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1. Shi Y, Ding X, Klein M, Sugrue C, Matano S, Edelman M, Wasserman P: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category? Cancer; 2009 Oct 25;117(5):298-304
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  • These cases were reinterpreted blindly by 2 experienced reviewers, who eliminated atypia of undetermined significance as a diagnostic possibility and reclassified these cases as either benign, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, or malignant.
  • In those atypia of undetermined significance cases that were reclassified as benign, 37% had PTC.
  • In those reclassified as follicular neoplasm or suspicious for malignancy, 38% were histologically proven to be benign lesions.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19711470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Jaffar R, Mohanty SK, Khan A, Fischer AH: Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms. Cytojournal; 2009;6:3
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  • [Title] Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity.
  • METHODS: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells.
  • The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA) and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101), follicular adenoma (47), or follicular carcinoma (17).
  • RESULTS: Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101) of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64) of follicular neoplasms (P<.0001).
  • All four follicular neoplasms with hemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas.
  • Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically.
  • None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages (P<.12).
  • Macrophages without hemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17%) but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas.
  • Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101) of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin (P<.0003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: If papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasm are ruled out, our findings indicate that the presence of hemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

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  • [Cites] Cytojournal. 2008;5:6 [18394201.001]
  • [Cites] Diagn Cytopathol. 2007 Aug;35(8):525-8 [17636488.001]
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  • (PMID = 19495407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678825
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Benign colloid nodule / follicular cells / hemosiderin laden macrophages / hemosiderin within follicular neoplasms / macrophages
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3. Bezdekova M, Brychtova S, Sedlakova E, Steigerova J, Hlobilkova A, Bienova M, Kucerova R, Brychta T, Krejci V, Kolar Z: Immunohistochemical assessment of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; 2007 Dec;151(2):251-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas are benign skin neoplasms originating from hair follicle cells.
  • They result from defects in the signaling pathways that regulate hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration.
  • AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate their involvement in benign hair follicle tumor development.
  • RESULTS: The intensity of E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression in tumor cells did not differ from controls.
  • However, normal hair follicles cells exhibited membranous E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression, whereas both types of tumors, particularly trichoepitheliomas, showed E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression with a predominantly cytoplasmic localization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that this dystopic distribution of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex in hair follicle tumor cells may be a marker of cell-cell adhesion disruption which may contribute to the tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / analysis. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18345259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1213-8118
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / beta Catenin
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4. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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5. Hamsch C, Hartschuh W: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Apr;8(4):275-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance.
  • Histologic characteristics are follicular and glandular differentiation, as well as bland cytologic features.
  • The benign histologic appearance, particularly in the upper level of the tumor, can be confused with syringoma or benign follicular neoplasm.
  • We report two patients with microcystic adnexal carcinoma, using them as a basis to discuss, pathogenesis, diagnosis, histology and therapy of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19788582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Ciobanu D, Căruntu ID, Vulpoi C, Florea N, Giuşcă SE: Morphometric parameters and silver stain used in diagnosis of thyroid follicular diseases. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2006;47(4):323-30
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  • [Title] Morphometric parameters and silver stain used in diagnosis of thyroid follicular diseases.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid is limited in distinguishing hyperplastic nodular goiter from true follicular neoplasm and in separating follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma.
  • The present study was done to evaluate if the morphologic and morphometric investigations and silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), either alone or in association would help to differentiate the thyroid follicular diseases.
  • 40 FNAB smears of thyroid follicular diseases, histopathologically diagnosed as nodular goiter, lymphocytic thyroiditis, follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, were analyzed using the standard cytological exam, quantitative analysis and NORs assessment.
  • The qualitative evaluation, correlated with the numerical results obtained from the quantitative analysis, revealed that the cellular pattern, mean nuclear diameter and NORs area are valuable criteria in the diagnosis of the benign and malign follicular lesions, respectively.
  • The results attained through morphometry increase the sensibility and the specificity of FNAB in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17392977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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7. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Twenty five (21.9%) of the 114 FN were found to be follicular carcinomas (FC); 15 minimally invasive FC, 4 widely invasive FC, and 6 FVPTC.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Pu RT, Yang J, Wasserman PG, Bhuiya T, Griffith KA, Michael CW: Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration? Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 May;34(5):330-4
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  • [Title] Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration?
  • The diagnosis of an adequately sampled thyroid FNA is generally grouped into three categories: benign, malignant, and indeterminate.
  • The latter group usually includes follicular neoplasm, follicular lesion, and sometimes a more specific diagnosis such as Hurthle cell neoplasm or follicular lesion/neoplasm with Hurthle cell change.
  • Whether a FNA diagnosis of Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm (HLN) denotes a worse clinical outcome than follicular lesion/neoplasm (FLN) remains controversial.
  • Upon excision, the FNA diagnosis of HLN group had 14 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (16%), 46 cases of adenoma (12 follicular adenoma (14%) and 34 cases of Hurthle cell adenoma (39%)), and 27 cases of carcinoma (31%, 12 papillary carcinoma and 15 Hurthle cell carcinoma).
  • The FLN group had 74 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (34.3%), 8 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis (3.7%), 73 cases of follicular adenoma (33.8%), one case of granular cell tumor, and 60 cases of carcinoma (27.8%, 46 papillary carcinoma, 12 follicular carcinoma, and 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma and 1 parathyroid carcinoma) upon excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16604553.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Lumachi F, Fabbro M, Tregnaghi A, Antunovic L, Bui F, Cecchin D, Zucchetta P, Fassina A: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy together in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jul;30(7):3083-6
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  • FNAC distinguished 3 groups of TN (benign, follicular neoplasm, cancer), while patients with 'cold' TN were considered at risk of having a thyroid tumor.
  • In conclusion, patients with 'cold' TN and FNAC suggesting follicular neoplasm should be considered at risk of having cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20683059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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10. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • The lesion had the characteristics of hair germ tumors; however, most lobules depicted a distinctive pattern of rounded nests of concentrically arranged clear cells.
  • Small follicle bulb-like basophilic structures, foci of sebaceous differentiation, and areas of infundibulocystic, isthmic, and outer sheath keratinization were also seen.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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11. Shimanovich I, Krahl D, Rose C: Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Feb;62(2):277-83
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  • [Title] Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoadenoma is a rare benign follicular tumor first described by Nikolowski 50 years ago.
  • In trichoadenoma the cystic component predominates, while desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a mostly solid neoplasm.
  • Trichoadenoma is a distinct follicular tumor related but not identical to desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Male. Merkel Cells / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20115950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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12. Fukushima M, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Akasu H, Shimizu K, Miyauchi A: Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule. World J Surg; 2009 May;33(5):963-8
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  • [Title] Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule.
  • However, in our experience, some MTC may be diagnosed as a follicular tumor or a benign nodule on ultrasonography because ultrasonographic findings of malignancy are lacking.
  • Of these patients, 54 were diagnosed as having thyroid carcinoma (malignant, or M-type) but the remaining 23 were diagnosed as having follicular tumor or benign nodule (benign, or B-type) on ultrasonography.
  • RESULTS: Clinically apparent lateral node metastasis, extrathyroid extension, and extranodal tumor extension were observed in 37%, 17%, and 11% of M-type patients, respectively, but none of the B-type patients showed any of these features.
  • Lymph node metastasis was pathologically confirmed in 38 and 65% of B-type and M-type patients, respectively.
  • However, thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection for B-type MTC should be the same as for M-type MTC because 38% of B-type MTC showed pathologic node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19198929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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13. Battistella M, Peltre B, Cribier B: Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1057-63
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  • [Title] Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoblastomas (TBs) are benign follicular tumors that can present either as solitary nodule or as multiple facial papules.
  • Only one case of sporadic TB in a composite tumor has been reported, arising in an apocrine poroma.
  • We report the association of TB and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in six patients.
  • The lesions associated with TB were inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) in three cases, seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) in two cases and IFK with verruca vulgaris pattern in one case.
  • It was often positive in the associated neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: TB can be associated with benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in composite tumors.
  • The association of TB and IFK with direct connection between the lesions is another argument in favor of the follicular origin of IFK.
  • Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Hair Diseases. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19615018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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14. Besic N, Sesek M, Peric B, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Sep;14(9):CR459-67
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with follicular neoplasm.
  • The specific aim was to discover whether preoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration in patients with thyroid neoplasm can differentiate between those with thyroid carcinoma and those with benign disease.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: A total of 327 patients (263 females, 64 males, median age: 51.5 years) with follicular neoplasm in whom carcinoma was only suspected and who were surgically treated at the authors' institute in 1988-2004 were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: The histopathological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter, and adenoma in 119 (36%), 104 (32%), and 104 (32%) patients, respectively.
  • The independent predictors of malignancy as shown by multivariate logistic regression were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • Thyroid carcinoma was more common in the patients with follicular neoplasm and serum Tg concentration over 300 ng/ml than in those with lower Tg concentrations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of malignancy were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18758416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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15. Kapur U, Wojcik EM: Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis? Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Aug;35(8):525-8
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis?
  • The significance of making a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy remains a controversial issue, considering that the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma is based on histological criteria and the significantly decreasing incidence of follicular carcinoma in the general population.
  • On FNA the main differential diagnoses of follicular neoplasm includes follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and benign solitary nodule occurring in a goiter.
  • Several studies have looked at immunohistochemical and molecular markers to distinguish benign from malignant lesions but none of them have proved to be infallible.
  • Although, FVPC is a distinct entity from the follicular neoplasm group, it is not always possible to separate it from the other follicular lesions because of overlapping cytologic features and often-sporadic presence of nuclear features, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma remains the main pitfall in a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm.
  • Since a significant number of cases that are malignant on follow-up are usually FVPC, consequently, follicular neoplasm is an essential diagnostic consideration on FNA.
  • In addition, follicular carcinoma, despite a decreasing incidence continues to be a real entity.
  • Therefore, it is essential that follicular neoplasm continue to be part of our diagnostic repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17636488.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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16. Fornelli A, Bondi A, Jovine E, Eusebi V: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resembling a thyroid follicular neoplasm. Virchows Arch; 2010 Mar;456(3):339-42
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  • [Title] Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resembling a thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • The first case of well-differentiated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with remarkable follicular architecture resembling a follicular neoplasm of thyroid is described in a 52-year-old man.
  • The follicles contained homogenous eosinophilic material akin to colloid and were lined by benign-looking cuboidal cells.
  • Immunohistochemically, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and thyroglobulin were negative and the patient had no evidence of a previous or concomitant thyroid tumour.

