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1. Kiralj A, Ilić M, Markov B, Dedić S, Pejaković B, Nalić B: [Chondroma of the skull base and maxilla]. Med Pregl; 2007 Nov-Dec;60(11-12):649-51
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  • INTRODUCTION: Chondromas are uncommon benign tumors of cartilaginous origin.
  • A chondroma is a painless, slow growing tumor causing destruction and exfoliation of teeth.
  • On a radiograph, the tumor appears as a cyst-like radiolucent lesion, while some are sclerotic.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare, benign cartilaginous tumor that often occurs in the metaphyses of proximal tibia, proximal and distal femur and small bones of the foot.
  • The differential diagnosis is wide and includes simple or aneyrismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, nonossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, enchondroma, chondroblastoma, eosinophilic granuloma and fibrous cortical defect.
  • In the diagnosis of an intracranial chondrocytic tumor, it is important to distinguish it from enchondroma and chondrosarcoma.
  • MR provides a detailed assessment of soft tissue masses of the craniofacial region, while CT offers superior analysis of bone structure involvement.

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  • (PMID = 18666612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pregl.
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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2. Lee CH, Espinosa I, Jensen KC, Subramanian S, Zhu SX, Varma S, Montgomery KD, Nielsen TO, van de Rijn M, West RB: Gene expression profiling identifies p63 as a diagnostic marker for giant cell tumor of the bone. Mod Pathol; 2008 May;21(5):531-9
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling identifies p63 as a diagnostic marker for giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTOB) is a primary bone tumor that occurs mainly in young adults and is capable of locally aggressive growth.
  • Its histologic appearance can resemble a number of benign and malignant tumors but no useful diagnostic marker is known currently.
  • To identify diagnostic markers for this tumor, global gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray was performed on 6 fresh-frozen GCTOB, 3 aneurysmal bone cysts, 4 fibrous dysplasias and 12 giant cell tumors of tendon sheath/diffuse-type giant cell tumors.
  • The diagnostic utility of p63 was subsequently confirmed using anti-p63 antibody on a series of 26 GCTOB, 25 aneurysmal bone cysts, 15 chondroblastomas, 13 giant cell reparative granulomas, 13 chondromyxoid fibromas, 4 brown tumors, 4 fibrous dysplasias, 53 giant cell tumors of tendon sheath/diffuse-type giant cell tumors and 385 additional mesenchymal tumors in tissue microarrays.
  • Strong p63 nuclear staining was present in 18 of 26 (69%) GCTOB, 3 of 15 (20%) chondroblastomas and in 1 of 25 (4%) aneurysmal bone cysts while none of the other tumors commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of GCTOB showed any detectable p63 staining.
  • Strong p63 staining is rare in bone and soft-tissue tumors in general.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18192965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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3. Liu H, Sun J, Wang Y, Yang X, Zhu E: [Repairing bone defects of benign bone neoplasm by grafting of bioactive glass combined with autologous bone marrow]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov;22(11):1349-53
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  • [Title] [Repairing bone defects of benign bone neoplasm by grafting of bioactive glass combined with autologous bone marrow].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical application of grafting with bioactive glass (BG) and autologous bone marrow for defect after resection and curettage of benign bone neoplasm.
  • METHODS: From January 2004 to May 2007, 34 patients with bone defects were repaired.
  • There were 14 cases of simple bone cysts, 6 cases of fibrous dysplasia, 3 cases of osteoid osteoma, 4 cases of non-ossifying fibroma, 2 cases of enchondroma and 3 cases of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Tumor sizes varied from 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 9.0 cm x 3.0 cm x 2.5 cm.
  • Benign bone neoplasm was removed thoroughly with a curet or osteotome, bone defects ranged from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm to 11.0 cm x 3.5 cm x 3.0 cm, which was closed-up with the mixtures of BG and autogenous red bone marrow.
  • The postoperative systemic and local reactions were observed, and the regular X-ray examinations were performed to observe the bone healing.
  • At averaged 16 weeks after operation, patients with bone tumor in lower limbs resumed walking independently and those with bone tumor in upper limbs resumed holding object.
  • There was no tumor recurrence during follow-up.
  • Radiographically, the interface between the implanted bone and host bone became fuzzy 1 month after implantation.
  • Two months after operation, the BG was absorbed gradually, new bone formation could be seen in the defects.
  • Four months after operation, implanted bone and host bone merged together, bone density increased.
  • Six to ten months after operation, the majority of the implanted BG was absorbed and substituted for new bone, bone remodeling was established.
  • CONCLUSION: BG may boast both bone conductive and bone inductive activities.
  • The combined grafting with BG and autologous bone marrow appears to be minimally invasive treatment to repair bone defects of benign bone neoplasm, with rare complications and no significant reverse reaction, and could repair bone defects completely.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Bone Substitutes. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone and Bones / pathology. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glass. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 19068605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes
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4. Ech-Charif S, Aubert S, Buob D, Verhulst P, Blomme V, Migaud H, Leroy X: [Giant cell tumor of soft tissues. Report of two cases]. Ann Pathol; 2006 Feb;26(1):26-9
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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumor of soft tissues. Report of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur à cellules géantes des tissus mous.
  • We report two cases of giant-cell tumour of soft tissue (TCG-TM).
  • The first case occurred in a 26-year-old woman presenting with a subcutaneous tumour of the left leg.
  • Pathological study revealed a tumour comparable to benign giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Microscopically, the tumour was composed of sheets of mononuclear and multinucleated cells.
  • TCG-TMs are uncommon and represent a distinct entity whose clinical behaviour and histological features are similar to giant-cell tumour of bone.
  • The differential diagnosis includes other tumours rich in osteoclast-like cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16841007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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5. Tarng YW, Yang SW, Hsu CJ: Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report. J Hand Surg Am; 2009 Feb;34(2):262-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report.
  • We report a rare case of multifocal giant cell tumor of bone involving the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and scaphoid with soft tissue extension.
  • Following intralesional resection, an autogenous corticocancellous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill the resultant defect and preserve carpal height and radiocarpal motion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Carpal Bones / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ilium / transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19135808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-6564
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Wong KC, Kumta SM, Tse LF, Ng EW, Lee KS: Navigation Endoscopic Assisted Tumor (NEAT) surgery for benign bone tumors of the extremities. Comput Aided Surg; 2010;15(1-3):32-9
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  • [Title] Navigation Endoscopic Assisted Tumor (NEAT) surgery for benign bone tumors of the extremities.
  • A novel technique of using both a navigation system and an endoscope in intra-lesional curettage of benign bone tumors enables safe and adequate tumor removal via a minimal access approach.
  • We performed curettage of benign bone tumors in five consecutive patients (4 female, 1 male, mean age 31.4 years) using a commercial CT-based navigation system supplemented by visual guidance through a shoulder arthroscope.
  • The bone defect was filled with bone cement in four patients and with artificial bone substitute in one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Chondroblastoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Extremities / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 20433316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0150
  • [Journal-full-title] Computer aided surgery : official journal of the International Society for Computer Aided Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comput. Aided Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Jakobs M, Häupl T, Krenn V, Guenther R: [MMP- and FAP-mediated non-inflammation-related destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis]. Z Rheumatol; 2009 Oct;68(8):683-94
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  • [Title] [MMP- and FAP-mediated non-inflammation-related destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis].
  • [Transliterated title] MMP- und FAP-vermittelte inflammationsunabhängige Destruktion von Knochen und Knorpel in der rheumatoiden Arthritis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Due to morphological similarities of high-grade synovitis in rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and mesenchymal, semimalignant tumors and the hypothesis that RA progression is not only inflammation-related, but also determined by tumor-like mechanisms, a comparison was made between expression profiles of RA, giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) and normal synovium (ND).
  • The presence of FAP in RA and in stroma of a semimalignant tumor indicates tumor-like tissue destruction in chronic synovitis associated with RA.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / immunology. Bone and Bones / immunology. Cartilage / immunology. Gelatinases / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Receptors, CCR / analysis. Serine Endopeptidases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19593575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1250
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CCR; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / fibroblast activation protein alpha; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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8. Jeys LM, Suneja R, Chami G, Grimer RJ, Carter SR, Tillman RM: Impending fractures in giant cell tumours of the distal femur: incidence and outcome. Int Orthop; 2006 Apr;30(2):135-8
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  • [Title] Impending fractures in giant cell tumours of the distal femur: incidence and outcome.
  • Giant cell tumours are rare bone tumours that are characteristically benign but locally aggressive, most frequently occurring in the distal femur with pathological fractures being common.
  • This paper investigates relationships between tumour size and cortical breach on initial X-rays and subsequent treatment.
  • The X-rays of 54 patients with distal femoral giant cell tumours were reviewed.
  • The volumes of the tumour, distal femur and a ratio between the two parameters were estimated.
  • The presence of a cortical breach, discrete fracture and Campanacci grade was recorded.
  • There was a significant difference in the ratio of tumour volume to distal femoral volume between the discrete fracture group and the cortical breach group.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Fractures / epidemiology. Femoral Fractures / physiopathology. Femoral Neoplasms / physiopathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16474936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2532068
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9. Hristov B, Shokek O, Frassica DA: The role of radiation treatment in the contemporary management of bone tumors. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2007 Apr;5(4):456-66
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  • [Title] The role of radiation treatment in the contemporary management of bone tumors.
  • Multiple studies have established a role for radiotherapy as a definitive local treatment of unresectable lesions or when surgery might yield unacceptable functional outcomes, such as in Ewing's tumor or base of skull chondrosarcoma.
  • In the metastatic setting, external beam radiotherapy and bone-seeking intravenous radioisotopes are used on a case-by-case basis for palliation.
  • As radiotherapy and its delivery techniques have evolved, so has its role in treating tumors such as Ewing's sarcoma, chordoma and chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, primary lymphoma of bone, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone, and vascular tumors.
  • Radiation can also be successfully used to treat unresectable or recurrent benign tumors, such as giant cell tumor and aneurysmal bone cyst.
  • This article reviews the indications for radiotherapy for various bone tumors and summarizes some of the important data supporting its use.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Osteosarcoma / radiotherapy. Sarcoma, Ewing / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17442236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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10. May SA, Deavers MT, Resetkova E, Johnson D, Albarracin CT: Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Oct;11(5):345-9
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast.
  • Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) arising in breast is exceedingly rare.
  • We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary breast giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone and had a clinically malignant course.
  • Histopathological evaluation revealed a neoplasm composed of mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells resembling giant cell tumor of bone.
  • These features were most consistent with GCT-ST, an uncommon neoplasm of low malignant potential.
  • This case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting clinical behavior of GCT-ST of breast on the basis of histological features and depth of tumor alone.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a GCT-ST arising in the breast associated with a fatal outcome.
  • The distinction of this entity from other more common primary breast tumors with giant cell morphology is also emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17870021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vimentin
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11. Gebre-Medhin S, Broberg K, Jonson T, Gorunova L, von Steyern FV, Brosjö O, Jin Y, Gisselsson D, Panagopoulos I, Mandahl N, Mertens F: Telomeric associations correlate with telomere length reduction and clonal chromosome aberrations in giant cell tumor of bone. Cytogenet Genome Res; 2009;124(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Telomeric associations correlate with telomere length reduction and clonal chromosome aberrations in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is characterized cytogenetically by frequent telomeric associations (tas).
  • Clonal aberrations were found to be restricted to the group with a high level of tas, and the same group showed a significantly larger reduction in telomere length in tumor cells compared to peripheral blood cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Telomere / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19420923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-859X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytogenetic and genome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytogenet. Genome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / POT1 protein, human; 0 / TERF1 protein, human; 0 / TERF2 protein, human; 0 / Telomere-Binding Proteins; 0 / Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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12. Saikia KC, Borgohain M, Bhuyan SK, Goswami S, Bora A, Ahmed F: Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for giant cell tumor of distal radius. Indian J Orthop; 2010 Jul;44(3):327-32
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  • [Title] Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for giant cell tumor of distal radius.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the distal radius poses problems for reconstruction after resection.
  • Here we have analyzed the results of aggressive benign GCTs of the distal radius treated by resection and reconstruction arthroplasty using autogenous non-vascularized fibular graft.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four cases of giant cell tumor of the distal radius (mean age 32 years, mean follow-up 6.6 years) treated by en-bloc resection and reconstruction arthroplasty using autogenous non-vascularized ipsilateral fibular graft with a minimum followup of two years have been included in this retrospective study.
  • Routine radiographs and clinical assessments regarding pain, instability, recurrence, hand grip strength and functional status were done at regular intervals and functional results were assessed using (musculoskeletal tumor society) MSTS-87 scoring.

