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1. Hori T, Wagata T, Takemoto K, Shigeta T, Takuwa H, Hata K, Uemoto S, Yokoo N: Spontaneous necrosis of solid gallbladder adenocarcinoma accompanied with pancreaticobiliary maljunction. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Oct 14;14(38):5933-7
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  • [Title] Spontaneous necrosis of solid gallbladder adenocarcinoma accompanied with pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • A 71-year-old Japanese man with acute cholecystitis and an incarcerated gallbladder (GB) stone was admitted.
  • We were agonized in making the qualitative diagnosis of mass-like lesions of the fundus, such as a benign tumor, cancer, or debris.
  • Amylase levels in the common bile duct and gallbladder were quite high.
  • Thus, we diagnosed it as a gallbladder cancer, based on histopathological analysis of the resected specimen.
  • We present the first case of spontaneous necrosis of solid gallbladder adenocarcinoma, with a review of previous studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biliary Tract / abnormalities. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Incidental Findings. Pancreas / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholangiography. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Cholecystitis, Acute / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Gallstones / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Necrosis. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • (PMID = 18855999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 25
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2751910
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2. Vialle R, Velasco S, Milin S, Bricot V, Richer JP, Levillain PM, Tasu JP: [Imaging in the diagnosis and the staging of gallbladder tumors]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2008 Nov;32(11):931-41
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  • [Title] [Imaging in the diagnosis and the staging of gallbladder tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Place de l'imagerie dans le diagnostic et le bilan des tumeurs de la vésicule biliaire.
  • Most of gallbladder tumors are benign.
  • In case of suspicious polyp or suspicious wall thickening, endoscopic ultrasonography can be helpful to evaluate local tumoral spread and eliminate differential diagnosis.
  • Unfortunately, diagnosis of gallbladder cancer is often late, when surgical resection can't be curative.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18954953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Li Q, Yang Z: Expression of phospho-ERK1/2 and PI3-K in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions and its clinical and pathological correlations. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2009;28:65
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  • [Title] Expression of phospho-ERK1/2 and PI3-K in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions and its clinical and pathological correlations.
  • However, few studies have examined gallbladder cancer specimens, and little is known about the clinical and pathological significance of ERK1/2 and PI3-K/AKT signaling changes in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • In this study, we examined phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and PI3K expression and analyzed its clinicopathological impact in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect and compare the frequency of p-ERK1/2 and PI3-K expression in gallbladder adenocarcinoma, peri-tumor tissues, adenomatous polyps, and chronic cholecystitis specimens.
  • RESULTS: The positive staining for p-EKR1/2 and PI3-K were 63/108 (58.3%) and 55/108 (50.9%) in gallbladder adenocarcinoma; 14/46 (30.4%) and 5/46 (10.1%) in peri-tumor tissues; 3/15 (20%) and 3/15 (20%) in adenomatous polyps; and 4/35 (11.4%) and 3/35 (8.6%) in chronic cholecystitis.
  • The positive rate of p-ERK1/2 or PI3-K in gallbladder adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in peri-tumor tissue (both, P < 0.01), adenomatous polyps (p-ERK1/2, P < 0.01; PI3-K, P < 0.05), and chronic cholecystitis (both, P < 0.01).
  • Moreover, the frequency of p-ERK1/2 expression in gallbladder adenocarcinomas without gallstone was significantly lower than those with gallstones.
  • Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that increased p-ERK1/2 expression was an independent prognostic predictor in gallbladder carcinoma (P = 0.028).
  • CONCLUSION: Increased expression of p-ERK1/2 and PI3K might contribute to gallbladder carcinogenesis. p-ERK1/2 over-expression is correlated with decreased survival and therefore may serve as an important biological marker in development of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenomatous Polyps / metabolism. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Adult. Female. Gallbladder / metabolism. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19445727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2691734
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4. Bazoua G, Hamza N, Lazim T: Do we need histology for a normal-looking gallbladder? J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2007;14(6):564-8
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  • [Title] Do we need histology for a normal-looking gallbladder?
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare malignancy with poor overall prognosis.
  • We aimed here to investigate the need for routine histological examination of gallbladder.
  • METHODS: We carried out a retrospective review of 2890 final pathology reports of processed gallbladder specimens following cholecystectomy due to gallstones disease.
  • The notes of all cases of gallbladder cancer were scrutinized, with particular emphasis on presentation, preoperative diagnostic tools using abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan, operative findings, and the histology results.
  • RESULTS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) was detected in five specimens (0.17%), dysplasia in six (0.2%), and secondaries to gallbladder in three (0.1%).
  • Histological findings confirmed gallstone disease in 97% and rare benign pathology in 3%.