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  • [Cites] Virchows Arch. 2008 Jan;452(1):91-5 [17704942.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 Aug;27(8):1114-8 [12883243.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Surg Pathol. 2007 Jan;15(1):14-9 [17172492.001]
  • [Cites] World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct 7;12(37):6062-9 [17009411.001]
  • [Cites] Gastroenterology. 1979 Aug;77(2):347-53 [221305.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2006 Mar;30(3):411-5 [16538064.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Mar;33(3):393-400 [19047894.001]
  • [Cites] Chirurg. 1993 Sep;64(9):751-3 [8222936.001]
  • (PMID = 20082203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Kim JM, Ryu JS, Kim TY, Kim WB, Kwon GY, Gong G, Moon DH, Kim SC, Hong SJ, Shong YK: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography does not predict malignancy in thyroid nodules cytologically diagnosed as follicular neoplasm. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 May;92(5):1630-4
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  • [Title] 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography does not predict malignancy in thyroid nodules cytologically diagnosed as follicular neoplasm.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules cytologically diagnosed as follicular neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 46 patients with thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm in diameter cytologically diagnosed as follicular neoplasm at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) were included.
  • Fifteen patients had cancer: 11 with follicular and two each with Hürthle cell and follicular variants of papillary cancer.
  • Twenty-one patients had benign nodules: 11 follicular adenomas, eight adenomatous hyperplasias, and two Hürthle cell adenomas.
  • SUVmax did not differ significantly between malignant and benign nodules (3.6 +/- 3.5 vs. 3.4 +/- 3.2; P = 0.83) or among subtypes of benign nodules (P = 0.23).
  • CONCLUSIONS: On FDG-PET, the glucose metabolic activities of benign thyroid follicular nodules were as high as those of malignant nodules.
  • These findings suggest that FDG-PET has limited value for selecting candidates for surgery among patients cytologically diagnosed as follicular neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 17284624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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18. Gulcelik NE, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B: Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;134(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and ultrasonographic features that may help in predicting malignant tumors in patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on findings from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) because FNAC diagnosis of follicular neoplasm does not differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant tumor.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 patients having a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on FNAC.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-eight patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed by FNAC as being a follicular neoplasm.
  • Older age, male sex, solitary nodule, and larger nodule size were not predictive for malignant neoplasms in patients with follicular neoplasm cytologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19075128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Fryknäs M, Wickenberg-Bolin U, Göransson H, Gustafsson MG, Foukakis T, Lee JJ, Landegren U, Höög A, Larsson C, Grimelius L, Wallin G, Pettersson U, Isaksson A: Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(4):211-20
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  • [Title] Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular markers useful for the diagnostic discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A robust algorithm for gene selection was developed to identify molecular markers useful for the classification of heterogeneous tumor classes.
  • The study included tumor tissue specimens from 10 patients with benign follicular adenomas and from 10 with malignant tumors.
  • The malignant tumors mainly consisted of clinically relevant minimally invasive follicular carcinomas.
  • The results indicate that a small number of genes can be useful to distinguish follicular adenomas from follicular carcinomas.
  • These genes have the potential for molecular classification of follicular thyroid tumors and for providing improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. DNA Primers. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16675914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Genetic Markers
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20. Carling T, Udelsman R: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):583-7
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend.
  • Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid are usually diagnosed following fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of a dominant thyroid nodule.
  • An FNA diagnosis of a follicular neoplasm represents a heterogeneous group of lesions including benign follicular hyperplasia, follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Because the criteria for malignancy in both follicular and Hürthle cell neoplasms requires vascular or capsular invasion seen on permanent histology, the majority of these patients undergo surgical resection.
  • Intraoperative frozen section analysis of follicular neoplasms rarely renders informative information.
  • Postoperative treatment generally includes therapeutic doses of 131I for follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16029125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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21. Marhefka GD, McDivitt JD, Shakir KM, Drake AJ 3rd: Diagnosis of follicular neoplasm in thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration cytology: does the result, benign vs. suspicious for a malignant process, in these nodules make a difference? Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):517-23
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of follicular neoplasm in thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration cytology: does the result, benign vs. suspicious for a malignant process, in these nodules make a difference?
  • OBJECTIVE: To address the likelihood of thyroid malignancy for each cytologic interpretation, highly cellular and benign vs. follicular carcinoma, with particular attention to the indeterminate cytologic result, follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: A total of 886 thyroid nodules were aspirated in 802 patients (500 benign, 195 indeterminate, 129 inadequate, 62 malignant).
  • Of 195 indeterminate lesions, 180 were classified as follicular neoplasm or "cannot rule out/possible" follicular neoplasm, with 144 of these ultimately removed and with malignant histologic findings in 28.
  • Any mention of follicular neoplasm in the cytology report conferred a 19.4% risk of malignancy in patients who went on to surgery (including an unexpected 18.2% rate of malignancy in the subcategory in which a possible follicular neoplasm was a secondary listing in an otherwise-benign cytologic differential diagnosis).
  • CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the likelihood of histologic malignancy between the cytologic subcategories of "definite "follicular neoplasm and "cannot rule out/possible" follicular neoplasm.
  • We recommend that cytologic reports on fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm reflect this fact.