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  • (PMID = 20697488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3727
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2911935
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Distal radius / giant cell tumor / resection reconstruction
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13. Bharatnur SS, Naik CN, Swethadri GK, Fernandes H, Shekhar JC, Marla NJ: Fine needle aspiration cytology of benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jan-Feb;54(1):89-91
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND; Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) of bone is a very rare tumor, and almost all reported cases were diagnosed after surgical resection by histologic examination.
  • We report a case in which cytologic features of BFH of bone were established preoperatively by fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • To the best of our knowledge, FNA findings of BFH of bone have not been previously reported.
  • Multinucleate giant cells were occasionally seen.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of Giant cell tumor of bone with a BFH component was rendered.
  • Histology revealed a pure BFH of bone.
  • CONCLUSION: The current case reveals the cytomorphologic features of BFH of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20306998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Fnini S, Labsaili N, Messoudi A, Largab A: [Giant cell tumor of the thumb proximal phalanx: resection-iliac graft and double arthrodesis]. Chir Main; 2008 Feb;27(1):54-7
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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumor of the thumb proximal phalanx: resection-iliac graft and double arthrodesis].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur à cellules géantes de la phalange proximale du pouce: résection-autogreffe iliaque et arthrodèse bipolaire.
  • Giant cell tumours (GCT) of bone are frequent, with variable behaviour, high risk of recurrence and an often benign histological appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Thumb
  • [MeSH-minor] Arthrodesis. Biopsy. Bone Nails. Bone Transplantation. Finger Joint. Follow-Up Studies. Fracture Fixation, Internal / instrumentation. Fractures, Spontaneous / etiology. Fractures, Spontaneous / surgery. Humans. Male. Metacarpophalangeal Joint. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Satisfaction. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18248835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-3203
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgie de la main
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Main
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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15. Guo QC, Shen JN, Wang J, Huang G, Zou CY, Jin S, Yin JQ, Liao WM: [Analysis of the factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun 15;44(12):797-800
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  • [Title] [Analysis of the factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumors (GCT) of bone.
  • The two factors of surgery method and burst out of bone-envelope appearance were related with the recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16889722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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21. Janes S, Cid J, Kaye P, Doran J: Pancreatic osteoclastoma: immunohistochemical evidence of a reactive histiomonocytic origin. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Mar;76(3):198-9
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  • [Title] Pancreatic osteoclastoma: immunohistochemical evidence of a reactive histiomonocytic origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Osteoclasts / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16626367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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22. Zeng J, Liu H, Song Y: [Total spondylectomy and reconstruction for thoracolumbar spinal tumors with neurological deficit]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May;21(5):445-8
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  • There were 10 cases of primary tumors of spine (4 giant cell tumor of bone, 3 chondrosarcoma, 2 recurrent aneurysmal bone cyst, and 1 osteosarcoma), and 6 cases of solitary metastasis of thoracic or lumbar spine.
  • Among the 10 patients with primary spinal tumor, nine patients survived with tumor-free, and one with osteosarcoma died because of lung metastases 18 months after surgery.
  • Among the 6 patients with spinal metastasis, three patients survived with tumor-free, and lung metastasis occurred in 1 case 10 months after surgery, two died because of multiple metastases of internal organs 10 months and 32 months after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Total spondylectomy and reconstruction is a safe and effective surgery for thoracolumbar spinal tumors with neurological deficit, with pain relief, neurological improvement and minimum tumor recurrence.
  • It will be an optimal choice for patients with primary malignant, aggressive benign, or solitary metastatic bone tumors of the thoracolumbar spine with Tomita surgical classification type 3 to 5.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Transplantation / methods. Chondrosarcoma / mortality. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Chondrosarcoma / surgery. Decompression, Surgical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17578278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Ng PK, Tsui SK, Lau CP, Wong CH, Wong WH, Huang L, Kumta SM: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression. J Cell Biochem; 2010 May 15;110(2):438-46
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  • [Title] CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is an aggressive non-cancerous tumor, which consists of multi-nucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, stromal cells, and monocytes.
  • It is believed that stromal cells are the neoplastic component of this tumor.
  • Expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) in the stromal cells stimulates the monocytes to form giant multi-nucleated osteoclast-like cells, causing bone over-resorption at the tumor site.
  • Previously, our group has reported the up-regulation of RANKL in GCT of bone stromal cells, but the mechanism is unknown.
  • Using stromal cell culture of GCT obtained from patients, we demonstrated the up-regulation of the transcriptional activator CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta).
  • To conclude, our study has shown that C/EBPbeta is a RANKL promoter activator in stromal cells of GCT of bone and we have proposed a model in which C/EBPbeta plays an important role in the osteolytic characteristics and pathological causes of GCT of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. RANK Ligand / genetics. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20225273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4644
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta; 0 / CEBPB protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human
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24. Fayad LM, Wang X, Salibi N, Barker PB, Jacobs MA, Machado AJ, Weber KL, Bluemke DA: A feasibility study of quantitative molecular characterization of musculoskeletal lesions by proton MR spectroscopy at 3 T. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jul;195(1):W69-75
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  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three subjects with 34 musculoskeletal lesions (four histologically proven malignant, 13 histologically proven benign or proven benign by follow-up analysis, and 17 posttreatment fibrosis with documented stability for 6-36 months) underwent single-voxel 3-T MRS studies.
  • The choline concentrations of benign and malignant lesions were compared using the Mann-Whitney test.
  • For five benign lesions (two neurofibromas, two schwannomas, and one enchondroma), the choline concentrations were 0.11, 0.28, 0.13, 0.8, and 1.2 mmol/kg, respectively.
  • For seven benign lesions (two hematomas, two bone cysts, one lipoma, one giant cell tumor, and one pigmented villonodular synovitis), the spectra showed negligible choline content.
  • Average choline concentrations were different for malignant and benign lesions (2.7 vs 0.5 mmol/kg; p = 0.01).

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  • (PMID = 20566784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01CA100184; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100184-01A2; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL090019-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100184-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100184-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA103175; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA EB000072-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA103175; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100184
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Protons; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245710; NLM/ PMC3035623
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25. Minami A, Iwasaki N, Nishida K, Motomiya M, Yamada K, Momma D: Giant-cell tumor of the distal ulna treated by wide resection and ulnar support reconstruction: a case report. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:871278
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumor of the distal ulna treated by wide resection and ulnar support reconstruction: a case report.
  • Giant-cell tumor of bone occurred in the distal end of the ulna is extremely uncommon.
  • A 23-year-old male had a giant-cell tumor occurred in the distal end of the ulna.
  • After wide resection of the distal segment of the ulna including giant-cell tumor, ulnar components of the wrist joint were reconstructed with modified Sauvé-Kapandji procedure using the iliac bone graft, preserving the triangular fibrocartilage complex and ulnar collateral ligament in order to maintain ulnar support of the wrist, and the proximal stump of the resected ulna was stabilized by tenodesis using the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon.
  • Postoperative X-rays showed no abnormal findings including recurrence of the giant-cell tumor and ulnar translation of the entire carpus.

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  • (PMID = 20592994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2892703
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26. Cribb GL, Cool P, Hill SO, Mangham DC: Distal tibial giant cell tumour treated with curettage and stabilisation with an Ilizarov frame. Foot Ankle Surg; 2009;15(1):28-32
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  • [Title] Distal tibial giant cell tumour treated with curettage and stabilisation with an Ilizarov frame.
  • Imaging and biopsy confirmed this to be a giant cell tumour of bone.
  • After a prolonged course of rehabilitation he has excellent function and has returned to hill walking and there is no evidence of recurrence of the giant cell tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Curettage. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ilizarov Technique. Tibia

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  • (PMID = 19218062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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27. Ngan KW, Chuang WY, Yeh CJ: Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation. Pathology; 2008 Apr;40(3):312-3
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  • [Title] Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18428057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Muramatsu K, Ihara K, Taguchi T: Treatment of giant cell tumor of long bones: clinical outcome and reconstructive strategy for lower and upper limbs. Orthopedics; 2009 Jul;32(7):491
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  • [Title] Treatment of giant cell tumor of long bones: clinical outcome and reconstructive strategy for lower and upper limbs.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone is a rare and unpredictable lesion.
  • Twenty-three consecutive cases of giant cell tumor of long bones were treated in 10 years.
  • The most common tumor sites were the proximal tibia (10 cases), distal femur (8), and distal radius (3).
  • Functional outcomes as evaluated by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society measure were successful, with an average score of 26.6 points (range, 22-30 points).
  • For giant cell tumor of the upper limb or for young patients, biological reconstruction should be applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Lower Extremity / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Upper Extremity / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19634852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Turcotte RE: Giant cell tumor of bone. Orthop Clin North Am; 2006 Jan;37(1):35-51
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor is a common benign bone tumor that possesses specific features including location at the end of long bone, a strong tendency toward local recurrence, and the rare capacity to metastasize to the lungs.
  • Preferred treatment usually consists of extensive curettage and filling of the cavity with bone graft or cement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Fractures, Spontaneous / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Bone Transplantation / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Curettage / methods. Female. Humans. Incidence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16311110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-5898
  • [Journal-full-title] The Orthopedic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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30. Saikia KC, Bhuyan SK, Saikia SP, Rongphar R, Jitesh P: Resection and arthrodesis of the knee joint for giant cell tumours of bone. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2010 Aug;18(2):208-14
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  • [Title] Resection and arthrodesis of the knee joint for giant cell tumours of bone.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate functional outcomes and complications following resection and arthrodesis of the knee for giant cell tumours (GCTs) of bone, in comparison to treatment by endoprosthetic replacements reported elsewhere.
  • METHODS: 18 men and 14 women aged 18 to 40 (mean, 28) years underwent resection and arthrodesis of the knee for GCTs of bone involving the distal femur (n=17) and proximal tibia (n=15).
  • Cancellous bone grafts were placed transversely along the struts and circumferentially over the host-graft junctions.
  • The mean size of the tumours was 10x8x6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthrodesis / instrumentation. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Plates. Bone Transplantation / methods. Fibula / transplantation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint

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  • (PMID = 20808014.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-4990
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Balke M, Hardes J: Denosumab: a breakthrough in treatment of giant-cell tumour of bone? Lancet Oncol; 2010 Mar;11(3):218-9
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  • [Title] Denosumab: a breakthrough in treatment of giant-cell tumour of bone?
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. RANK Ligand / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [CommentOn] Lancet Oncol. 2010 Mar;11(3):275-80 [20149736.001]
  • (PMID = 20149737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RANK Ligand; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab
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32. Malek F, Krueger P, Hatmi ZN, Malayeri AA, Faezipour H, O'Donnell RJ: Local control of long bone giant cell tumour using curettage, burring and bone grafting without adjuvant therapy. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):495-8
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  • [Title] Local control of long bone giant cell tumour using curettage, burring and bone grafting without adjuvant therapy.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) is a benign, but aggressive, primary tumour of the bone.
  • Many surgical techniques have been employed in the treatment of this tumour.
  • In addition to curettage, various adjuvant procedures and packing materials have been advocated in order to control and reconstruct long bone defects secondary to this neoplasm.
  • We report our experience with 40 long bone GCT patients treated with curettage, burring, bone grafting and no adjuvants between 1997 and 2002.
  • The risk of local recurrence in this study is acceptable (within the range that has been historically reported for curettage and bone grafting).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / methods. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Cohort Studies. Developing Countries. Female. Humans. Iran. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16896875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
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33. Miller IJ, Blank A, Yin SM, McNickle A, Gray R, Gitelis S: A case of recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with malignant transformation and benign pulmonary metastases. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:62
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  • [Title] A case of recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with malignant transformation and benign pulmonary metastases.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally destructive tumor that occurs predominantly in long bones of post-pubertal adolescents and young adults, where it occurs in the epiphysis.
  • Vascular invasion outside the boundary of the tumor can be seen.
  • Metastasis, with identical morphology to the primary tumor, occurs in a few percent of cases, usually to the lung.
  • On occasion GCTs of bone undergo frank malignant transformation to undifferentiated sarcomas.
  • Here we report a case of GCT of bone that at the time of recurrence was found to have undergone malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tibia / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee. Biopsy. Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Curettage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Reoperation. Thoracoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20860830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2954972
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34. Van Dyck P, Vanhoenacker FM, Vogel J, Venstermans C, Kroon HM, Gielen J, Parizel PM, Bloem JL, De Schepper AM: Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors. Eur Radiol; 2006 Dec;16(12):2644-51
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  • [Title] Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors.
  • Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels.
  • Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%).
  • Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), "brown tumor" (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases).
  • Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%).
  • Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma "not otherwise specified" (2 cases).
  • In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively.
  • Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can occur in a wide range of bone and soft tissue tumors, both benign and malignant.
  • Therefore, they cannot be considered diagnostic of any particular type of tumor, and the diagnosis should be made on the basis of other radiological and clinical findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16612549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
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35. Wootton-Gorges SL: MR imaging of primary bone tumors and tumor-like conditions in children. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am; 2009 Aug;17(3):469-87, vi
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  • [Title] MR imaging of primary bone tumors and tumor-like conditions in children.
  • This article provides a review of the MR imaging features of the major primary malignant and benign bone tumors and tumorlike conditions encountered in the pediatric population.
  • Benign lesions discussed include simple bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, giant cell tumor, osteochondroma, enchondroma, chondroblastoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, nonossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, osteofibrous dysplasia, hemangioma, and histiocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Cysts / diagnosis. Bone Cysts / pathology. Cartilage Diseases / diagnosis. Cartilage Diseases / pathology. Child. Contrast Media. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19524197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9786
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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36. Lang S: [Differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone]. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:245-9
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  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone].
  • The diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone is often problematic even for the experienced pathologist.
  • The diagnostic key lies in multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells and a mononuclear stroma.
  • From the histological picture alone it is often difficult to distinguish between individual entities such as conventional giant-cell tumor of bone, non-ossifying fibroma, giant-cell tumor in hyperparathyroidism or an aneurysmal bone cyst.
  • Furthermore, these lesions can be confused with malignant bone tumors such as giant cell-rich osteosarcoma.
  • In most cases diagnosis is made on the basis of intraoperative frozen-section, but even in this setting, due to the poor quality of the material, it is very difficult to make a correct diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions without X-ray and clinical data.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone and Bones / pathology. Child. Connective Tissue / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] Pathologe. 1996 Jan;17(1):1-5 [8685089.001]
  • (PMID = 18836722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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37. Roeder F, Timke C, Zwicker F, Thieke C, Bischof M, Debus J, Huber PE: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in benign giant cell tumors--a single institution case series and a short review of the literature. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:18
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  • [Title] Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in benign giant cell tumors--a single institution case series and a short review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumors are rare neoplasms, representing less than 5% of all bone tumors.
  • The vast majority of giant cell tumors occurs in extremity sites and is treated by surgery alone.
  • Radiation therapy seems to be an option in these patients, despite the lack of a generally accepted dose or fractionation concept.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2000 and 2006 a total of five patients with histologically proven benign giant cell tumors have been treated with IMRT in our institution.
  • The tumor was located in the sacral region in four and in the sphenoid sinus in one patient.
  • All patients had measurable gross disease prior to radiotherapy with a median size of 9 cm.
  • One patient developed local disease progression three months after radiotherapy and needed extensive surgical salvage.
  • We found no substantial tumor shrinkage after radiotherapy but in two patients morphological signs of extensive tumor necrosis were present on MRI scans.
  • CONCLUSION: IMRT is a feasible option in giant cells tumors not amendable to complete surgical removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated

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  • (PMID = 20187955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2845594
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38. Nahal A, Ajlan A, Alcindor T, Turcotte R: Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up. Curr Oncol; 2010 Aug;17(4):71-6
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  • [Title] Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign tumour.
  • It can, however, undergo dedifferentiation, either de novo or secondarily after local recurrence or radiation.
  • Whether spontaneously occurring or induced by previous irradiation, this malignant transformation is typically defined as a high-grade anaplastic sarcoma devoid of giant cells.
  • Here, we describe the first case of dedifferentiated GCT in the appearance of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma with distant bone metastases.
  • This disease progression occurred without previous irradiation.
  • We confirm the aggressive behaviour of this tumour despite the deceptively bland appearance of the malignant component.

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  • (PMID = 20697518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1718-7729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913833
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumour / dedifferentiation / malignancy / osteogenic sarcoma
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39. Gratzinger D, Zhao S, West R, Rouse RV, Vogel H, Gil EC, Levy R, Lossos IS, Natkunam Y: The transcription factor LMO2 is a robust marker of vascular endothelium and vascular neoplasms and selected other entities. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Feb;131(2):264-78
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  • LMO2 is uniformly expressed in benign vascular and lymphatic neoplasms and in most malignant vascular neoplasms with the exception of epithelioid vascular neoplasms of pleura and bone.
  • Among nonvascular neoplasms, LMO2 reactivity is present in giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, juvenile xanthogranuloma, a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, small round blue cell tumors, and myoepithelial-derived neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19141387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA034233; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA34233; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA033399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109335; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109335; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA124435
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / LIM Domain Proteins; 0 / LMO2 protein, human; 0 / Metalloproteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS636776; NLM/ PMC4305438
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40. Lee MH, Kim NR, Ryu JA: Cyst-like solid tumors of the musculoskeletal system: an analysis of ultrasound findings. Skeletal Radiol; 2010 Oct;39(10):981-6
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  • Twenty-three masses were identified, of which initial interpretation on gray scale included cystic tumor which pathology revealed to be solid tumors.
  • RESULTS: Of 23 masses, there were 5 giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath, 4 schwannomas, 3 vascular leiomyomas, 2 benign fibrous histiocytomas, 2 dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 2 granular cell tumors, 1 dermatofibroma, 1 fibroma of the tendon sheath, 1 fibromatosis, 1 eccrine spiradenoma, and 1 granulation tissue.

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  • (PMID = 20186412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2161
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Settakorn J, Lekawanvijit S, Arpornchayanon O, Rangdaeng S, Vanitanakom P, Kongkarnka S, Cheepsattayakorn R, Ya-In C, Thorner PS: Spectrum of bone tumors in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand according to WHO classification 2002: A study of 1,001 cases. J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Jun;89(6):780-7
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  • [Title] Spectrum of bone tumors in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand according to WHO classification 2002: A study of 1,001 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the spectrum, frequency and demographics of bone tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study of the 1,001 bone tumor specimens from the files at the Pathology Department of the Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand from 2000 to 2004.
  • In the primary tumor group, 654 (76%) cases were of hematologic origin, and 202 (24%) were non-hematologic.
  • The most common benign bone tumors were giant cell tumor (n = 37), osteochondroma (n = 25), and chondroma (n = 15).
  • The most common malignant bone tumors were lymphoma-leukemia (n = 583), metastatic malignancy (n = 104), plasma cell myeloma (n = 71), and osteosarcoma (n = 58).
  • CONCLUSION: The present study showed a higher frequency of osteosarcoma (68%), lower frequencies of chondrosarcoma (12%) and Ewing sarcoma (4%) among primary non-hematologic malignant bone tumors when compared with similar studies based on Western patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / epidemiology. Hospitals, University. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Osteochondroma / epidemiology. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Thailand / epidemiology. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16850677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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42. Matsumoto Y, Okada Y, Fukushi J, Kamura S, Fujiwara T, Iida K, Koga M, Matsuda S, Harimaya K, Sakamoto A, Iwamoto Y: Role of the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway in the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction of giant cell tumors of bone. J Orthop Surg Res; 2010;5:85
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  • [Title] Role of the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway in the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction of giant cell tumors of bone.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone are primary benign bone tumors that are characterized by a high number of osteoclast-like multinuclear giant cells (MNCs).
  • Recent studies suggest that the spindle-shaped stromal cells in GCTs are tumor cells, while monocyte-like cells and MNCs are reactive osteoclast precursor cells (OPCs) and osteoclasts (OCs), respectively.
  • In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction in GCTs by focusing on the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-Flt-1 (type-1 VEGF receptor)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway.
  • METHODS: The motility of OPCs cells was assessed by a chemotaxis assay and the growth of OPCs was examined using a cell proliferation assay.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of bone destruction of GCTs.