  • In all five patients, cancer was isolated from thickened fibrotic wall on macroscopic appearance and spread through all layers of the gallbladder wall.
  • The percentage of thickened-wall gallbladder in this study was 38.02% and the cancer incidence in the thickened wall was 0.45%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A selective policy rather than routine histological examination of nonfibrotic or thickened-wall gallbladder has to be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology. Gallstones / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cholecystectomy. Female. Fibrosis. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18040621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Tamura H, Ohtsuka M, Washiro M, Kimura F, Shimizu H, Yoshidome H, Kato A, Seki N, Miyazaki M: Reg IV expression and clinicopathologic features of gallbladder carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2009 Dec;40(12):1686-92
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  • [Title] Reg IV expression and clinicopathologic features of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • In this study, we examined Reg IV expression in the gallbladder and gallbladder carcinoma, and measured Reg IV levels in sera from patients with gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that high Reg IV levels were identified in 17 of 31 gallbladder carcinomas, whereas there was no apparent amplification in normal gallbladders.
  • Immunohistochemically, although only a small part of the epithelium with intestinal metaplasia in 2 of 4 cases with adenomyomatosis showed Reg IV expression, Reg IV was negative in all cases with normal gallbladder (n = 15) and cholelithiasis (n = 13).
  • In contrast, 34 (56%) of 61 gallbladder carcinomas were positive.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed negative Reg IV expression, as well as hepatic parenchymal invasion, to be independently associated with a poor prognosis in patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Before surgical resection, 4 (33%) of 12 patients with gallbladder carcinoma had high serum Reg IV levels, whereas Reg IV was never elevated in 12 patients with benign diseases.
  • These results suggest that Reg IV is involved in gallbladder carcinoma carcinogenesis through intestinal metaplasia and is associated with relatively favorable prognosis in patients after surgery.
  • The serum level of Reg IV may be of use or indicative of neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Lectins, C-Type / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gene Expression. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Metaplasia / genetics. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19716164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / REG4 protein, human
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6. Yang LP, Yang ZL, Tan XG, Miao XY: [Expression of annexin A1 (ANXA1) and A2 (ANXA2) and its significance in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;32(8):595-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of annexin A1 (ANXA1) and A2 (ANXA2) and its significance in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression levels of ANXA1 and ANXA2 and elucidate their clinicopathological significance in adenocarcinoma, peritumoral tissues, adenomatous polyp and chronic cholecystitis of gallbladder.
  • The benign lesions with positive ANXA1 and/or ANXA2 expression showed mild to severe atypical hyperplasia of the gallbladder epithelium.
  • A high consistence was found between the expression levels of ANXA1 and ANXA2 (χ(2) = 67.84, P < 0.01), and a close positive correlation between the scores of ANXA1 and ANXA2 (r = 0.78, P < 0.01) in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that ANXA1 or ANXA2 was not an independent prognostic predictor in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression levels of ANXA1 and/or ANXA2 may be important biological markers in the carcinogenesis, progression and biological behaviors of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Annexin A1 / metabolism. Annexin A2 / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adenomatous Polyps / metabolism. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Adult. Aged. Cholecystectomy / methods. Cholecystitis / metabolism. Cholecystitis / pathology. Female. Gallbladder / metabolism. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 21122411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ANXA2 protein, human; 0 / Annexin A1; 0 / Annexin A2
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7. Lee SH, Lee DS, You IY, Jeon WJ, Park SM, Youn SJ, Choi JW, Sung R: [Histopathologic analysis of adenoma and adenoma-related lesions of the gallbladder]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2010 Feb;55(2):119-26
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  • [Title] [Histopathologic analysis of adenoma and adenoma-related lesions of the gallbladder].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: In order to determine the malignant potential of gallbladder adenoma for progression to carcinoma, we evaluated the histopathologic features of adenoma and adenoma-related lesions on cholecystectomized specimens.
  • METHODS: Among 1,847 cholecystectomized specimens, 63 specimens from 26 benign adenomas, 9 carcinomas in situ (CIS), and 28 invasive carcinomas were selected.
  • A pathologist reviewed all specimens and selected benign adenomas, CIS in the adenoma, and adenoma residue in invasive carcinomas.
  • The age and the size of the benign adenomas and carcinomas in the adenoma were also compared.
  • RESULTS: Adenoma and adenoma-related lesions were found in 34 out (1.8%) of all resected gallbladder.
  • The diameters of the carcinomas in the adenoma were, on average, larger than that of the benign adenomas (1.8 cm vs. 0.9 cm, p=0.01).