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  • (PMID = 19798878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Wiseman SM, Baliski C, Irvine R, Anderson D, Wilkins G, Filipenko D, Zhang H, Bugis S: Hemithyroidectomy: the optimal initial surgical approach for individuals undergoing surgery for a cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasm. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Mar;13(3):425-32
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  • [Title] Hemithyroidectomy: the optimal initial surgical approach for individuals undergoing surgery for a cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to determine the true proportion and optimal surgical approach for individuals undergoing thyroid operation for a suspicion of cancer based on a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of a follicular neoplasm (FN).
  • Fifteen (19%) of the FN cases were diagnosed as cancer by histological analysis (4 follicular carcinomas and 11 papillary carcinomas).
  • New diagnostic tools are needed to reduce the number of operations performed for benign pathology in patients with nodular thyroid disease and a needle biopsy diagnosis of FN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16485160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Kołomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepień H, Cywiński J, Cielecka J, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors].
  • The aim of study was evaluation of p53 and sFasL blood concentration in patients with benign follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was composed of 28 patients: 14 with thyroid carcinoma and 14 patients with follicular neoplasm (NF).
  • RESULTS: The analysis revealed high sFasL blood concentration in patients with follicular thyroid cancer in comparison with the group with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of sFasL serum level concentration may be useful in preoperative diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fas Ligand Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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24. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Tateyama H, Arai Y, Fujiyoshi Y, Hamaguchi M: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2006 Feb;48(3):286-94
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: To examine expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and related proteins in follicular thyroid lesions (FTLs) and to determine their usefulness for differential diagnosis of FTLs, particularly between minimally invasive carcinoma and adenoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Six widely invasive follicular carcinomas (WIFCs), 15 minimally invasive follicular carcinomas (MIFCs), 19 follicular adenomas (FAs) and 10 adenomatous goitres (AGs) were analysed immunohistochemically for MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2).
  • In-situ hybridization of MMP-2 and MMP-7 mRNA in selected cases demonstrated the expression of these enzymes in the tumour cells as well as in some stromal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenoma / chemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16430475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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25. Sanabria A, Carvalho AL, Piana de Andrade V, Pablo Rodrigo J, Vartanian JG, Rinaldo A, Ikeda MK, Devaney KO, Magrin J, Augusto Soares F, Ferlito A, Kowalski LP: Is galectin-3 a good method for the detection of malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules and a cytologic diagnosis of "follicular neoplasm"? A critical appraisal of the evidence. Head Neck; 2007 Nov;29(11):1046-54
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  • [Title] Is galectin-3 a good method for the detection of malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules and a cytologic diagnosis of "follicular neoplasm"? A critical appraisal of the evidence.
  • Immunostaining of cytological smears from FNAB with galectin-3 has been proposed as a tool for differentiating between benign and malignant nodules.
  • METHODS: Prospective studies of nodules with FNAB reports of "follicular neoplasm" and with a definitive diagnosis confirmed by histopathology were selected.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 could be a good tool to guide therapeutic decision in patients with thyroid nodules and FNAB results of follicular neoplasm, but available information has methodological flaws that precludes a definitive answer about galectin-3 utility in the clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17525969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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26. Granados-García M, Cortés-Flores AO, del Carmen González-Ramírez I, Cano-Valdez AM, Flores-Hernández L, Aguilar-Ponce JL: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation. Cir Cir; 2010 Nov-Dec;78(6):473-8
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is useful for initial evaluation; nevertheless, malignancy is uncertain when follicular neoplasm is reported.
  • Therefore, we analyzed our follicular neoplasms in order to identify those factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the clinical files of consecutive patients with cytological diagnoses of follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology.
  • Definitive report showed 45 benign (60%) and 30 malignant (40%) cases.
  • Benign cases included 29 goiters, 11 follicular adenomas, and 5 cases of thyroiditis.
  • Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Tumor size of benign lesions was 3.43 ± 2.04 cm, and 4.67 ± 2.78 (p = 0.049) for malignant lesions.
  • Age was 46.95 ± 15.39 years for benign lesions and 48.67 ± 17.28 for malignant lesions (p = 0.66).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21214982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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27. Monteros Alvi M, Romero NM, Gonorazky S, Galvez V, Galvez M, Virgili E, De Soler GG: [Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules]. Medicina (B Aires); 2009;69(5):497-501
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  • [Title] [Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules].
  • [Transliterated title] Marcadores de riesgo de neoplasia folicular en nódulos tiroideos.
  • Thyroid nodules of follicular origin include neoplastic and non neoplastic processes.
  • No methods of diagnosis or cytological features (obtained by fine-needle aspiration, FNA) may differentiate both types, and therefore differential diagnosis still constitutes a dilemma.We analyzed the existing association between clinical variables and methods of diagnosis in thyroid nodules of follicular type with the aim of defining risk of neoplasm.
  • Ninety two patients with nodular goiters, of follicular origin by cytology, previously submitted to surgical treatment were analyzed.
  • Markers, that were related to high risk of follicular neoplasm corresponded to the cytological diagnosis of proliferation of high follicular degree, in iso or hypoechoic, and hypofunctioning nodules with I131.
  • The carcinomas presented cytology of follicular proliferation of high degree, in hipoechoic nodules, of irregular edges with microcalcifications and hypofunctioning, in male patients or patients younger than 20 years.
  • The presence of macrocalcifications and hypercaptation would be in favor of nodules of benign origin.The correlation of diagnostic methods and clinical variables in thyroid nodules of follicular type would allow us to differentiate the risk of neoplasm or carcinoma, and plan surgical selective treatments.

