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1. Demirer AN, Kemal Y, Gursoy A, Sahin M, Tutuncu NB: Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer in patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. Thyroid; 2008 Jan;18(1):45-50
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  • Then we compared the data of thyroid cancer patients on dialysis (n = 9) with the data of patients who had histopathologically verified benign thyroid disease on dialysis (n = 23) and with the histopathological data of thyroid cancer patients without ESRD.
  • Multifocal PTC was found in eight of nine patients; of them, four had follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC).
  • Eight PTCs were classified as tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage I and one as stage II.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Renal Dialysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


2. Wolff EF, Hughes M, Merino MJ, Reynolds JC, Davis JL, Cochran CS, Celi FS: Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):981-7
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  • [Title] Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma.
  • Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma.
  • Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma.
  • SUMMARY: Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.
  • Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii.
  • During her next pregnancy, pelvic masses were noted; biopsies revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant.
  • The tumor was found to be BRAF mutation positive (K601E).


3. dos Santos JN, De Souza VF, Azevêdo RA, Sarmento VA, Souza LB: "Hybrid" lesion of desmoplastic and conventional ameloblastoma: immunohistochemical aspects. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Sep-Oct;72(5):709-13
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  • Ameloblastoma is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor and is the most commonly encountered odontogenic tumor in the jaws.
  • Histologically, ameloblastomas occur in different patterns, including plexiform pattern and follicular pattern.
  • "Hybrid" lesion of ameloblastoma is a tumor variant in which histologically, areas of follicular or plexiform ameloblastoma coexist with characteristic areas of ameloblastoma exhibiting pronounced stromal desmoplasia (desmoplastic ameloblastoma).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Collagen Type I / analysis. Fibronectins / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Tenascin / analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Rev Bras Otorrinolaringol (Engl Ed). 2006 Nov-Dec;72(6):852
  • (PMID = 17221066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tenascin
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4. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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5. Wang C, Zhou L, Li S, Wei J, Wang W, Zhou T, Liao S, Weng D, Deng D, Weng Y, Wang S, Ma D: C4orf7 contributes to ovarian cancer metastasis by promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Oncol Rep; 2010 Oct;24(4):933-9
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  • Gene C4orf7, renamed FDC-SP (follicular dendritic cell secreted protein, FDC-SP) was first isolated from human tonsils.
  • In this study, we report the expression of gene C4orf7 in a panel of tumor types.
  • The percentages of C4orf7 positive expression in the tumor patients with metastases were notably higher than those in the cancer without metastases.
  • On the contrary, the expression was hardly noted in normal tissues and corresponding benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Movement / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


6. Schwarz EI, Ramach C, Mende KA, Strobel K: Physiologic FDG uptake in the ovary together with an abdominal wall leiomyoma mimicking metastasizing ovarian cancer on PET/CT imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Apr;34(4):249-50
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  • However, there is a considerable overlap in the imaging features of malignant and benign ovarian lesions because physiological FDG-uptake in the ovaries can occur, depending on the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women.We present a case of FDG uptake in the ovary co-occurring with an intensely FDG active tumor of the abdominal wall in a 44-year-old woman.
  • However, histologic examination demonstrated benign findings, namely abdominal wall leiomyoma and an ovarian follicular cyst.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19300062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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7. Rydlova M, Ludvikova M, Stankova I: Potential diagnostic markers in nodular lesions of the thyroid gland: an immunohistochemical study. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; 2008 Jun;152(1):53-9
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  • METHODS: Forty eight thyroid lesions forming four diagnostic groups including adenomatous goiters (AS), follicular adenomas (FA), follicular (FC) and papillary carcinomas (PC) were examined using standard immunohistochemical methods.
  • Moreover, statistically significant differences between fused groups of benign (AS and FA) and malignant lesions (FC and PC) were found Fischer's exact test (p = 0.0001).
  • No significant differences in cytoplasmic expression of MMPs -2 and -7 and in vascular density assessed by using of both endothelial markers between benign lesions and malignant tumors were revealed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / analysis. Microvessels / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18795075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1213-8118
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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8. Foukakis T, Gusnanto A, Au AY, Höög A, Lui WO, Larsson C, Wallin G, Zedenius J: A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Jun;14(2):381-91
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  • [Title] A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in the absence of metastasis can only be established postoperatively.
  • In this study, we aimed to identify transcriptional markers of malignancy and high-risk disease in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The expression levels of 26 potential markers of malignancy were determined in a panel of 75 follicular thyroid tumors by a TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR approach.
  • The metastatic potential could be predicted in all four cases with apparently benign or minimally invasive (MI) disease at the time of diagnosis, but poor long-term outcome.
  • In addition, a second model was produced by implementing two genes (TERT and TFF3), which was able to distinguish adenomas from de facto carcinomas.
  • When this model was tested in an independent series of atypical adenomas (AFTA) and MI-FTCs, 16 out of 17 AFTAs were classified as 'benign', while MI-FTCs with vascular invasion (sometimes referred to as 'moderately invasive') and/or large tumor size tended to classify in the 'malignant' group.
  • The reported models can be the foundation for the development of reliable preoperative diagnostic and prognostic tests that can guide the therapeutic approach of follicular thyroid neoplasms with indeterminate cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Gene Expression. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17639052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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9. Liu W, Wei W, Winer D, Bamberger AM, Bamberger C, Wagener C, Ezzat S, Asa SL: CEACAM1 impedes thyroid cancer growth but promotes invasiveness: a putative mechanism for early metastases. Oncogene; 2007 Apr 26;26(19):2747-58
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  • CEACAM1 is a putative tumor suppressor based on diminished expression in some solid neoplasms such as colorectal carcinoma.
  • Forced CEACAM1 expression enhanced cell-matrix adhesion and migration and promoted tumor invasiveness.
  • Conversely, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated downregulation of CEACAM1 expression in MRO cells accelerated cell cycle progression and significantly enhanced tumor size in xenografted mice.
  • CEACAM1 is not appreciably expressed in normal thyroid tissue or benign thyroid tumors.
  • In a human thyroid tissue array, CEACAM1 reactivity was associated with metastatic spread but not with increased tumor size.
  • These findings identify CEACAM1 as a unique mediator that restricts tumor growth whereas increasing metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17057731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Ceacam1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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10. Nasr MR, Mukhopadhyay S, Zhang S, Katzenstein AL: Immunohistochemical markers in diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma: Utility of HBME1 combined with CK19 immunostaining. Mod Pathol; 2006 Dec;19(12):1631-7
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  • These three markers were then further evaluated in 51 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 57 benign thyroids.
  • HBME1 was the most sensitive and specific marker, staining 49/51 papillary thyroid carcinomas and only 4/57 benign thyroids.
  • CK19 was equally sensitive staining all 51 papillary thyroid carcinomas, but it was nonspecific staining 39 of 57 benign thyroids.
  • Fibronectin1 was positive in 35/51 papillary thyroid carcinomas (69%) and 4/57 (7%) benign thyroids, but its utility was hampered by high background staining.
  • These findings suggest that the combination of HBME1 and CK19 has the greatest diagnostic utility in the differentiation of papillary thyroid carcinoma from its benign mimics.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16998461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19
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11. Young O, Crotty T, O'Connell R, O'Sullivan J, Curran AJ: Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. Head Neck; 2010 Jun;32(6):750-6
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  • METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue.
  • In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups).
  • CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010.
  • (PMID = 19998441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 29343-52-0 / 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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12. Łukieńczuk T, Kaliszewski K, Zołedziewska M, Jonkisz A, Dmochowska G, Dobrut M, Rogoliński J, Dobosz T: [SNP polymorphism of LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumours]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:45-51
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  • [Title] [SNP polymorphism of LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumours].
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was estimation of occurrence of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors and analysis of correlation between their frequency and the histological type of thyroid lesions.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studied group consisted of 58 patients, 24 with papillary thyroid carcinomas, 19 with nodular goiters and 15 with follicular adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of LGALS3BP gene (found in NCBI) database are not characteristic for papillary thyroid cancer, follicular adenomas and nodular goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Glycoproteins / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17091456.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / LGALS3BP protein, human
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13. Jansen C, Hebeda KM, Linkels M, Grefte JM, Raemaekers JM, van Krieken JH, Groenen PJ: Protein profiling of B-cell lymphomas using tissue biopsies: A potential tool for small samples in pathology. Cell Oncol; 2008;30(1):27-38
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  • [Title] Protein profiling of B-cell lymphomas using tissue biopsies: A potential tool for small samples in pathology.
  • In this study, we have optimized a method for SELDI-TOF MS based protein profiling of frozen tissue sections, without dissection of tumour cells.
  • Subsequently, we have analyzed and compared protein profiles of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=8), follicular lymphoma (n=8) and mantle cell lymphoma (n=8).
  • Benign, reactive lymph nodes (n=14) were used as a reference group.CM10 chip surface in combination with urea lysis buffer and an input of approximately 50,000 lymphocytes allowed the detection of many differential peaks.
  • Unsupervised clustering showed segregation into a benign/indolent cluster predominantly formed by benign, reactive lymph nodes and follicular lymphoma cases and into a more aggressive cluster formed by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma cases.
  • In conclusion, our protocol enables protein profiling of protein lysates derived from small histological samples and the subsequent detection of many differentially expressed proteins, without the need of tumour cell dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / chemistry. Lymphoma, Follicular / chemistry. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Protein Array Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 18219108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1570-5870
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4618966
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14. Chung JH, Lee WW, Park SY, Choe G, Sung SW, Chung JK, Lee MC, Kim SE: FDG uptake and glucose transporter type 1 expression in lymph nodes of non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Nov;32(9):989-95
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  • Here, we investigated the direct causal relationship between FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression to determine the role of Glut-1 in FDG uptake by malignant and benign lymph nodes (LNs).
  • RESULTS: Of 316 pathologically confirmed LNs, 12.3% (39/316) were malignant, and in malignant LNs, FDG positive LNs were no different from FDG negative LNs in terms of size (15.0+/-6.7 mm vs 10.0+/-6.1mm, p>0.05), or in terms of the proportion of LNs occupied by tumor (60.0+/-28.8% vs 39.2+/-38.4%, p>0.05), but had greater percentages of Glut-1 positive cells in tumors (74.1+/-31.8% vs 22.7+/-18.7%, p<0.01), and Glut-1 staining intensities (3.4+/-0.9 vs 1.8+/-1.3, p<0.01).
  • Analysis of FDG positive benign LNs showed that maxSUV was not correlated with degree of follicular hyperplasia, or Glut-1 expression (p>0.05).
  • However, the finding that Glut-1 expression in lymphoid hyperplasia showed no correlation with FDG uptake in benign LNs requires further investigation.