  • The patients with carcinomas in the adenoma were, on average, older than those with benign adenomas, although the difference was insignificant (57 years vs. 47 years, p=0.09).
  • The morphology and consisting epithelium did not differ between the benign adenomas and carcinomas in the adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gallbladder adenoma is a rare disease, although malignant transformation occurs frequently.
  • Adenoma is a precancerous lesion and the adenoma-carcinoma sequence is one of the gallbladder cancer carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Cholecystectomy. Cystadenoma / epidemiology. Cystadenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / surgery. Female. Gallstones / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 20168058.001).
  • [ISSN] 2233-6869
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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8. Oh SJ, Lee SJ, Lee HY, Paik YH, Lee DK, Lee KS, Chung JB, Yu JS, Yoon DS: [Extrapancreatic tumors in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep;54(3):162-6
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  • [Title] [Extrapancreatic tumors in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas has a favorable prognosis, but seems to be associated with a high incidence of extrapancreatic tumors.
  • Five, six, and two extrapancreatic malignancies had been diagnosed before, during, and after the diagnosis of IPMN.
  • Other extrapancreatic tumors included lung cancer (n=2), prostatic cancer (n=1), renal cell carcinoma (n=1), cholangiocellular carcinoma (n=1), urinary bladder cancer (n=1), and gallbladder cancer (n=1), respectively.
  • As benign tumor, there were two gallbladder adenoma, one gastric adenoma, one colonic adenoma and one benign ovarian cystic neoplasm, respectively.
  • Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy should be done, and systemic surveillance for the possible occurrence of other tumors may allow early detection of extrapancreatic tumor in patients with IPMN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Korean J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep;54(3):196-8 [19844158.001]
  • (PMID = 19844152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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9. Hattori M, Inui K, Yoshino J, Miyoshi H, Okushima K, Nakamura Y, Naito T, Imaeda Y, Horibe Y, Hattori T, Nakazawa S: [Usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of polypoid gallbladder lesions]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Jun;104(6):790-8
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of polypoid gallbladder lesions].
  • We investigated the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for differential diagnosis of polypoid gallbladder lesions in 60 patients, consisting of gallbladder carcinoma in 20, adenoma in 2, benign polyp in 29, and adenomyomatosis in 9, comparing contrast enhancement patterns with pathologic findings.
  • In gallbladder carcinoma, the TIC rose from no contrast to early-phase contrast sooner than in other diseases.
  • Ultrasonographic contrast enhancement patterns show characteristic associations with pathologic findings and serve as valuable adjuncts in the diagnosis of gallbladder diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Gallbladder Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Polyps / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomyoma / pathology. Adenomyoma / ultrasonography. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17548945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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10. Akatsu T, Ueda M, Shimazu M, Wakabayashi G, Aiura K, Tanabe M, Kawachi S, Kido H, Kitajima M: Long-term survival of patients with gallbladder cancer detected during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. World J Surg; 2005 Sep;29(9):1106-9, discussion 1110
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  • [Title] Long-term survival of patients with gallbladder cancer detected during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  • Little evidence is available regarding long-term survival of patients with gallbladder cancer that is discovered at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
  • Of 1546 patients who underwent LC for benign gallbladder disease between January 1992 and January 2002, 8 patients (0.5%) had cancers that were found during or after LC.
  • The gallbladder was resected without perforation in all cases.
  • In conclusion, before and during LC, we have not overlooked T2 or more advanced tumor, which requires additional procedures for curative resection.
  • We consider that an intensive preoperative work-up and meticulous inspection of the opened gallbladder should be mandatory to detect gallbladder cancer in patients who undergo LC.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Diseases / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16086210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Reddy SK, Clary BM: Surgical management of gallbladder cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2009 Apr;18(2):307-24, ix
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of gallbladder cancer.
  • This article describes the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic imaging tools, and operative management of gallbladder cancer.
  • The rarity of gallbladder cancer coupled with the prevalence of benign gallbladder disease mean that most patients undergo initial procedures that violate tumor planes, complicating attempts at future oncologic resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19306814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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12. Piekarski JH, Kusinska R, Nejc D, Pluta P, Sek P, Bilski A, Durczynski A, Kubiak R, Pasz-Walczak G, Jeziorski A: Recurrence of cholangiogenous carcinoma in port-sites two years after laparoscopic removal of noncancerous gallbladder. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 May;20(5):474-7

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  • [Title] Recurrence of cholangiogenous carcinoma in port-sites two years after laparoscopic removal of noncancerous gallbladder.
  • We present a unique case of carcinoma diagnosed in port-site, two years after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy for benign cholecystitis.