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  • (PMID = 19897432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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28. Smith RB, Robinson RA, Hoffman HT, Graham MM: Preoperative FDG-PET imaging to assess the malignant potential of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Jan;138(1):101-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative FDG-PET imaging to assess the malignant potential of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • OBJECTIVE: When a fine needle aspiration biopsy of a thyroid nodule suggests follicular neoplasm, surgery is required for diagnosis.
  • Preoperative [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging may be able to determine malignancy in follicular neoplasms.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm underwent presurgical FDG-PET at 60, 90, and 120 minutes after injection of fluorodeoxyglucose (F18).
  • RESULTS: There were 5 malignant conditions and 18 benign conditions identified with the standard uptake valve (SUV) ranging from 0.9 to 44.8.
  • The follicular thyroid cancers that exhibited only capsular invasion had an average SUV of 3.1, whereas those with vascular invasion had an average SUV of 39.9.
  • The SUV increased in 80% of the malignant cases but in only 50% of the benign cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite certain patterns being suggestive of malignancy, FDG-PET can not consistently predict the malignant potential of a follicular neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18165002.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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29. Sorrenti S, Trimboli P, Catania A, Ulisse S, De Antoni E, D'Armiento M: Comparison of malignancy rate in thyroid nodules with cytology of indeterminate follicular or indeterminate Hürthle cell neoplasm. Thyroid; 2009 Apr;19(4):355-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of malignancy rate in thyroid nodules with cytology of indeterminate follicular or indeterminate Hürthle cell neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules that are read on cytology as follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasms (FN and HN, respectively) and indeterminate for malignancy require surgery to differentiate benign from malignant nodules.
  • The rate of follicular thyroid carcinoma was almost identical in patients with HN and FN (19.2% vs. 18.8 %).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19355826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Rego MF, Navarrete MA, Facina G, Falzoni R, Silva R, Baracat EC, Nazario AC: Analysis of human mammary fibroadenoma by Ki-67 index in the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle. Cell Prolif; 2009 Apr;42(2):241-7
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  • [Title] Analysis of human mammary fibroadenoma by Ki-67 index in the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle.
  • OBJECTIVES: Fibroadenoma is the most common benign mammary condition among women aged 35 or younger.
  • Expression of Ki-67 antigen has been used to compare proliferative activity of mammary fibroadenoma epithelium in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety eumenorrheic women were selected for tumour excision; they were assigned to either of the two groups, according to their phase of menstrual cycle.
  • Median tumour size was 2.0 cm and no relationship between proliferative activity and nodule diameter was observed.
  • Average values for expression of Ki-67 (per 1000 epithelial cells) in follicular and luteal phases were 27.88 and 37.88, respectively (P = 0.116).
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that proliferative activities in the mammary fibroadenoma epithelium did not present a statistically significant difference in the follicular and luteal phases.
  • The present study contributes to clarifying that fibroadenoma is a neoplasm and does not undergo any change in the proliferative activity during the menstrual cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Follicular Phase / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Luteal Phase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19317807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2184
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell proliferation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Prolif.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
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31. Slosar M, Vohra P, Prasad M, Fischer A, Quinlan R, Khan A: Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):149-57
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate IMP3 expression in thyroid follicular lesions, to determine whether it has a role in differentiating among these lesions, and to understand their biological relationships.
  • We immunostained 219 thyroid lesions selected from our surgical pathology archives including 14 hyperplastic colloid nodules (CN), 19 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), two Graves disease (GD), ten Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA), 20 follicular adenoma (FA), 37 conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 60 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), 19 Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 32 follicular carcinoma (FC), and six poorly differentiated/anaplastic carcinoma.
  • No significant correlation was found between pathologic tumor characteristics and IMP3 expression in differentiated follicular pattern thyroid carcinoma.
  • With 100% specificity and 69% sensitivity for FC as compared to FA and 100% specificity for FVPC, again compared to FA, IMP3 has the potential to be diagnostically useful in differentiating malignant and benign follicular pattern thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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32. Patel AB, Harting MS, Smith-Zagone MJ, Hsu S: Familial basaloid follicular hamartoma: a report of one family. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(4):14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Familial basaloid follicular hamartoma: a report of one family.
  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma is a rare but benign adnexal neoplasm that can simulate basal cell carcinoma.
  • Criteria for distinction between the hamartoma and carcinoma are delineated, although evolution of basaloid follicular hamartoma into basal cell carcinoma may also be a possibility.