43. Baud'huin M, Renault R, Charrier C, Riet A, Moreau A, Brion R, Gouin F, Duplomb L, Heymann D: Interleukin-34 is expressed by giant cell tumours of bone and plays a key role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. J Pathol; 2010 May;221(1):77-86
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  • [Title] Interleukin-34 is expressed by giant cell tumours of bone and plays a key role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
  • M-CSF, the main ligand for c-fms, is required for osteoclastogenesis and has been already identified as a critical contributor of the pathogenesis of giant cell tumours of bone (GCTs), tumours rich in osteoclasts.
  • According to the key role of M-CSF in osteoclastogenesis and GCTs, the expression of IL-34 in human GCTs was first assessed.
  • In contrast to osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts showed very strong staining for IL-34, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of GCTs by facilitating osteoclast formation.
  • IL-34 was able to support RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the absence of M-CSF in all models.
  • IL-34 induced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt through the activation of c-fms, as revealed by the inhibition of signalling by a specific c-fms tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / metabolism. Interleukins / biosynthesis. Osteoclasts / cytology. RANK Ligand / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Anisoles / pharmacology. Antigens, CD11b / analysis. Bone Resorption / metabolism. Bone Resorption / pathology. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20191615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-(3-methoxy-4-((4-methoxybenzyl)oxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine; 0 / Anisoles; 0 / Antigens, CD11b; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 0 / interleukin-34, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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44. Knowles HJ, Athanasou NA: Canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation. Histol Histopathol; 2009 03;24(3):337-46
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  • Physiological and pathological bone resorption is mediated by osteoclasts, multinucleated cells which are formed by the fusion of monocyte / macrophage precursors.
  • Both canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation play a role in the formation of osteolytic lesions where there is increased osteoclast formation and activity, such as in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytokines / metabolism. Humans. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Models, Biological. Osteolysis. RANK Ligand / metabolism. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19130404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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45. Yu XC, Xu M, Song RX, Fu ZH, Liu XP: Long-term outcome of giant cell tumors of bone around the knee treated by en bloc resection of tumor and reconstruction with prosthesis. Orthop Surg; 2010 Aug;2(3):211-7
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of giant cell tumors of bone around the knee treated by en bloc resection of tumor and reconstruction with prosthesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term outcomes and complications of giant cell tumors around the knee treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with prosthesis.
  • The affected limb functions were evaluated by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scoring system.
  • CONCLUSION: En bloc resection and reconstruction with prosthesis is a feasible method for treating giant cell tumor of bone around the knee.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint / surgery. Tibia / surgery

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 22009951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-7861
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopaedic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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46. Lee VN, Nithyananth M, Cherian VM, Amritanand R, Venkatesh K, Sundararaj GD, Raghuram LN: Preoperative embolisation in benign bone tumour excision. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2008 Apr;16(1):80-3
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  • [Title] Preoperative embolisation in benign bone tumour excision.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the role of preoperative embolisation in benign bone tumour excision.
  • METHODS: 3 men and 3 women aged 19 to 35 (mean 23) years with either a giant cell tumour or an aneurysmal bone cyst in limb girdle sites underwent preoperative embolisation a day prior to wide local excision by the same surgeon.
  • Tumour size, blood loss, wound healing, infection, and tumour recurrence were assessed.
  • No tumour recurred within a minimum 5-year follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative embolisation is useful in the management of vascular and aggressive bone tumours located at limb girdle sites where a tourniquet cannot be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Preoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18453665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5536
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Shigematsu K, Kobata Y, Yajima H, Kawamura K, Maegawa N, Takakura Y: Giant-cell tumors of the carpus. J Hand Surg Am; 2006 Sep;31(7):1214-9
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumors of the carpus.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a rare, benign tumor with some aggressive characteristics such as a high recurrence rate.
  • The tumor usually occurs in the distal radius although it has been reported in the carpus.
  • We reviewed 63 manuscripts published from 1935 to 2005 and report on the treatment of GCT of carpal bone in 29 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Carpal Bones / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Amputation. Bone Transplantation. Cryosurgery. Curettage. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16945730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-5023
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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48. Haque AU, Moatasim A: Giant cell tumor of bone: a neoplasm or a reactive condition? Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(6):489-501
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone: a neoplasm or a reactive condition?
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor of young adults.
  • Microscopically areas of frank hemorrhage, numerous multinucleated giant cells and spindly stromal cells are present.
  • While giant cells and stromal cells have been extensively studied, little attention has been paid to the overwhelming hemorrhagic component.
  • If examined carefully intact and partially degenerated red blood cells are almost invariably seen in many giant cells as well as in the stroma.
  • While hemorrhage in many patients may be resolved without leaving any trace over time, in some it gives rise to giant cell formation, and in others it may lead to proliferation of fibroblasts and histiocytes.
  • Malignancy usually does not occur in GCTB and when discover, it usually represents primary bone sarcomas missed at original diagnosis.
  • Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) shares many features with GCTB.
  • There had been unique karyotypic changes in some aneurysmal bone cysts making it distinct from GCTB.
  • However these changes may be in the endothelial cells which are quite different from stromal or giant cells.
  • Enhanced telomerase activity and karyotypic aberrations may be necessary for rapid division of the nuclei of the giant cells in order to be able to deal with significant in situ intraosseous hemorrhage.

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  • (PMID = 18787633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480584
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumor / aneurysmal bone cyst / bone / bone matrix / hemorrhage / osteoclast / osteoclastoma / telomerase
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49. Shirani G, Arshad M, Mohammadi F: Immediate reconstruction of a large mandibular defect of locally invasive benign lesions (a new method). J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Nov;18(6):1422-8
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  • [Title] Immediate reconstruction of a large mandibular defect of locally invasive benign lesions (a new method).
  • Locally invasive benign tumor and large lesions such as ameloblastoma, giant cell granuloma, odontogenic keratocyst, and odontogenic myxoma are a benign, invasive, lesions of the jaws that predominantly affects the mandible.
  • Despite the benign nature of these lesions, there is a high rate of local recurrence after curettage, which usually requires resection.
  • This approach represents a less invasive alternative that provides access to the mandible for curative resection of benign tumors with minimal postoperative sequelae.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Plates. Bone Transplantation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17993894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Bhadani PP, Sah SP, Sen R, Singh RK: Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology in gouty tophi: a report of 7 cases. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):101-4
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  • Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, giant cell tumor of bone and metastatic tumor with multicentric involvement of bone were the clinical diagnoses in 1 case each.
  • Bright field microscopy of FNA smears revealed singly scattered or stacks of MSU crystals with variable number of inflammatory cells, with or without foreign body giant cells in 6 cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Crystallization. Diagnosis, Differential. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Polarization. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tendons. Uric Acid / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16514850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 268B43MJ25 / Uric Acid
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51. Dickson BC, Li SQ, Wunder JS, Ferguson PC, Eslami B, Werier JA, Turcotte RE, Kandel RA: Giant cell tumor of bone express p63. Mod Pathol; 2008 Apr;21(4):369-75
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone express p63.
  • p63 contributes to skeletal development and tumor formation; however, little is known regarding its activity in the context of bone and soft tissue neoplasms.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate p63 expression in giant cell tumor of bone and to determine whether it can be used to discriminate between other giant cell-rich tumors.
  • Seventeen cases of giant cell tumor of bone were examined to determine the cell type expressing p63 and identify the isoforms present.
  • Total RNA or cell protein was extracted from mononuclear- or giant cell-enriched fractions or intact giant cell tumor of bone and examined by RT-PCR or western blot, respectively.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate p63 expression in paraffin embedded sections of giant cell tumor of bone and in tumors containing multinucleated giant cells, including: giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondroblastoma, and central giant cell granuloma.
  • The mononuclear cell component in all cases of giant cell tumor of bone was found to express all forms of TAp63 (alpha, beta, and gamma), whereas only low levels of the TAp63 alpha and beta isoforms were detected in multinucleated cells; DeltaNp63 was not detected in these tumors.
  • Western blot analysis identified p63 protein as being predominately localized to mononuclear cells compared to giant cells.
  • This was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tumor sections, with expression identified in all cases of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Only a proportion of cases of aneurysmal bone cyst and chondroblastoma showed p63 immunoreactivity whereas it was not detected in central giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, or pigmented villonodular synovitis.
  • The differential expression of p63 in giant cell tumor of bone and central giant cell granuloma suggest that these two tumors may have a different pathogenesis.
  • Moreover, p63 may be a useful biomarker to differentiate giant cell tumor of bone from central giant cell granuloma and other giant cell-rich tumors, such as giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and pigmented villonodular synovitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Protein Isoforms / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18311114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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52. Dudko S, Kusz D, Cieliński L, Nowak M: The application of bone cement to fill the surgical defect after resection of a giant-cell tumor: A case report. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2005 Oct 30;7(5):563-6
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  • [Title] The application of bone cement to fill the surgical defect after resection of a giant-cell tumor: A case report.
  • Background. A case of a large bone defect treated with bone cement filler is discussed, and the usefulness and advantages of this treatment method are assessed. Case report.
  • A 25-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with an intra-articular pathological fracture of the lateral femoral condyle due to an underlying giant cell tumor (stage I according to the Enneking classification).
  • The tumor was surgically resected, and the walls of the post-operative bone defect were treated with a burr.
  • The defect was then filled with bone cement (PMMA).
  • The tumor was found to be histologically benign.
  • The follow-up period was 7 years, during which time no clinical or radiological signs of tumor recurrence were found.
  • There was visible osteosclerosis surrounding the bone cement filler, which is believed to be a prognostically favorable finding, associated with a low risk of recurrence.
  • Conclusions. The use of bone cement in order to fill a bone defect after tumor excision proved to be an effective and safe method to manage a giant-cell tumor of the bone.
  • This method provided good biomechanical circumstances and allowed for good follow-up, as it enabled easy detection of possible tumor recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 17611450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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53. Boneschi V, Parafioriti A, Armiraglio E, Gaiani F, Brambilla L: Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:20-4
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  • [Title] Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration.
  • BACKGROUND: Soft tissue giant cell tumor (GCT-ST) of low malignant potential is an uncommon neoplasm, considered the soft tissue counterpart of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Histologically, this tumor is characterized by a mixture of uniformly scattered osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells intimately admixed with short fascicles of spindled cells.
  • Complete excision with negative surgical margins is associated with a benign clinical course in most cases.
  • RESULTS: Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a multinodular growth pattern with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells admixed with spindle cells partially arranged in a storiform pattern, fibrosis and foci of haemorrhage and mature bone.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed CD68 reactivity of the multinucleated giant cells.
  • CONCLUSION: GCT-ST is a rare neoplasm characterized by benign clinical course if excised adequately, as shown by our case of exceptionally long duration.
  • Emphasis is placed on the importance of differential diagnosis with other giant cell-rich soft tissue neoplasms because clinical behaviour, prognosis and treatment significantly differ.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Groin / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19222697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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54. Zahid M, Asif N, Sabir AB, Siddiqui YS, Julfiqar M: Metachronous multicentric giant cell tumour of the upper extremity in a skeletally immature girl : A rare presentation. Acta Orthop Belg; 2010 Oct;76(5):694-8
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  • [Title] Metachronous multicentric giant cell tumour of the upper extremity in a skeletally immature girl : A rare presentation.
  • Giant Cell tumour (GCT) or Osteoclastoma is a benign locally aggressive tumour with a tendency for local recurrence.
  • GCT constitutes 5% of all primary bone tumours.
  • Metachronous multicentric giant cell tumour of bone is a rare entity.
  • We report a young girl presenting with metachronous multicentric recurrent benign GCT, with the lesions involving the ipsilateral right hand and distal humerus.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Hand Bones. Humerus. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 21138229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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55. Arpornchayanon O, Leerapun T: Effectiveness of intravenous bisphosphonate in treatment of giant cell tumor: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 Oct;91(10):1609-12
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  • [Title] Effectiveness of intravenous bisphosphonate in treatment of giant cell tumor: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Giant cell tumor is a benign locally aggressive tumor.
  • The standard treatment is en bloc resection followed by major reconstructive surgery, or extended curettage conjunction with bone grafting or the use of bone cement implantations.
  • Surgical treatment of giant cell tumor at the sacrum is associated with high morbidity, and local recurrence.
  • The authors present a case of giant cell tumor at the sacrum treated with intravenous 4 mg zoledronate every 4 weeks for seven courses followed with curettage and cement implantation.
  • From the present study, the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of zoledronate for treatment of giant cell tumor at the sacrum.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Sacrum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18972907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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56. Balke M, Schremper L, Gebert C, Ahrens H, Streitbuerger A, Koehler G, Hardes J, Gosheger G: Giant cell tumor of bone: treatment and outcome of 214 cases. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Sep;134(9):969-78
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone: treatment and outcome of 214 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Two hundred and fourteen patients with benign giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), treated from 1980 to 2007 at the Department of Orthopedics of the University of Muenster (Germany), were analyzed in a retrospective study.
  • The effects of bone cement (PMMA), burring and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were statistically analyzed and the influence of a subchondral bone graft on the recurrence rate was evaluated.
  • If the tumor reaches close to the articulating surface a subchondral bone graft (n = 42) can be performed without risking a higher recurrence rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Curettage. Female. Humans. Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Polymethyl Methacrylate. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18322700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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57. Qin H, Cai J, Fang J, Xu H, Gong Y: Could MTA be a novel medicine on the recurrence therapy for GCTB? Med Hypotheses; 2010 Feb;74(2):368-9
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  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign locally aggressive bone tumor with a shown clinical behavior of local recurrences and rare distant metastases.
  • Due to the high rate of pulmonary metastases recurrent GCTB may be considered as a severe disease.
  • If the tumor reaches close to the articulating surface a subchondral bone graft can be performed without risking a higher recurrence rate.
  • MTA is a powder aggregate containing mineral oxides with a good biological action and may facilitate the regeneration of the periodontal ligament and formation of bone.
  • MTA used was able to induce bone regeneration and had its action optimized.
  • For the clinical point of view, we can apply MTA in the GCTB to induce bone production, then to inhibit the recurrent of the cases.
  • MTA may be the therapy of choice for primary as well as recurrent giant cell tumors of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / physiopathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / physiopathology. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PEMETREXED .
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  • (PMID = 19656634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2777
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine
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58. Szalay K, Antal I, Kiss J, Szendroi M: Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):505-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to compare and assess the effect of bone grafting and cementing techniques--two common applications used in the treatment of subchondral giant cell tumours of bone (GCTs)--on the development of degenerative changes in the weight-bearing joints of the lower extremity.
  • Eighty patients were included in this follow-up study, 44 of whom underwent curettage followed by bone grafting, and 36 who had curettage followed by cementation.
  • At the 24-month post-operative examination, significantly less degenerative change was found in patients with bone cement than in those with bone grafting.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / adverse effects. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Joints / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Femur / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Tibia / pathology. Weight-Bearing