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  • (PMID = 16859874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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15. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Krause K, Eszlinger M, Gimm O, Karger S, Engelhardt C, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: TFF3-based candidate gene discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumors in a region with borderline iodine deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;93(4):1390-3
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  • [Title] TFF3-based candidate gene discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumors in a region with borderline iodine deficiency.
  • BACKGROUND: With the advent of microarray technology, increasing numbers of marker genes are proposed to distinguish benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • In this paper, we re-evaluate the diagnostic potential of 10 proposed candidate genes in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies in a region with borderline iodine deficiency.
  • METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for CCND2, PLAB, PCSK2, HGD1, TFF3, B4GALT, LGALS3, ETS1, ADM3, and TG in 150 thyroid specimens, including 52 benign thyroid nodules (28 follicular adenoma and 24 adenomatous nodules), 52 corresponding normal thyroid tissues, 20 follicular carcinomas, 20 papillary carcinomas, and six undifferentiated carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: On a single-gene basis, significant differences in mRNA expression were found for TFF3, PLAB, and ADM3 in benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancy.
  • Using two-marker gene sets, we identified 11 combinations, which allowed both a distinction of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and a discrimination of follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • However, for cancer prediction, analysis of a minimum of six genes per sample was necessary and allowed correct prediction of a benign thyroid lesion and thyroid cancer with 94% accuracy in the most discriminative set (TFF3/PLAB/TG/ADM3/HGD1/LGALS3).
  • CONCLUSION: We confirm the applicability of a number of recently proposed marker genes for the distinction of benign and malignant thyroid tumor and suggest that their diagnostic usefulness is independent of the iodide supply.

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  • (PMID = 18198227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TFF3 protein, human; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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17. Ersoz S, Sert H, Yandi M, Erem C, Mungan S, Ersoz HO, Cobanoglu U, Hacihasanoglu A: The significance of Galectin-3 expression in the immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):457-60
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  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of immunohistochemical expression of Galectin-3 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
  • Three cases of five follicular carcinomas had positive staining for Galectin-3, while two had not.
  • Two cases with follicular adenomas were negative for Galectin-3.
  • None of the cases with a benign thyroid pathology had positive staining for Galectin-3.
  • For the evaluation of follicular neoplasm, Galectin-3 immunocytochemical staining had a sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 50%.
  • Galectin-3 expression in thyrocytes is a strong indicator of a malignant proliferative lesion especially for papillary and to an extent in follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18415710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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18. Gulmann C, Espina V, Petricoin E 3rd, Longo DL, Santi M, Knutsen T, Raffeld M, Jaffe ES, Liotta LA, Feldman AL: Proteomic analysis of apoptotic pathways reveals prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Aug 15;11(16):5847-55
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of apoptotic pathways reveals prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma.
  • Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and generally is incurable.
  • To determine whether a proteomic approach could help overcome these obstacles, we procured lymphoid follicles from 20 cases of FL and 15 cases of benign follicular hyperplasia (FH) using laser capture microdissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Proteome / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Protein Array Analysis / methods. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Signal Transduction. Survival Analysis. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / analysis. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16115925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proteome; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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19. Kim YS, Shin DH, Choi JS, Kim KH: The Immunohistochemical Patterns of the beta-Catenin Expression in Pilomatricoma. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Aug;22(3):284-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Pilomatricoma is a benign follicular tumor that is composed of basaloid cells, transitional cells and shadow cells. beta-Catenin is a 92-kDa protein, and it plays important roles in cell-cell adhesion at the cell membrane and signal transduction in the nucleus. beta-Catenin has recently been shown to play an important role in the formation of hair follicle-related tumors, including pilomatricoma.

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  • (PMID = 20711264.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2917681
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemical stain / Pilomatricoma / β-Catenin
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20. Naresh KN: Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with prominent follicular colonization - difficulties in diagnosis: a study of 15 cases. Histopathology; 2008 Feb;52(3):331-9
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  • [Title] Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with prominent follicular colonization - difficulties in diagnosis: a study of 15 cases.
  • AIMS: While colonization of reactive follicles is well described in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, this is not fully appreciated in nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (NMZL).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen NMZLs with prominent follicular colonization are described, 14 of which were referrals from other hospitals.
  • All cases had a follicular pattern and showed prominent 'follicular colonization'.
  • In many follicles the colonization was partial, and follicles also had a reactive germinal centre component.
  • The phenomenon of follicular colonization was highlighted by immunohistochemistry.
  • The benign follicle centre cells expressed CD20, CD10 and Bcl-6 and were negative for Bcl-2 and MUM1.
  • Partially colonized follicles showed a 'moth-eaten' appearance on CD10, Bcl-2, Bcl-6 and MUM1 immunohistochemistry.
  • CONCLUSION: Recognizing and appreciating follicular colonization in a subset of NMZLs, appropriate use of immunohistochemistry and knowledge of immunohistological features can aid in making the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18269584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Hou P, Liu D, Shan Y, Hu S, Studeman K, Condouris S, Wang Y, Trink A, El-Naggar AK, Tallini G, Vasko V, Xing M: Genetic alterations and their relationship in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 15;13(4):1161-70
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  • RESULTS: Occurrence of any of these genetic alterations was found in 25 of 81 (31%) benign thyroid adenoma (BTA), 47 of 86 (55%) follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), 21 of 86 (24%) papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and 29 of 50 (58%) anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), with FTC and ATC most frequently harboring these genetic alterations.
  • However, coexistence of these genetic alterations was increasingly seen with progression from differentiated tumor to undifferentiated ATC.