  • Analysis of morphology and cytokeratin profile (CK19+ and CK20+/-) of resected port-site tumor allows us to establish the diagnosis of tubular carcinoma with probable cholangiogenic origin.
  • The primary carcinoma was not diagnosed in archival gallbladder tissue, despite repeated histological examination.
  • No other primary tumor was identified during follow-up.
  • Patient history and histological/immunohistochemical picture of the recurrent tumor suggested that primary carcinoma was probably located in the gallbladder, but was not detected during initial and repeated histological examinations of postoperative specimen.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Seeding

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  • (PMID = 18403952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Cho JY, Han HS, Yoon YS, Ahn KS, Kim YH, Lee KH: Laparoscopic approach for suspected early-stage gallbladder carcinoma. Arch Surg; 2010 Feb;145(2):128-33
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic approach for suspected early-stage gallbladder carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of the laparoscopic approach for treating suspected early-stage gallbladder carcinoma.
  • From May 10, 2004, to October 9, 2007, the laparoscopic approach was considered for treating 36 patients with suspected gallbladder carcinoma at T2 or less without liver invasion based on the preoperative computed tomographic scan.
  • For the 12 patients who had benign lesions noted on their frozen biopsies, their laparoscopic surgical procedure was completed.
  • The remaining 18 patients who had gallbladder carcinoma underwent additional laparoscopic lymphadenectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic treatment is feasible and safe in selected patients with early-stage gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cohort Studies. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Surg. 2010 Aug;145(8):797-8; author reply 798-9 [20713939.001]
  • [CommentIn] Arch Surg. 2010 Feb;145(2):133 [20183936.001]
  • [CommentIn] Arch Surg. 2010 Aug;145(8):797; author reply 798-9 [20713940.001]
  • (PMID = 20157079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Goetze TO, Paolucci V: Benefits of reoperation of T2 and more advanced incidental gallbladder carcinoma: analysis of the German registry. Ann Surg; 2008 Jan;247(1):104-8
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  • [Title] Benefits of reoperation of T2 and more advanced incidental gallbladder carcinoma: analysis of the German registry.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine which T stages of incidental gallbladder carcinoma (IGBC) actually benefit from an early reresection (ERR).
  • The indication for the cholecystectomy was a benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Registries. Reoperation. Surveys and Questionnaires. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18156929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Jang JY, Kim SW, Lee SE, Hwang DW, Kim EJ, Lee JY, Kim SJ, Ryu JK, Kim YT: Differential diagnostic and staging accuracies of high resolution ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography, and multidetector computed tomography for gallbladder polypoid lesions and gallbladder cancer. Ann Surg; 2009 Dec;250(6):943-9
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  • [Title] Differential diagnostic and staging accuracies of high resolution ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography, and multidetector computed tomography for gallbladder polypoid lesions and gallbladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The authors undertook to investigate the diagnostic performance of high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS), and to compare the differential diagnostic and staging accuracies of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), HRUS, and multidetector computed tomography for gallbladder (GB) polypoid lesions and GB cancer.
  • RESULTS: Of the 144 patients, there were 115 (79.8%) cases of benign GB polypoid lesions and 29 (20.2%) cases of GB cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic accuracies of HRUS and EUS for the differential diagnosis of GB polypoid lesions were comparable.
  • In view of patient comfort and no requirement for sedation, we consider that HRUS is likely to become an important diagnostic modality for the differential diagnosis and staging of GB polypoid lesions and early GB cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography / methods. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Polyps / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cholecystectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg. 2010 Sep;252(3):572; author reply 572-3 [20739865.001]
  • (PMID = 19855259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Crucitti A, La Greca A, Antinori A, Antonacci V, Magistrelli P: Cavernous hemangioma of the gallbladder. Case report and review of the literature. Tumori; 2005 Sep-Oct;91(5):432-5
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  • [Title] Cavernous hemangioma of the gallbladder. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Hemangiomas are common benign tumors; they frequently occur in the liver but very rarely in the gallbladder, with only seven cases reported in the scientific literature to date.
  • We here report an additional patient, a 49-year-old white woman presenting with an echogenic lesion of the gallbladder that was incidentally discovered.
  • Cholecystectomy was performed after computed tomography had revealed a gallbladder neoplasm; pathological examination showed the mass to be a cavernous hemangioma.
  • Hemangiomas of the gallbladder may have extremely variable presentations (from non-specific abdominal pain to acute syndromes resembling cholangitis or choledocholithiasis) and can mimic different lesions (liver tumors, sarcoma).
  • Only surgical exploration can provide a correct diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gallbladder hemangiomas are uncommon benign tumors.
  • A preoperative diagnosis is difficult to make.