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  • (PMID = 16969579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3172737
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59. Zhang Z, Zhu B, Sun T: [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):1007-10
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  • [Title] [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features, treatment methods, and recurrence factors of giant cell tumor of the bone and to investigate the surgical therapy choice for the tumor around the knees.
  • METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females; average age 31.1 years, range 14-59 years) with giant cell tumor of the bone were treated and followed up from January 1993 to January 2005.
  • The intralesional excision (curettage) with the bone grafting was performed on 4 patients; the curettage with some adjuvant treatments (high-speed burring, phenol, alcohol, cement, hydrogen peroxide, 50% ZnCl2, 3% iodine tincture, or bone cement) was used in 26 patients; and resection of the whole tumor was performed on 8 patients.
  • RESULTS: The follow-up of the 38 patients for 12-144 months (average, 67 months) revealed that giant cell tumor of the bone was found around the knees in 29 of the 38 patients (13 at the distal femur, 16 at the proximal tibia), at the proximal femur in 2, at the proximal ulna in 2, at the distal radius in 2, at the sacroiliac area in 2, and at lumbar spine in 1.
  • Of the 38 patients, 4 had a recurrence after simple curettage, 8 had no recurrence after resection of the whole tumor, and 8 of the remaining 26 patients had a recurrence after curettage with some adjuvant treatments.
  • Of the patients with the recurrence, 12 underwent reoperations (8 by the total resection of the recurrent tumor, 4 by the curettage with adjuvant treatments), and there was no recurrence after the reoperation.
  • CONCLUSION: Giant cell tumor of the bone usually recurs around the knee joint, especially at the proximal tibia, usually graded as Grade II or III by the Campanacci's radiological grading system.
  • Simple curettage has a higher recurrence rate; therefore, extensive curettage and resection of the lesions combined with some adjuvant treatments after the correct diagnosis can be used to reduce the high recurrence rate of giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17140075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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60. Bayar MA, Erdem Y, Gokcek C, Koktekir E, Kilic C, Yasitli U, Tekiner A: Giant cell reparative granuloma of the axis. Turk Neurosurg; 2009 Oct;19(4):423-7
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  • [Title] Giant cell reparative granuloma of the axis.
  • Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a rare, benign fibroosseous lesion.
  • We filled the tumor cavity with a bone graft and the patient was discharged with a halo brace without any neurological deficits.
  • The follow-up CT revealed one year after the surgery showed sclerosis at the tumor site.
  • The etiopathogenesis of GCRG is still controversial and the differential diagnosis, especially from giant cell tumor of bone is quite difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Axis, Cervical Vertebra / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19847766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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61. Bianchi G, Donati D, Staals EL, Mercuri M: Osteoarticular allograft reconstruction of the distal radius after bone tumour resection. J Hand Surg Br; 2005 Aug;30(4):369-73
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  • [Title] Osteoarticular allograft reconstruction of the distal radius after bone tumour resection.
  • Resection of the distal end of the radius is indicated in the treatment of locally aggressive primary benign and malignant bone tumours.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the technique of osteoarticular allograft reconstruction of this bone defect.
  • Three patients had a malignant tumour and nine had a giant cell tumour.
  • Non-union of the osteotomy line was diagnosed 6 months after surgery in one case and needed bone grafting.
  • Subchondral bone alterations and joint narrowing were present in all cases but were painful in only one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Radius / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15951074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0266-7681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hand surgery (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Br
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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62. George S, Merriam P, Maki RG, Van den Abbeele AD, Yap JT, Akhurst T, Harmon DC, Bhuchar G, O'Mara MM, D'Adamo DR, Morgan J, Schwartz GK, Wagner AJ, Butrynski JE, Demetri GD, Keohan ML: Multicenter phase II trial of sunitinib in the treatment of nongastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Jul 01;27(19):3154-60
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  • [Title] Multicenter phase II trial of sunitinib in the treatment of nongastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas.
  • PURPOSE To evaluate the potential benefit of continuous daily dosing sunitinib in patients with advanced nongastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) sarcomas.
  • Secondary end points were stable disease at 16 and 24 weeks.
  • One patient (desmoplastic round cell tumor [DSRCT]) achieved a confirmed partial response (PR) and remained on study for 56 weeks.
  • Ten patients (20%) achieved stable disease for at least 16 weeks.
  • Metabolic stable disease was seen in 11 (52%) of 21.
  • The relevance of disease control observed in subtypes with an indolent natural history is unknown, however, the durable disease control observed in DSRCT, solitary fibrous tumor, and giant cell tumor of bone suggests that future evaluation of sunitinib in these subtypes may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


63. Sakayama K, Sugawara Y, Kidani T, Miyawaki J, Fujibuchi T, Kamei S, Aizawa J, Yamamoto H: Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of giant cell tumor in the proximal femur. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2007 Dec;127(10):867-72
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of giant cell tumor in the proximal femur.
  • Primaly giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) in the proximal femur is relatively rare, and can prove difficult to diagnose, and can require therapeutic methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Femoral Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arthrodesis. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / methods. Biopsy. Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Female. Femur / pathology. Femur / surgery. Hip Joint / surgery. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Osteolysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17713773.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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64. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Livadas S, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Lyberopoulos K, Tantalaki E, Palioura H, Giannopoulos A, Kostakis A: Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature. Endocrine; 2007 Dec;32(3):345-9
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  • [Title] Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • The rare appearance of this entity in everyday practice is troublesome for both patients and physicians, because whenever it emerges, diagnosis could be mistaken for a giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • However, clinical, biochemical, and radiologic findings can easily guide the diagnosis if one considers the full continuum of findings and their association with subject's medical history, instead of focusing only on bone lesion.
  • In this report we present a case of brown tumor in the fibula with a short literature review, whose aggressive presentation and unawareness of the skeletal findings of hyperparathyroidism puzzled the caring doctors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18246453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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65. Ozcan C, Apaydin FD, Görür K, Apa DD: Peripheral giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle presenting as a preauricular mass. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar;262(3):178-81
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  • [Title] Peripheral giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle presenting as a preauricular mass.
  • Preauricular mass is a common symptom for patients presenting to the otorhinolaryngologist with parotid disease.
  • Giant cell granuloma (GCG) was first described by Jaffe in 1953.
  • Central GCG (CGCG) is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous lesion generally presenting as an expansible mass with cortical bone defect.
  • The brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism and giant cell tumor must be ruled out because of the microscopic similarities of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15133683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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66. Behzatoğlu K, Durak H, Canberk S, Aydin O, Huq GE, Oznur M, Ozyalvaçli G, Yildiz P: Giant cell tumor-like lesion of the urinary bladder: a report of two cases and literature review; giant cell tumor or undifferentiated carcinoma? Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:48
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor-like lesion of the urinary bladder: a report of two cases and literature review; giant cell tumor or undifferentiated carcinoma?
  • Giant cell tumor, excluding its prototype in bone, is usually a benign but local aggressive neoplasm originating from tendon sheath or soft tissue.
  • Giant cell tumors in visceral organs usually accompany epithelial tumors and the clinical behavior of giant cell tumor in urinary bladder is similar to its bone counterpart.
  • Here, we report two cases of giant cell tumor located in urinary bladder in comparison with nine reported cases in the English literature.
  • Concurrent noninvasive urothelial carcinoma was also described in all these previous reports and only one patient with follow-up died of disease.
  • One of the two cases we present had no concurrent urothelial tumor at the time of diagnosis but had a history of a low grade noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with three recurrences.
  • The histology of these two cases was similar to the giant cell tumor of bone and composed of oval to spindle mononuclear cells with evenly spaced osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Immunohistochemically, the giant cells showed staining with osteoclastic markers including CD68, TRAP, and LCA.
  • The histologic and immunohistochemical properties in our cases as well as their clinical courses were consistent with a giant cell tumor.
  • Consequently, tumors in urinary bladder showing features of giant cell tumor of bone may also be considered and termed "giant cell tumor".