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  • (PMID = 17317825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA113507-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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22. Fukushima M, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Akasu H, Shimizu K, Miyauchi A: Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule. World J Surg; 2009 May;33(5):963-8
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  • [Title] Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule.
  • However, in our experience, some MTC may be diagnosed as a follicular tumor or a benign nodule on ultrasonography because ultrasonographic findings of malignancy are lacking.
  • Of these patients, 54 were diagnosed as having thyroid carcinoma (malignant, or M-type) but the remaining 23 were diagnosed as having follicular tumor or benign nodule (benign, or B-type) on ultrasonography.
  • RESULTS: Clinically apparent lateral node metastasis, extrathyroid extension, and extranodal tumor extension were observed in 37%, 17%, and 11% of M-type patients, respectively, but none of the B-type patients showed any of these features.
  • Lymph node metastasis was pathologically confirmed in 38 and 65% of B-type and M-type patients, respectively.
  • However, thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection for B-type MTC should be the same as for M-type MTC because 38% of B-type MTC showed pathologic node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19198929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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23. Raggio E, Camandona M, Solerio D, Martino P, Franchello A, Orlandi F, Gasparri G: The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jun;33(6):378-81
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  • [Title] The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions.
  • Aim of the study was to consider the diagnostic accuracy of galectine-3 (GAL3) in the pre-operative cytological evaluation of follicular lesions.
  • Based on preoperative cytological reports, 40 patients had pre-operative malignant results, and 60 patients (46 females and 14 males) showed follicular lesions.
  • The GAL3 expression in neoplastic and benign lesions was significantly different (GAL3+ in 16 out of 29 neoplastic lesions, GAL3+ 0 out of 31 benign lesions, p<0.01).
  • Even comparing the GAL3 positivity between the follicular adenomas (0 GAL3+ out of 20) and the group of follicular carcinomas (5 GAL3+ out of 6), we found a statistically significant difference (p<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data from our experience, the patients with a cytological diagnosis of GAL3 positive follicular neoformation should be referred for surgery without any further immunocytological testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Keratin-19 / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19625759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19
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24. Xu J, Capezzone M, Xu X, Hershman JM: Activation of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase gene promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta in human papillary thyroid cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol; 2005 Feb;19(2):527-39
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  • The expression in other papillary and follicular cancers or cell lines and normal thyroid cells was low or undetectable.
  • BHP 14-9) NNMT gene expression, and expressed weakly in follicular thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • HNF-1beta was not expressed or expressed very weakly in other papillary, follicular, and Hurthle cancer cell lines and primary cultures of normal thyroid cells and benign thyroid conditions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Binding Sites. Blotting, Western. Catalysis. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cloning, Molecular. Enzyme Activation. Gene Deletion. Genes, Reporter. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta. Humans. Luciferases / metabolism. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase. Plasmids / metabolism. Protein Binding. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15486044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HNF1B protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 138674-15-4 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.1 / NNMT protein, human; EC 2.1.1.1 / Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase
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25. Zagrodzki P, Nicol F, Arthur JR, Słowiaczek M, Walas S, Mrowiec H, Wietecha-Posłuszny R: Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor. Biol Trace Elem Res; 2010 Apr;134(1):25-40
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  • [Title] Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor.
  • This was to reveal relevant parameters as possible additional markers of tumor grade, clinical course, and prognosis of thyroid disorders.
  • The tissue samples were obtained during surgical treatment (total or near total thyroidectomy) of 122 patients with different types of thyroid tumor.
  • In the majority of cases, thyroid benign or malignant tumors were not accompanied by significant derangement of the gland selenoenzymes and of either intrathyroidal or plasma concentration of selenium.
  • Patients with struna nodosa had higher levels of thyroid Zn, Cu, and Pb as compared with papillary carcinoma subjects and also a higher level of Cu than follicular carcinoma cases.
  • Multivariate statistical methods should be employed to tackle a broad array of thyroid tumor diagnostic data in a short time.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19597722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological trace element research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol Trace Elem Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Selenoproteins; 0 / Trace Elements; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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26. Chiappetta G, Ammirante M, Basile A, Rosati A, Festa M, Monaco M, Vuttariello E, Pasquinelli R, Arra C, Zerilli M, Todaro M, Stassi G, Pezzullo L, Gentilella A, Tosco A, Pascale M, Marzullo L, Belisario MA, Turco MC, Leone A: The antiapoptotic protein BAG3 is expressed in thyroid carcinomas and modulates apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;92(3):1159-63
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  • [Title] The antiapoptotic protein BAG3 is expressed in thyroid carcinomas and modulates apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.
  • The expression of BAG3 in other tumor types has not been extensively investigated so far.
  • Subsequently, we analyzed BAG3 expression in 30 benign lesions and 56 carcinomas from patients of the Naples Tumor Institute Fondazione Senatore Pascale.
  • The protein was not detectable in 19 of 20 specimens of normal thyroid or goiters, whereas 54 of 56 analyzed carcinomas (15 follicular, 28 papillary, and 13 anaplastic) were clearly positive for BAG3 expression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17164298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BAG3 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
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27. Hunt JL, Yim JH, Carty SE: Fractional allelic loss of tumor suppressor genes identifies malignancy and predicts clinical outcome in follicular thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2006 Jul;16(7):643-9
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  • [Title] Fractional allelic loss of tumor suppressor genes identifies malignancy and predicts clinical outcome in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • Thyroid follicular tumors can be challenging diagnostically and clinically, because the cytologic and histologic features can be subtle and prognosis is also difficult to predict.
  • In this study, we analyzed thyroid follicular tumors with known long-term follow-up for a molecular panel of tumor suppressor genes to determine whether this molecular approach has prognostic significance.
  • Microdissection and DNA extraction were performed from tumor and normal tissue.
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for 13 short tandem repeats at or near tumor suppressor genes.
  • The mean FAL for benign tumors (14%) was significantly different from that of malignant tumors (56%, p < 0.001).
  • Patients with a follicular tumor who had no evidence of disease recurrence had a mean FAL of 22% and those with disease recurrence or death from disease had a mean of 78% (p < 0.002).
  • Based on these results, a tumor suppressor gene panel for allelic imbalance in follicular-derived tumors (FTT) may correlate with both malignancy and outcome in patients with follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / therapy. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / therapy. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16889487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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28. Cupisti K, Raffel A, Ramp U, Wolf A, Donner A, Krausch M, Eisenberger CF, Knoefel WT: Synchronous occurrence of a follicular, papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma in a recurrent goiter. Endocr J; 2005 Apr;52(2):281-5
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  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of a follicular, papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma in a recurrent goiter.
  • We report the case of a 52-year-old man with the history of two previous thyroid operations for benign goiters, who developed a recurrent goiter.
  • In the pathohistological examination the specimen showed a 5 cm follicular carcinoma and a 0.3 cm papillary microcarcinoma in the right lobe as well as a 1.5 cm medullary carcinoma in the left lobe.
  • There is no known common cause of these three different tumor types and they developed most independently from each other.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15863962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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29. Socolovsky M, Spaho N, Cueto DG, Doglietto F, Fernandez E: Reactive lymphoid follicular hyperplasia mimicking a peripheral nerve tumor. Surg Neurol; 2008 Nov;70(5):514-7
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  • [Title] Reactive lymphoid follicular hyperplasia mimicking a peripheral nerve tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Reactive lymphoid follicular hyperplasia is a benign proliferation of lymphoid follicles, which can develop wherever lymphoid tissue is present.
  • We present the unique case of an RLFH that involved the radial nerve and presented as a peripheral nerve tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance findings revealed a contrast-enhancing, spindle-shaped tumor, suggestive of a schwannoma or neurofibroma, along the course of the radial nerve.
  • The intraoperative appearance was that of an infiltrating tissue around a lateral branch of the nerve, which could be resected en bloc.
  • Pathologic examination documented hyperplastic lymphoid tissue surrounding the nerve, and immunostaining confirmed the diagnosis of benign reactive follicular hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first description of RLFH affecting a peripheral nerve and mimicking a neoplasm.
  • This rare and benign condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18261777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Kumamoto H, Ooya K: Expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and their associated molecules in ameloblastomas. J Oral Pathol Med; 2005 May;34(5):287-94
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  • [Title] Expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and their associated molecules in ameloblastomas.
  • BACKGROUND: To clarify the roles of the apoptosis signaling pathway mediated by death receptors in oncogenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic tumors, expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and their associated molecules was analyzed in ameloblastomas as well as in tooth germs.
  • METHODS: Tissue specimens of 10 tooth germs, 40 benign ameloblastomas, and five malignant ameloblastomas were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry to determine the expression of TNFalpha, TNF receptor I (TNFRI), TRAIL, TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1), TRAIL-R2, caspase-8, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB).
  • Epithelial expression of TNFalpha was focal in about 50% of tooth germs and ameloblastomas, and TNFalpha expression in neoplastic cells was significantly higher in follicular ameloblastomas than in plexiform ameloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Ameloblastoma / metabolism. Apoptosis. Jaw Neoplasms / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. Caspase 8. Caspases / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. NF-kappa B / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Statistics, Nonparametric. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand. Tooth Germ / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Peptides and Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15817072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFRSF10A protein, human; 0 / TNFRSF10B protein, human; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP8 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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31. Oliveira-Neto HH, Spíndula-Filho JV, Dallara MC, Silva CM, Mendonça EF, Batista AC: Unicystic ameloblastoma in a child: a differential diagnosis from the dentigerous cyst and the inflammatory follicular cyst. J Dent Child (Chic); 2007 Sep-Dec;74(3):245-9
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  • [Title] Unicystic ameloblastoma in a child: a differential diagnosis from the dentigerous cyst and the inflammatory follicular cyst.
  • Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaws with an aggressive potential that commonly occurs in children.
  • This cystic odontogenic neoplasm is generally asymptomatic and found during routine radiographs.
  • The purposes of this report were to describe a case of UA involving the crown of the unerupted right mandibular second premolar in an 11-year-old girl under orthodontic treatment, and discuss its diagnosis and radiographic and microscopic findings, emphasizing its distinction from the dentigerous cyst and the inflammatory follicular cyst.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bicuspid / physiopathology. Child. Dentigerous Cyst / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Humans. Tooth, Unerupted / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18482524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-5068
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dent Child (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Malphettes M, Oksenhendler E, Galicier L, Fieschi C: [Granulomatous disease in common variable immunodeficiency]. Rev Med Interne; 2008 Jan;29(1):28-32
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  • [Transliterated title] Maladie granulomateuse au cours du déficit immunitaire commun variable.
  • Repeated bacterial infections and/or autoimmune manifestations and/or benign lymphoproliferation (including follicular hyperplasia and/or granulomatous disease) are the hallmark of the disease.
  • Rare polymorphisms in the gene encoding TNFalpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor) have been identified in CVID patients with granulomatous disease.

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  • (PMID = 18054123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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33. Itoh A, Iwase K, Jimbo S, Yamamoto H, Yamamoto N, Kokubo M, Senda T, Nakai A, Nagagasaka A, Nagasaka T, Hibi Y, Seko T: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and presence of angiovascular cells in tissues from different thyroid disorders. World J Surg; 2010 Feb;34(2):242-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in tumor angiogenesis and other pathophysiological processes.
  • RESULTS: Vascular endothelial growth factor was not detected in normal thyroid follicular cells.
  • However, some thyroid tumor cells expressed VEGF in the cytoplasm (papillary carcinoma, 10/18; follicular carcinoma, 1/3; medullary carcinoma, 2/2; follicular adenoma, 3/11; adenomatous goiter, 2/4).
  • In benign follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter, weak expression of VEGF was found in small areas of the tumor, whereas in malignant thyroid tumors, it was strongly expressed in many cells.
  • Angiovascular cells stained with CD34 antibody in tissues from different thyroid disorders reflected statistically significant differences in papillary carcinoma, follicular adenoma, and Graves' disease compared with normal thyroids, and such cells showed a trend toward increases in medullary carcinoma and adenomatous goiter.
  • In contrast, low vascularity was observed in anaplastic carcinoma, malignant lymphoma, and follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because VEGF probably functions as a hypoxia-inducible angiogenic factor, overexpression of this mediator, concomitant with hypervascularity, may be induced more strongly in malignant thyroid tumors, which need more oxygen to proliferate, than in benign follicular tumors.
  • However, neither VEGF nor CD34 was expressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is an extremely poorly differentiated malignant tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20041248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
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  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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34. Lee KJ, Jung YS, Kim WH, Yoon TI, Joo HJ, Soh EY: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human thyroid disease. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Feb;31(2):111-8
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  • METHODS: We used immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis to characterize the expression of COX-2 proteins in thyroid tissues from 64 patients with thyroiditis, benign tumors, and malignant tumors with or without metastasis.
  • However, each type of tumor tissue showed intense bands of COX-2 protein expression in Western blot analyses, and the immunoreactivity scores were 7.67+/-1.17 (SD) for thyroiditis, 7.87+/-0.9 for benign tumors, 7.53+/-1.53 for follicular cancer, 7.63+/-1.11 for papillary cancer without metastasis, and 7.17+/-1.55 for papillary cancer with metastasis.
  • No significant differences were found in the levels of COX-2 expression between different tumor tissue types.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18362501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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35. Torregrossa L, Faviana P, Filice ME, Materazzi G, Miccoli P, Vitti P, Fontanini G, Melillo RM, Santoro M, Basolo F: CXC chemokine receptor 4 immunodetection in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: comparison to galectin-3 and hector battifora mesothelial cell-1. Thyroid; 2010 May;20(5):495-504
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  • [Title] CXC chemokine receptor 4 immunodetection in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: comparison to galectin-3 and hector battifora mesothelial cell-1.
  • BACKGROUND: The cytological discrimination between benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid can represent a diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists.
  • METHODS: Expression of CXCR4, HBME-1, and gal-3 was examined immunohistochemically in total of 100 aspirates of thyroid lesions, categorized as benign (n = 22), indeterminate lesion (n = 43), suspicious of papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 10), or malignant (n = 25) by preoperative cytology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An immunohistochemical panel, including CXCR4, could be useful in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant well-differentiated follicular-patterned thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / chemistry. Receptors, CXCR4 / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20450430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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36. Slosar M, Vohra P, Prasad M, Fischer A, Quinlan R, Khan A: Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):149-57
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate IMP3 expression in thyroid follicular lesions, to determine whether it has a role in differentiating among these lesions, and to understand their biological relationships.
  • We immunostained 219 thyroid lesions selected from our surgical pathology archives including 14 hyperplastic colloid nodules (CN), 19 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), two Graves disease (GD), ten Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA), 20 follicular adenoma (FA), 37 conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 60 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), 19 Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 32 follicular carcinoma (FC), and six poorly differentiated/anaplastic carcinoma.
  • No significant correlation was found between pathologic tumor characteristics and IMP3 expression in differentiated follicular pattern thyroid carcinoma.
  • With 100% specificity and 69% sensitivity for FC as compared to FA and 100% specificity for FVPC, again compared to FA, IMP3 has the potential to be diagnostically useful in differentiating malignant and benign follicular pattern thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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37. Arnaldi LA, Borra RC, Maciel RM, Cerutti JM: Gene expression profiles reveal that DCN, DIO1, and DIO2 are underexpressed in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):210-21
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiles reveal that DCN, DIO1, and DIO2 are underexpressed in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • To investigate the molecular events involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of thyroid tumors, we compared the gene expression profiles of three thyroid carcinoma cell lines, which represent major tumor subtypes of thyroid cancer and normal thyroid tissue.
  • Using cDNA array methodology, we investigated the expression of 1807 open reading frame expressed sequence tags (ORESTES), selected from head and neck tumor libraries generated through the Brazilian Human Cancer Project-LICR/FAPESP.
  • DCN was found underexpressed in a high percentage of the follicular thyroid adenomas, follicular thyroid carcinomas, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • These genes not only could help to better define a tumor signature for thyroid tumors, but may, in part, also become useful as potential targets for thyroid tumor treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Decorin. Extracellular Matrix Proteins. Female. Humans. Isoenzymes / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Open Reading Frames. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15785240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DCN protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Decorin; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Proteoglycans; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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38. Terada T: Brain metastasis from thyroid adenomatous nodules or an encapsulated thyroid follicular tumor without capsular and vascular invasion: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7180
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis from thyroid adenomatous nodules or an encapsulated thyroid follicular tumor without capsular and vascular invasion: a case report.
  • Because benign-appearing thyroid nodules with metastasis are very rare, the author reports herein four thyroid nodules (one follicular adenoma and three adenomatous nodules) with brain metastasis.
  • Imaging modalities revealed four distinct nodules in the thyroid, and tumorectomies of all nodules were performed under the clinical diagnosis of benign thyroid nodules.
  • Grossly, one of them was a completely encapsulated tumor (35 mm in diameter).
  • Microscopically, the largest tumor was an encapsulated follicular adenoma.
  • The tumor consisted of normofollicles and microfollicles surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
  • Thus, the largest tumor was diagnosed as follicular thyroid adenoma.
  • However, six years later, the patient showed a brain metastasis of thyroid tumor composed of macrofollicles without cellular and nuclear atypia.
  • A diagnosis of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma was made.
  • The present case suggests that benign thyroid nodules can metastasize.