  • Surgical excision is mandatory both in reaching a final diagnosis and in preventing bleeding or compression of vital structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms. Hemangioma, Cavernous

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  • (PMID = 16459643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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17. Oshikiri T, Morita T, Fujita M, Miyasaka Y, Senmaru N, Yamada H, Kaji N, Kondo S: Resection of lung metastasis from gallbladder carcinoma: immunohistochemistry of RCAS1 and CD8+T cells in primary and metastatic tumors. Cancer Lett; 2006 Jun 8;237(1):115-22
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  • [Title] Resection of lung metastasis from gallbladder carcinoma: immunohistochemistry of RCAS1 and CD8+T cells in primary and metastatic tumors.
  • Advanced Gallbladder cancer has an extremely poor prognosis.
  • We examined a patient with resectable gallbladder cancer with associated lung metastasis.
  • A 64-year-old female patient, diagnosed with gallbladder cancer and a solitary benign lung tumor by imaging, was subjected to extensive cholecystectomy and extrahepatic bile duct resection.
  • After one year, a follow-up CT indicated enlargement of the lung tumor; video-assisted right middle lobectomy was then performed.
  • The lung tumor was diagnosed as a metastasis derived from the gallbladder cancer by pathology and immunohistochemistry.
  • Expression of RCAS1, an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator in gallbladder cancer, was observed in both the gallbladder and lung tumors.
  • However, infiltration of CD8+T cells was only seen in the lung metastatic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16039043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / EBAG9 protein, human
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18. Tan Y, Meng HP, Wu Q, Wang FQ, Wu HR: [Proteomic study of gallbladder cancer, with special reference on the expression and significance of annexin A3]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Jun;39(6):382-6
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  • [Title] [Proteomic study of gallbladder cancer, with special reference on the expression and significance of annexin A3].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential molecular targets for diagnosis and treatment of gallbladder cancer by analyzing and comparing the proteomes expressed in human gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder tissues.
  • AnnexinA3 expression was examined by streptavidin peroxidase immunohistochemical technique on paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 50 patients of gallbladder cancer and 38 cases of chronic eholecystitis.
  • There were forty six differentially expressed proteins in the tissue samples of gallbladder cancer.
  • The positive expression rates of annexinA3 in gallbladder cancer was significantly higher than that in chronic cholecystitis, and the difference was statistically significant (74.0% vs 21.1%, P < 0.01).
  • In the gallbladder cancer, no correlation was obtained between annexinA3 and age, gender or histologicl type (P > 0.05), but overexpression of annexinA3 correlated significantly with those cases with a lower histological grading (40.0% vs 82.5%, P < 0.05); lymph node or distant metastasis (40.9% vs 100%, P < 0.05); or a shorter survival time after operation (50.0% vs 93.8%, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Significant discrepancies in protein expression exist among gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder tissues.
  • AnnexinA3 plays an important role in the initiation and progression of human gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Annexin A3 / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Cholecystitis / metabolism. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proteome / metabolism. Proteomics. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 21055154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteome; EC 3.1.4.43 / Annexin A3
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19. Rodríguez-Fernández A, Gómez-Río M, Medina-Benítez A, Moral JV, Ramos-Font C, Ramia-Angel JM, Llamas-Elvira JM, Ferrón-Orihuela JA, Lardelli-Claret P: Application of modern imaging methods in diagnosis of gallbladder cancer. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Jun 15;93(8):650-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of modern imaging methods in diagnosis of gallbladder cancer.
  • The poor prognosis of gallbladder cancer (GBC) is related to its dissemination capacity and usually late diagnosis due to its non-specific clinical appearance.
  • Recent improvements in hepatobiliary surgery have underlined the importance of an early specific diagnosis, which requires a multidisciplinary approach and, when possible, specialized equipment.
  • The first step in an early diagnosis is to identify patients in the appropriate epidemiological setting (e.g., incidental finding, chronic cholecystitis) for the correct interpretation of test results.
  • When GBC is suggested by US findings, FDG-PET can be considered complementary to establish the benign/malignant nature of the lesion and to obtain a primary staging study.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder / ultrasonography. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, Spiral Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholecystectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Early Diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Polyps / ultrasonography. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16724342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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20. Zielinski MD, Atwell TD, Davis PW, Kendrick ML, Que FG: Comparison of surgically resected polypoid lesions of the gallbladder to their pre-operative ultrasound characteristics. J Gastrointest Surg; 2009 Jan;13(1):19-25
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  • [Title] Comparison of surgically resected polypoid lesions of the gallbladder to their pre-operative ultrasound characteristics.
