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6. Shimanovich I, Krahl D, Rose C: Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Feb;62(2):277-83
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  • [Title] Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoadenoma is a rare benign follicular tumor first described by Nikolowski 50 years ago.
  • In trichoadenoma the cystic component predominates, while desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a mostly solid neoplasm.
  • Trichoadenoma is a distinct follicular tumor related but not identical to desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Male. Merkel Cells / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20115950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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7. Fukushima M, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Akasu H, Shimizu K, Miyauchi A: Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule. World J Surg; 2009 May;33(5):963-8
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  • [Title] Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule.
  • However, in our experience, some MTC may be diagnosed as a follicular tumor or a benign nodule on ultrasonography because ultrasonographic findings of malignancy are lacking.
  • Of these patients, 54 were diagnosed as having thyroid carcinoma (malignant, or M-type) but the remaining 23 were diagnosed as having follicular tumor or benign nodule (benign, or B-type) on ultrasonography.
  • RESULTS: Clinically apparent lateral node metastasis, extrathyroid extension, and extranodal tumor extension were observed in 37%, 17%, and 11% of M-type patients, respectively, but none of the B-type patients showed any of these features.
  • Lymph node metastasis was pathologically confirmed in 38 and 65% of B-type and M-type patients, respectively.
  • However, thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection for B-type MTC should be the same as for M-type MTC because 38% of B-type MTC showed pathologic node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19198929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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8. Bornstein MM, Filippi A, Altermatt HJ, Lambrecht JT, Buser D: [The odontogenic keratocyst--odontogenic cyst or benign tumor?]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed; 2005;115(2):110-28
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  • [Title] [The odontogenic keratocyst--odontogenic cyst or benign tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Die odontogene Keratozyste--odontogene Zyste oder benigner Tumor?
  • The odontogenic keratocyst is the third most common cyst of the jaws, after the follicular and radicular cyst.
  • This led to the tentative suggestion that the keratocyst might be a benign cystic neoplasm rather than simply an odontogenic cyst.

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  • (PMID = 15771334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-2855
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Monatsschrift fur Zahnmedizin = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie = Rivista mensile svizzera di odontologia e stomatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed
  • [Language] FRE; GER
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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9. Battistella M, Peltre B, Cribier B: Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1057-63
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  • [Title] Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoblastomas (TBs) are benign follicular tumors that can present either as solitary nodule or as multiple facial papules.
  • Only one case of sporadic TB in a composite tumor has been reported, arising in an apocrine poroma.
  • We report the association of TB and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in six patients.
  • The lesions associated with TB were inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) in three cases, seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) in two cases and IFK with verruca vulgaris pattern in one case.
  • It was often positive in the associated neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: TB can be associated with benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in composite tumors.
  • The association of TB and IFK with direct connection between the lesions is another argument in favor of the follicular origin of IFK.
  • Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Hair Diseases. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19615018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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10. Bayod MJ, Carlón ME, Idoate MA: [Pseudomeigs syndrome in a patient with Krukenberg's tumor]. Rev Med Univ Navarra; 2007 Jul-Sep;51(3):19-22
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  • [Title] [Pseudomeigs syndrome in a patient with Krukenberg's tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de Pseudomeigs en paciente con tumor de Krukenberg.
  • The anatomopathological analysis showed bilateral ovarian implants from signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (Krukenberg tumor).
  • This patient developed a PseudoMeigs syndrome consisting on malignant ovarian tumor asociated with ascitis and pleural effusion without malignant cells.
  • Oncological patients who present with ascitis and benign pleural effusion, the diagnosis of PseudoMeigs syndrome should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Meigs Syndrome / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Ascites / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphoma, Follicular. Middle Aged. Pleural Effusion / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18183782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0556-6177
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de medicina de la Universidad de Navarra
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Univ Navarra
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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11. Fryknäs M, Wickenberg-Bolin U, Göransson H, Gustafsson MG, Foukakis T, Lee JJ, Landegren U, Höög A, Larsson C, Grimelius L, Wallin G, Pettersson U, Isaksson A: Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(4):211-20
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  • [Title] Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular markers useful for the diagnostic discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A robust algorithm for gene selection was developed to identify molecular markers useful for the classification of heterogeneous tumor classes.
  • The study included tumor tissue specimens from 10 patients with benign follicular adenomas and from 10 with malignant tumors.
  • The malignant tumors mainly consisted of clinically relevant minimally invasive follicular carcinomas.
  • The results indicate that a small number of genes can be useful to distinguish follicular adenomas from follicular carcinomas.
  • These genes have the potential for molecular classification of follicular thyroid tumors and for providing improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. DNA Primers. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16675914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Genetic Markers
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12. Freitas BC, Cerutti JM: Genetic markers differentiating follicular thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 May 28;321(1):77-85
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  • [Title] Genetic markers differentiating follicular thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions.
  • The main problem established by a discovery of a thyroid nodule is to discriminate between a benign and malignant lesion.
  • While the overall accuracy of FNA for classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) approaches 100%, it has limited accuracy with follicular lesions.
  • Patients with a cytological report of indeterminate or follicular lesions are referred to surgery for a more accurate diagnosis.
  • Several studies have looked into biologic markers that could be used as an adjuvant to distinguish the benign from malignant nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19932149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Number-of-references] 140
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13. Hamsch C, Hartschuh W: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Apr;8(4):275-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance.
  • Histologic characteristics are follicular and glandular differentiation, as well as bland cytologic features.
  • The benign histologic appearance, particularly in the upper level of the tumor, can be confused with syringoma or benign follicular neoplasm.
  • We report two patients with microcystic adnexal carcinoma, using them as a basis to discuss, pathogenesis, diagnosis, histology and therapy of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19788582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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4. Weyers W, Hörster S, Diaz-Cascajo C: Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):634-41
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  • [Title] Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor of follicular infundibulum (TFI) is currently thought to be a benign epithelial neoplasm with follicular differentiation.
  • We reexamined 24 cases of TFI and noted, often only focally, many changes typical of BCC, including palisading of cells at the periphery of aggregations, germinative cells, follicular germs in the absence of a follicular papilla, crowding of cells, individual necrotic neoplastic cells, fibromucinous stroma, and clefts between aggregations of neoplastic cells and stroma.

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  • (PMID = 19652582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Rongioletti F, De Lucchi S, Meyes D, Mora M, Rebora A, Zupo S, Cerruti G, Patterson JW: Follicular mucinosis: a clinicopathologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular study comparing the primary benign form and the mycosis fungoides-associated follicular mucinosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jan;37(1):15-9
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  • [Title] Follicular mucinosis: a clinicopathologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular study comparing the primary benign form and the mycosis fungoides-associated follicular mucinosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) whether primary (idiopathic) follicular mucinosis (PFM) and lymphoma-associated follicular mucinosis (LAFM) are distinct or related entities and whether there are reliable criteria that allow the two forms to be distinguished, (ii) the histochemical properties and consequently the type of mucin that accumulates in the follicle in PFM and LAFM, and (iii) whether there is any difference between the staining properties of mucin in patients with PFM and LAFM.
  • No differences were found in the composition of the follicular mucin in the PFM compared with LAFM.
  • [MeSH-major] Mucinosis, Follicular / pathology. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Mucins / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19615011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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16. Paramo JC, Mesko T: Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):447-51
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  • [Title] Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical predictors of malignancy in patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 71 patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm who underwent thyroidectomy between January 1992 and December 2000.
  • Age, sex, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography characteristics of the lesions were assessed.
  • These clinical factors were compared between cases that had benign definitive pathologic findings and those that were found to be carcinomas on permanent sections.
  • RESULTS: Nine (13%) of the 71 follicular neoplasms were found to be carcinomas after definitive pathologic evaluation.
  • When the in-office ultrasonography findings were interpreted as benign, only 7% (3/46) of cases were malignant compared with 40% (4/10) when the ultrasonography findings were suspicious (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age and tumor size are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • Total thyroidectomy is reasonable in patients with follicular neoplasm on frozen section if they are young (<45 years old), with large (>4 cm) tumors or if there are suspicious findings on in-office ultrasonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18558598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Weber F, Aldred MA, Morrison CD, Plass C, Frilling A, Broelsch CE, Waite KA, Eng C: Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):1149-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The two most common subtypes of thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma, have been extensively studied, but our fundamental understanding of the molecular events in thyroid epithelial oncogenesis is still limited.
  • Unreported data from our previous published global gene expression analysis revealed that the tumor suppressor gene aplysia ras homolog I (ARHI) is frequently underexpressed in FTCs.
  • In this study, we elucidated the frequency and mechanism of ARHI silencing in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia.
  • We demonstrated that underexpression of ARHI occurs principally in FTCs (P = 0.0018), including its oncocytic variant (11 of 13), even at minimally invasive stage but not classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (two of seven) or follicular adenoma (FA) (three of 14).
  • Therefore, our data suggest that silencing of the putative maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene ARHI, primarily by large genomic deletion in conjunction with hypermethylation of the genomically imprinted allele, serves as a key early event in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genomic Imprinting / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15546898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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18. Kołomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepień H, Cywiński J, Cielecka J, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors].
  • The aim of study was evaluation of p53 and sFasL blood concentration in patients with benign follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was composed of 28 patients: 14 with thyroid carcinoma and 14 patients with follicular neoplasm (NF).
  • RESULTS: The analysis revealed high sFasL blood concentration in patients with follicular thyroid cancer in comparison with the group with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of sFasL serum level concentration may be useful in preoperative diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fas Ligand Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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19. Besic N, Sesek M, Peric B, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Sep;14(9):CR459-67
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with follicular neoplasm.
  • The specific aim was to discover whether preoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration in patients with thyroid neoplasm can differentiate between those with thyroid carcinoma and those with benign disease.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: A total of 327 patients (263 females, 64 males, median age: 51.5 years) with follicular neoplasm in whom carcinoma was only suspected and who were surgically treated at the authors' institute in 1988-2004 were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: The histopathological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter, and adenoma in 119 (36%), 104 (32%), and 104 (32%) patients, respectively.
  • The independent predictors of malignancy as shown by multivariate logistic regression were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • Thyroid carcinoma was more common in the patients with follicular neoplasm and serum Tg concentration over 300 ng/ml than in those with lower Tg concentrations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of malignancy were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18758416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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20. Socolovsky M, Spaho N, Cueto DG, Doglietto F, Fernandez E: Reactive lymphoid follicular hyperplasia mimicking a peripheral nerve tumor. Surg Neurol; 2008 Nov;70(5):514-7