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  • (PMID = 19829930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740070
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39. Vera Sempere FJ, Artes Martínez MJ, Vera Sirera B, Bonet Marco J: Follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: immunohistochemical study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2006 Jul;11(4):E305-8
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  • [Title] Follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: immunohistochemical study.
  • Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign odontogenic lesion that affects young patients, with female predominance, mainly in second decade, showing a radiolucent unilocular image associated with an unerupted tooth, usually a canine.
  • In spite of previous and confusing denominations, such as adenoameloblastoma or adenomatoid ameloblastic tumor, AOT is a benign tumor with a very low rate of recurrence, that show a peculiar morphological picture (basaloid appearance with glandular-like structures, calcifying areas, and amiloid-like material) that allow its histopathological recognition.
  • We present a clinicopathological analysis of a case of follicular AOT affecting the mandible in a 9 years-old female patient associated with unerupted lower left canine.
  • According to its benign character and low potential for recurrence, AOT revealed a scant proliferative activity (2-3% nuclei showed Ki-67 positivity) limited to some epithelial nodules (AE1-3 +) of fusiform appearance.

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  • (PMID = 16816813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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40. Bowen AR, LeBoit PE: Fibroepithelioma of pinkus is a fenestrated trichoblastoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):149-54
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  • The delineation of trichoblastoma as the general term for the benign counterpart of BCC raises the possibility that the fibroepithelioma of Pinkus (FEP) would be better classified under that rubric.
  • All FEP examined show a blunt interface with the underlying dermis (where one could be seen), differentiation toward follicular bulbs and papillae, and large areas of cellular stroma.
  • FEP also shows retention of Merkel cells, a characteristic of benign neoplasms with follicular germinative differentiation but not in general of BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification. Hair Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / classification. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 15798442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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41. Kumamoto H, Ooya K: Immunohistochemical detection of MT1-MMP, RECK, and EMMPRIN in ameloblastic tumors. J Oral Pathol Med; 2006 Jul;35(6):345-51
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  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical reactivity for MT1-MMP, RECK and EMMPRIN was detected predominantly in odontogenic epithelial cells near the basement membrane in tooth germs and benign and malignant ameloblastic tumors.
  • The level of immunoreactivity for MT1-MMP was slightly higher in benign and malignant ameloblastic tumors than in tooth germs.
  • Follicular ameloblastomas showed significantly lower expression of RECK than plexiform ameloblastomas, and immunoreactivity for RECK in acanthomatous ameloblastomas was slightly lower than that in other cellular variants.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of MT1-MMP, RECK and EMMPRIN in tooth germs and ameloblastic tumors suggests that these normal and neoplastic epithelial components control MMP-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation during tooth development and tumor progression via epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

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  • (PMID = 16762015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RECK protein, human; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases, Membrane-Associated
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42. Barut F, Onak Kandemir N, Bektas S, Bahadir B, Keser S, Ozdamar SO: Universal markers of thyroid malignancies: galectin-3, HBME-1, and cytokeratin-19. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):80-9
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  • This study has been carried on to evaluate the role of immunohistochemical markers including galectin-3, Hector Battifora mesothelial cell-1 (HBME-1), and cytokeratin-19 in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Although focal galectin-3, HBME-1, and cytokeratin-19 expression may be encountered in benign lesions, diffuse positive reactions for these three markers are characteristic of malignant lesions.
  • It has concluded that cytokeratin-19 alone and its combinations with other markers were more sensitive in accurate diagnosis of papillary carcinoma than the other combinations; meanwhile, there were similar results for follicular carcinomas with HBME-1 alone and its combinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Keratin-19 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20198455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19
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43. Hedayati M, Kołomecki K, Pasieka Z, Korzeniowska M, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of VEGF and VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):252-8
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  • [Title] [Assessment of VEGF and VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors].
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of crucial angiogenic cytokine VEGF and its soluble receptors in peripheral blood of patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The study comprised 35 patients with thyroid cancer and 10 patients with follicular neoplasm, both diagnosed by means of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Analysing obtained results, we demonstrated high VEGF concentrations and low soluble VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Disequilibrium of the above-mentioned angiogenic factor concentrations is probably essential for the growth and progression of benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16350718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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44. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P: New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Dec;14(4):957-77
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  • [Title] New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy.
  • Whereas the prevalence of nodular thyroid disease worldwide is high, malignant conversion from benign thyroid nodules is rare.
  • The most common type of thyroid cancer--papillary thyroid carcinoma--stands out among solid tumours because many of the tumour-initiating events have been identified.
  • All of them function in a single pathway--the RTK/RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway--and obey an 'exclusivity principle': one and only one component of the pathway is mutated in a single tumour.
  • This highlights the requirement of this signal transduction pathway for the transformation to thyroid cancer and paves the way to targeted therapies against a tumour with a mutation in a known gene or any gene upstream of the target.
  • In this review, we attempt to summarise the most recent advances in thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers research and their potential clinical impact that may change the management of thyroid cancer in the near future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Multigene Family. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


45. Soini Y, Talvensaari-Mattila A: Expression of claudins 1, 4, 5, and 7 in ovarian tumors of diverse types. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Oct;25(4):330-5
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  • Strong expression of claudins 1, 4, and 7 was seen in benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • On the contrary, sex-cord stromal tumors and cysts, such as fibromas/thecomas, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, granulosa cell tumors, and follicular and luteinized cysts were mainly negative for claudins 1, 4, 5, and 7.
  • No significant difference was seen between epithelial benign and malignant lesions, except for claudin 5, which seemed stronger in malignant epithelial tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatoid Tumor / chemistry. Brenner Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma / chemistry. Claudin-1. Claudin-4. Claudin-5. Claudins. Dysgerminoma / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Krukenberg Tumor / chemistry. Ovarian Cysts. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / chemistry. Teratoma / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16990707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN5 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudin-5; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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46. Finn SP, Smyth P, Cahill S, Streck C, O'Regan EM, Flavin R, Sherlock J, Howells D, Henfrey R, Cullen M, Toner M, Timon C, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy. Virchows Arch; 2007 Mar;450(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy.
  • The most common sub-variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the so-called follicular variant (FVPTC), which is a particularly problematic lesion and can be challenging from a diagnostic viewpoint even in resected lesions.
  • We used the recently developed Applied Biosystems 1700 microarray system to interrogate a series of 11 benign thyroid lesions and conditions and 14 samples of PTC (six with classic morphology and eight with follicular variant morphology).
  • Diminished expression of metallothioneins featured strongly among these and suggests a possible role for this family as tumour suppressors in PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17252232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.7.- / Taq Polymerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1888716
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47. Levy R, Grafi-Cohen M, Kraiem Z, Kloog Y: Galectin-3 promotes chronic activation of K-Ras and differentiation block in malignant thyroid carcinomas. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Aug;9(8):2208-19
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  • Therefore, it is not known whether chronically active Ras contributes to thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation, although galectin-3 (Gal-3), which is strongly expressed in thyroid carcinomas but not in benign tumors or normal glands, is known to act as a K-Ras chaperone that stabilizes and drives K-Ras.GTP nanoclustering and signal robustness.
  • Using cell lines representing three types of malignant thyroid tumors--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic--we investigated the possible correlation between Gal-3 expression and active Ras content, and then examined the therapeutic potential of the Ras inhibitor S-trans, trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS; Salirasib) for thyroid carcinoma.
  • FTS also inhibited anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Membrane / drug effects. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Farnesol / analogs & derivatives. Farnesol / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Guanosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Humans. Mice. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Protein Transport / drug effects. Salicylates / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20682656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Salicylates; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / farnesylthiosalicylic acid; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 4602-84-0 / Farnesol; 86-01-1 / Guanosine Triphosphate; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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48. Shimanovich I, Krahl D, Rose C: Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Feb;62(2):277-83
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  • [Title] Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoadenoma is a rare benign follicular tumor first described by Nikolowski 50 years ago.
  • In trichoadenoma the cystic component predominates, while desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a mostly solid neoplasm.
  • Trichoadenoma is a distinct follicular tumor related but not identical to desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Male. Merkel Cells / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20115950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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49. de Souza Meyer EL, Dora JM, Wagner MS, Maia AL: Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentation towards papillary carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jun;62(6):672-8
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  • We have investigated D1 expression in a series of benign and malignant differentiated thyroid neoplasias.
  • DESIGN: Surgically isolated thyroid tumour fragments were used.
  • PATIENTS: Tumours and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 28 unselected patients (papillary carcinoma, n = 14; follicular adenoma, n = 7; follicular carcinoma, n = 6; anaplastic carcinoma, n = 1).
  • By contrast, significantly higher D1 mRNA levels and enzyme activity were present in follicular adenoma (1.9 +/- 1.5 vs. 0.83 +/- 0.58 AU, P = 0.028 and 2.67 +/- 1.42 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.06 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P = 0.044, respectively) and in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) than in surrounding normal tissue (1.2 +/- 0.46 vs. 0.67 +/- 0.18 AU, P = 0.038 and 1.20 +/- 0.58 vs. 0.20 +/- 0.10 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P < 0.001, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemistry. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Female. Humans. Linear Models. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15943828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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50. Edinger JT, Kant JA, Swerdlow SH: Cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas have distinctive features and include 2 subsets. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;34(12):1830-41
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  • The class-switched cases had a predominance of T cells in 22 out of 23 cases with a CD4:CD8>1 in 15 out of 16 cases, usually showed nodules and scattered small B cells often with IgD apparently nonneoplastic follicles, lacked CXCR3 B-cell expression, never showed a totally diffuse growth pattern, often had prominent mast cells, and lacked known extracutaneous involvement.
  • The IgM cases showed a predominance of B cells in 5 out of 6 (P=0.0003), a diffuse proliferation of CD20 B cells in all (P<0.0001), CXCR3+ B cells in 2 out of 5 (P<0.04), and extracutaneous disease in 3 out of 6 (P<0.008).
  • CD21 usually disrupted follicular dendritic meshworks were seen in 9 out of 12 class-switched and 5 out of 5 IgM cases.
  • CD123 plasmacytoid dendritic cells, PD1+ T follicular helper cells, CD25 or FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, and TIA1/granzyme B cytotoxic cells were never numerous.
  • These findings support the presence of 2 types of cutaneous MALT lymphomas with the class-switched cases being the most distinctive but still sharing significant features with MALT lymphomas from other sites, specifically an extranodal extramedullary CD5-, CD10- indolent small B cell lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation, frequent benign follicular structures, and not fulfilling the criteria for any other well-defined lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin Class Switching. Immunoglobulins / genetics. Immunoglobulins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Receptors, CXCR3 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21107089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCR3 protein, human; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Receptors, CXCR3
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51. Weyers W, Hörster S, Diaz-Cascajo C: Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):634-41
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  • [Title] Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor of follicular infundibulum (TFI) is currently thought to be a benign epithelial neoplasm with follicular differentiation.
  • We reexamined 24 cases of TFI and noted, often only focally, many changes typical of BCC, including palisading of cells at the periphery of aggregations, germinative cells, follicular germs in the absence of a follicular papilla, crowding of cells, individual necrotic neoplastic cells, fibromucinous stroma, and clefts between aggregations of neoplastic cells and stroma.