  • BACKGROUND: Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLG) have been a common finding on ultrasound examinations of the abdomen and are more prevalent since our use of equipment incorporating pulse shaping increased bandwidth, and enhanced phase use for image reconstruction began in 1996.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 130 patients who had a pre-operative ultrasound of the gallbladder and subsequently underwent cholecystectomy between August 1996 and July 2007 at the Mayo Clinic Rochester.
  • CONCLUSION: Histopathologic analysis of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder continues to be the gold standard to identify malignancy.
  • Ultrasound has been used extensively in the pre-operative management of these lesions, but modern ultrasound techniques are unable to differentiate between benign and malignant PLGs with any certainty.
  • We recommend that strong consideration be given to surgical resection of PLGs > or = 6 mm based on pre-operative US due to the significant risk of neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Polyps / diagnostic imaging. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18972168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Wachter DL, Büttner MJ, Grimm K, Hartmann A, Agaimy A: Leiomyoma of the gallbladder: a case report with review of the literature and discussion of the differential diagnosis. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Feb;63(2):177-9
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  • [Title] Leiomyoma of the gallbladder: a case report with review of the literature and discussion of the differential diagnosis.
  • Mesenchymal neoplasms of the gallbladder are rare, and most represent sarcomas of various histological types.
  • To our knowledge, only a few patients with multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumours of the gallbladder in the setting of immunodeficiency have been reported in the English literature, but no single case of conventional leiomyoma has been well documented to date.
  • A case of gallbladder leiomyoma in a healthy 34-year-old woman is described here.
  • The tumour was found incidentally on a routine ultrasound examination and was removed by simple cholecystectomy.
  • Histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is very similar to conventional uterine leiomyoma.
  • The tumour was negative for both EBV-encoded nuclear RNAs and EBV latent membrane antigen.
  • Leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell tumours of the gallbladder and must be distinguished from leiomyosarcoma and the rare gastrointestinal stromal tumour-like neoplasms reported recently at this unusual anatomical site.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20154041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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22. Bertran E, Heise K, Andia ME, Ferreccio C: Gallbladder cancer: incidence and survival in a high-risk area of Chile. Int J Cancer; 2010 Nov 15;127(10):2446-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gallbladder cancer: incidence and survival in a high-risk area of Chile.
  • We assessed population incidence rates 1998-2002 and 5-year survival rates of 317 primary gallbladder cancer (GBC) entered in the population-based cancer registry in Valdivia.
  • Main symptoms were abdominal pain (82.8%), jaundice (53.6%) nausea (42.6%), and weight loss (38.2%); at diagnosis, 64% had Stage TNM IV.
  • In the period, 4% of histopathological studies from presumptively benign cholecystectomies presented GBC.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chile / epidemiology. Educational Status. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Registries

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  • (PMID = 20473911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Goetze TO, Paolucci V: Immediate re-resection of T1 incidental gallbladder carcinomas: a survival analysis of the German Registry. Surg Endosc; 2008 Nov;22(11):2462-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immediate re-resection of T1 incidental gallbladder carcinomas: a survival analysis of the German Registry.
  • BACKGROUND: Incidental gallbladder carcinoma (IGBC) is a carcinoma first detected by the pathologist.
  • The indication for cholecystectomy is a benign disease.
  • The indication for immediate re-resection (IRR) in the case of T1b incidental gallbladder carcinoma (IGBC) is debated in the literature, and different recommendations often are drawn on the basis of data collected from only small groups.
  • The rate of tumor recurrence was three times lower in the T1b group that underwent IRR.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Registries. Surveys and Questionnaires. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Surg Endosc. 2009 Jul;23(7):1680 [19360366.001]
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  • (PMID = 18247090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Kumar Y, Chahal A, Garg M, Bhutani A: Occult gallbladder carcinoma presenting as a primary ovarian tumor in two women: two case reports and a review of the literature. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:202

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Occult gallbladder carcinoma presenting as a primary ovarian tumor in two women: two case reports and a review of the literature.
  • However, little is known about gallbladder carcinoma metastasizing to the ovaries and presenting as a primary ovarian tumor.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report two cases of a metastatic gallbladder carcinoma which mimicked a primary ovarian tumor in a 35-year-old and a 62-year-old North Indian woman.
  • Clinically, both our patients presented with abdominal masses without obvious signs and symptoms related to gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Radiology suggested the possibility of a primary ovarian tumor with chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis.
  • The gross features also mimicked a primary malignant ovarian tumor in the first case and a benign mucinous neoplasm in the second case.
  • Exact diagnoses could only be made after thorough sampling from both the ovaries and gallbladder.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gallbladder carcinoma with metastasis to the ovaries can mimic both malignant and benign primary ovarian tumors.