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  • (PMID = 20043822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2811699
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67. Radev BR, Kase JA, Askew MJ, Weiner SD: Potential for thermal damage to articular cartilage by PMMA reconstruction of a bone cavity following tumor excision: A finite element study. J Biomech; 2009 May 29;42(8):1120-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Potential for thermal damage to articular cartilage by PMMA reconstruction of a bone cavity following tumor excision: A finite element study.
  • Benign, giant cell tumors are often treated by intralesional excision and reconstruction with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.
  • The exothermic reaction of the in-situ polymerizing PMMA is believed to beneficially kill remaining tumor cells.
  • However, at issue is the extent of this necrotic effect into the surrounding normal bone and the adjacent articular cartilage.
  • Temperature/exposure time conditions indicating necrotic potential during the exotherm of the polymerizing bone cement were found in regions of the cancellous bone within 3mm of the superior surface of the PMMA implant.
  • If less than 3mm of cancellous bone existed between the PMMA implant and the subchondral bone layer, regions of the subchondral bone were also exposed to thermally necrotic conditions.
  • However, as long as there were at least 2mm of uniform subchondral bone above the PMMA implant, the necrotic regions did not extend into the overlying articular cartilage.
  • This was the case even when the PMMA was in direct contact with the subchondral bone.
  • If the subchondral bone is not of sufficient thickness, or is not continuous, then care should be taken to protect the articular cartilage from thermal damage as a result of the reconstruction of the tumor cavity with PMMA bone cement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / toxicity. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Cartilage, Articular / physiology. Finite Element Analysis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Polymethyl Methacrylate / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 19344902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomechanics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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68. Campanacci DA, Scoccianti G, Beltrami G, Mugnaini M, Capanna R: Ankle arthrodesis with bone graft after distal tibia resection for bone tumors. Foot Ankle Int; 2008 Oct;29(10):1031-7
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  • [Title] Ankle arthrodesis with bone graft after distal tibia resection for bone tumors.
  • Ankle arthrodesis has proven to be an effective treatment in primary and post-traumatic joint arthritis, but few papers have addressed the feasibility and techniques of ankle arthrodesis in tumor surgery after long bone resections.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resection of the distal tibia and reconstruction by ankle fusion using non-vascularized structural bone grafts was performed in 8 patients affected by malignant (5 patients) or aggressive benign (3 patients) tumors.
  • Bone defects were reconstructed with cortical structural autografts (from contralateral tibia) or allografts or both, plus autologous bone chips.
  • CONCLUSION: Resection of the distal tibia and arthrodesis of the ankle with non-vascularized structural bone grafts, combined with autologous bone chips, can be an effective procedure in bone tumor surgery with durable and satisfactory functional results.
  • In shorter resections, autologous cortical structural grafts can be used; in longer resections, allograft structural bone grafts are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ankle Joint / surgery. Arthrodesis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Tibia / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Nails. Bone Plates. Female. Fibula / transplantation. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Hemangioendothelioma / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Humans. Ilium / transplantation. Limb Salvage. Male. Middle Aged. Pain Measurement. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / surgery. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18851821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Brimo F, Aziz M, Rosen G, Turcotte R, Nahal A: Malignancy in giant cell tumour of bone: is there a reproducible histological threshold? A study of three giant cell tumours with worrisome features. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):864-6
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  • [Title] Malignancy in giant cell tumour of bone: is there a reproducible histological threshold? A study of three giant cell tumours with worrisome features.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18042075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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70. Karpik M: Giant Cell Tumor (tumor gigantocellularis, osteoclastoma) - epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2010 May-Jun;12(3):207-15
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  • [Title] Giant Cell Tumor (tumor gigantocellularis, osteoclastoma) - epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment.
  • The author presents the epidemiology, classification, clinical features and strategies of treatment of Giant Cell Tumor.
  • Giant Cell Tumor of Bone accounts for 4-8% of primary bone tumors.
  • Increasing pain at the tumor site is the most common presenting symptom.
  • The recurrence rate is high (12-50%) during the first 2-3 years after surgery, regardless of pre-operative tumor stage.
  • 5-7% cases of giant cell tumor produce malignant recurrences, usually after five to more than 10 years after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Secondary Prevention. Sex Distribution. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20675862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng; pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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71. Knowles HJ, Athanasou NA: Acute hypoxia and osteoclast activity: a balance between enhanced resorption and increased apoptosis. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):256-64
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  • Osteoclasts are the primary mediators of pathological bone resorption in many conditions in which micro-environmental hypoxia is associated with disease progression.
  • Mature human osteoclasts were differentiated from peripheral blood or obtained from giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Transient reoxygenation returned the percentage of trypan blue-positive cells to normoxic levels, suggesting that osteoclasts can recover from the early stages of cell death.
  • These data suggest that in diseased bone, where the pO(2) may fall to <or=2% O(2), a delicate balance between hypoxia-induced osteoclast activation and hypoxia-induced osteoclast apoptosis mediates pathological bone resorption.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Resorption / pathology. Cell Hypoxia / physiology. Osteoclasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers / analysis. Cathepsin K. Cathepsins / analysis. Cathepsins / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Coloring Agents / analysis. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / analysis. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / genetics. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Oxygen / pharmacology. RNA Interference. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Receptors, Thrombin / analysis. Receptors, Thrombin / metabolism. Trypan Blue / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19291710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Thrombin; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.38 / CTSK protein, human; EC 3.4.22.38 / Cathepsin K; I2ZWO3LS3M / Trypan Blue; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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72. Eyichukwu GO, Ogugua PC: Osteoclastoma in an infant. Niger J Med; 2007 Oct-Dec;16(4):378-80
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  • [Title] Osteoclastoma in an infant.
  • BACKGROUND: Conventionally, osteoclastoma is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumour with a tendency for local recurrence and rarely distant metastasis, diagnosed mainly in young adults, 15-40 years of age.
  • We report a case of giant cell tumour of the clavicle (uncommon site) in a 2% year old girl that was first noticed at 6 months of age.
  • It rapidly increased in size to involve the entire clavicle with associated pain following manipulation by a traditional bone setter about 6 months after onset.
  • She had incisional biopsy; the histological report of which was osteoclastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Osteoclastoma can develop in early childhood far before skeletal maturity, may be congenital in manifestation and can affect anybone in the body.
  • [MeSH-major] Clavicle / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18080601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1115-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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73. Lazaretti NS, Dallagasperina VW, Villaroel RU, Schlittler LA: [Giant cell tumour of distal femur with pulmonary metastases]. Rev Port Pneumol; 2010 Mar-Apr;16(2):331-7
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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumour of distal femur with pulmonary metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células gigantes de fémur distal com metástases pulmonares.
  • Gian cell is normally a benign primary skeletal lesion located in the epiphysis of the long bones.
  • It is more frequente in the third and fourth decades of life but can exhibit the behaviour of a malignant tumour with distal metatasis.
  • The treatment of primary tumour is extensive surgical resection.
  • We report a case of a 35-year-old patient with lung metatases 21 months after curettage of giant cell tumour in distal femur.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20437009.001).
  • [ISSN] 2172-6825
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de pneumologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Pneumol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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74. Marioni G, Marchese-Ragona R, Guarda-Nardini L, Stramare R, Tognazza E, Marino F, Staffieri A: Giant cell tumour (central giant cell lesion) of the maxilla. Acta Otolaryngol; 2006 Jul;126(7):779-81
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumour (central giant cell lesion) of the maxilla.
  • The giant cell tumour (GCT) is a benign, locally invasive lesion that accounts for about 20% of benign bone tumours.
  • Giant cell lesions in the craniofacial skeleton other than the jaws are uncommon; the majority of them occur in the sphenoid, ethmoid and temporal bones.
  • Our successful maxillary reconstruction based on the association between autologous calvarial bone sticks bent with titanium miniplates and a temporalis muscle pedicled flap allowed the involvement of only one donor area for both hard and soft tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Maxillary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Maxillary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16803721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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75. Liu XM, Wang WC, Liu MH, Zhou QC: [Diagnostic value of 2-dimentional ultrasonography and color Doppler flow imaging in primary bone tumor]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Jun;31(3):420-3
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic value of 2-dimentional ultrasonography and color Doppler flow imaging in primary bone tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnostic value of 2-dimentional ultrasonography and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) in primary bone tumor.
  • METHODS: The hemodynamic parameters such as systolic maximum velocity (Vmax), diastolic minimum velocity (Vmin), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of intratumoral folw in 93 patients with primary bone tumors proved by histopathology were studied using 2-dimentional ultrasonography and CDFI techniques.
  • RESULTS: The bone destruction periosteum response and soft tissue mass were essentially revealed with 2-dimentional ultrasonography techniques.
  • The Vmax and Vmin in malignant bone tumor were significantly higher than those in benign one (P < 0.01).
  • RI and PI in malignant bone tumor were lower than those in benign one (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Observing the features of bone tumor and hemodynamic parameters by 2-dimentional ultrasonography and CDFI has a great clinical value in diagnosing primary bone tumor and distinguishing the malignant and benign bone tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Osteosarcoma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blood Flow Velocity. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex / methods