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  • (PMID = 19652582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Galinier P, Carfagna L, Delsol M, Ballouhey Q, Lemasson F, Le Mandat A, Moscovici J, Guitard J, Pienkowski C, Vaysse P: Ovarian torsion. Management and ovarian prognosis: a report of 45 cases. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Sep;44(9):1759-65
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  • Underlying pathology was benign in 22 cases and low-grade malignancy in 2 (one grade II immature teratoma and one steroid cell tumor).
  • At follow-up, 17 ovaries were follicular, 7 being black-bluish during surgery.

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  • (PMID = 19735822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Hemerly JP, Bastos AU, Cerutti JM: Identification of several novel non-p.R132 IDH1 variants in thyroid carcinomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):747-55
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  • RESULTS: We identified four novel and two previously described non-synonymous variants in thyroid carcinomas, which were absent in benign tumours and paired normal thyroid.
  • Although IDH1 variants occurred at higher frequency in follicular thyroid carcinomas, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas than the observed variants in classical PTC (15/72 vs 3/37), it was not significant (P=0.1).
  • Our findings not only extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying pathogenesis of thyroid tumours, but also emphasize the biological differences between tumour types.

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  • (PMID = 20702649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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54. Zalutskiĭ IV, Vishnevskaia EE, Kurian LM: [Methodologic and organizational principles of selective screening for cervical, endometrial and ovarian carcinoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2006;52(1):74-7
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  • The rates of detection of such tumor-like ovarian formations as follicular, lutein, endometrioid and para-ovarian cysts increased 2.3-fold, benign tumors--2.2-fold and polycystosis--twofold.


55. Park YJ, Kwak SH, Kim DC, Kim H, Choe G, Park DJ, Jang HC, Park SH, Cho BY, Park SY: Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Aug;22(4):621-8
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  • The distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors is critical for the management of patients with thyroid nodules.
  • Combining these markers, co-expression of galectin-3 and CK19 or galectin-3 and HBME-1 was seen in 93.2% of carcinomas but in none of the benign nodules.
  • Comparing follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) with follicular carcinoma (FC), the expression of galectin-3, CK19, and HMWCK was significantly higher in FVPC.
  • These results suggest that 1) galectin-3 is a useful marker in the distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors, 2) the combined use of HBME-1 and CK19 can increase the diagnostic accuracy, and 3) the use of CK19 and HMWCK can aid in the differential diagnosis between PC and FC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Keratin-19 / analysis. Keratins / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17728499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Keratin-19; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693809
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56. Vankalakunti M, Kaur J, Srinivasan R: Cytology of sarcoma metastasizing to the thyroid: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2008 Nov-Dec;52(6):729-32
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  • FNA smears from the thyroid swelling showed discretely lying and loosely cohesive clusters of malignant cells admixed with benign thyroid follicular cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytological Techniques. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19068681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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57. Hafner C, Schmiemann V, Ruetten A, Coras B, Landthaler M, Reifenberger J, Vogt T: PTCH mutations are not mainly involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic trichoblastomas. Hum Pathol; 2007 Oct;38(10):1496-500
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  • Trichoblastomas are rare, benign tumors of the appendix in human skin.
  • The histopathology comprises elements of basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma with a variable degree of follicular differentiation.
  • This mutation at codon 1,315 represents an already described PTCH germline polymorphism and results in a heterozygous Pro to Leu substitution in the tumor.
  • The genetic basis of this rare appendageal tumor remains elusive.

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  • (PMID = 17597182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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58. Kobayashi K, Fukata S, Miyauchi A: Diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: role of sonography in preoperative diagnosis of follicular nodules. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2005 Dec;32(4):153-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: role of sonography in preoperative diagnosis of follicular nodules.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate sonographic examination, as well as other clinical tests, for clarifying the parameters for predicting follicular carcinoma in follicular nodules of the thyroid.
  • Nine hundred and ten consecutive patients with follicular nodules were pathologically classified as having follicular carcinoma (109 patients) or benign tumor (811 patients).
  • Benign tumors included follicular adenoma (237 patients) and adenomatous thyroid nodules (574 patients).
  • A case-control study was performed for follicular carcinomas and benign tumors.
  • "Thyroglobulin 1000 ng/ml≦", "cytology class 3≦", and a "solid pattern", "low-echoic level of internal echo", and "jagged borders" of follicular carcinomas were found to be significantly higher than those of benign tumors.
  • We concluded that thyroglobulin 1000 ng/ml≦ and cytology class 3≦ in clinical features, and a solid pattern, low-echoic level, and jagged borders on sonography, indicated an increased risk of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid in follicular nodules.

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  • (PMID = 27277482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cytology / follicular carcinoma / sonography / thyroglobulin / thyroid
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59. Coli A, Bigotti G, Parente P, Federico F, Castri F, Massi G: Atypical thyroid nodules express both HBME-1 and Galectin-3, two phenotypic markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jun;26(2):221-7
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  • Thirty nodules with cytological atypia, 49 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 4 follicular carcinomas and 13 oxyphilic tumors were examined.
  • We conclude that thyroid nodules with cytological atypia and strong/diffuse positivity for both HBME-1 and Galectin-3, two well recognized markers of PTC, represent a starting phenotypic change towards PTC, for which a benign or borderline counterpart has not yet been defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17725102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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60. Kumamoto H, Ooya K: Immunohistochemical detection of insulin-like growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor, and their receptors in ameloblastic tumors. J Oral Pathol Med; 2007 Apr;36(4):198-206
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  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical reactivity for IGFs, PDGF chains, and their receptors was detected predominantly in odontogenic epithelial cells near the basement membrane in tooth germs and in benign and malignant ameloblastic tumors.
  • Malignant ameloblastic tumors showed higher reactivity for PDGF chains than benign ameloblastomas and higher reactivity for platelet-derived growth factor receptors than tooth germs.
  • The expression levels of PDGF chains were significantly higher in follicular ameloblastomas than in plexiform ameloblastomas.
  • Altered expression of the ligands and receptors in ameloblastic tumors may be involved in oncogenesis, malignant potential, and tumor cell differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 17391297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis; 0 / Receptors, Somatomedin; 0 / platelet-derived growth factor A; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
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61. Roberts SS, Mendonça-Torres MC, Jensen K, Francis GL, Vasko V: GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Dec;15(4):645-50
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  • [Title] GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • We examined the expression patterns of the GABAergic system in 70 human thyroid tumor samples (13 follicular adenomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 43 papillary carcinomas) and adjacent normal thyroid by immunohistochemistry.
  • GABAA alpha2 was detected in metastatic-derived but not in primary-tumor derived cell lines.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-A / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-B / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19381877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / GABARAP protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 0 / Receptors, GABA-B
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62. Lo CY, Lam KY, Leung PP, Luk JM: High prevalence of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):545-50
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  • Its incidence of expression and potential application as a tumor marker remain to be elucidated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression was performed for 30 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 40 benign thyroid specimens.
  • RESULTS: COX-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 27 of 30 (90%) PTC but was absent in 40 benign thyroid specimens, including 27 nodular hyperplasia, 7 follicular adenoma and 6 lymphocytic thyroiditis.
  • Two of the three COX-2 negative carcinomas were follicular variant of PTC.
  • Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the level of COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in PTC than in both the adjacent non-cancerous tissues and the benign thyroid specimens.
  • CONCLUSION: COX-2 is frequently expressed in PTC but not in benign thyroid specimens.