  • Extensive cystic change in the ovary due to metastasis from gallbladder carcinoma has rarely been reported.

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  • (PMID = 20591172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2908110
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25. Chaube A, Tewari M, Singh U, Shukla HS: CA 125: a potential tumor marker for gallbladder cancer. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Jun 15;93(8):665-9
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  • [Title] CA 125: a potential tumor marker for gallbladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: CA 125 is a glycoprotein and a commonly used tumor marker in ovarian carcinoma.
  • Its use in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) has not yet been reported.
  • We have henceforth examined for the first time the diagnostic utility of CA 125 in patients with gallbladder diseases.
  • CA 125 at cut off value of 11 U/ml yielded 64% sensitivity and 90% specificity in differentiating benign from malignant gallbladder disease.
  • A higher level of CA 125 was found in presence of gallbladder mass, weight loss, ascites and loss of appetite compared to patients with GSD.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Ascites / diagnosis. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gallstones / diagnosis. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16724349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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26. Bloomston M, Kneile J, Butterfield M, Dillhoff M, Muscarella P, Ellison EC, Melvin WS, Croce CM, Pichiorri F, Huebner K, Frankel WL: Coordinate loss of fragile gene expression in pancreatobiliary cancers: correlations among markers and clinical features. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Aug;16(8):2331-8
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  • Wwox has been understudied in pancreatobiliary cancers, especially in relation to other involved tumor suppressors.
  • We have assessed the status of the Fhit and Wwox proteins encoded by DNA damage susceptible chromosome fragile sites encompassed by FHIT and WWOX tumor suppressor genes.
  • METHODS: Pancreatic, gallbladder and ampullary cancers, normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, and benign gallbladder specimens were stained for expression of Fhit, Fhit effector protein Fdxr, Wwox, and other tumor suppressors by immunohistochemistry, and comparisons were made between benign and malignant tissue.
  • RESULTS: Fhit and Wwox were ubiquitously expressed in benign samples and significantly and coordinately reduced in pancreatic, gallbladder, and ampullary cancers.
  • Neither Fhit nor Wwox expression correlated with expression of other tumor suppressors or with clinicopathologic characteristics measured.
  • CONCLUSION: Loss of Fhit and Wwox expression does not predict tumor progression or patient survival, suggesting that loss of expression of genes at the exquisitely replication stress sensitive chromosome fragile regions is an early event in the pathogenesis of cancers of the gallbladder, pancreas, and ampulla.

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  • (PMID = 19434452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115965; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115965-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133250-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA132453-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132453; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA133250-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA133250; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132453-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115965-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133250; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115965; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA132453
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.1.1.- / WWOX protein, human; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS128319; NLM/ PMC2719793
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27. Kefeli M, Gonullu G, Can B, Malatyalioglu E, Kandemir B: Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):343-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • SUMMARY: Polyps are the most common benign lesions in the endometrium.
  • Metastasis to the endometrial polyp from a distant primary tumor is rare.
  • After this diagnosis, bone metastases were detected during radiologic screening.
  • Gastrointestinal tumor metastasis to an endometrial polyp is a very rare event, but if a patient with a known primary extragenital tumor has abnormal vaginal bleeding, the possibility of metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19483630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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28. Hansen N, Brown RK, Khan A, Frey KA, Orringer M: False positive diagnosis of metastatic esophageal carcinoma on positron emission tomography: a case report of cholecystitis simulating a hepatic lesion. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Jun;35(6):409-12
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  • [Title] False positive diagnosis of metastatic esophageal carcinoma on positron emission tomography: a case report of cholecystitis simulating a hepatic lesion.
  • Subsequent reinterpretation and additional imaging including magnetic resonance imaging suggested that the uptake in the liver was likely due to adjacent gallbladder inflammation.
  • Final pathology of the gallbladder revealed perforated cholecystitis and a pericholecystic abscess (related to a prior septic episode), which were responsible for the increased radiotracer uptake.
  • This case is presented to illustrate the importance of considering benign etiologies that may mimic metastatic disease when interpreting PET/CT scans.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystitis / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20479586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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29. Da Ines D, Petitcolin V, Lannareix V, Montoriol P, Joubert Zakeyh J, Boyer L, Garcier J: [Liver capsule retraction adjacent to a circumscribed liver lesion: review of 26 cases with histological confirmation]. J Radiol; 2009 Sep;90(9 Pt 1):1067-74
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  • [Transliterated title] Rétraction capsulaire hépatique en regard d'une lésion circonscrite: à propos de 26 patients avec preuve histologique.