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  • (PMID = 18627736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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33. Ponikiewska D, Szcześniak-Kłusek B, Stobiecka E, Jaworska M, Lange D: [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:7-11
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  • [Title] [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination].
  • In about 10% of cases cytopathologic features do not differentiate unequivocally benign and malignant lesions.
  • In these cases the cytopathologic diagnosis of follicular tumor (FT) or oxyphilic tumor (OT) is most often made.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 48.7% (19/39) FT and 42% (8/19) OT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show how difficult the diagnostics of follicular lesions in FNAB could be because of the frequent overlapping of the cytological features of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Diagnosis of follicular tumor does not mean carcinoma.
  • The use of follicular/ oxyphilic tumor in cytological diagnostic instead of follicular neoplasm seems more advisable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17091450.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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34. Sillery JC, Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Henrichsen TL, Hay ID, Mandrekar JN: Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):44-54
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate sonography of thyroid follicular neoplasms for features that would aid in distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma and for any imaging features that distinguish the Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma from classic follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma and patients with the diagnosis of follicular adenoma.
  • Fifty patients (25 men and 25 women; median age, 59.5 years) with a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (27 with classic follicular carcinoma, 22 with Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma, and one insular variant) in a 6-year period were included.
  • Fifty-two control patients (10 men and 42 women; median age, 46.5 years) were selected from a random sampling of all cases of follicular adenoma during the same time period.
  • All study patients and control patients underwent surgical resection and pathologic analysis of their thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Hypoechoic appearance (82% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 50% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; odds ratio [OR]), 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), absence of halo (64% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 42% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), absence of cystic change (90% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 69% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), greater patient age (median age of 59.5 years for follicular carcinoma patients vs 46.5 years for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), size of the tumor (median size of 11.75 mL for follicular carcinoma patients vs 5.95 mL for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), and male sex (50% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 19.2% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.9) were more frequently associated with follicular thyroid cancer than with benign adenoma.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, homogeneous or predominantly homogeneous echotexture (67% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 36% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-11.4) and the presence of calcifications (22% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 4% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients [multivariate analysis including age]; p < 0.05; OR, 22.9; 95% CI, 2.0-261.9) were associated with classic follicular carcinoma.
  • Greater patient age (median age of 53 years for classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 64.5 years for Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05) was associated with Hürthle-cell variant follicular carcinoma.
  • There was no association between tumor volume, sex, sonographic halo, refractive shadowing, echogenicity, visible invasion, lymph node enlargement, adjacent nonfollicular suspicious lesions, vascularity subtype, and cystic change between the subgroups of follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic features of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are very similar, but larger lesion size, lack of a sonographic halo, hypoechoic appearance, and absence of cystic change favored a follicular carcinoma diagnosis.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma is more often seen in older patients with nodules having a heterogeneous appearance and lacking internal calcifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20028904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Yasuoka H, Kakudo K, Inohara H, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):296-8
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma.
  • AIMS: Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside binding family of lectins, has been regarded as a useful tool for discriminating malignant tumours from benign nodules of the thyroid, including the distinction between follicular carcinoma and adenoma.
  • However, there are follicular tumours with unclear vascular or capsular invasion, which makes diagnosis more difficult.
  • In this study, we investigated the relationship between galectin-3 expression and the degree of vascular or capsular invasion of follicular tumours.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated galectin-3 expression in 260 cases of follicular tumour with various degrees of vascular or capsular invasion classified into four categories.
  • However, its diagnostic value for follicular carcinoma was not high because the sensitivity and specificity were 68.7% and 57.5%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that galectin-3 plays a role in the transformation of follicular tumours from benign to malignant; however, when diagnosing follicular tumours, the presence of this protein should not be required for diagnosing malignant transformation in all cases.
  • Therefore, we must conclude that galectin-3 should only be considered an adjuvant marker for follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16194828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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36. He X, Wei Q, Zhang X, Xiao J, Jin X, Zhu Y, Cui B, Ning G: Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Oct 15;206(10):712-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In different tumor entities, expression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been linked to tumor dissemination and poor prognosis.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In our study, the CXCR4 expression of the thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) was found to be higher than in the benign lesion group (including 19 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 nodular goiters, and 50 follicular adenomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Within the carcinoma group, the more malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) showed a higher ratio of CXCR4 positivity compared to the less malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas) (p<0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, CXCR4 / analysis. Thyroid Diseases / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Goiter, Nodular / immunology. Hashimoto Disease / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20646838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; Thyroid cancer, medullary; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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37. Socolovsky M, Spaho N, Cueto DG, Doglietto F, Fernandez E: Reactive lymphoid follicular hyperplasia mimicking a peripheral nerve tumor. Surg Neurol; 2008 Nov;70(5):514-7

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  • [Title] Reactive lymphoid follicular hyperplasia mimicking a peripheral nerve tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Reactive lymphoid follicular hyperplasia is a benign proliferation of lymphoid follicles, which can develop wherever lymphoid tissue is present.
  • We present the unique case of an RLFH that involved the radial nerve and presented as a peripheral nerve tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance findings revealed a contrast-enhancing, spindle-shaped tumor, suggestive of a schwannoma or neurofibroma, along the course of the radial nerve.
  • The intraoperative appearance was that of an infiltrating tissue around a lateral branch of the nerve, which could be resected en bloc.
  • Pathologic examination documented hyperplastic lymphoid tissue surrounding the nerve, and immunostaining confirmed the diagnosis of benign reactive follicular hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first description of RLFH affecting a peripheral nerve and mimicking a neoplasm.
  • This rare and benign condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18261777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up. Cytojournal; 2006 Apr 07;3:9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up.
  • The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN).
  • No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis.
  • According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%).