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  • (PMID = 15817909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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63. Matsuo SE, Fiore AP, Siguematu SM, Ebina KN, Friguglietti CU, Ferro MC, Kulcsar MA, Kimura ET: Expression of SMAD proteins, TGF-beta/activin signaling mediators, in human thyroid tissues. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):406-12
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  • Although TGF-beta and activin exert antiproliferative roles in thyroid follicular cells, thyroid tumors express high levels of these proteins.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protein expression of SMADs was evaluated in multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: The expression of pSMAD2/3, SMAD4 and SMAD7 was observed in both benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Although pSMAD2/3, SMAD4 and SMAD7 exhibited high cytoplasmic staining in carcinomas, the nuclear staining of pSMAD2/3 was not different between benign and malignant lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding of SMADs expression in thyroid cells and the presence of pSMAD2/3 and SMAD4 proteins in the nucleus of tumor cells indicates propagation of TGF-beta/activin signaling.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Humans. Signal Transduction / physiology. Smad2 Protein / analysis. Smad3 Protein / analysis. Smad4 Protein / analysis. Smad7 Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20625653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SMAD2 protein, human; 0 / SMAD3 protein, human; 0 / SMAD4 protein, human; 0 / SMAD7 protein, human; 0 / Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Smad4 Protein; 0 / Smad7 Protein; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 104625-48-1 / Activins
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64. Isaacson PG: Haematopathology practice: the commonest problems encountered in a consultation practice. Histopathology; 2007 Jun;50(7):821-34
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  • Problems encountered by non-specialist pathologists, and reflected in those cases submitted for consultation, include difficulties in the differential diagnosis of certain benign lymphoproliferative disorders from lymphoma and the precise classification of lymphomas which may have an impact on therapeutic decisions.
  • Lymphomas that frequently pose problems include common lesions such as follicular lymphoma and more esoteric disorders such as T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Great Britain. Humans. Professional Practice. Referral and Consultation

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  • (PMID = 17543071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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65. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):767-74
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  • We hypothesized that genes that regulate cell-cycle progression would be differentially expressed in malignant versus benign thyroid nodules and could serve as diagnostic markers and markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • METHODS: We used a cDNA array with 96 cell-cycle regulatory genes to identify differentially expressed genes in pooled benign versus malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Genes up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold in malignant thyroid neoplasms were further evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 95 patients with hyperplastic nodules (n = 19), follicular adenoma (n = 19), follicular thyroid cancer (n = 19), the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19), and papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19).
  • Real-time quantitative PCR showed that MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression were significantly higher in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms (< or = 0.0012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 are overexpressed in malignant thyroid neoplasms of follicular cell origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression. Humans. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16547620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 139691-42-2 / rad9 protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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66. Máximo V, Lima J, Soares P, Botelho T, Gomes L, Sobrinho-Simões M: Mitochondrial D-Loop instability in thyroid tumours is not a marker of malignancy. Mitochondrion; 2005 Oct;5(5):333-40
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  • Despite the numerous studies describing a high frequency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) somatic mutations in many types of human primary tumors the mechanisms that generate such mutations and the role of mtDNA mutations in tumor development remain unclear.
  • We present the results obtained in the study of mtDNA displacement-loop (D-Loop) region in a series of 66 thyroid tumors, and respective adjacent parenchyma, including benign (adenomas, n=30) and malignant tumors (follicular carcinomas, n=17 and papillary carcinomas, n=19).
  • Thirty-two (48.5%) of the 66 tumors [15/30 (50.0%) adenomas, 8/17 (47.1%) follicular carcinomas and 9/19 (47.4%) papillary carcinomas] harbored somatic insertions in D-Loop repetitive regions.
  • Twenty (30.3%) of the 66 tumors [12/30 (40%) adenomas, 3/17 (17.6%) follicular carcinomas and 5/19 (26.3%) papillary carcinomas] harbored somatic insertions at the D310 mononucleotide repeat.
  • Three (4.6%) of the 66 tumors [1/30 (3.3%) adenomas and 2/17 (11.8%) follicular carcinomas] harbored somatic insertions at the D568 mononucleotide repeat.
  • Fifteen (22.7%) of the 66 tumors [3/30 (10.0%) adenomas, 5/17 (29.4%) follicular carcinomas and 7/19 (36.8%) papillary carcinomas] harbored somatic insertions at the D514 dinucleotide repeat.
  • Five (7.6%) of the 66 tumors [1/30 (3.3%) adenomas, 1/17 (5.9%) follicular carcinomas and 2/19 (10.5%) papillary carcinomas] harbored somatic insertions in more than one region, and in one of them (a carcinoma) alterations were detected in the three regions.
  • We conclude that mutations in the mtDNA D-Loop region are frequent in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and cannot be considered a marker of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Mitochondria / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Base Sequence. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA / metabolism. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / metabolism. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid

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  • (PMID = 16183030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-7249
  • [Journal-full-title] Mitochondrion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mitochondrion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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67. Bufalo NE, Leite JL, Guilhen AC, Morari EC, Granja F, Assumpcao LV, Ward LS: Smoking and susceptibility to thyroid cancer: an inverse association with CYP1A1 allelic variants. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Dec;13(4):1185-93
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  • A total of 248 patients with thyroid nodules, including 67 benign goiters, 13 follicular adenomas, 136 papillary carcinomas, and 32 follicular carcinomas, and 277 controls with similar ethnic backgrounds were interviewed on their lifetime dietary and occupational histories, smoking habit, previous diseases, and other anamnestic data.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alleles. Case-Control Studies. Female. Genetic Variation. Genotype. Glutathione S-Transferase pi / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


68. Orii T, Takeda H, Kawata S, Maeda K, Yamakawa M: Differential immunophenotypic analysis of dendritic cell tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Jun;63(6):497-503
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  • Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma was distinguished from other DC tumours by the lack of DC-SIGN, Langerin and DCE-205.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Langerin can be used to distinguish LCS from IDCS, and DC-SIGN and DEC-205 can be used to identify DC tumour cells.
  • The frequency of cell-cycle-associated markers can be used for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign DC tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Dendritic Cell Sarcoma, Interdigitating / diagnosis. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / diagnosis. Langerhans Cell Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Child. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Forkhead Transcription Factors / analysis. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20439325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Histones; 0 / IL3RA protein, human; 0 / Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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69. Pagedar NA, Chen DH, Wasman JK, Savvides P, Schluchter MD, Wilhelm SM, Lavertu P: Molecular classification of thyroid nodules by cytology. Laryngoscope; 2008 Apr;118(4):692-6
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  • Recent studies have characterized differences in gene expression between benign and malignant conditions, most often using whole tissue.
  • RT-PCR revealed satisfactory RNA recovery in all other specimens. qPCR showed significant over-expression of fibronectin in the papillary carcinomas compared with the goiters (P = .0013), follicular adenomas (P = .0014), and follicular carcinomas (P = .0001).
  • Differences in both fibronectin and MUC1 expression between the follicular carcinomas and the follicular adenomas were also significant (P = .025 and .045, respectively).
  • Both fibronectin and MUC1 were differentially expressed in follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas, and fibronectin expression differed in papillary carcinomas compared with the other lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Feasibility Studies. Fibronectins / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Molecular Biology. Mucin-1 / analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prospective Studies. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met. Receptors, Growth Factor / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18094649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / tumor-associated antigen GA733; EC 2.7.10.1 / MET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met
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70. Troncone G, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Palmieri EA, Volante M, Papotti M, Viglietto G, Palombini L: Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):377-81
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  • [Title] Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma expresses more p27 than benign oxyphilic lesions do.
  • The expression of cyclin D3 and p27 was significantly higher in the oxyphilic variant of follicular carcinomas than in non-oxyphilic carcinomas (p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that increased p27 expression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma results from cyclin D3 overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cyclin D3. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16798934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCND3 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D3; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001124
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71. Jarząb M, Lange D: Endogenous avidin biotin activity (EABA) in thyroid pathology: immunohistochemical study. Thyroid Res; 2009 Apr 08;2(1):5
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunohistochemical study was performed on paraffin-embedded specimens of surgically resected thyroid tissue from 97 patients with thyroid diseases: 65 patients with papillary carcinoma (PTC), 11 patients with nodular goiter in whom features of benign papillary hyperplasia were found, 9 with lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT), 8 with follicular adenoma, and 4 patients with follicular carcinoma.
  • Significant correlation between EABA in primary PTC tumor and EABA in lymph node metastases was stated.

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  • (PMID = 19351422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-6614
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678080
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72. Eszlinger M, Krohn K, Berger K, Läuter J, Kropf S, Beck M, Führer D, Paschke R: Gene expression analysis reveals evidence for increased expression of cell cycle-associated genes and Gq-protein-protein kinase C signaling in cold thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):1163-70
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  • In contrast to the molecular etiology of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules, the molecular cause of cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), their benign, functional inactive counterparts, are so far largely unknown.
  • Because of the partially dedifferentiated phenotype of CTNs, alterations in signaling cascades that favor proliferation, but not differentiation, are likely candidates for tumor induction and progression.
  • The importance of RAS mutations for the development of benign nodules with follicular histology is still in question.

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  • (PMID = 15522933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
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73. Allen M, Sapinho I, Raposo L, Torrinha J: [Cyto-histological correlation of malignant thyroid nodules: clinical factors as predictors of malignancy]. Acta Med Port; 2008 Mar-Apr;21(2):135-40
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  • [Transliterated title] Correlação cito-histológica de nódulos da tiróide: características clínicas de malignidade.
  • INTRODUCTION: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is routinely used to distinguish benign from malignant tumors in thyroid nodules.
  • Most benign or malignant diagnosis are confirmed by histology, but for suspected malignancies (Follicular neoplasm and Hürthle-cell neoplasm histology is always required.
  • AIM: To determine the correlation between FNA and histological diagnosis in malignant tumors at Hospital de Egas Moniz.
  • Identify factors that may influence the risk of malignancy in patients with suspected malignancies (Tumor size, gender and age group).
  • All patients were subsequently diagnosed by histology and age, sex and tumor dimension were also recorded.
  • Among the suspicious FNA 25 were benign (23 female and 2 male, mean age of 54,3 +/-17 yo and mean nodule size of 2,8 +/- 1,8 cm) and nine (26,5%) were malignant (all female, mean age 68,3 +/- 13 yo and mean nodule size 2,67 +/- 1,5 cm).
  • Age and tumor size were strong predictors of malignancy in patients with suspected malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 18625092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1646-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta médica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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74. He X, Wei Q, Zhang X, Xiao J, Jin X, Zhu Y, Cui B, Ning G: Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Oct 15;206(10):712-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In different tumor entities, expression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been linked to tumor dissemination and poor prognosis.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In our study, the CXCR4 expression of the thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) was found to be higher than in the benign lesion group (including 19 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 nodular goiters, and 50 follicular adenomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Within the carcinoma group, the more malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) showed a higher ratio of CXCR4 positivity compared to the less malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas) (p<0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, CXCR4 / analysis. Thyroid Diseases / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Goiter, Nodular / immunology. Hashimoto Disease / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20646838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; Thyroid cancer, medullary; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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75. Sahin M, Sengul A, Berki Z, Tutuncu NB, Guvener ND: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and ultrasonographic features of infracentimetric nodules in patients with nodular goiter: correlation with pathological findings. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(1):67-74
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  • The cytopathological results of 472 US-FNABs from 207 nodular goiter patients (170 women, 37 men; mean age, 51.5 +/- 13.1 yr) seen between 1999 and 2004 were categorized into five groups: inadequate, benign, suspicious, follicular neoplasm, and malignant.
  • In conclusion, small tumor size does not guarantee a low risk of thyroid cancer, and US-FNAB may be useful tool for diagnosing malignant infracentimetric nodules.