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  • (PMID = 16859139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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76. Adams SC, Potter BK, Robinson PG, Temple HT: Giant cell tumor of the distal femur associated with complete tumor necrosis. Orthopedics; 2010 Sep;33(9):688
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the distal femur associated with complete tumor necrosis.
  • Giant cell tumor is a benign tumor of bone with a predilection for juxta-articular locations.
  • Although not malignant, giant cell tumor often exhibits unpredictable and locally aggressive behavior, and in rare cases can metastasize in the absence of histologic malignancy.
  • Partial tumor necrosis has been infrequently reported within typical giant cell tumor.
  • A 17-year-old girl presented with a right distal femur giant cell tumor associated with complete tumor necrosis on histopathologic analysis.
  • The etiology, prevalence, and implications of complete necrosis in previously untreated giant cell tumor of bone remain unclear, as there are no previously published reports.
  • There were no radiographic signs of the necrotic tumor space remodeling with new bone.
  • The patient was treated with standard extended intralesional curetting through a generous cortical window permitting visualization of the entire lesion, and systematic high speed burring and thermal electrocautery ablation of the periphery, followed by micro particulate allogenic bone grafting.
  • At short-term follow-up, she had healed well with no evidence of tumor recurrence.
  • This article presents the first case, to our knowledge, of complete spontaneous tumor necrosis in a previously untreated bone giant cell tumor.
  • Increased understanding of spontaneous tumor necrosis associated with giant cell tumor may help guided future targeted medical and surgical treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 20839701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Kudo N, Ogose A, Ariizumi T, Kawashima H, Hotta T, Hatano H, Morita T, Nagata M, Siki Y, Kawai A, Hotta Y, Hoshino M, Endo N: Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in giant cell tumor of bone. Anticancer Res; 2009 Jun;29(6):2219-25
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  • [Title] Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • BACKGROUND: A giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive tumor with a propensity for local recurrence.
  • A characteristic pattern of peripheral bone formation has been described in GCT recurrence in soft tissue, and in some pulmonary metastases from benign GCT.
  • Although the bone formation in GCT in supposedly due to bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), the expression pattern of BMPs in GCT has not been well investigated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of BMPs in GCT tissues, cultured stromal cells from GCT, and osteoclast-like giant cells harvested by laser microdissection (LM), as well as from control osteosarcoma (NOS-1) cells was analyzed using reverse transcriptional-semiquantitative PCR.
  • The osteoclast-like giant cells expressed BMP 2, 3, 5 and 6 and BMP 5 was expressed at the highest level.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lasers. Male. Microdissection. Middle Aged. Osteosarcoma / genetics. Osteosarcoma / metabolism. Osteosarcoma / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19528484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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78. Cai G, Ramdall R, Garcia R, Levine P: Pulmonary metastasis of giant cell tumor of the bone diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jun;35(6):358-62
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  • [Title] Pulmonary metastasis of giant cell tumor of the bone diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Giant cell tumor is a benign but locally aggressive tumor that primarily affects the epiphyses of long bones of young adults.
  • Pulmonary metastases in giant cell tumor are rare (about 1-9%).
  • Here, we report a case of metastatic pulmonary giant cell tumor in a patient who had a previous history of giant cell tumor of the distal femur with multiple recurrences.
  • The aspirate smears contained clustered and dispersed mononuclear and osteoclast-like giant cells that had bland nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli.
  • The pulmonary metastasis was similar morphologically and immunophenotypically to the recurrent giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17497658.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Moser A, Hoffmann KM, Walch C, Sovinz P, Lackner H, Schwinger W, Benesch M, Fritz G, Urban C: Intracranial reparative giant cell granuloma secondary to cholesteatoma in a 15-year-old girl. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Dec;30(12):935-7
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  • [Title] Intracranial reparative giant cell granuloma secondary to cholesteatoma in a 15-year-old girl.
  • Imaging studies revealed an intracranial mass of the right temporal bone causing temporal lobe displacement.
  • A first biopsy led to the diagnosis of intracranial giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), a rare benign tumor of the bone or soft tissue that can show expansive growth.
  • Cholesteatoma should be considered as a trigger for intracranial GCRG growth, especially if adjacent to the temporal bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / etiology. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / complications. Granuloma, Giant Cell / etiology. Temporal Bone

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  • (PMID = 19131785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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80. Aggarwal AN, Jain AK, Kumar S, Dhammi IK, Prashad B: Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee. Indian J Orthop; 2007 Apr;41(2):129-33
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  • [Title] Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee.
  • BACKGROUND: Segmental resection of bone in Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) around the knee, in indicated cases, leaves a gap which requires a complex reconstructive procedure.
  • After resection arthrodesis with intercalary autograft and simultaneous lengthening the resultant gap (∼15cm) was partially bridged by intercalary nonvascularized dual fibular strut graft (6-7cm) and additional corticocancellous bone graft from ipsilateral patella.
  • The stress fracture fibula required DCP fixation and bone grafting.
  • CONCLUSION: Resection arthrodesis with intercalary dual fibular autograft and cortico-cancellous bone grafting with simultaneous limb lengthening achieved limb length equalization with relatively short morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 21139765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5413
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989136
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Enbloc resection / giant cell tumor / reconstruction of knee
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81. Niu XH, Hao L, Zhang Q, Ding Y: [Massive allograft replacement in management of bone tumors]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May 15;45(10):677-80
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  • [Title] [Massive allograft replacement in management of bone tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional outcome and the complications of allograft replacement in management of bone tumors.
  • METHODS: Between March 1992 and September 2002 164 patients underwent bone tumor resection and massive allograft reconstruction of bone defects.
  • The resections were classified as marginal or wide resections of the tumor on the basis of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society staging system.
  • Most of the lesions were osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor of bone and located in proximal and distal femur, proximal tibia and humerus.
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 47 months (range, 12 to 168 months) after the operation, 154 of the patients in the study were free of disease and 10 died of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Allografts can be used for reconstruction of bony defects after tumor resection.
  • Allograft has nearly similar shape, strength, osteo-conduction and osteo-induction with host bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Substitutes. Bone Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 17688819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes
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82. Bello Báez A, López Pino MA, Azorín Cuadrillero D, Sirvent Cerdá S: [Aneurysmatic bone cyst coexisting with osteosarcoma. Radiopathologic discussion]. Radiologia; 2010 May-Jun;52(3):247-50
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  • [Title] [Aneurysmatic bone cyst coexisting with osteosarcoma. Radiopathologic discussion].
  • Aneurysmatic bone cysts are benign lesions of unknown origin.
  • It has been postulated that they might occur in reaction to trauma or to a primary benign (giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, etc.) or malignant (osteosarcoma) bone tumor that results in local hemodynamic changes.
  • We present a case of low grade osteosarcoma with a radiologic progression that was indistinguishable from that of an aneurysmatic bone cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / radiography. Humerus. Osteosarcoma / radiography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20304449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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83. Gibbs CP, Lewis VO, Peabody T: Beyond bone grafting: techniques in the surgical management of benign bone tumors. Instr Course Lect; 2005;54:497-503
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  • [Title] Beyond bone grafting: techniques in the surgical management of benign bone tumors.
  • The traditional surgical treatment of benign bone tumors has been curettage and autologous bone graft or marginal resection of expendable bones.
  • Recently, however, surgeons have been evaluating the results of treatments using limited surgical approaches, including percutaneous treatments, alternatives to autograft bone, and thermal or cytotoxic adjuvant therapies.
  • This process has been facilitated by the availability of multiple bone grafting materials and substitutes, the use of cross-sectional imaging, and technology such as that used with radiofrequency ablation.
  • Techniques using these therapies in two benign bone tumor models are described.
  • The use of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, now used for both benign and malignant disease, is reviewed as a surgical alternative for osteoid osteoma.
  • The role of adjuvant therapies such as liquid nitrogen and phenol, as well as the indications for resection, are described in the management of giant cell tumors of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Osteoma, Osteoid / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Transplantation / methods. Humans. Prosthesis Implantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 15948474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-6895
  • [Journal-full-title] Instructional course lectures
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Instr Course Lect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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84. Nishimura M, Yuasa K, Mori K, Miyamoto N, Ito M, Tsurudome M, Nishio M, Kawano M, Komada H, Uchida A, Ito Y: Cytological properties of stromal cells derived from giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) which can induce osteoclast formation of human blood monocytes without cell to cell contact. J Orthop Res; 2005 Sep;23(5):979-87
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  • [Title] Cytological properties of stromal cells derived from giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) which can induce osteoclast formation of human blood monocytes without cell to cell contact.
  • When human blood monocytes were cocultured with stromal cells derived from human giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) and a Millipore filter (0.4 microm) was interposed between monocytes and GCTSC, multinucleated giant cell formation of monocytes was induced.
  • The multinucleated giant cells have characters as osteoclast-like cells, indicating that a soluble osteoclast-inducing factor(s) is secreted from GCTSC expressing RANK, RANKL/ODF/OPGL and TACE mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Monocytes / cytology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Stromal Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / analysis. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / physiology. Cell Communication. Cell Lineage. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Cytokines / genetics. Humans. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology. Osteocalcin / analysis. Osteogenesis. Osteopontin. RANK Ligand. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / genetics. Sialoglycoproteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16024207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASR protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / SPP1 protein, human; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 0 / TNFRSF11A protein, human; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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85. Mondal SK: Cytodiagnosis of benign fibrous histiocytoma of rib and diagnostic dilemma: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jun;38(6):457-60
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  • [Title] Cytodiagnosis of benign fibrous histiocytoma of rib and diagnostic dilemma: a case report.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) of bone is rare in occurrence, and rib is an unusual site.
  • There are limited case reports of this entity in the literature, and cytodiagnosis of this tumor is not described.
  • Radiological investigations (plain radiograph and computed tomography) revealed a lytic bone lesion involving the 5th rib.
  • Radiologically, giant cell tumor (GCT), BFH, and plasmacytoma were suspected.
  • In fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), admixture of benign stromal cells and scattered osteoclast type giant cells were found in the smears.
  • Differential diagnoses of BFH, GCT (non-epiphyseal type), fibrous dysplasia, and aneurysmal bone cyst were made on cytology.
  • Cytologic diagnosis of BFH of rib is difficult as this tumor may mimic other giant cell containing tumors of bone in FNAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Ribs / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / pathology. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Humans. Male. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20014125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Tarrass F, Ayad A, Benjelloun M, Anabi A, Ramdani B, Benghanem MG, Zaid D: Cauda equina compression revealing brown tumor of the spine in a long-term hemodialysis patient. Joint Bone Spine; 2006 Dec;73(6):748-50
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  • [Title] Cauda equina compression revealing brown tumor of the spine in a long-term hemodialysis patient.
  • Brown tumors, or osteoclastomas, are erosive bony lesions arising as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT).
  • In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), brown tumors are classic skeletal manifestations usually seen in severe forms of secondary HPT.
  • We report a long-term hemodialysis case, in which cauda equina compression developed due to a sacral brown tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16650789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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87. Guliaeva SS, Voloshchuk IN, Mokrysheva NG, Rozhinskaia LIa: [Maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor of the bone in a patient with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy]. Arkh Patol; 2009 Sep-Oct;71(5):53-5
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  • [Title] [Maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor of the bone in a patient with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy].
  • The paper describes a case of maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor in a patient with parathyroid osteodystrophy, in this connection elbow joint resection and replacement were made.
  • Progression of diseases was accompanied by severe bone changes and the development of urolithiasis complicated by chronic renal failure.
  • Thus, the interpretation of bone tissue changes without considering clinical and laboratory data led to the unwarranted surgical intervention and the late diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Differential diagnosis of a giant-cell tumor should be made, by obligatorily considering clinical and laboratory data, including the parameters of calcium metabolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases, Metabolic / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19938706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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88. Lentini M, Zuccalà V, Fazzari C: Polypoid giant cell tumor of the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Feb;32(1):95-8
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  • [Title] Polypoid giant cell tumor of the skin.
  • Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare neoplasm named for its resemblance to giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The histomorphological features were consistent with the diagnosis of primary giant cell tumor of the skin.
  • Clinical informations and immunohistochemistry are useful in distinguishing this neoplasm from other neoplastic and reactive lesions of the superficial soft tissues containing giant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19915451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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89. Liu HS, Di X: Endoscopic endonasal surgery for biopsy of cavernous sinus lesions. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2009 Apr;52(2):69-73
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  • The pathological diagnosis of the cavernous sinus lesions showed 3 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 2 patients with meningioma, 1 patient with esthesioneuroblastoma, 1 giant cell tumor of bone, 1 small cell carcinoma from the lungs, 1 fungal granuloma, and 1 schwannoma.