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  • (PMID = 16603062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1458352
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39. Holland KE, Galbraith SS: Generalized congenital smooth muscle hamartoma presenting with hypertrichosis, excess skin folds, and follicular dimpling. Pediatr Dermatol; 2008 Mar-Apr;25(2):236-9
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  • [Title] Generalized congenital smooth muscle hamartoma presenting with hypertrichosis, excess skin folds, and follicular dimpling.
  • We describe an interesting patient with a diffuse smooth muscle hamartoma who presented with hypertrichosis, increased skin folds, and follicular dimpling.
  • While smooth muscle hamartoma classically presents as a small hairy, skin-colored to hyperpigmented patch or plaque, rare presentations with diffuse involvement or follicular papules have been described.
  • We present our patient and review the literature to highlight the diverse and under recognized manifestations of this benign neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 18429788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Bogdańska M, Górnicka B, Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B, Koperski L, Morton M, Wasiutyński A: [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):314-9
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  • [Title] [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms].
  • INTRODUCTION: Estimation of malignancy in thyroid follicular neoplasms is a common diagnostic problem, thus revealing of differences in expression of some antigens in both benign and malignant lesions seems to be essential.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 in follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of 38 follicular adenomas (23 "classical", 5 with intracapsular invasion, 10 oncocytic) and 15 follicular carcinomas (9 "classic", 6 oncocytic) were stained immunohistochemically with anti-CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1.
  • RESULTS: In the whole group we found statistically significant differences in CD15 expression between follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • "Classic" follicular carcinomas (without oncocytic tumors) showed stronger CD15 and HBME- 1 expression than "classic" adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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41. Kim MJ, Kim HJ, Hong SJ, Shong YK, Gong G: Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of thyroid follicular lesions. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):28-34
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of thyroid follicular lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of galectin-3 in various thyroid follicular lesions, including diffuse hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, and benign and malignant follicular neoplasms, to clarify the diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in aspirates of follicular lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 146 follicular lesions diagnosed cytologically, obtained from patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for either benign or malignant nodules, were evaluated using Papanicolaou-stained slides and cell blocks with galectin-3 immunostaining.
  • We primarily categorized the aspirated specimens as benign, indeterminate or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm based on cellularity, architectural arrangement of the follicular cells and presence or absence of colloid.
  • Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the results of galectin-3 and categorized into 3 groups (benign, indeterminate for malignancy, suspicious for malignancy) and compared with the corresponding histologic diagnoses.
  • RESULTS: When the histologic diagnoses were compared with the cytologic diagnoses, the accuracy in the distinction between benign and malignant cases was 79.5% except for 8 cytologically and 3 histologically indeterminate cases.
  • False positive cases included 8 of 62 (12.9%) nodular hyperplasias and 1 of 42 (2.4%) follicular adenomas.
  • Three follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential were cytologically categorized as malignant, and all cases showed positivity for galectin-3.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 could be used as a useful supplementary marker for cytologic diagnosis, although it was not an absolute marker in determining whether a lesion was benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16514837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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42. Troncone G, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Palmieri EA, Volante M, Papotti M, Viglietto G, Palombini L: Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):377-81
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  • [Title] Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma expresses more p27 than benign oxyphilic lesions do.
  • The expression of cyclin D3 and p27 was significantly higher in the oxyphilic variant of follicular carcinomas than in non-oxyphilic carcinomas (p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that increased p27 expression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma results from cyclin D3 overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cyclin D3. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Cites] Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002 Mar;128(3):253-7 [11886339.001]
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  • (PMID = 16798934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCND3 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D3; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001124
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43. Paramo JC, Mesko T: Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):447-51
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  • [Title] Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical predictors of malignancy in patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 71 patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm who underwent thyroidectomy between January 1992 and December 2000.
  • Age, sex, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography characteristics of the lesions were assessed.
  • These clinical factors were compared between cases that had benign definitive pathologic findings and those that were found to be carcinomas on permanent sections.
  • RESULTS: Nine (13%) of the 71 follicular neoplasms were found to be carcinomas after definitive pathologic evaluation.
  • When the in-office ultrasonography findings were interpreted as benign, only 7% (3/46) of cases were malignant compared with 40% (4/10) when the ultrasonography findings were suspicious (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age and tumor size are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • Total thyroidectomy is reasonable in patients with follicular neoplasm on frozen section if they are young (<45 years old), with large (>4 cm) tumors or if there are suspicious findings on in-office ultrasonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18558598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Clerici T, Kolb W, Beutner U, Bareck E, Dotzenrath C, Kull C, Niederle B, German Association of Endocrine Surgeons: Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas. Br J Surg; 2010 Jun;97(6):839-44
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid microcarcinomas (mFTCs) of 10 mm or less in size rarely manifest clinically and their clinical significance is controversial.
  • Most initial diagnoses had to be revised because of incorrect size assessment or incorrect diagnosis (benign adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant of PTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Austria. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Switzerland. Thyroidectomy. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20473996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Kaserer K; Perren A; Schmid KW; Köberle-Wührer R; Wenzl E; Asari R; Klinge U; Müller G; Kroell KP; Blankenburg C; Voss H; Cupisti K; Witte J; Knoefel WT; Simon D; Lienenlüke RH; Vorländer C; Wacha H; Schabram J; Lorenz K; Dralle H; Wojciechowski B; Kussmann J; Weber Y; Schürmann G; Goretzki PE; Ulitzer H; Eberle A; Mayer M; Stabenow R; Stegmaier C; Bühlmann R; Schlumpf R; Triponez F; Ess SM
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45. Killian JK, Bilke S, Davis S, Walker RL, Killian MS, Jaeger EB, Chen Y, Hipp J, Pittaluga S, Raffeld M, Cornelison R, Smith WI Jr, Bibikova M, Fan JB, Emmert-Buck MR, Jaffe ES, Meltzer PS: Large-scale profiling of archival lymph nodes reveals pervasive remodeling of the follicular lymphoma methylome. Cancer Res; 2009 Feb 1;69(3):758-64
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  • [Title] Large-scale profiling of archival lymph nodes reveals pervasive remodeling of the follicular lymphoma methylome.
  • Emerging technologies allow broad profiling of the cancer genome for differential DNA methylation relative to benign cells.
  • Herein, bisulfite-modified DNA from lymph nodes with either reactive hyperplasia or follicular lymphoma (FL) were analyzed using a commercial C/UpG genotyping assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / genetics. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] CpG Islands. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Formaldehyde. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Paraffin Embedding. Reproducibility of Results. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 19155300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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46. Ohori NP, Nikiforova MN, Schoedel KE, LeBeau SO, Hodak SP, Seethala RR, Carty SE, Ogilvie JB, Yip L, Nikiforov YE: Contribution of molecular testing to thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology of "follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance". Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Feb 25;118(1):17-23
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  • [Title] Contribution of molecular testing to thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology of "follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance".
  • BACKGROUND: "Follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance" is a heterogeneous category of cases that cannot be classified into 1 of the other established categories.
  • METHODS: All thyroid cytology cases diagnosed as follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance were retrieved from April 2007 to December 2008.
  • RESULTS: From a total of 513 follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases identified, 455 had adequate molecular results.
  • In correlating the molecular results with surgical pathology outcome, we found that the cancer probability for follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases with molecular alteration was 100%, while the probability for follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases without molecular alteration was 7.6% (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: By cytomorphology alone, follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance specimens represent cases that are intermediate in risk between the benign and "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" categories.
  • Although not all papillary carcinoma cases are detected by molecular testing, a positive molecular test result is very helpful in refining follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases into high-risk and low-risk categories.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer Cytopathol. 2010 Feb 25;118(1):14-6 [20087906.001]
  • (PMID = 20099311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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47. Dickinson M, Wotherspoon A, Cunningham D: Sub-clinical dissemination of follicular lymphoma in normal sized lymph nodes may not be detected by radiologic staging: a case of disseminated follicular lymphoma detected in nodal clearance as part of therapy for cutaneous melanoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Mar;47(3):553-6
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  • [Title] Sub-clinical dissemination of follicular lymphoma in normal sized lymph nodes may not be detected by radiologic staging: a case of disseminated follicular lymphoma detected in nodal clearance as part of therapy for cutaneous melanoma.
  • Patients with localized follicular lymphoma are potentially curable; however, the failure rate for local treatment suggests that a proportion of apparently localized disease is being under-staged.
  • We report a case of incidentally diagnosed follicular lymphoma found in association with a stage II malignant melanoma, with immunohistochemical evidence of disseminated lymphoma in radiologically and clinically benign regional lymph nodes.
  • This case provides some evidence to the cause of treatment failure in patients with clinically localized follicular lymphoma, and is a histologically proven example of the association between melanoma and lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16396780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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48. Zhao J, Leonard C, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Moch H, Odermatt B: Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Feb;19(2):329-37
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  • [Title] Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling.
  • It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors by histological or cytological examination.
  • The goal of this study was to reveal gene expression variations between benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • We investigated gene expression profiles from 24 follicular thyroid tumors (12 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 13 normal thyroid tissues using high-density human cDNA arrays.
  • The identification of gene expression changes was based on signal intensity ratios of tumor versus normal thyroid parenchyma.
  • Expression patterns of a set of known genes were found to be significantly different between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • Our results demonstrate a potential use of gene expression profiling for differentiating benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A detailed investigation of the differentially expressed genes could give new insights into molecular pathways of malignant transformation of thyroid follicular neoplasm and may help to develop a molecular tool for the preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18202778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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49. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9

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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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50. Łukieńczuk T, Kaliszewski K, Zołedziewska M, Jonkisz A, Dmochowska G, Dobrut M, Rogoliński J, Dobosz T: [SNP polymorphism of LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumours]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:45-51
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  • [Title] [SNP polymorphism of LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumours].
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was estimation of occurrence of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in LGALS3BP gene in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors and analysis of correlation between their frequency and the histological type of thyroid lesions.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studied group consisted of 58 patients, 24 with papillary thyroid carcinomas, 19 with nodular goiters and 15 with follicular adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of LGALS3BP gene (found in NCBI) database are not characteristic for papillary thyroid cancer, follicular adenomas and nodular goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Glycoproteins / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17091456.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / LGALS3BP protein, human
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51. Bornstein MM, Filippi A, Altermatt HJ, Lambrecht JT, Buser D: [The odontogenic keratocyst--odontogenic cyst or benign tumor?]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed; 2005;115(2):110-28
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  • [Title] [The odontogenic keratocyst--odontogenic cyst or benign tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Die odontogene Keratozyste--odontogene Zyste oder benigner Tumor?
  • The odontogenic keratocyst is the third most common cyst of the jaws, after the follicular and radicular cyst.
  • This led to the tentative suggestion that the keratocyst might be a benign cystic neoplasm rather than simply an odontogenic cyst.