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  • (PMID = 16760582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Massaro F, Dolcino M, Degrandi R, Ferone D, Mussap M, Minuto F, Giusti M: Calcitonin assay in wash-out fluid after fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with a thyroid nodule and border-line value of the hormone. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Apr;32(4):308-12
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  • In 4 patients, CT-FNAB values were higher than the highest values found in our negative controls (30 ng/l), but cytology results were compatible with a benign thyroid lesion and pentagastrin testing was negative.
  • In 3 cases with CT-FNAB <30 ng/l, cytology was indicative of an indeterminate or probably follicular malignant lesion and histology was negative for MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19636196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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77. Finley DJ, Lubitz CC, Wei C, Zhu B, Fahey TJ 3rd: Advancing the molecular diagnosis of thyroid nodules: defining benign lesions by molecular profiling. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):562-8
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  • [Title] Advancing the molecular diagnosis of thyroid nodules: defining benign lesions by molecular profiling.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common and most are benign.
  • Previous data from our laboratory and others has suggested that gene profiling can accurately distinguish between benign and malignant thyroid nodules and provide new leads in the study of thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Current preoperative techniques do not permit distinction between neoplastic and hyperplastic follicular neoplasms.
  • These studies were undertaken to determine whether benign follicular tumors could be subcategorized by molecular profiling.
  • METHODS: Molecular profiles of 8 follicular adenomas and 8 hyperplastic nodules were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray analysis.
  • Seven additional benign follicular lesions were then added to the analysis.
  • A hierarchical clustering analysis was performed on all 23 samples, utilizing the gene list generated from the test set, to examine the groups for potential differences and the ability of the gene list to distinguish tumor types.
  • The analysis was able to identify follicular adenomas with a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 100%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that benign thyroid lesions can be separated into distinct groups through molecular profiling.
  • Expression profiling may ultimately allow us to distinguish potentially malignant from benign follicular nodules.

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  • (PMID = 16029122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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78. Ramos-Ceballos FI, Pashaei S, Kincannon JM, Morgan MB, Smoller BR: Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 May;35(5):477-83
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  • [Title] Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation.
  • Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome (GBFHS) is a rare, recently-described, autosomal-dominantly inherited disorder that presents with disseminated milia, palmoplantar pitting, hypotrichosis and basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFH).
  • BFH is a benign adnexal tumor that resembles basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • In this study, we report two cases of GBFHS and stain BFH, a vellus hair hamartoma (VHH) and a neurofollicular hamartoma (NH) with CD34, bcl-2 and CD10 to characterize and compare the staining patterns of these follicular tumors.
  • These results show the similarities in differentiation between these benign follicular neoplasms and trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Epidermal Cyst / metabolism. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Female. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 May;36(5):603; author reply 604 [19476535.001]
  • (PMID = 18399809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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79. Hommell-Fontaine J, Borda A, Ragage F, Berger N, Decaussin-Petrucci M: Nonconventional papillary thyroid carcinomas with pleomorphic tumor giant cells: a diagnostic pitfall with anaplastic carcinoma. Virchows Arch; 2010 Jun;456(6):661-70
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  • [Title] Nonconventional papillary thyroid carcinomas with pleomorphic tumor giant cells: a diagnostic pitfall with anaplastic carcinoma.
  • The presence of pleomorphic tumor giant cells in thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin is always worrisome for the pathologist as they first of all refer to anaplastic carcinoma, one of the most aggressive human malignancies.
  • However, non-anaplastic pleomorphic giant cells are well described in other thyroid diseases, most often benign.
  • In this paper, we describe four cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma displaying pleomorphic tumor giant cells with features that differ from those of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Pleomorphic giant cells were admixed with the underlying thyroid carcinoma and constituted from 5% to 25% of the tumor.
  • These cases show that pleomorphic tumor giant cells arising in papillary thyroid carcinomas do not always represent dedifferentiation and progression to anaplastic carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20414675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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80. Gonçalves AJ, Carvalho LH, Serdeira K, Nakai MY, Malavasi TR: Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):289-91
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de São Paulo.
  • METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B).
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18094897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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81. Bezdekova M, Brychtova S, Sedlakova E, Steigerova J, Hlobilkova A, Bienova M, Kucerova R, Brychta T, Krejci V, Kolar Z: Immunohistochemical assessment of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; 2007 Dec;151(2):251-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas are benign skin neoplasms originating from hair follicle cells.
  • They result from defects in the signaling pathways that regulate hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration.
  • AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate their involvement in benign hair follicle tumor development.
  • RESULTS: The intensity of E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression in tumor cells did not differ from controls.
  • However, normal hair follicles cells exhibited membranous E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression, whereas both types of tumors, particularly trichoepitheliomas, showed E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression with a predominantly cytoplasmic localization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that this dystopic distribution of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex in hair follicle tumor cells may be a marker of cell-cell adhesion disruption which may contribute to the tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / analysis. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18345259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1213-8118
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / beta Catenin
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82. Netea-Maier RT, Hunsucker SW, Hoevenaars BM, Helmke SM, Slootweg PJ, Hermus AR, Haugen BR, Duncan MW: Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms. Cancer Res; 2008 Mar 1;68(5):1572-80
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  • [Title] Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • Distinguishing between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by cytologic features alone is not possible.
  • These findings provide further insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and pathophysiology of follicular-derived thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calreticulin / metabolism. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Peptides / chemistry. Proteomics / methods. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 18316623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calreticulin; 0 / Peptides
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83. Ardigo M, Zieff J, Scope A, Gill M, Spencer P, Deng L, Marghoob AA: Dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscope findings of trichoepithelioma. Dermatology; 2007;215(4):354-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign neoplasms of follicular differentiation.
  • RCM showed oval, darker-appearing tumor islands that contained brightly refractile material, consistent with keratin horn cysts at the center, as well as parallel bundles of highly refractile dermal collagen surrounding the tumor islands.
  • The RCM findings in TE of keratin-filled cysts in tumor islands and attachment of the tumor to follicular structures have not been previously observed in BCC, and thus may also be diagnostically helpful.

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17911996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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84. Papageorgiou MS, Liratzopoulos N, Efremidou EI, Karanikas M, Minipoulos G, Manolas KJ: Multifocality of thyroid carcinomas: a "privilege" of papillary tumors or not? G Chir; 2010 Jan-Feb;31(1-2):20-3
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 80 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy from January 1985 to December 2004 in the First Department of Surgery of University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece, for well-differentiated non-medullary thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular).
  • Patients' medical records and demographics, including age, gender, histological type (papillary, follicular), multiple foci of tumors, overall and specific survival were analyzed.
  • Follicular tumors had a 20% rate, similar to papillary tumors (22,2%), and an impressive multifocal rate of mixed papillary-follicular neoplasms (75%) was found.
  • Finally, survival was not found to be influenced by the multifocality of the tumor, under the prerequisition that total thyroidectomy is applied.
  • If total thyroidectomy is applied in all benign and malignant thyroid diseases, the presence of multiple foci does not affect the prognosis and the survival of the patients.

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  • (PMID = 20298661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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85. Kaspareit J, Friderichs-Gromoll S, Buse E, Habermann G: Spontaneous neoplasms observed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during a 15-year period. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2007 Nov;59(3-4):163-9
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  • The great majority of neoplasms was benign (23 benign neoplasms versus 10 malignant tumors).
  • The age of tumor-bearing animals ranged between 2 years 2 months and 13 years 9 months.
  • Most of the tumors (22) in the cynomolgus monkeys were seen in endocrine organs (adrenal cortical adenoma, adrenal hemangioma, C-cell carcinoma, follicular adenoma), respiratory system (nasal cavity adenoma, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, bronchio-alveolar carcinoma, bronchiolar papilloma, chondromatous hamartoma) and female genital system (uterine polyp, uterine adenoma, uterine leiomyoma and teratoma of the ovary).

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  • (PMID = 17869495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Cerutti JM, Latini FR, Nakabashi C, Delcelo R, Andrade VP, Amadei MJ, Maciel RM, Hojaij FC, Hollis D, Shoemaker J, Riggins GJ: Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3311-8
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  • PURPOSE: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, a standard method for thyroid nodule diagnosis, cannot distinguish between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • The goal of this study was to determine if antibody markers used alone or in combination could accurately distinguish between a wider variety of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in fixed sections and FNA samples.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was done on 27 FTA, 25 FTC, and 75 other benign and malignant thyroid tissue sections using custom antibodies for chromosome 1 open reading frame 24 (C1orf24) and integral membrane protein 1 (ITM1) and commercial antibodies for DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and arginase II (ARG2).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies / immunology. Antibody Specificity. Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Arginase / analysis. Arginase / immunology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Hexosyltransferases / analysis. Hexosyltransferases / immunology. Humans. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Membrane Proteins / immunology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Transcription Factor CHOP / analysis. Transcription Factor CHOP / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16740752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461; United States / PHS HHS / / S98-146
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DDIT3 protein, human; 0 / FAM129A protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147336-12-7 / Transcription Factor CHOP; EC 2.4.1.- / Hexosyltransferases; EC 2.4.99.18 / STT3A protein, human; EC 3.5.3.1 / Arginase; EC 3.5.3.1 / arginase II, human
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87. Prasad ML, Pellegata NS, Huang Y, Nagaraja HN, de la Chapelle A, Kloos RT: Galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, HBME1 and cytokeratin-19 immunohistochemistry is useful for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jan;18(1):48-57
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  • The diagnosis of thyroid tumors is critical for clinical management; however, tumors with follicular architecture often present problems.
  • Tissues from 85 carcinomas (67 papillary, six follicular, eight Hürthle cell and four anaplastic) and 21 adenomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the expression of these gene protein products, for example, galectin-3 (GAL3), fibronectin-1 (FN1), CITED1, cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and HBME1.
  • Coexpression of FN1 and GAL3 (FN1+ GAL3+, 70/85) or FN1 and HBME1 (FN1+ HBME1+, 53/85) was restricted to carcinomas, while their concurrent absence (FN1- GAL3- or FN1- HBME1-, 18/21 adenoma) was highly specific (96%) for benign lesions.
  • An immunohistochemical panel consisting of GAL3, FN1 and HBME1 may be useful in the diagnosis of follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15272279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00034
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CITED1 protein, human; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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88. Jung YH, Kang MS: Composite follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of thyroid gland: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Nov;25(11):1683-7
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  • [Title] Composite follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of thyroid gland: a case report.
  • Pathologically, the tumor had two distinct tumor components with intermingled areas: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Several small cysts lined by benign ciliated columnar epithelia suggesting that this tumor had originated from solid cell nest were seen around the tumor.
  • Tumor cells of papillary carcinoma are positive for TTF-1, thyroglobulin but negative for CEA, calcitonin and p63.