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  • (PMID = 19452412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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90. Liao TS, Yurgelun MB, Chang SS, Zhang HZ, Murakami K, Blaine TA, Parisien MV, Kim W, Winchester RJ, Lee FY: Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone. J Orthop Res; 2005 Jan;23(1):203-9
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  • [Title] Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a unique bone lesion that is characterized by an excessive number of multinucleated osteoclasts.
  • GCT consists of neoplastic stromal cells, multinucleated osteoclasts and their precursors, thus serving as a naturally occurring human disease model for the study of osteoclastogenesis.
  • These results suggest that SDF-1 is one of the significant chemoattractant factors involved in the recruitment of hematopoietic osteoclast precursor cells during tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Chemokines, CXC / physiology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15607894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC
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91. Kafchitsas K, Habermann B, Proschek D, Kurth A, Eberhardt C: Functional results after giant cell tumor operation near knee joint and the cement radiolucent zone as indicator of recurrence. Anticancer Res; 2010 Sep;30(9):3795-9
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  • [Title] Functional results after giant cell tumor operation near knee joint and the cement radiolucent zone as indicator of recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor of bone near the knee joints is a dilemma for the operating surgeon.
  • Curettage and bone grafting have a high recurrence, whereas wide resection has a reduced recurrence rate with the compromise of limb function.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with histologically proven giant cell tumor near the knee joint were treated.
  • All patients underwent surgery, 21 patients were treated with a bone cement filling and additional osteosynthesis after curettage.
  • Seventeen patients were filled with cancellous bone or curettage alone.
  • In the group with bone cement filling after curettage, the recurrence rate was 23.8%, whereas a recurrence rate of 52.9% was detected in the group with cancellous bone filling or curettage alone.
  • Patients with giant cell tumor of bone near the knee joint can be treated satisfactorily with intralesional resection and bone cement packing.
  • The extension of the radiolucent zone after bone cement filling is a reliable indicator for a possible local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint / surgery. Recovery of Function
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Orthopedic Procedures / adverse effects. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Osteoarthritis / epidemiology. Osteoarthritis / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20944172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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92. Salerno M, Avnet S, Alberghini M, Giunti A, Baldini N: Histogenetic characterization of giant cell tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2008 Sep;466(9):2081-91
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  • [Title] Histogenetic characterization of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The unpredictable behavior of giant cell tumor (GCT) parallels its controversial histogenesis.
  • Multinucleated giant cells, stromal cells, and CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages are the three elements that interact in GCT.
  • Although stromal cells expressed early osteogenic markers, they were unable to differentiate into osteoblasts but they did express intracellular adhesion molecule-1, a marker of bone-lining cells.
  • They might be secondarily induced to proliferate by a paracrine effect induced by monocyte-macrophages and/or giant cells.
  • The increased number of giant cells in GCT may be secondary to an autocrine circuit mediated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Coculture Techniques. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18543051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2492994
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93. Balke M, Campanacci L, Gebert C, Picci P, Gibbons M, Taylor R, Hogendoorn P, Kroep J, Wass J, Athanasou N: Bisphosphonate treatment of aggressive primary, recurrent and metastatic Giant Cell Tumour of Bone. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:462
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  • [Title] Bisphosphonate treatment of aggressive primary, recurrent and metastatic Giant Cell Tumour of Bone.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is an expansile osteolytic tumour which contains numerous osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • RESULTS: Treatment protocols differed with several different aminobisphosphonates being employed, but stabilisation of disease was achieved in most of these cases which were refractory to conventional treatment.
  • Most inoperable sacral/pelvic tumours did not increase in size and no further recurrence was seen in GCTBs that had repeatedly recurred in bone and soft tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that bisphosphonates may be useful in controlling disease progression in GCTB and that these agents directly inhibit GCTB - derived osteoclast resorption.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Resorption. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Osteoclasts / drug effects. Osteoclasts / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20799989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940802
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94. Fraquet N, Faizon G, Rosset P, Phillipeau J-, Waast D, Gouin F: Long bones giant cells tumors: treatment by curretage and cavity filling cementation. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res; 2009 Oct;95(6):402-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long bones giant cells tumors: treatment by curretage and cavity filling cementation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Giant cell tumors (GCT) of bone are benign tumors with local aggressiveness that most of the time occur around the metaphyseal area of long bones, often in contact with the articular cartilage.
  • Preoperative radiological evaluation with standard X-rays showed that the tumor measured a mean 71x45mm, for a mean volume of 78cm(3).
  • Two cases of minor osteoarthritis progression were noted (one less than 50% and a simple densification of subchondral bone), requiring no specific treatment.
  • Diagnosis of recurrence can be made earlier because of the thin scalable border at the bone-cement interface.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Femur / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Tibia / surgery

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19767256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1877-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop Traumatol Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100201
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95. Sehli H, Daoud L, Ben Mbarek R, Ghorbel R, Ben Abdelghani K, Charfi H, Cheour I, Tarhouni L, Sellami S: [Osteomalacia and giant cell tumor: a rare case]. Tunis Med; 2008 Sep;86(9):836-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Osteomalacia and giant cell tumor: a rare case].
  • [Transliterated title] Ostéomalacie et tumeur a cellule géante: une entité rare.
  • AIM: We have investigated the mechanism by which a giant cell tumor of bone caused biopsy-proved osteomalacia in a 50-year-old woman.
  • CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old woman presented with generalized bone and pelvicrural pain, associated with fatiguability and muscle weakness.
  • The diagnosis of osteomalacia was retained, associated with a giant cell tumor.
  • The coexistence of giant cell tumor of bone and osteomalacia suggested the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia.
  • Resolution of the biochemical abnormalities of the syndrome after tumor resection, established this diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / complications. Osteomalacia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19472787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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96. Cağlar K, Büyük S, Caygür A, Tuğcu S, Ulutekin E: Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor in a 16-year-old boy. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;22(2):175-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor in a 16-year-old boy.
  • Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor of the bone is a rare variant of a lesion appearing during childhood.
  • The authors report clinical, radiological, and pathological features of a 16-year-old boy who was diagnosed with synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor, which originated in the right distal femur and the left fibula.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15805004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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97. Kapoor SK, Tiwari A: Resection arthrodesis for giant cell tumors around the knee. Indian J Orthop; 2007 Apr;41(2):124-8
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  • [Title] Resection arthrodesis for giant cell tumors around the knee.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone are aggressive benign tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients of mean age 33.1 years with Campanacci Grade III giant cell tumors around the knee (20 distal femoral and 16 proximal tibial) were treated with wide resection and arthrodesis from January 1996 through January 2006.
  • Arthrodesis was performed using plating with free fibular graft (n = 18), IM nail with free fibular graft (n = 8) and IM nail combined with ring fixator using bone transport (n = 10).

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  • (PMID = 21139764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5413
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989135
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumor; knee / resection arthrodesis
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98. Gruenwald N, Demos TC, Lomasney LM, Rapp T: The case. Giant-cell tumor. Orthopedics; 2006 Feb;29(2):94, 167-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The case. Giant-cell tumor.
  • Giant-cell tumor is a benign but locally aggressive primary bone tumor that requires surgical management.
  • Most giant-cell tumors initially are demonstrated on radiographs as distal, subarticular, geographic osteolytic lesions.
  • Abundant giant cells on histology are reactive secondary to a neoplastic fibroblast-like stromal cell.
  • Giant cells are present in many neoplastic and non-neoplastic bone lesions; therefore the diagnosis of giant-cell tumors requires correlation of clinical, imaging, and pathologic data to exclude other lesions that demonstrate a similar histologic pattern.
  • A small number of giant-cell tumors result in lung lesions, many of which have benign histology, can be treated by wedge resection, and do not affect long-term outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiography. Knee

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  • (PMID = 16485448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-7447
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Eralp L, Toker B, Akgül T, Ozger H, Kocaoğlu M, Hayat S: [Applications of external fixation for management of complications associated with musculoskeletal tumors and related surgery]. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc; 2009 May-Jul;43(3):219-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the results of, and the course of treatment with, external fixation (EF) in treating complications associated with bone tumors and related surgery.
  • Histologic diagnoses were osteosarcoma (n=3), Ewing's sarcoma (n=3), hereditary multiple exostosis (n=3), chondrosarcoma (n=2), synovial sarcoma (n=2), Ollier's disease, giant cell tumor of bone, desmoid fibroma, chondromyxoid fibroma, and enchondroma.
  • Complications secondary to bone tumors (n=4) and occurring following limb salvage surgery (n=14) were treated with Ilizarov circular EF in nine patients, unilateral EF in six patients, and both in three patients.
  • The second group consisted of six patients who had shortening secondary to tumor surgery.
  • The third group included four patients with deformity and shortening secondary to multiple exostosis (n=3) and Ollier's disease.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of EF in the management of complications associated with bone tumors and related surgery yields successful results especially in young patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. External Fixators / adverse effects. Fracture Fixation / methods. Muscle Neoplasms / surgery. Osteosarcoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19717939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1017-995X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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100. Fu K, Meng ZB, Li J, Li HC: [Repairing the defect of benign bone tumor with the coralline hydroxyapatite]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2008 May;33(5):421-4
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  • [Title] [Repairing the defect of benign bone tumor with the coralline hydroxyapatite].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of repairing bone defectin post-operation benign tumor with coralline hydroxyapatite(CHAP).
  • The CHAP was implanted into the lesion after bone tumor curettage to 25 patients.
  • The sizes of bone defect ranged from 0.8 cm x 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm to 10 cm x 3.5 cm x 2 cm.
  • X-ray showed that there was osteogenesis at the cortical bone 1 month post-operation.
  • There is corresponding synchronization between bone formation with CHAP biodegradation.
  • The CHAP is an excellent bone defect repairing material.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Ceramics. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Hydroxyapatites. Prostheses and Implants
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Cysts / surgery. Bone Regeneration. Bone Substitutes. Child. Female. Femur / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18544846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes; 0 / Hydroxyapatites; 0 / coralline hydroxyapatite
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