
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  • [Title] Long bones giant cells tumors: treatment by curretage and cavity filling cementation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Giant cell tumors (GCT) of bone are benign tumors with local aggressiveness that most of the time occur around the metaphyseal area of long bones, often in contact with the articular cartilage.
  • Preoperative radiological evaluation with standard X-rays showed that the tumor measured a mean 71x45mm, for a mean volume of 78cm(3).
  • Two cases of minor osteoarthritis progression were noted (one less than 50% and a simple densification of subchondral bone), requiring no specific treatment.
  • Diagnosis of recurrence can be made earlier because of the thin scalable border at the bone-cement interface.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Femur / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Tibia / surgery

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19767256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1877-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop Traumatol Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100201
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94. Lentini M, Zuccalà V, Fazzari C: Polypoid giant cell tumor of the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Feb;32(1):95-8
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  • [Title] Polypoid giant cell tumor of the skin.
  • Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare neoplasm named for its resemblance to giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The histomorphological features were consistent with the diagnosis of primary giant cell tumor of the skin.
  • Clinical informations and immunohistochemistry are useful in distinguishing this neoplasm from other neoplastic and reactive lesions of the superficial soft tissues containing giant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19915451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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95. Liu HS, Di X: Endoscopic endonasal surgery for biopsy of cavernous sinus lesions. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2009 Apr;52(2):69-73
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  • The pathological diagnosis of the cavernous sinus lesions showed 3 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 2 patients with meningioma, 1 patient with esthesioneuroblastoma, 1 giant cell tumor of bone, 1 small cell carcinoma from the lungs, 1 fungal granuloma, and 1 schwannoma.

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  • (PMID = 19452412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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96. Liao TS, Yurgelun MB, Chang SS, Zhang HZ, Murakami K, Blaine TA, Parisien MV, Kim W, Winchester RJ, Lee FY: Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone. J Orthop Res; 2005 Jan;23(1):203-9
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  • [Title] Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a unique bone lesion that is characterized by an excessive number of multinucleated osteoclasts.
  • GCT consists of neoplastic stromal cells, multinucleated osteoclasts and their precursors, thus serving as a naturally occurring human disease model for the study of osteoclastogenesis.
  • These results suggest that SDF-1 is one of the significant chemoattractant factors involved in the recruitment of hematopoietic osteoclast precursor cells during tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Chemokines, CXC / physiology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15607894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC
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97. Wen J, Wang XY, Luo CY, Jiang GS, Wang LJ, Chen YW: [Benign fibrous histiocytoma involving the skull: a case report and literature review]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2010 Dec;30(12):2752-5
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  • [Title] [Benign fibrous histiocytoma involving the skull: a case report and literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: Benign fibrous histiocytomas (BFH) represent a rare group of tumors with a common origin from the tissue histiocytes, often causing pain and space-occupying effect.
  • BFH of bone causes diagnostic difficulties due to its atypical clinical symptoms, radiographic features and cytological characteristics, which can be easily confused with other benign lesions such as non-ossifying fibroma (NOF), giant cell tumor (GCT), and fibrous dysplasia.
  • The lesions are prone to relapse, and the patients often show poor response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, therefore radical lesion resection should be the therapeutic target of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skull / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21177160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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98. Kao HL, Chang WC, Lee CH, Lee HS, Huang GS: Missed brown tumors in a young adult with decreased bone density. South Med J; 2010 Apr;103(4):371-3
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  • [Title] Missed brown tumors in a young adult with decreased bone density.
  • Brown tumors, a benign osteolytic process, are most commonly caused by hyperparathyroidism.
  • Multiple bone involvement is relatively rare.
  • There are many similarities in the radiologic and histological features of brown tumors and giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone.
  • Herein, the case of a 32-year-old man with multiple osteolytic lesions of the left tibia and fibula as well as the fourth metacarpal bone of the left hand, previously misdiagnosed with multiple GCTs, is presented.
  • Based on the radiographic findings and biochemistry results in a young adult patient, brown tumor was suspected and subsequently definitively diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Diseases, Metabolic / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Fibula / pathology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Male. Osteolysis / diagnosis. Osteolysis / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Tibia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20224492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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99. Li JM, Yang ZP, Li ZF, Li X, Carter SR: Knee reconstruction with preservation of the meniscus in tibial giant cell tumor. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2008 Dec;466(12):3101-7
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  • [Title] Knee reconstruction with preservation of the meniscus in tibial giant cell tumor.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone sometimes is an aggressive benign skeletal tumor.
  • Historically, curettage and bone grafting have a high recurrence with satisfactory function whereas wide resection has a reduced recurrence rate with compromise of limb function.
  • We developed a method for achieving both goals for giant cell tumors located in only one lateral plateau of the proximal tibia.
  • We reconstructed 13 knees preserving the meniscus and reconstructing the tibial plateau with an iliac plate autograft after resection of a giant cell tumor involving one tibial plateau.
  • While resecting the tumor, the normal anatomic structures of the knee can be preserved or restored in many patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Transplantation. Female. Humans. Ilium / transplantation. Male. Menisci, Tibial. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Tibia. Transplantation, Autologous. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18830792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628220
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100. Thomas DM, Skubitz KM: Giant cell tumour of bone. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Jul;21(4):338-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant cell tumour of bone.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) is the most common benign bone tumour and afflicts a young population.
  • Treatment options for patients with unresectable disease have remained fairly static for the past three decades.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19444102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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