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  • (PMID = 21060764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967012
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / Carcinoma, Papillary / Solid Cell Nests / Thyroid Gland
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89. Guarino V, Faviana P, Salvatore G, Castellone MD, Cirafici AM, De Falco V, Celetti A, Giannini R, Basolo F, Melillo RM, Santoro M: Osteopontin is overexpressed in human papillary thyroid carcinomas and enhances thyroid carcinoma cell invasiveness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5270-8
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  • DESIGN: Thyroid samples from 117 patients who had undergone surgical resection of the thyroid gland for benign or malignant lesions were collected.
  • RESULTS: In this study we show that OPN is overexpressed in human PTCs with respect to normal thyroid tissue, follicular adenomas, and multinodular goiters (P < 0.05).
  • The prevalence and intensity of OPN staining were significantly correlated with the presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.0091) and tumor size (P = 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Membranes / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Osteopontin. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction


90. Siar CH, Nakano K, Han PP, Nagatsuka H, Ng KH, Kawakami T: Differential expression of Notch receptors and their ligands in desmoplastic ameloblastoma. J Oral Pathol Med; 2010 Aug 1;39(7):552-8
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  • The ameloblastoma, a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm, histologically recapitulates the enamel organ at bell stage.
  • Notch has been detected in the plexiform and follicular ameloblastoma.
  • RESULTS: Ameloblastoma tumor epithelium demonstrated positive expression for Notch1 (n = 5/10), Notch3 (n = 8/10), Notch4 (n = 10/10), Jagged1 (n = 6/10) and Delta1 (n = 5/10), but no reactivity for Notch2 (n = 10/10) and Jagged2 (10/10).

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  • (PMID = 20337864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0714
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / JAG2 protein, human; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / NOTCH1 protein, human; 0 / NOTCH2 protein, human; 0 / NOTCH3 protein, human; 0 / NOTCH4 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / Receptor, Notch2; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / delta protein; 134324-36-0 / Serrate proteins
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91. Kim SK, Kim DL, Han HS, Kim WS, Kim SJ, Moon WJ, Oh SY, Hwang TS: Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2008 Jun;17(2):118-25
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  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the primary means of distinguishing benign from malignant and of guiding therapeutic intervention in thyroid nodules.
  • In detail, 63 (84.0%) of 75 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples showed positive BRAF mutation, whereas 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma did not show BRAF mutation.
  • None of 22 benign nodules had BRAF mutation in both pyrosequencing and direct DNA sequencing.
  • Out of 27 thyroid nodules classified as 'indeterminate' on cytologic examination preoperatively, 21 (77.8%) cases turned out to be malignant: 18 PTCs (including 2 follicular variant types) and 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • None of 6 benign nodules, including 3 follicular adenomas and 3 nodular hyperplasias, had BRAF mutation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Predictive Value of Tests


92. Vorburger SA, Ubersax L, Schmid SW, Balli M, Candinas D, Seiler CA: Long-term follow-up after complete resection of well-differentiated cancer confined to the thyroid gland. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Oct;16(10):2862-74
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  • BACKGROUND: Papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas exhibit a relatively benign course.
  • DSS at 10 and 20 years was 81 and 69%, respectively, and correlated with age, histology, tumor size, radio-iodide ablation (RIA), and external beam irradiation (EBR) treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Cell Differentiation. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 Feb;18(2):600 [20607419.001]
  • (PMID = 19655202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Rossi ED, Raffaelli M, Mule' A, Miraglia A, Lombardi CP, Vecchio FM, Fadda G: Simultaneous immunohistochemical expression of HBME-1 and galectin-3 differentiates papillary carcinomas from hyperfunctioning lesions of the thyroid. Histopathology; 2006 Jun;48(7):795-800
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  • The differential diagnosis between papillary carcinoma and hyperfunctioning lesions, either with papillary hyperplasia or with a follicular architecture, can create real diagnostic difficulty.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred resected thyroid nodules--58 hyperfunctioning benign lesions and 42 papillary carcinomas (14 follicular variant, 14 macrofollicular variant and 14 classic type)--were immunohistochemically studied for HBME-1, galectin-3, cytokeratin (CK) 19 and RET-proto-oncogene.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16722927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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94. Galusca B, Dumollard JM, Lassandre S, Niveleau A, Prades JM, Estour B, Peoc'h M: Global DNA methylation evaluation: potential complementary marker in differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jul;447(1):18-23
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  • 5-mc immunostaining scores were calculated in 17 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), 6 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), 16 follicular adenomas (FA), 19 nodular goiters (NG) and ten Hürthle cells adenomas (HCA).
  • Computerized image analysis showed a significant lower level of 5-mc immunostaining in thyroid carcinoma when compared with benign tumors or adjacent normal thyroid parenchyma (P<0.0001).
  • Overall, 5-mc accuracy to distinguish malign from benign thyroid tumors was similar to that of galectin-3 (89% versus 87%, P>0.05).
  • Among follicular neoplasia 5-mc accuracy to differentiate malign tumors trends to be higher than galectin-3 one (90% versus 66%, P=0.06).
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Epigenesis, Genetic. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 15891902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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95. Wang JD, Deng XC, Jin XJ, Zhou C, Zhang C, Xie M, Zhou JQ, Qian MF: [Clinical research on 2228 cases of thyroid gland tumors]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Apr;40(4):295-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss outcome of thyroid tumor patients treated with surgery.
  • These patients of thyroid tumors from 1992-2004 (2072 cases of benign thyroid diseases and 156 cases of thyroid carcinoma) were recruited.
  • (1) Benign thyroid tumors with near-total thyroidectomy including 1761 thyroid adenoma, 207 nodular goiter and 104 Hashimoto thyroiditis, the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis was 0.2%, 55 cases (2.6%) received secondary surgery.
  • Among the 9 cases of follicular carcinoma of thyroid, 7 were performed of near-total thyroidectomy without neck dissection, others were the same as papillary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The correct surgical management for the patients with thyroid tumor should benefit for the prognosis and reduce the complications and the recurrence of the operation.

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  • (PMID = 16008266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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96. Suzuki S, Takenoshita S: [Current topics of endoscopic surgery for thyroid cancer]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Mar;107(2):59-63
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  • Many thyroid tumors are benign, and cases of thyroid cancer are few.
  • The indications for endoscopic surgery in papillary thyroid cancer is microcancer or small tumor without lympnode metastasis before surgery.
  • In follicular thyroid cancer, minimally invasive thyroid cancer of less than 5cm is recommended for endoscopic thyroid surgery.

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  • (PMID = 16613204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gases; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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97. Huang J, Fan G, Zhong Y, Gatter K, Braziel R, Gross G, Bakke A: Diagnostic usefulness of aberrant CD22 expression in differentiating neoplastic cells of B-Cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders from admixed benign B cells in four-color multiparameter flow cytometry. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;123(6):826-32
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  • [Title] Diagnostic usefulness of aberrant CD22 expression in differentiating neoplastic cells of B-Cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders from admixed benign B cells in four-color multiparameter flow cytometry.
  • The diagnosis of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders is a great challenge when made in a background of polyclonal B cells.
  • We studied the diagnostic usefulness of aberrant CD22 expression for differentiating neoplastic from benign B cells by 4-color flow cytometry.
  • Of 56 cases of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders, we found that neoplastic cells showed aberrant CD22 expression in 39 (70%) of 56 cases, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia, and follicular lymphoma.
  • Aberrant CD22 expression is a useful marker for detection of monoclonal B cells admixed with numerous benign polyclonal B cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / biosynthesis. B-Lymphocytes / cytology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Lectins / biosynthesis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15899772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD22 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2
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98. Mai KT, Elmontaser G, Perkins DG, Thomas J, Stinson WA: Benign Hürthle cell adenoma with papillary architecture: a benign lesion mimicking oncocytic papillary carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jan;13(1):37-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign Hürthle cell adenoma with papillary architecture: a benign lesion mimicking oncocytic papillary carcinoma.
  • The diameter of the tumor cell nuclei ranged from 5.6 to 7.2 microns.
  • Many nodules had nuclei displaying a fine chromatin pattern somewhat resembling those of PTC, but these were present in <20% of the tumor cells.
  • In view of (1) the encapsulation and the uniformity of the constituent cells, (2) the negative or weak immunoreactivity for galectin-3 and HBME and negative to moderate immunoreactivity for CK19, and (3) the absence or paucity of nuclear criteria for the diagnosis of PTC and the absence of lymph node metastasis in all study cases, we believe that these lesions represent the papillary variant of oncocytic follicular adenoma (Hürthle cell adenoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromatin / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15735853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromatin
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99. Ponikiewska D, Szcześniak-Kłusek B, Stobiecka E, Jaworska M, Lange D: [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:7-11
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  • [Title] [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination].
  • In about 10% of cases cytopathologic features do not differentiate unequivocally benign and malignant lesions.
  • In these cases the cytopathologic diagnosis of follicular tumor (FT) or oxyphilic tumor (OT) is most often made.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 48.7% (19/39) FT and 42% (8/19) OT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show how difficult the diagnostics of follicular lesions in FNAB could be because of the frequent overlapping of the cytological features of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Diagnosis of follicular tumor does not mean carcinoma.
  • The use of follicular/ oxyphilic tumor in cytological diagnostic instead of follicular neoplasm seems more advisable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17091450.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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100. Proietti A, Giannini R, Ugolini C, Miccoli M, Fontanini G, Di Coscio G, Romani R, Berti P, Miccoli P, Basolo F: BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features. Thyroid; 2010 Nov;20(11):1263-70
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  • [Title] BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features.
  • BACKGROUND: The cytological discrimination between benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid can represent a diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists.
  • To attempt to clarify this diagnostic problem, we analyzed the BRAF status of thyroid tumors in a group of patients with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and its correlation with cytomorphological features.
  • Each case had a previous fine-needle aspiration diagnosis classified according to the British Thyroid Association Guidelines categorized as inadequate (Thy1) (n = 19), benign (Thy2) (n = 19), follicular lesion and follicular lesion with atypia (Thy3) (n = 109), suspicious of PTC (Thy4) (n = 29), or malignant (Thy5) (n = 11).
  • RESULTS: The BRAF status of each tumor was correlated with the cytological classes.
  • 54.5% and 27.6% of Thy5 and Thy4, respectively, were BRAF-mutated, against 12.1% of follicular lesions and 9.3% of follicular lesion with atypia (Thy3).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20950194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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