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  • [Title] Reactive lymphoid follicular hyperplasia mimicking a peripheral nerve tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Reactive lymphoid follicular hyperplasia is a benign proliferation of lymphoid follicles, which can develop wherever lymphoid tissue is present.
  • We present the unique case of an RLFH that involved the radial nerve and presented as a peripheral nerve tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance findings revealed a contrast-enhancing, spindle-shaped tumor, suggestive of a schwannoma or neurofibroma, along the course of the radial nerve.
  • The intraoperative appearance was that of an infiltrating tissue around a lateral branch of the nerve, which could be resected en bloc.
  • Pathologic examination documented hyperplastic lymphoid tissue surrounding the nerve, and immunostaining confirmed the diagnosis of benign reactive follicular hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first description of RLFH affecting a peripheral nerve and mimicking a neoplasm.
  • This rare and benign condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18261777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Savin S, Cvejic D, Isic T, Paunovic I, Tatic S, Havelka M: The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Exp Oncol; 2006 Mar;28(1):70-4
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  • [Title] The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • We have evaluated immunohistochemical assay of TPO for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sections of formalin-fixed tissues obtained from 92 patients with thyroid tumors (52 follicular carcinomas and 40 follicular adenomas including the Hurthle cell type) were analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (TPO mAb 47) and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique.
  • Lesions with staining of more than 80% of the follicular cells/specimen were considered benign, while less than 80% were considered malignant.
  • RESULTS: TPO immunostaining correlated with the histopathological diagnosis in 24/40 cases of follicular adenomas and 41/52 cases of follicular carcinomas, giving a specificity of 60% and a sensitivity of 79%.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that immunohistochemical assay of TPO expression has limited value for the differential diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma from thyroid follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16614712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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22. Belge G, Meyer A, Klemke M, Burchardt K, Stern C, Wosniok W, Loeschke S, Bullerdiek J: Upregulation of HMGA2 in thyroid carcinomas: a novel molecular marker to distinguish between benign and malignant follicular neoplasias. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2008 Jan;47(1):56-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Upregulation of HMGA2 in thyroid carcinomas: a novel molecular marker to distinguish between benign and malignant follicular neoplasias.
  • The identification of molecular markers allowing to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid tumors remains a diagnostic challenge.
  • RNA from 64 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues including normal tissue (n = 3), thyroiditis (n = 2), and follicular adenomas (n = 19) as well as follicular (n = 9), papillary (n = 28), and anaplastic (n = 3) carcinomas was reverse transcribed.
  • Expression differences of up to 400-fold were detected between benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Based on HMGA2 expression alone, it was possible to distinguish between benign and malignant thyroid tissues with a sensitivity of 95.9% and a specificity of 93.9%.
  • There was a highly significant (P < 0.001) difference with histology of the tumors being the gold standard between the benign lesions and malignant tumors.
  • Our results show that even as a stand-alone marker HMGA2 expression has a high potential to improve diagnoses of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Up-Regulation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17943974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / HMGA2 Protein
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23. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • [Title] [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].
  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • Follicular adenoma is well-circumscribed, with no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland.
  • The hyperplasia is followed by involution of the follicles leading to large follicles of varying size.

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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24. Hunt JL, Yim JH, Carty SE: Fractional allelic loss of tumor suppressor genes identifies malignancy and predicts clinical outcome in follicular thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2006 Jul;16(7):643-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fractional allelic loss of tumor suppressor genes identifies malignancy and predicts clinical outcome in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • Thyroid follicular tumors can be challenging diagnostically and clinically, because the cytologic and histologic features can be subtle and prognosis is also difficult to predict.
  • In this study, we analyzed thyroid follicular tumors with known long-term follow-up for a molecular panel of tumor suppressor genes to determine whether this molecular approach has prognostic significance.
  • Microdissection and DNA extraction were performed from tumor and normal tissue.
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for 13 short tandem repeats at or near tumor suppressor genes.
  • The mean FAL for benign tumors (14%) was significantly different from that of malignant tumors (56%, p < 0.001).
  • Patients with a follicular tumor who had no evidence of disease recurrence had a mean FAL of 22% and those with disease recurrence or death from disease had a mean of 78% (p < 0.002).
  • Based on these results, a tumor suppressor gene panel for allelic imbalance in follicular-derived tumors (FTT) may correlate with both malignancy and outcome in patients with follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / therapy. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / therapy. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16889487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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25. Barroeta JE, Baloch ZW, Lal P, Pasha TL, Zhang PJ, LiVolsi VA: Diagnostic value of differential expression of CK19, Galectin-3, HBME-1, ERK, RET, and p16 in benign and malignant follicular-derived lesions of the thyroid: an immunohistochemical tissue microarray analysis. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):225-34
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of differential expression of CK19, Galectin-3, HBME-1, ERK, RET, and p16 in benign and malignant follicular-derived lesions of the thyroid: an immunohistochemical tissue microarray analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Several immunohistochemical markers have been used to aid in the diagnosis of follicular-derived lesions of the thyroid (FDLT).
  • In this study we analyze the diagnostic efficacy of an immunopanel of antibodies to cytokeratin-19 (CK19), galectin-3 (GAL-3), HBME-1, anti-MAP kinase (ERK), ret-oncoprotein (RET), and p16 using a tissue microarray consisting of both benign and malignant FDLT.
  • DESIGN: The study cohort consisted of 90 cases of FDLT (53 benign, 37 malignant) embedded in a microarray and immunostained with antibodies to CK19, Gal-3, HMBE-1, ERK, RET, and p16.
  • RESULTS: HMBE-1 was expressed in 70% of malignant and 10% of benign FDLT (p value: <0.0001).
  • CK19 and GAL-3 were positive in 70% and 73% of malignant lesions, respectively, and 34% of benign FDLT (p value 0.0005 and 0.0015, respectively).
  • ERK was positive in 4% of the benign and 32% of the malignant cases (p value 0.0002).
  • p16 was expressed in 2% and 46% of the benign and malignant lesions, respectively (p value 0.0001).
  • RET positivity was identified in 15% of the benign lesions and 27% of the malignant cases (p value 0.0016).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HBME-1, ERK, and p16 were more specific for malignancy, whereas CK19 and GAL-3 stained benign lesions with a higher frequency and were not specific for malignant FDLT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17308359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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26. Ramos-Ceballos FI, Pashaei S, Kincannon JM, Morgan MB, Smoller BR: Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 May;35(5):477-83
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  • [Title] Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation.
  • Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome (GBFHS) is a rare, recently-described, autosomal-dominantly inherited disorder that presents with disseminated milia, palmoplantar pitting, hypotrichosis and basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFH).
  • BFH is a benign adnexal tumor that resembles basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • In this study, we report two cases of GBFHS and stain BFH, a vellus hair hamartoma (VHH) and a neurofollicular hamartoma (NH) with CD34, bcl-2 and CD10 to characterize and compare the staining patterns of these follicular tumors.
  • These results show the similarities in differentiation between these benign follicular neoplasms and trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Epidermal Cyst / metabolism. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Female. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 May;36(5):603; author reply 604 [19476535.001]
  • (PMID = 18399809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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27. Granados-García M, Cortés-Flores AO, del Carmen González-Ramírez I, Cano-Valdez AM, Flores-Hernández L, Aguilar-Ponce JL: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation. Cir Cir; 2010 Nov-Dec;78(6):473-8
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is useful for initial evaluation; nevertheless, malignancy is uncertain when follicular neoplasm is reported.
  • Therefore, we analyzed our follicular neoplasms in order to identify those factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the clinical files of consecutive patients with cytological diagnoses of follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology.
  • Definitive report showed 45 benign (60%) and 30 malignant (40%) cases.
  • Benign cases included 29 goiters, 11 follicular adenomas, and 5 cases of thyroiditis.
  • Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Tumor size of benign lesions was 3.43 ± 2.04 cm, and 4.67 ± 2.78 (p = 0.049) for malignant lesions.
  • Age was 46.95 ± 15.39 years for benign lesions and 48.67 ± 17.28 for malignant lesions (p = 0.66).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21214982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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28. Ferreira RC, Ward LS, Adam RL, Leite NJ, Metze K, Matos PS: [Contribution of nuclear texture analysis for the differential diagnosis of follicular lesions of the thyroid: comparison to immunohistochemical markers]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2009 Oct;53(7):804-10
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  • [Title] [Contribution of nuclear texture analysis for the differential diagnosis of follicular lesions of the thyroid: comparison to immunohistochemical markers].
  • [Transliterated title] Contribuição da análise de textura do núcleo celular para o diagnóstico diferencial de lesões foliculares da tireoide: comparação com marcadores imunoistoquímicos.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To investigate the utility of nuclear chromatin texture assessment in the differential diagnosis of follicular patterned lesions, by means of examining 76 samples previously submitted to the immunohistochemical protein analysis of HBME-1, CK-19 and galectina-3.
  • A series of morphometric, densitometric and texture variables were useful in the discrimination of the different types of follicular lesions.
  • Among these variables, r(2), a parameter related to the granularity of the nucleus presented the best accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values, distinguishing benign from malignant lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: The morphometric analysis of nuclear chromatin images may add accuracy to the differential diagnosis of follicular patterned lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Chromatin / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2009 Oct;53(7):793-4 [19942979.001]
  • (PMID = 19942981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19
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29. Sata N, Kurogochi A, Endo K, Shimura K, Koizumi M, Nagai H: Follicular lymphoma of the pancreas: a case report and proposed new strategies for diagnosis and surgery of benign or low-grade malignant lesions of the head of the pancreas. JOP; 2007;8(1):44-9
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  • [Title] Follicular lymphoma of the pancreas: a case report and proposed new strategies for diagnosis and surgery of benign or low-grade malignant lesions of the head of the pancreas.
  • The present report describes a case of follicular lymphoma of the pancreas with unique CT and MRI findings.
  • CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old male complained of sudden abdominal pain, and routine ultrasonography detected an 8 cm hypoechoic tumor in the head of the pancreas.
  • The tumor was enucleated for diagnosis.
  • Follicular lymphoma is quite rare in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Enucleation is indicated for benign and low-grade malignant tumors of the pancreas, even if the tumor is located in the head of the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17228133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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30. Costanzo M, Caruso LA, Messina DC, Cavallaro A, Palumbo A, Marziani A, Cannizzaro MA: [Thyroid microcarcinoma in benign thyroid diseases]. Ann Ital Chir; 2005 Mar-Apr;76(2):119-21; discussion 121-2
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  • [Title] [Thyroid microcarcinoma in benign thyroid diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Il microcarcinoma tiroideo nelle tireopatie benigne.
  • INTRODUCTION: Thyroid microcarcinoma is a malignant thyroid tumor with potential multifocality and a maximum of 1 cm of diameter.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: To appraise the incidence of MCT in the benign thyroid diseases and the advantages offered from the total thyroidectomy, performed for benign diffused thyroid diseases, which surgical treatment "therapeutic" performed for these malignant tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 600 patients operated with total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid disease, admitted from 1999 to 2003.
  • Therefore his discovery, almost always accidental on a thyroid removed for other pathology, it has signaled by histologic study CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid microcarcinoma is a slow growing tumor, with a good prognosis and with a good disease-free survival.
  • Therefore total thyroidectomy can be considered best treatment and also be surgical treatment oncologically correct for this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16302649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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31. Wolff EF, Hughes M, Merino MJ, Reynolds JC, Davis JL, Cochran CS, Celi FS: Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):981-7
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  • [Title] Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma.
  • Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma.
  • Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma.
  • SUMMARY: Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.
  • Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii.
  • During her next pregnancy, pelvic masses were noted; biopsies revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant.
  • The tumor was found to be BRAF mutation positive (K601E).