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  • (PMID = 15771334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-2855
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Monatsschrift fur Zahnmedizin = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie = Rivista mensile svizzera di odontologia e stomatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed
  • [Language] FRE; GER
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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52. Faquin WC: Diagnosis and reporting of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Mar;3(1):82-5
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and reporting of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration.
  • Thyroid FNA specimens containing follicular-patterned lesions are the most commonly encountered and include various forms of benign thyroid nodules, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Based primarily upon the cytoarchitectural pattern, FNA is used as a screening test for follicular-patterned lesions to identify the majority of patients with benign nodules who can be managed without surgical intervention.
  • A key element of this approach is the category "atypical cells of undetermined significance" (ACUS) which is used for those aspirates which cannot be easily classified as benign, suspicious, or malignant.
  • Lesions in this category represent approximately 3-6% of thyroid FNAs and have a risk of malignancy intermediate between the "benign" category and the "suspicious for a follicular neoplasm" category.

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  • (PMID = 20596996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807535
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bethesda / FNA / Follicular / Thyroid
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53. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].
  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • Follicular adenoma is well-circumscribed, with no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland.
  • The hyperplasia is followed by involution of the follicles leading to large follicles of varying size.

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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54. Go JW, Oh HE, Cho HK, Kang WH, Ro BI: A case of basaloid follicular hamartoma. Ann Dermatol; 2010 May;22(2):229-31

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of basaloid follicular hamartoma.
  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH), uncommon rare benign neoplasm connected to the adnexal structures, presents with multiple clinical manifestations that can develop into basal cell carcinoma.
  • BFH shows thick cords and thin strands of anastomosing basaloid proliferations that arise from hair follicles and are enclosed by loose fibrous stroma.

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  • [Cites] Int J Dermatol. 2005 May;44(5):361-5 [15869532.001]
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  • (PMID = 20548923.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883435
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Basaloid follicular hamartoma
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55. Bremer AA, Feldman BJ, Iezza G, Clark OH, Rosenthal SM: Report of a hürthle cell neoplasm in a peripubertal girl. Thyroid; 2007 Feb;17(2):175-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Report of a hürthle cell neoplasm in a peripubertal girl.
  • Although most thyroid nodules are benign, the risk of malignancy is greater in pediatric patients.
  • Papillary and follicular cell tumors account for the majority of thyroid neoplasms; Hürthle cell tumors account for less than 5%.
  • Despite being uncommon, malignant Hürthle cell tumors are potentially more aggressive than papillary and follicular cell tumors.
  • To our knowledge, she represents the youngest patient with a Hürthle cell neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 17316121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK073697
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Faquin WC, Cibas ES, Renshaw AA: "Atypical" cells in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of benign thyroid cysts. Cancer; 2005 Apr 25;105(2):71-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] "Atypical" cells in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of benign thyroid cysts.
  • Most are benign nodules with degenerative changes in a multinodular goiter.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimens from these cystic nodules usually are easily interpreted as benign.
  • However, occasionally, cells with atypical features are encountered, increasing the possibility of a cystic malignant neoplasm.
  • To the authors' knowledge, the microscopic features of these benign cells, presumed to be of cyst-lining origin, have not been well described to date.
  • Seventy-five specimens with subsequent histologic correlation showing a benign cystic thyroid nodule were selected for study.
  • However, in 29% of these specimens, a papillary or Hurthle cell neoplasm could not be excluded.
  • In contrast to the atypical cells from benign cysts, cystic papillary carcinomas lacked the repair-like spindled cytomorphology, and showed nuclear crowding (100%), as well as papillary microarchitecture (50%), and rare intranuclear pseudoinclusions (42%).
  • Immunohistochemical staining of a subset of the resected thyroid cysts showed that the cyst-lining cells were positive for keratin and thyroglobulin, consistent with thyroid follicular cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Atypical cyst-lining cells were found to have characteristic features (e.g., distinct cell borders, elongated shape, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and distinct nucleoli) and lacked nuclear crowding, intranuclear pseudoinclusions, and papillary architecture that, in many specimens, allowed them to be recognized as benign.
  • The authors recommended that the subset of cells with the characteristic features described in the current study be reported as "consistent with benign cyst lining cells".

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  • [Copyright] 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2006 Feb 25;108(1):72; author reply 73 [16400633.001]
  • (PMID = 15662703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Milas M, Mazzaglia P, Chia SY, Skugor M, Berber E, Reddy S, Gupta M, Siperstein A: The utility of peripheral thyrotropin mRNA in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms and surveillance of thyroid cancers. Surgery; 2007 Feb;141(2):137-46; discussion 146
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The utility of peripheral thyrotropin mRNA in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms and surveillance of thyroid cancers.
  • Thyroid cancer detection was assessed from known clinical diagnostic criteria and mRNA for patients with follicular neoplasms (n = 64) and long-term cancer follow-up (n = 13).
  • When FNAB specimens indicated follicular neoplasm, a decision algorithm combining TSHR mRNA and abnormal thyroid ultrasound features correctly diagnosed all cancer patients (100% sensitivity) and would have spared operation for benign disease in 38%.