  • PURPOSE: To review the histological features of 26 circumscribed liver lesions associated with liver capsule retraction and discuss the differential diagnosis while evaluating for the presence of fibrous stromal reaction.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-one patients had benign or malignant liver tumors and 5 patients had confluent hepatic fibrosis.
  • Twenty of 21 liver tumors were malignant (95.2%): 3 intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 17 cases of metastatic disease including colorectal carcinoma (n=8), bronchogenic carcinoma (n=1), pancreatic carcinoma (n=4), esophageal carcinoma (n=1), breast carcinoma (n=1), gallbladder carcinoma (1) and endocrine neoplasm of the pancreas (n=1), and 1 case of liver sclerosing angioma (n=1).
  • In keeping with previous reports, metastases were frequently the cause and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was the most frequent primary tumor.

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  • [CommentIn] J Radiol. 2009 Sep;90(9 Pt 1):1019-20 [19752803.001]
  • (PMID = 19752810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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30. Wang YJ, Li F, Cao F, Sun JB, Liu JF, Wang YH: Littoral cell angioma of the spleen. Asian J Surg; 2009 Jul;32(3):167-71
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  • Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary benign vascular neoplasm of the spleen.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) imaging studies showed multiple lesions in the spleen and gallbladder stones.
  • The tumour was removed successfully by laparoscopic splenectomy and simultaneously cholecystectomy was conducted for gallbladder stones.
  • The tumour lining cells were positive for CD31/CD68 markers, and negative for CD34.
  • This is the first report of a LCA combined with gallbladder stones.

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  • (PMID = 19656757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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31. Jarnagin WR, Klimstra DS, Hezel M, Gonen M, Fong Y, Roggin K, Cymes K, DeMatteo RP, D'Angelica M, Blumgart LH, Singh B: Differential cell cycle-regulatory protein expression in biliary tract adenocarcinoma: correlation with anatomic site, pathologic variables, and clinical outcome. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Mar 1;24(7):1152-60
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  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays were prepared from paraffin-embedded surgical specimens with triplicate cores of BTA and benign tissue.
  • Tumor sites of origin were intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IH; n = 23), hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Hilar; n = 54), gallbladder (GB; n = 32), and distal bile duct (Distal; n = 19).
  • CONCLUSION: BTAs differentially express cell cycle-regulatory proteins based on tumor location and morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cyclin D1 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / analysis. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16505435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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32. Kawamoto S, Siegelman SS, Hruban RH, Fishman EK: Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (autoimmune pancreatitis): evaluation with multidetector CT. Radiographics; 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1):157-70
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  • It is a cause of benign pancreatic disease that can clinically mimic pancreatic cancer.
  • Patients with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis are often referred for computed tomography (CT) when they are suspected of having a pancreatic or biliary neoplasm; therefore, it is important to search for potential findings suggestive of lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis when typical findings of a pancreatic or biliary neoplasm are not found.
  • Thickening and contrast enhancement of the wall of the common bile duct and gallbladder may reflect inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis associated with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis. Pancreatitis / diagnosis. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18203936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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33. Ahmad Z, Qureshi A: Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of gall bladder: report of an extremely rare histological type of primary gall bladder carcinoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • The primary aim of this case report is to describe the histopathological aspects of this tumour.
  • It is also necessary to exclude benign signet ring change, which sometimes occurs in the gall bladder.
  • It is also necessary to exclude benign signet ring cell change, which sometimes occurs in the gall bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Cholelithiasis / diagnosis. Cholelithiasis / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Cholecystectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pakistan. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 22778190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3028283
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34. Katayama M, Funakoshi A, Sumii T, Sanzen N, Sekiguchi K: Laminin gamma2-chain fragment circulating level increases in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal cell adenocarcinomas. Cancer Lett; 2005 Jul 8;225(1):167-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The G2F levels in patients with benign pancreatic tumours (pancreatic cysts and intraductal papillary mucinous tumours) were similar to that in healthy volunteers.
  • Interestingly, a significant increase in circulating G2F/G1F ratio was observed in patients with bile duct and gallbladder carcinoma, as well as in those with metastatic pancreatic ductal cell adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / genetics. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / blood. Laminin / blood. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / genetics. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15922869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / LAMC2 protein, human; 0 / Laminin; 0 / kalinin
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35. Yang LP, Yang ZL, Huang JS, Fu X: [Expression of cancer stem cell antigens, prostate stem cell antigen and Oct-4, and its clinicopatholgical significances in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jan;37(1):56-7
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  • [Title] [Expression of cancer stem cell antigens, prostate stem cell antigen and Oct-4, and its clinicopatholgical significances in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder].
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / immunology. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens / immunology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18509987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3
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