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  • [Cites] Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009 Apr 1;190(1):15-20 [19264228.001]
  • [Cites] Thyroid. 2009 Oct;19(10):1093-8 [19732012.001]
  • (PMID = 20718682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Isotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 9FN79X2M3F / Lithium; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2964358
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32. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Yasuoka H, Kakudo K, Inohara H, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):296-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma.
  • AIMS: Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside binding family of lectins, has been regarded as a useful tool for discriminating malignant tumours from benign nodules of the thyroid, including the distinction between follicular carcinoma and adenoma.
  • However, there are follicular tumours with unclear vascular or capsular invasion, which makes diagnosis more difficult.
  • In this study, we investigated the relationship between galectin-3 expression and the degree of vascular or capsular invasion of follicular tumours.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated galectin-3 expression in 260 cases of follicular tumour with various degrees of vascular or capsular invasion classified into four categories.
  • However, its diagnostic value for follicular carcinoma was not high because the sensitivity and specificity were 68.7% and 57.5%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that galectin-3 plays a role in the transformation of follicular tumours from benign to malignant; however, when diagnosing follicular tumours, the presence of this protein should not be required for diagnosing malignant transformation in all cases.
  • Therefore, we must conclude that galectin-3 should only be considered an adjuvant marker for follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16194828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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33. Asa SL: The role of immunohistochemical markers in the diagnosis of follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(4):295-309
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemical markers in the diagnosis of follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid.
  • The differential diagnosis includes numerous entities, non-neoplastic and neoplastic, benign and malignant.
  • However, the diagnosis of follicular-patterned lesions remains an area fraught with controversy and diagnostic criteria are highly variable.
  • No single marker can identify all malignant follicular-patterned lesions, however, various combinations have been proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16627917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 129
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34. Kim MJ, Kim HJ, Hong SJ, Shong YK, Gong G: Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of thyroid follicular lesions. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):28-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of thyroid follicular lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of galectin-3 in various thyroid follicular lesions, including diffuse hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, and benign and malignant follicular neoplasms, to clarify the diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of follicular lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 146 follicular lesions diagnosed cytologically, obtained from patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for either benign or malignant nodules, were evaluated using Papanicolaou-stained slides and cell blocks with galectin-3 immunostaining.
  • We primarily categorized the aspirated specimens as benign, indeterminate or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm based on cellularity, architectural arrangement of the follicular cells and presence or absence of colloid.
  • Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the results of galectin-3 and categorized into 3 groups (benign, indeterminate for malignancy, suspicious for malignancy) and compared with the corresponding histologic diagnoses.
  • RESULTS: When the histologic diagnoses were compared with the cytologic diagnoses, the accuracy in the distinction between benign and malignant cases was 79.5% except for 8 cytologically and 3 histologically indeterminate cases.
  • False positive cases included 8 of 62 (12.9%) nodular hyperplasias and 1 of 42 (2.4%) follicular adenomas.
  • Three follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential were cytologically categorized as malignant, and all cases showed positivity for galectin-3.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 could be used as a useful supplementary marker for cytologic diagnosis, although it was not an absolute marker in determining whether a lesion was benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16514837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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35. Ponikiewska D, Szcześniak-Kłusek B, Stobiecka E, Jaworska M, Lange D: [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:7-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination].
  • In about 10% of cases cytopathologic features do not differentiate unequivocally benign and malignant lesions.
  • In these cases the cytopathologic diagnosis of follicular tumor (FT) or oxyphilic tumor (OT) is most often made.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 48.7% (19/39) FT and 42% (8/19) OT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show how difficult the diagnostics of follicular lesions in FNAB could be because of the frequent overlapping of the cytological features of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Diagnosis of follicular tumor does not mean carcinoma.
  • The use of follicular/ oxyphilic tumor in cytological diagnostic instead of follicular neoplasm seems more advisable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17091450.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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41. Bogdańska M, Górnicka B, Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B, Koperski L, Morton M, Wasiutyński A: [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):314-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms].
  • INTRODUCTION: Estimation of malignancy in thyroid follicular neoplasms is a common diagnostic problem, thus revealing of differences in expression of some antigens in both benign and malignant lesions seems to be essential.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 in follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of 38 follicular adenomas (23 "classical", 5 with intracapsular invasion, 10 oncocytic) and 15 follicular carcinomas (9 "classic", 6 oncocytic) were stained immunohistochemically with anti-CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1.
  • RESULTS: In the whole group we found statistically significant differences in CD15 expression between follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • "Classic" follicular carcinomas (without oncocytic tumors) showed stronger CD15 and HBME- 1 expression than "classic" adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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42. Schmid KW, Farid NR: How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma? Virchows Arch; 2006 Apr;448(4):385-93
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  • [Title] How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma?
  • The appropriate diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) still depends on its histological discrimination from follicular adenoma (including the distinction of benign from malignant oncocytic variants), papillary thyroid carcinoma (particularly from the follicular variants) and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • This review attempts to recapitulate common standards in the diagnosis of FTC, to summarise current molecular data available to distinguish FTC from other benign and malignant tumours and, finally, to outline future perspectives to define FTC on its specific genetic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Protein Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16506015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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43. Bennett LB, Schnabel JL, Kelchen JM, Taylor KH, Guo J, Arthur GL, Papageorgio CN, Shi H, Caldwell CW: DNA hypermethylation accompanied by transcriptional repression in follicular lymphoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2009 Sep;48(9):828-41
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  • [Title] DNA hypermethylation accompanied by transcriptional repression in follicular lymphoma.
  • High-throughput microarray technologies were used to study DNA methylation accompanied by transcriptional changes in follicular lymphoma (FL).
  • Using Methylated CpG Island Amplification with Microarrays to study CpG Island DNA methylation in FL, we discovered widespread hypermethylation of homeobox genes and previously identified targets of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in cell lines and primary tumors, but not in benign follicular hyperplasia (BFH).

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  • (PMID = 19530241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2264
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA10055; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA123565; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA097880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA123565-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100055-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA123018; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123565-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA123018-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA097880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123018-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA097880-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100055; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123018; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097880-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100055-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123565
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / HOXA11 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Polycomb-Group Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / SUZ12 protein, human; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS125568; NLM/ PMC2738630
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44. Espadinha C, Pinto AE, Leite V: Underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with aneuploidy and lower differentiation of thyroid tumours of follicular origin. Oncol Rep; 2009 Oct;22(4):907-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with aneuploidy and lower differentiation of thyroid tumours of follicular origin.
  • Recently, our group has shown that follicular carcinomas underexpressing PPARgamma protein are more prone to develop distant metastases, to invade locally, to present poorly differentiated areas and to persist after surgery.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of PPARgamma expression with the degree of differentiation and ploidy status of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias.
  • DNA cytometric studies, ploidy and S-phase fraction (SPF) determination, and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of molecular markers specific for thyroid follicular cells, namely Tg (thyroglobulin), TSHR (TSH receptor) and NIS (Na+/I- symporter) were compared between thyroid lesions with positive or negative PPARgamma protein expression.
  • This study showed that underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with poor tumour differentiation, aneuploidy and higher cell proliferative activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Aneuploidy. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19724872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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45. Netea-Maier RT, Hunsucker SW, Hoevenaars BM, Helmke SM, Slootweg PJ, Hermus AR, Haugen BR, Duncan MW: Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms. Cancer Res; 2008 Mar 1;68(5):1572-80
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • Distinguishing between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by cytologic features alone is not possible.
  • These findings provide further insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and pathophysiology of follicular-derived thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calreticulin / metabolism. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Peptides / chemistry. Proteomics / methods. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 18316623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calreticulin; 0 / Peptides
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46. Sakorafas GH, Stafyla V, Kolettis T, Tolumis G, Kassaras G, Peros G: Microscopic papillary thyroid cancer as an incidental finding in patients treated surgically for presumably benign thyroid disease. J Postgrad Med; 2007 Jan-Mar;53(1):23-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microscopic papillary thyroid cancer as an incidental finding in patients treated surgically for presumably benign thyroid disease.
  • AIM: To present our experience with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma of the thyroid as an incidental finding in patients treated surgically for presumably benign thyroid disease.
  • SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of benign thyroid disease were reviewed to identify patients with PTMC.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The files of 380 patients who underwent surgery for presumably benign thyroid disease in our hospital from 1990 to 2002 were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients with PTMC diagnosed incidentally following thyroid surgery for presumably benign thyroid disease (27/380 or 7.1%) (multinodular goiter = 20 patients, follicular adenoma = 6 patients, diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid = 1 patient) are presented.
  • In 11 patients (40.7%) the tumor was multifocal and in about half of them tumor foci were found in both thyroid lobes.
  • In two patients the tumor infiltrated the thyroid capsule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PTMC is not an uncommon incidental finding after surgery for presumably benign thyroid disease (7.1% in our series).
  • The possibility of an underlying PTMC should be taken into account in the management of patients with nodular thyroid disease; total/near total thyroidectomy should be considered, at least in selected patients with presumably benign nodular thyroid disease.

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  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2007 Jan-Mar;53(1):5-6 [17244961.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2007 Jan-Mar;53(1):6-7 [17244962.001]
  • (PMID = 17244966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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47. Gulmann C, Espina V, Petricoin E 3rd, Longo DL, Santi M, Knutsen T, Raffeld M, Jaffe ES, Liotta LA, Feldman AL: Proteomic analysis of apoptotic pathways reveals prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Aug 15;11(16):5847-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of apoptotic pathways reveals prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma.
  • Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and generally is incurable.
  • To determine whether a proteomic approach could help overcome these obstacles, we procured lymphoid follicles from 20 cases of FL and 15 cases of benign follicular hyperplasia (FH) using laser capture microdissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Proteome / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Protein Array Analysis / methods. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Signal Transduction. Survival Analysis. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / analysis. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16115925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proteome; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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48. He X, Wei Q, Zhang X, Xiao J, Jin X, Zhu Y, Cui B, Ning G: Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Oct 15;206(10):712-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In different tumor entities, expression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been linked to tumor dissemination and poor prognosis.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In our study, the CXCR4 expression of the thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) was found to be higher than in the benign lesion group (including 19 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 nodular goiters, and 50 follicular adenomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Within the carcinoma group, the more malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) showed a higher ratio of CXCR4 positivity compared to the less malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas) (p<0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, CXCR4 / analysis. Thyroid Diseases / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Goiter, Nodular / immunology. Hashimoto Disease / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20646838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; Thyroid cancer, medullary; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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49. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Twenty five (21.9%) of the 114 FN were found to be follicular carcinomas (FC); 15 minimally invasive FC, 4 widely invasive FC, and 6 FVPTC.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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50. Sato T, Harao M, Nakano S, Jotsuka T, Suda N, Yamashita J: Circulating tumor cells detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA: distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery; 2005 May;137(5):552-8
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  • [Title] Circulating tumor cells detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA: distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We prospectively tested whether circulating tumor cells could be detected in peripheral blood of patients with thyroid tumors by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) messenger RNA (mRNA).
  • Of 121 preoperative samples from patients with thyroid tumor, 6 were positive (5.0%).
  • Preoperative frequencies of CEA mRNA positivity in benign tumor, papillary carcinoma, follicular variant papillary carcinoma, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, and widely invasive follicular carcinoma were 0%, 0%, 0%, 44.4% (4/9), and 50.0% (2/4), respectively.
  • Among positive patients only one, who had widely invasive follicular carcinoma, remained positive after surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR detection of tumor cells in preoperative blood often can distinguish malignant from benign follicular thyroid tumors.

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  • (PMID = 15855928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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51. Terada T: Brain metastasis from thyroid adenomatous nodules or an encapsulated thyroid follicular tumor without capsular and vascular invasion: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7180

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  • [Title] Brain metastasis from thyroid adenomatous nodules or an encapsulated thyroid follicular tumor without capsular and vascular invasion: a case report.
  • Because benign-appearing thyroid nodules with metastasis are very rare, the author reports herein four thyroid nodules (one follicular adenoma and three adenomatous nodules) with brain metastasis.
  • Imaging modalities revealed four distinct nodules in the thyroid, and tumorectomies of all nodules were performed under the clinical diagnosis of benign thyroid nodules.
  • Grossly, one of them was a completely encapsulated tumor (35 mm in diameter).
  • Microscopically, the largest tumor was an encapsulated follicular adenoma.
  • The tumor consisted of normofollicles and microfollicles surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
  • Thus, the largest tumor was diagnosed as follicular thyroid adenoma.
  • However, six years later, the patient showed a brain metastasis of thyroid tumor composed of macrofollicles without cellular and nuclear atypia.
  • A diagnosis of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma was made.
  • The present case suggests that benign thyroid nodules can metastasize.

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  • [Cites] Endocr J. 2008 Oct;55(5):889-94 [18552462.001]
  • [Cites] J Otolaryngol. 2006 Dec;35(6):366-72 [17380829.001]
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  • (PMID = 19829930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740070
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52. Pauzar B, Staklenac B, Loncar B: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):87-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The aim of this research was to make a detailed and objective determination of the morphological characteristics of cells in cytological smears in an attempt to distinguish benign from malignant follicular tumors.
  • The research included 62 patients with cytologically diagnosed follicular or oncocytic tumors, and 15 patients with nodular hyperplasia.
  • We analyzed the cellularity of the smear, cohesion between follicular cells, acinar formations, bare nuclei, characteristics of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the presence of colloid.
  • The statistical analysis of cytological parameters has indicated that none of the cytological parameters alone is discriminating enough between non-tumor and tumor changes, or benign and malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • The analysis of age, sex, nodule size and ultrasound findings has not shown the correlation between any of these parameters with the malignant or benign follicular tumors.
  • The cytological analysis of the smears for patients with follicular tumors, in combination with clinical data and other diagnostic methods, contributes to more precise diagnostics, but is not sufficient for the differentiation between benign and malignant follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20432738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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53. Clerici T, Kolb W, Beutner U, Bareck E, Dotzenrath C, Kull C, Niederle B, German Association of Endocrine Surgeons: Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas. Br J Surg; 2010 Jun;97(6):839-44
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid microcarcinomas (mFTCs) of 10 mm or less in size rarely manifest clinically and their clinical significance is controversial.
  • Most initial diagnoses had to be revised because of incorrect size assessment or incorrect diagnosis (benign adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant of PTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Austria. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Switzerland. Thyroidectomy. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20473996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Kaserer K; Perren A; Schmid KW; Köberle-Wührer R; Wenzl E; Asari R; Klinge U; Müller G; Kroell KP; Blankenburg C; Voss H; Cupisti K; Witte J; Knoefel WT; Simon D; Lienenlüke RH; Vorländer C; Wacha H; Schabram J; Lorenz K; Dralle H; Wojciechowski B; Kussmann J; Weber Y; Schürmann G; Goretzki PE; Ulitzer H; Eberle A; Mayer M; Stabenow R; Stegmaier C; Bühlmann R; Schlumpf R; Triponez F; Ess SM
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54. Troncone G, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Palmieri EA, Volante M, Papotti M, Viglietto G, Palombini L: Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):377-81
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  • [Title] Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma expresses more p27 than benign oxyphilic lesions do.
  • The expression of cyclin D3 and p27 was significantly higher in the oxyphilic variant of follicular carcinomas than in non-oxyphilic carcinomas (p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that increased p27 expression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma results from cyclin D3 overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cyclin D3. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Cites] Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002 Mar;128(3):253-7 [11886339.001]
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  • (PMID = 16798934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCND3 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D3; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001124
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55. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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56. Boutross-Tadross O, Saleh R, Asa SL: Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(3):182-6
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  • [Title] Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii.
  • However, the recognition of follicular variant PTC raises the possibility of similar malignancy arising in struma ovarii.
  • We examined 13 cases of struma ovarii to determine if these lesions can exhibit histological, immunohistochemical, and/or molecular features of follicular variant PTC.
  • However, seven of the ten cases with features of follicular variant PTC exhibited a rearranged in transformation (RET)/PTC rearrangement by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • The three cases considered to be benign based on histologic and cytologic criteria were negative for CK19 and HBME-1 by immunohistochemistry, and had no evidence of BRAF mutation or ret/PTC-1 and ret/PTC-3 rearrangements.
  • These results indicate that follicular variant PTC can occur in struma ovarii and that such lesions exhibit the same morphologic and immunohistochemical profile as follicular variant PTC in thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Struma Ovarii. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18058267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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57. Miyakawa M, Onoda N, Etoh M, Fukuda I, Takano K, Okamoto T, Obara T: Diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography. Endocr J; 2005 Apr;52(2):207-12
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography.
  • The aim of this study was to define the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography (US).
  • We compared the vascular pattern and the velocimetric parameters, such as peak systolic velocity (Vmax), end-diastolic velocity (Vmin), pulsatility index (PI), or resistance index (RI) between follicular adenoma (FA, n = 25) and follicular carcinoma (FC, n = 10) and analysed them by means of receiver characteristics curves (ROC).
  • These color flow imagings by power Doppler US were suggested to be a reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular tumor with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 92%.
  • In conclusion, the evaluation of the vascular pattern and the velocimetric parameters using pulsed and power Doppler ultrasound may provide important information that is useful in making correct differential diagnosis of malignant or benign thyroid follicular tumor preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed

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  • (PMID = 15863949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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58. Michailidi C, Giaginis C, Stolakis V, Alexandrou P, Klijanienko J, Delladetsima I, Chatzizacharias N, Tsourouflis G, Theocharis S: Evaluation of FAK and Src expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Pathol Oncol Res; 2010 Dec;16(4):497-507
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  • [Title] Evaluation of FAK and Src expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src have been reported to regulate tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis.
  • The present study aimed to evaluate by immunohistochemistry the clinical significance of FAK and Src expression in 108 patients with benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Total FAK expression provided a distinct discrimination between malignant and benign (p = 0.00001), as well as between papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules thyroid lesions (p = 0.00005), being also associated with follicular cells' proliferative capacity (p = 0.0003).
  • In malignant thyroid lesions, total FAK expression was associated with tumor size (p = 0.0455), and presence of capsular (p = 0.0102) and lymphatic (p = 0.0173) invasion.
  • Total Src expression was borderline increased in cases of papillary carcinoma compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0993), being also correlated with tumor size (p = 0.0169).
  • FAK and Src expression was ascribed to a significant extent to the phosphorylated forms of the enzymes, which provided a better discrimination between malignant and benign thyroid lesions.

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  • (PMID = 20405349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Kinase 1; EC 2.7.10.2 / PTK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src)
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59. Zhao J, Leonard C, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Moch H, Odermatt B: Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Feb;19(2):329-37
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  • [Title] Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling.
  • It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors by histological or cytological examination.
  • The goal of this study was to reveal gene expression variations between benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • We investigated gene expression profiles from 24 follicular thyroid tumors (12 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 13 normal thyroid tissues using high-density human cDNA arrays.
  • The identification of gene expression changes was based on signal intensity ratios of tumor versus normal thyroid parenchyma.
  • Expression patterns of a set of known genes were found to be significantly different between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • Our results demonstrate a potential use of gene expression profiling for differentiating benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A detailed investigation of the differentially expressed genes could give new insights into molecular pathways of malignant transformation of thyroid follicular neoplasm and may help to develop a molecular tool for the preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18202778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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60. Finley DJ, Lubitz CC, Wei C, Zhu B, Fahey TJ 3rd: Advancing the molecular diagnosis of thyroid nodules: defining benign lesions by molecular profiling. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):562-8
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  • [Title] Advancing the molecular diagnosis of thyroid nodules: defining benign lesions by molecular profiling.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common and most are benign.
  • Previous data from our laboratory and others has suggested that gene profiling can accurately distinguish between benign and malignant thyroid nodules and provide new leads in the study of thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Current preoperative techniques do not permit distinction between neoplastic and hyperplastic follicular neoplasms.
  • These studies were undertaken to determine whether benign follicular tumors could be subcategorized by molecular profiling.
  • METHODS: Molecular profiles of 8 follicular adenomas and 8 hyperplastic nodules were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray analysis.
  • Seven additional benign follicular lesions were then added to the analysis.
  • A hierarchical clustering analysis was performed on all 23 samples, utilizing the gene list generated from the test set, to examine the groups for potential differences and the ability of the gene list to distinguish tumor types.
  • The analysis was able to identify follicular adenomas with a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 100%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that benign thyroid lesions can be separated into distinct groups through molecular profiling.
  • Expression profiling may ultimately allow us to distinguish potentially malignant from benign follicular nodules.

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  • (PMID = 16029122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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61. Migliario M, Rimondini L, Valente G: Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the lower lip. J Craniofac Surg; 2010 Nov;21(6):2024-6

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  • [Title] Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the lower lip.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is one of the most common tumors of the superficial and deep soft tissues; it is commonly localized on the skin of the extremities and presents as a slow growing solitary nodule, made up of a mixture of fibroblastic and histiocytic cells.
  • This rare tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the oral soft-tissue neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Lip Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cells / pathology. Hemosiderin / analysis. Histiocytes / pathology. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21119493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9011-92-1 / Hemosiderin
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62. Garcia EA, Simões K, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Alves VA, Longatto-Filho A, Camargo RS: Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):101-7
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  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • In order to evaluate the value of LVD in benign and malignant thyroid lesions, we analyzed 110 thyroidectomy specimens using D2-40, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), the most potent molecule of lymphatic proliferation.
  • LVD was significantly different between papillary and follicular carcinomas in total (p = 0.045) and peritumoral area (p = 0.042).
  • Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma showed an important difference of intra- (p = 0.019) and peritumoral (p = 0.033) LVD.
  • VEGF-C was more markedly expressed in malignancies than in benign lesions (p = 0.0001).
  • Almost all cancers with high positive VEGF-C expression also exhibited increased peritumoral LVD (p = 0.049) when compared with the benign lesions.
  • Indeed, the high peritumoral LVD of malignant thyroid lesions is an important finding for surgery planning and supports the practice of total thyroidectomy in malignant thyroid neoplasm's since the lymphatic peritumoral vessels definitely are an escape path for tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20336393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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63. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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64. Foukakis T, Gusnanto A, Au AY, Höög A, Lui WO, Larsson C, Wallin G, Zedenius J: A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Jun;14(2):381-91
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  • [Title] A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in the absence of metastasis can only be established postoperatively.
  • In this study, we aimed to identify transcriptional markers of malignancy and high-risk disease in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The expression levels of 26 potential markers of malignancy were determined in a panel of 75 follicular thyroid tumors by a TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR approach.
  • The metastatic potential could be predicted in all four cases with apparently benign or minimally invasive (MI) disease at the time of diagnosis, but poor long-term outcome.
  • In addition, a second model was produced by implementing two genes (TERT and TFF3), which was able to distinguish adenomas from de facto carcinomas.
  • When this model was tested in an independent series of atypical adenomas (AFTA) and MI-FTCs, 16 out of 17 AFTAs were classified as 'benign', while MI-FTCs with vascular invasion (sometimes referred to as 'moderately invasive') and/or large tumor size tended to classify in the 'malignant' group.
  • The reported models can be the foundation for the development of reliable preoperative diagnostic and prognostic tests that can guide the therapeutic approach of follicular thyroid neoplasms with indeterminate cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Gene Expression. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17639052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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65. Łukieńczuk T, Kaliszewski K, Zołedziewska M, Jonkisz A, Dmochowska G, Dobrut M, Rogoliński J, Dobosz T: [SNP polymorphism of LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumours]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:45-51
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  • [Title] [SNP polymorphism of LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumours].
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was estimation of occurrence of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors and analysis of correlation between their frequency and the histological type of thyroid lesions.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studied group consisted of 58 patients, 24 with papillary thyroid carcinomas, 19 with nodular goiters and 15 with follicular adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of LGALS3BP gene (found in NCBI) database are not characteristic for papillary thyroid cancer, follicular adenomas and nodular goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Glycoproteins / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17091456.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / LGALS3BP protein, human
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66. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P: New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Dec;14(4):957-77
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  • [Title] New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy.
  • Whereas the prevalence of nodular thyroid disease worldwide is high, malignant conversion from benign thyroid nodules is rare.
  • The most common type of thyroid cancer--papillary thyroid carcinoma--stands out among solid tumours because many of the tumour-initiating events have been identified.
  • All of them function in a single pathway--the RTK/RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway--and obey an 'exclusivity principle': one and only one component of the pathway is mutated in a single tumour.
  • This highlights the requirement of this signal transduction pathway for the transformation to thyroid cancer and paves the way to targeted therapies against a tumour with a mutation in a known gene or any gene upstream of the target.
  • In this review, we attempt to summarise the most recent advances in thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers research and their potential clinical impact that may change the management of thyroid cancer in the near future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Multigene Family. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


67. Gulcelik NE, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B: Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;134(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and ultrasonographic features that may help in predicting malignant tumors in patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on findings from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) because FNAC diagnosis of follicular neoplasm does not differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant tumor.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 patients having a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on FNAC.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-eight patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed by FNAC as being a follicular neoplasm.
  • Older age, male sex, solitary nodule, and larger nodule size were not predictive for malignant neoplasms in patients with follicular neoplasm cytologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19075128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Koh YW, Kim JW, Lee SW, Choi EC: Endoscopic thyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral benign thyroid lesions. Surg Endosc; 2009 Sep;23(9):2053-60
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  • [Title] Endoscopic thyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral benign thyroid lesions.
  • A second 1.0-cm skin incision was made along the upper margin of the mammary areola on the tumor side for insertion of a 12-mm trocar.
  • RESULTS: Postoperative pathology showed 11 follicular adenomas, 1 follicular carcinoma, and 40 benign thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the aspect of invasiveness could be improved, endoscopic hemithyroidectomy via a unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation is safe and effective and appears to provide better cosmetic results and a shorter operation time than other endoscopic methods for managing selective unilateral benign thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Axilla. Breast. Drainage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Hematoma / etiology. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Seroma / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18528625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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69. Duchi S, Fagnocchi L, Cavaliere V, Hsouna A, Gargiulo G, Hsu T: Drosophila VHL tumor-suppressor gene regulates epithelial morphogenesis by promoting microtubule and aPKC stability. Development; 2010 May;137(9):1493-503
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  • [Title] Drosophila VHL tumor-suppressor gene regulates epithelial morphogenesis by promoting microtubule and aPKC stability.
  • Mutations in the human von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) genes are the cause of VHL disease, which displays multiple benign and malignant tumors.
  • Using an established follicular epithelial model in Drosophila, we show that the Drosophila VHL gene is involved in epithelial morphogenesis via stabilizing microtubule bundles and aPKC.
  • Importantly, paclitaxel-induced stabilization of microtubules can rescue the aPKC localization phenotype in Drosophila VHL mutant follicle cells.
  • The results establish a developmental function of the VHL gene that is relevant to its tumor-suppressor activity.

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  • (PMID = 20388653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-9129
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA078582-100005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA109860; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109860; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA078582-100005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA078582; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM057843-08; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM057843; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM057843-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109860-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA78582; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109860-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drosophila Proteins; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C-alpha; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2853850
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70. Ko CJ, Shintaku P, Binder SW: Comparison of benign keratoses using p53, bcl-1, and bcl-2. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 May;32(5):356-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of benign keratoses using p53, bcl-1, and bcl-2.
  • While cell-cycle markers have been used to differentiate benign vs. malignant lesions and to classify malignant lesions, benign keratoses have not been well studied using such markers.
  • We hypothesized that inflammation or irritation of benign keratoses may be related to a shift in the cell cycle.
  • We compared the immunohistochemical staining patterns of 10 seborrheic keratoses (SKs), 10 inflamed seborrheic keratoses (iSKs), and 10 inverted follicular keratoses (IFKs) using antibodies to p53, bcl-1, and bcl-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Keratosis / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15811121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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71. Raggio E, Camandona M, Solerio D, Martino P, Franchello A, Orlandi F, Gasparri G: The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jun;33(6):378-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions.
  • Aim of the study was to consider the diagnostic accuracy of galectine-3 (GAL3) in the pre-operative cytological evaluation of follicular lesions.
  • Based on preoperative cytological reports, 40 patients had pre-operative malignant results, and 60 patients (46 females and 14 males) showed follicular lesions.
  • The GAL3 expression in neoplastic and benign lesions was significantly different (GAL3+ in 16 out of 29 neoplastic lesions, GAL3+ 0 out of 31 benign lesions, p<0.01).
  • Even comparing the GAL3 positivity between the follicular adenomas (0 GAL3+ out of 20) and the group of follicular carcinomas (5 GAL3+ out of 6), we found a statistically significant difference (p<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data from our experience, the patients with a cytological diagnosis of GAL3 positive follicular neoformation should be referred for surgery without any further immunocytological testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Keratin-19 / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19625759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19
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72. Gonçalves AJ, Carvalho LH, Serdeira K, Nakai MY, Malavasi TR: Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):289-91
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de São Paulo.
  • METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B).
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18094897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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73. Torregrossa L, Faviana P, Filice ME, Materazzi G, Miccoli P, Vitti P, Fontanini G, Melillo RM, Santoro M, Basolo F: CXC chemokine receptor 4 immunodetection in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: comparison to galectin-3 and hector battifora mesothelial cell-1. Thyroid; 2010 May;20(5):495-504
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  • [Title] CXC chemokine receptor 4 immunodetection in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: comparison to galectin-3 and hector battifora mesothelial cell-1.
  • BACKGROUND: The cytological discrimination between benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid can represent a diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists.
  • METHODS: Expression of CXCR4, HBME-1, and gal-3 was examined immunohistochemically in total of 100 aspirates of thyroid lesions, categorized as benign (n = 22), indeterminate lesion (n = 43), suspicious of papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 10), or malignant (n = 25) by preoperative cytology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An immunohistochemical panel, including CXCR4, could be useful in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant well-differentiated follicular-patterned thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / chemistry. Receptors, CXCR4 / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20450430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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74. Oliveira-Neto HH, Spíndula-Filho JV, Dallara MC, Silva CM, Mendonça EF, Batista AC: Unicystic ameloblastoma in a child: a differential diagnosis from the dentigerous cyst and the inflammatory follicular cyst. J Dent Child (Chic); 2007 Sep-Dec;74(3):245-9

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  • [Title] Unicystic ameloblastoma in a child: a differential diagnosis from the dentigerous cyst and the inflammatory follicular cyst.
  • Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaws with an aggressive potential that commonly occurs in children.
  • This cystic odontogenic neoplasm is generally asymptomatic and found during routine radiographs.
  • The purposes of this report were to describe a case of UA involving the crown of the unerupted right mandibular second premolar in an 11-year-old girl under orthodontic treatment, and discuss its diagnosis and radiographic and microscopic findings, emphasizing its distinction from the dentigerous cyst and the inflammatory follicular cyst.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bicuspid / physiopathology. Child. Dentigerous Cyst / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Humans. Tooth, Unerupted / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18482524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-5068
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dent Child (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Giovanella L, Ceriani L, Ghelfo A, Maffioli M: Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jan-Mar;23(1):54-7
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  • [Title] Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • The present study was planned to assess the serum expression of Cyfra 21.1 in patients with benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancies.
  • We enrolled 135 patients with histologically proven benign thyroid nodules (n=79) and thyroid carcinomas (n=56).
  • No differences were found in serum Cyfra 21.1 levels between patients with benign nodules and patients with carcinomas.
  • When thyroid malignancies were subdivided according to tumor histology, serum Cyfra 21.1 increased significantly from classical differentiated thyroid carcinomas (papillary or follicular) to less differentiated or undifferentiated carcinomas (poorly differentiated or anaplastic).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Keratin-19 / blood. Keratins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Nodule / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 18409152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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76. Naresh KN: Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with prominent follicular colonization - difficulties in diagnosis: a study of 15 cases. Histopathology; 2008 Feb;52(3):331-9
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  • [Title] Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with prominent follicular colonization - difficulties in diagnosis: a study of 15 cases.
  • AIMS: While colonization of reactive follicles is well described in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, this is not fully appreciated in nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (NMZL).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen NMZLs with prominent follicular colonization are described, 14 of which were referrals from other hospitals.
  • All cases had a follicular pattern and showed prominent 'follicular colonization'.
  • In many follicles the colonization was partial, and follicles also had a reactive germinal centre component.
  • The phenomenon of follicular colonization was highlighted by immunohistochemistry.
  • The benign follicle centre cells expressed CD20, CD10 and Bcl-6 and were negative for Bcl-2 and MUM1.
  • Partially colonized follicles showed a 'moth-eaten' appearance on CD10, Bcl-2, Bcl-6 and MUM1 immunohistochemistry.
  • CONCLUSION: Recognizing and appreciating follicular colonization in a subset of NMZLs, appropriate use of immunohistochemistry and knowledge of immunohistological features can aid in making the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18269584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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77. Mai KT, Elmontaser G, Perkins DG, Thomas J, Stinson WA: Benign Hürthle cell adenoma with papillary architecture: a benign lesion mimicking oncocytic papillary carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jan;13(1):37-41
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  • [Title] Benign Hürthle cell adenoma with papillary architecture: a benign lesion mimicking oncocytic papillary carcinoma.
  • The diameter of the tumor cell nuclei ranged from 5.6 to 7.2 microns.
  • Many nodules had nuclei displaying a fine chromatin pattern somewhat resembling those of PTC, but these were present in <20% of the tumor cells.
  • In view of (1) the encapsulation and the uniformity of the constituent cells, (2) the negative or weak immunoreactivity for galectin-3 and HBME and negative to moderate immunoreactivity for CK19, and (3) the absence or paucity of nuclear criteria for the diagnosis of PTC and the absence of lymph node metastasis in all study cases, we believe that these lesions represent the papillary variant of oncocytic follicular adenoma (Hürthle cell adenoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromatin / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15735853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromatin
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78. Arora N, Scognamiglio T, Zhu B, Fahey TJ 3rd: Do benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential? An evidence-based review. World J Surg; 2008 Jul;32(7):1237-46
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  • [Title] Do benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential? An evidence-based review.
  • BACKGROUND: Benign thyroid tumors account for most nodular thyroid disease.
  • Determination of whether a thyroid nodule is benign or malignant is a major clinical dilemma and underlies the decision to proceed to surgery in many patients.
  • Although the accuracy of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has reduced the need for surgery over the years, questions regarding how to follow FNA-designated benign nodules remain unresolved.
  • This is true at least in part because of uncertainty over whether some benign nodules harbor malignant potential.
  • RESULTS: Review of our recent 10-year experience indicates that 2% of thyroid malignancies arise within a preexisting benign thyroid nodule.
  • In addition, both cytologic and molecular tumor markers, including Gal-3, CITED1, HBME-1, Ras, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPAR gamma, have been identified in some histopathologically classified benign nodules.
  • Gene expression profiling suggests that follicular adenomas and Hürthle cell adenomas have similarities to both benign and malignant tumors, suggesting that some of these tumors are premalignant.
  • In addition, 10% of surgically excised follicular tumors are encapsulated follicular lesions with nuclear atypia, which have been termed "well-differentiated tumors of uncertain malignant potential."
  • CONCLUSION: Some benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential.

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  • [CommentIn] World J Surg. 2008 Dec;32(12):2744-6 [18787892.001]
  • (PMID = 18327528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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79. Proietti A, Giannini R, Ugolini C, Miccoli M, Fontanini G, Di Coscio G, Romani R, Berti P, Miccoli P, Basolo F: BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features. Thyroid; 2010 Nov;20(11):1263-70
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  • [Title] BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features.
  • BACKGROUND: The cytological discrimination between benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid can represent a diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists.
  • To attempt to clarify this diagnostic problem, we analyzed the BRAF status of thyroid tumors in a group of patients with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and its correlation with cytomorphological features.
  • Each case had a previous fine-needle aspiration diagnosis classified according to the British Thyroid Association Guidelines categorized as inadequate (Thy1) (n = 19), benign (Thy2) (n = 19), follicular lesion and follicular lesion with atypia (Thy3) (n = 109), suspicious of PTC (Thy4) (n = 29), or malignant (Thy5) (n = 11).
  • RESULTS: The BRAF status of each tumor was correlated with the cytological classes.
  • 54.5% and 27.6% of Thy5 and Thy4, respectively, were BRAF-mutated, against 12.1% of follicular lesions and 9.3% of follicular lesion with atypia (Thy3).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20950194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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80. Mitmaker E, Alvarado C, Bégin LR, Trifiro M: Microsatellite instability in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms. J Surg Res; 2008 Nov;150(1):40-8
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  • [Title] Microsatellite instability in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • The purpose of this study was to further define the distribution of MSI in both normal and neoplastic thyroid follicular epithelium.
  • DESIGN: Using laser capture microdissection, cells from both normal and tumor tissue were individually collected.
  • RESULTS: Forty benign and malignant thyroid tumors were compared with their adjacent normal thyroid follicular tissue and were analyzed for MSI.
  • Nine of 14 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 10/16 of follicular thyroid carcinomas demonstrated MSI at > or =30-40% of loci tested.
  • For benign follicular adenomas, 9/10 demonstrated microsatellite stability or low-frequency MSI.
  • In addition our study showed a significant difference in MSI frequency between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • More importantly, the technique of laser capture microdissection allows for more accurate selection of benign, malignant, and normal DNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA Mismatch Repair. DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. Microsatellite Instability. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18243241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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81. Niepomniszcze H, Suárez H, Pitoia F, Pignatta A, Danilowicz K, Manavela M, Elsner B, Bruno OD: Follicular carcinoma presenting as autonomous functioning thyroid nodule and containing an activating mutation of the TSH receptor (T620I) and a mutation of the Ki-RAS (G12C) genes. Thyroid; 2006 May;16(5):497-503
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  • [Title] Follicular carcinoma presenting as autonomous functioning thyroid nodule and containing an activating mutation of the TSH receptor (T620I) and a mutation of the Ki-RAS (G12C) genes.
  • Most autonomous functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) are benign thyroid follicular neoplasms.
  • We report a case of follicular carcinoma presenting as an AFTN causing subclinical hyperthyroidism in a 64-year-old woman who had a 6-cm hot nodule in the left thyroid lobe.
  • Genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues from the tumor and extratumoral thyroid tissue.
  • We hypothesize that the combination of these two mutations might have played an important role in both the hyperfunction of the tumor and the carcinogenetic process.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, ras / genetics. Mutation. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16756473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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82. Bongiovanni M, Gremaud M, Moulin CS, Scheidegger C, Biton C, Clément S: Macrofollicular variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a clinical, cytologic, morphologic, and image analysis study of a unique case. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Apr;13(2):101-5
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  • [Title] Macrofollicular variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a clinical, cytologic, morphologic, and image analysis study of a unique case.
  • Thyroid lesions composed of large follicles that contain abundant colloid are usually regarded as benign hyperplastic or adenomatous nodules both by fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology.
  • In such cases, the pathologist is less likely to request a complete inclusion of the capsule into paraffin block and to look for vascular and/or capsular invasion, the only criteria that permit the differential diagnosis between a benign nodule and a follicular carcinoma.
  • We report the first case of a follicular thyroid carcinoma composed predominantly (>90%) of macrofollicles with a surface area that was up to 5 times larger than the surface area of normal follicles, as calculated with an image analysis system.
  • The tumor was classified as a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, macrofollicular variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19302958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Kolomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepien H, Stepien T, Kuzdak K, Ulanska J: P53 concentration and soluble FasL (sFasL) serum level as indicators of apoptosis in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2005;106(10):297-300
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  • [Title] P53 concentration and soluble FasL (sFasL) serum level as indicators of apoptosis in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate p53 and sFasL plasma concentration in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The study population was composed of 33 patients with thyroid carcinoma and 10 patients with follicular carcinoma (tumor types were verified by fine-needle biopsy).
  • The results revealed high p53 and sFasL plasma concentration in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Tumor Necrosis Factors / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fas Ligand Protein. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16541608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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84. Kojima M, Miyawaki S, Takada S, Kashiwabara K, Igarashi T, Nakamura S: Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate of regional lymph nodes in Kuttner's tumor (chronic sclerosing sialadenitis): a report of 3 cases. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jul;16(3):263-8
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  • [Title] Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate of regional lymph nodes in Kuttner's tumor (chronic sclerosing sialadenitis): a report of 3 cases.
  • Regional lymph nodes of Küttner's tumor from 3 patients showed reactive follicular hyperplasia and prominent interfollicular plasmacytosis.
  • The present 3 cases indicated that regional lymph node of Küttner's tumor may show reactive follicular hyperplasia and prominent interfollicular plasmacytosis and should be differentiated from various benign and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders including systemic rheumatic disease, plasma cell type of Castleman disease, and lymph node involvement of marginal B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type showing prominent plasma cell differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 18573783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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85. Jung YH, Kang MS: Composite follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of thyroid gland: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Nov;25(11):1683-7
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  • [Title] Composite follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of thyroid gland: a case report.
  • Pathologically, the tumor had two distinct tumor components with intermingled areas: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Several small cysts lined by benign ciliated columnar epithelia suggesting that this tumor had originated from solid cell nest were seen around the tumor.
  • Tumor cells of papillary carcinoma are positive for TTF-1, thyroglobulin but negative for CEA, calcitonin and p63.

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  • [Cites] Mod Pathol. 2000 Jul;13(7):802-7 [10912941.001]
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  • (PMID = 21060764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967012
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / Carcinoma, Papillary / Solid Cell Nests / Thyroid Gland
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86. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Tajiri J, Kato R: Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody. Rinsho Byori; 2007 May;55(5):428-33
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  • [Title] Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody.
  • Thyroglobulin is produced only by thyroid follicular cells, and has a molecular weight of 660,000 and carbohydrate content of approximately 10%.
  • The ratio of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin to thyroglobulin was significantly lower in thyroid carcinoma than in normal thyroid tissue, Graves' disease and benign thyroid tumor.
  • However, no differences between malignant and benign tissues were observed with the other lectins tested.
  • Differences in carbohydrate chain on thyroglobulin were observed between malignant and benign thyroid tissues.

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  • (PMID = 17593687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Lectins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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87. Pu RT, Yang J, Wasserman PG, Bhuiya T, Griffith KA, Michael CW: Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration? Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 May;34(5):330-4
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  • [Title] Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration?
  • The diagnosis of an adequately sampled thyroid FNA is generally grouped into three categories: benign, malignant, and indeterminate.
  • The latter group usually includes follicular neoplasm, follicular lesion, and sometimes a more specific diagnosis such as Hurthle cell neoplasm or follicular lesion/neoplasm with Hurthle cell change.
  • Whether a FNA diagnosis of Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm (HLN) denotes a worse clinical outcome than follicular lesion/neoplasm (FLN) remains controversial.
  • Upon excision, the FNA diagnosis of HLN group had 14 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (16%), 46 cases of adenoma (12 follicular adenoma (14%) and 34 cases of Hurthle cell adenoma (39%)), and 27 cases of carcinoma (31%, 12 papillary carcinoma and 15 Hurthle cell carcinoma).
  • The FLN group had 74 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (34.3%), 8 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis (3.7%), 73 cases of follicular adenoma (33.8%), one case of granular cell tumor, and 60 cases of carcinoma (27.8%, 46 papillary carcinoma, 12 follicular carcinoma, and 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma and 1 parathyroid carcinoma) upon excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16604553.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Letsas KP, Frangou-Lazaridis M, Skyrlas A, Tsatsoulis A, Malamou-Mitsi V: Transcription factor-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Pathol Int; 2005 Nov;55(11):694-702
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  • [Title] Transcription factor-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Proliferation and apoptosis-related transcription factor immunoexpression patterns were concomitantly investigated in tissue sections of normal thyroid, goiters, follicular adenomas and well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas using antibodies against prothymosin alpha, E2F-1, p53, Bcl2, and Bax proteins.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / physiopathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. E2F1 Transcription Factor / analysis. E2F1 Transcription Factor / immunology. E2F1 Transcription Factor / physiology. Female. Goiter / pathology. Goiter / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Precursors / analysis. Protein Precursors / immunology. Protein Precursors / physiology. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Repressor Proteins / immunology. Repressor Proteins / physiology. Thymosin / analogs & derivatives. Thymosin / analysis. Thymosin / immunology. Thymosin / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / immunology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / immunology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / analysis. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / immunology. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16271081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCLAF1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E2F1 Transcription Factor; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / prothymosin alpha; 61512-21-8 / Thymosin
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89. Giaginis C, Zarros A, Alexandrou P, Klijanienko J, Delladetsima I, Theocharis S: Evaluation of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. APMIS; 2010 Mar;118(3):210-21
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  • [Title] Evaluation of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression on tumor cells is associated with sensitivity to adenoviral infection, being considered as a surrogate marker for monitoring and/or predicting adenovirus-mediated gene therapy.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of CAR expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • CAR protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from 107 patients with benign and malignant lesions and was statistically analyzed in relation to histopathologic type; tumor size; lymph node metastasis; capsular, lymphatic and vessel invasion; as well as follicular cells' proliferative capacity.
  • CAR immunoreactivity was significantly increased in malignant compared with that in benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.00002).
  • Both malignant and benign thyroid lesions with enhanced follicular cells' proliferative capacity showed significantly increased CAR immunoreactivity (p = 0.00027).
  • In malignant thyroid lesions, enhanced CAR immunoreactivity was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0067).

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  • (PMID = 20132187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLMP protein, human; 0 / Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein; 0 / Receptors, Virus
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90. Hedayati M, Kołomecki K, Pasieka Z, Korzeniowska M, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of VEGF and VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):252-8
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  • [Title] [Assessment of VEGF and VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors].
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of crucial angiogenic cytokine VEGF and its soluble receptors in peripheral blood of patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The study comprised 35 patients with thyroid cancer and 10 patients with follicular neoplasm, both diagnosed by means of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Analysing obtained results, we demonstrated high VEGF concentrations and low soluble VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Disequilibrium of the above-mentioned angiogenic factor concentrations is probably essential for the growth and progression of benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16350718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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91. Brzeziańska E, Cyniak-Magierska A, Sporny S, Pastuszak-Lewandoska D, Lewiński A: Assessment of cyclin D1 gene expression as a prognostic factor in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2007 Aug;28(4):341-50
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  • [Title] Assessment of cyclin D1 gene expression as a prognostic factor in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • 1) an assessment of CCND1 gene expression level in benign and malignant thyroid lesions and 2) the evaluation of possible correlations between gene expression and the histopathological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), or tumour size, classified according to TNM definition of primary tumours (in case of PTC only) or patient's sex or age.
  • DESIGN: Thirty five (35) tissue samples were analysed: 24 cases of PTC, 4 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), 4 cases of follicular adenoma (FA) and 3 cases of nodular goitre (NG).
  • On the other hand, the correlation was observed between RQ values and tumour size.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Cyclin D. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17693985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclins
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92. Cupisti K, Raffel A, Ramp U, Wolf A, Donner A, Krausch M, Eisenberger CF, Knoefel WT: Synchronous occurrence of a follicular, papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma in a recurrent goiter. Endocr J; 2005 Apr;52(2):281-5
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  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of a follicular, papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma in a recurrent goiter.
  • We report the case of a 52-year-old man with the history of two previous thyroid operations for benign goiters, who developed a recurrent goiter.
  • In the pathohistological examination the specimen showed a 5 cm follicular carcinoma and a 0.3 cm papillary microcarcinoma in the right lobe as well as a 1.5 cm medullary carcinoma in the left lobe.
  • There is no known common cause of these three different tumor types and they developed most independently from each other.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15863962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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93. Nosé V, Volante M, Papotti M: Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization.
  • This tumor is known to share morphological and architectural similarities with paraganglioma and medullary thyroid carcinoma, as well as the nuclear features and RET/PTC1 translocations of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Of great interest is the characteristic strong peripheral cytoplasmic and membranous staining of the tumor cells with MIB1 immunostain, not seen in any other thyroid neoplasm.
  • Although cases of malignant HTT have been recorded, HTT should be considered a benign neoplasm or, at most, a neoplasm of extremely low malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcitonin / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Chromogranin A / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / pathology. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 17960500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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94. Bouraoui S, Khaddar KR, Ben Tekaya N, Kchir N, Mekni A, Ben Osman DA, Zitouna MM, Haouet S: [Warty dyskeratoma or "follicular dykeratoma": a clinicopathologic features of a new entity]. Tunis Med; 2005 Apr;83(4):227-9
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  • [Title] [Warty dyskeratoma or "follicular dykeratoma": a clinicopathologic features of a new entity].
  • INTRODUCTION: Warty dyskeratoma is a rare, benign, epithelial tumor characterized by a variable clinicopathologic spectrum.
  • DISCUSSION: Warty dyskeratoma is an epithelial tumor.

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  • (PMID = 15966669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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95. Huang J, Fan G, Zhong Y, Gatter K, Braziel R, Gross G, Bakke A: Diagnostic usefulness of aberrant CD22 expression in differentiating neoplastic cells of B-Cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders from admixed benign B cells in four-color multiparameter flow cytometry. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;123(6):826-32
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  • [Title] Diagnostic usefulness of aberrant CD22 expression in differentiating neoplastic cells of B-Cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders from admixed benign B cells in four-color multiparameter flow cytometry.
  • The diagnosis of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders is a great challenge when made in a background of polyclonal B cells.
  • We studied the diagnostic usefulness of aberrant CD22 expression for differentiating neoplastic from benign B cells by 4-color flow cytometry.
  • Of 56 cases of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders, we found that neoplastic cells showed aberrant CD22 expression in 39 (70%) of 56 cases, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia, and follicular lymphoma.
  • Aberrant CD22 expression is a useful marker for detection of monoclonal B cells admixed with numerous benign polyclonal B cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / biosynthesis. B-Lymphocytes / cytology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Lectins / biosynthesis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15899772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD22 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2
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96. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • A patient with suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas underwent a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-Pentetreotide.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Serotonin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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97. Pavelić K, Dedivitis RA, Kapitanović S, Cacev T, Guirado CR, Danić D, Radosević S, Brkić K, Pegan B, Krizanac S, Kusić Z, Spaventi S, Bura M: Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions. Mutat Res; 2006 Jul 25;599(1-2):45-57
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  • [Title] Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions.
  • Several oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes are involved either as early or late event in thyroid gland carcinogenesis.
  • Status of these genes as well as intensity of apoptosis was analyzed in tumor tissues by molecular genetic methods, immunohistochemistry, and FACS-scan analysis.
  • We found higher incidence of p53 mutation and aberrant processing of FHIT mRNA in malignant tumors (papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic carcinomas) and in those tumors with distant metastasis.
  • The growth of p53(-)/FHIT(-) follicular carcinoma of human origin was much faster in nude mice than p53(+)/FHIT(+) follicular carcinoma, and mice had shorter survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics. Genes, p53. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Animals. Apoptosis. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Molecular Biology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16698048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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98. Collet JF, Hurbain I, Prengel C, Utzmann O, Scetbon F, Bernaudin JF, Fajac A: Galectin-3 immunodetection in follicular thyroid neoplasms: a prospective study on fine-needle aspiration samples. Br J Cancer; 2005 Nov 14;93(10):1175-81
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 immunodetection in follicular thyroid neoplasms: a prospective study on fine-needle aspiration samples.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology, which is well established to be accurate for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, may be inconclusive for the follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • After establishing an easy processing of aspirates for galectin-3 immunodetection, a series of aspirates categorised as benign (n=63), malignant (n=17) or undeterminate (n=34) was prospectively analysed for galectin-3.
  • The majority of lesions (94%) classified as benign by cytology or after surgery was negative for galectin-3.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Galectin 3 / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16251880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361502
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99. Aron M, Kapila K, Verma K: Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):376-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • This study was conducted to study the role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules onfine needle aspirates (FNAC).
  • The cytology diagnosis of these cases was: papillary carcinoma (25), follicular neoplasm (16), adenomatous goiter (20), hyperplastic nodule (5), medullary carcinoma (5) and anaplastic carcinoma (1).
  • Galectin-3 positivity was seen in 80% of papillary carcinomas, 37.5% offollicular neoplasms and in 60% of benign nodules.
  • However, since it is also expressed in a variety of benign lesions, its role as a pre-surgical markerfor differentiating benignfrom malignant thyroid nodules is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17001889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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100. Sorrentino F, Atzeni J, Romano G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):277-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The thyroid microcarcinoma is a tumor with maximum diameter of 10 mm (WHO).
  • The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of microcarcinoma, the association of benign thyroid disease himself and the controversial surgery.
  • RESULTS: 42 carcinomas were detected, of which 24 PTMC and 1 follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma).
  • Microcarcinoma and benign thyroid disease association (76.92% of cases) was high.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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