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  • (PMID = 17263967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
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58. Mihai R, Parker AJ, Roskell D, Sadler GP: One in four patients with follicular thyroid cytology (THY3) has a thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Jan;19(1):33-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] One in four patients with follicular thyroid cytology (THY3) has a thyroid carcinoma.
  • Cytological criteria for benign (THY2) and malignant (THY5) aspirates are well established and reliable.
  • When cytology suggests a follicular neoplasm (THY3), only formal histological assessment can differentiate between benign and malignant lesions.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the factors predictive of malignancy in thyroid nodules when cytological assessment is restricted to euthyroid patients living in an area without endemic goiter who undergo routine diagnostic lobectomy once the FNA raises the suspicion of a follicular neoplasm.
  • Histology demonstrated thyroid carcinomas in 57 patients (31 follicular carcinomas, 11 Hurthle cell carcinomas, 11 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, 1 poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, 1 lymphoma, and 1 metastatic renal carcinoma).
  • Benign tumors were found in 144 patients with follicular adenomas (n = 76), Hurthle cell adenomas (n = 33), multinodular goiter (n = 13), adenomatoid nodules (n = 15), colloid nodules (n = 4), and thyroiditis (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSION: One in four patients with cytological features of a follicular neoplasm has a thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18976164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Widder S, Guggisberg K, Khalil M, Pasieka JL: A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2008 Jul;144(1):80-5
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Histopathologic criterion for follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC) has only recently been utilized universally.
  • The purpose was to determine whether, on review, these criteria would result in a change in diagnosis of follicular neoplasm (FN).
  • METHODS: A ten-year clinical cohort included patients with a diagnosis of a follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma (FC), or FVPTC.
  • Initially, 118 were benign, 56 were FVPTC, and 11 were FC.
  • Overall, 46 (25%) patients had a change in diagnosis on re-review; 35 were reclassified from a benign diagnosis to a re-reviewed malignant diagnosis, with 5 reclassified as minimally invasive FC, 4 as occult PTC, and 26 (74%) as FVPTC.
  • Eleven patients were reclassified to a benign diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / ethics. Ethics, Clinical. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Surgery. 2009 Jun;145(6):687-8; author reply 688-9 [19486776.001]
  • [CommentIn] Surgery. 2008 Jul;144(1):99-100 [18571592.001]
  • (PMID = 18571588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Weyers W, Hörster S, Diaz-Cascajo C: Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):634-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor of follicular infundibulum (TFI) is currently thought to be a benign epithelial neoplasm with follicular differentiation.
  • We reexamined 24 cases of TFI and noted, often only focally, many changes typical of BCC, including palisading of cells at the periphery of aggregations, germinative cells, follicular germs in the absence of a follicular papilla, crowding of cells, individual necrotic neoplastic cells, fibromucinous stroma, and clefts between aggregations of neoplastic cells and stroma.

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  • (PMID = 19652582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Faquin WC, Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular patterned lesions of the thyroid: Diagnosis, management, and follow-up according to National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommendations. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Oct;38(10):731-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular patterned lesions of the thyroid: Diagnosis, management, and follow-up according to National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommendations.
  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI) State of the Science Conference on thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) proposed that follicular patterned lesions can be divided into two diagnostic categories; follicular lesion of undetermined significance/Atypia of undetermined significance (FLUS/AUS) and suspicious for follicular neoplasm/follicular neoplasm (SFON/FON).
  • In this study, we report the combined experience from our institutions with thyroid FNA cases that can be placed into NCI-designated thyroid FNA diagnostic categories for follicular patterned lesions.The case cohort comprised of 857 cases in 645 females and 212 males; 509 cases could be classified as FLUS/AUS and 348 as SFON/FON.
  • RFNA diagnoses were: benign (125 cases), FLUS (46 cases), SFON/FON (20 cases), suspicious for papillary carcinoma (7 cases), papillary carcinoma (3 cases) and non-diagnostic (2 cases).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20049964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Oliveira-Neto HH, Spíndula-Filho JV, Dallara MC, Silva CM, Mendonça EF, Batista AC: Unicystic ameloblastoma in a child: a differential diagnosis from the dentigerous cyst and the inflammatory follicular cyst. J Dent Child (Chic); 2007 Sep-Dec;74(3):245-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unicystic ameloblastoma in a child: a differential diagnosis from the dentigerous cyst and the inflammatory follicular cyst.
  • Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaws with an aggressive potential that commonly occurs in children.
  • This cystic odontogenic neoplasm is generally asymptomatic and found during routine radiographs.
  • The purposes of this report were to describe a case of UA involving the crown of the unerupted right mandibular second premolar in an 11-year-old girl under orthodontic treatment, and discuss its diagnosis and radiographic and microscopic findings, emphasizing its distinction from the dentigerous cyst and the inflammatory follicular cyst.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bicuspid / physiopathology. Child. Dentigerous Cyst / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Humans. Tooth, Unerupted / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18482524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-5068
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dent Child (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Giovanella L, Ceriani L, Ghelfo A, Maffioli M: Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jan-Mar;23(1):54-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • The present study was planned to assess the serum expression of Cyfra 21.1 in patients with benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancies.
  • We enrolled 135 patients with histologically proven benign thyroid nodules (n=79) and thyroid carcinomas (n=56).
  • No differences were found in serum Cyfra 21.1 levels between patients with benign nodules and patients with carcinomas.
  • When thyroid malignancies were subdivided according to tumor histology, serum Cyfra 21.1 increased significantly from classical differentiated thyroid carcinomas (papillary or follicular) to less differentiated or undifferentiated carcinomas (poorly differentiated or anaplastic).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Keratin-19 / blood. Keratins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Nodule / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 18409152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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64. Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, Torchio B, Mormile A, Garino F, Magliona G, Gamarra E, Ramunni MJ, Garberoglio R, Limone PP: Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid; 2010 Oct;20(10):1077-83

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation.
  • To date, however, among lesions showing a follicular pattern, FNAC is still unable to differentiate between benign and malignant ones.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate whether a subclassification of follicular cytologic specimens, based on cytoarchitectural patterns, could differentiate categories with a different risk of malignancy, thus improving the clinical management of patients harboring follicular nodules.
  • All the cytologic specimens were divided into five categories (Thy 1: inadequate material, Thy 2: benign, Thy 3: indeterminate, Thy 4: suspicious for malignancy, Thy 5: malignant).
  • Thy3 specimens were further divided into three subcategories (Thy 3a, or "follicular lesions of indeterminate significance": scant colloid, microfollicular pattern, or small clusters of thyrocytes with round nuclei usually without, but sometimes with, minimal cellular pleomorphism; Thy 3b, or "follicular neoplasm": absence of colloid, small clusters, or microfollicles of medium-large sized cell populations arranged in cohesive groups with nuclear overlapping, crowding, and pleomorphisms; and Thy 3c or "Hurthle-cell neoplasm": scant colloid, sheets or clusters of oxyphilic cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the National Cancer Institute consensus showing a different risk of malignancy for "follicular lesions of undetermined significance” compared with "follicular neoplasms" and "Hurthle cells neoplasms," which are more suspect for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20883171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Drieschner N, Belge G, Rippe V, Meiboom M, Loeschke S, Bullerdiek J: Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1091-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin.
  • Recently, we have been able to describe the involvement of a novel gene called THADA in benign thyroid lesions with 2p21 rearrangements.
  • The latter occurs in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a t(2;3)(q13;p25).
  • Here we present molecular-cytogenetic and cytogenetic investigations on a follicular thyroid adenoma with a t(2;20;3)(p21;q11.2; p25).
  • Our findings suggest that the close surrounding of PPAR(gamma) is a breakpoint hot spot region, leading to recurrent alterations of this gene in thyroid tumors of follicular origin including carcinomas as well as adenomas with or without involvement of PAX8.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Chromosome Breakage. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17123335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / THADA protein, human
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66. Karger S, Berger K, Eszlinger M, Tannapfel A, Dralle H, Paschke R, Führer D: Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies. Thyroid; 2005 Sep;15(9):997-1003
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies.
  • The aim of our study was to perform a systematic evaluation of PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression in normal thyroid tissue as opposed to benign thyroid pathologies of different functional status and thyroid malignancy, to gain further insights into a putative physiological role of PPAR-gamma in the thyroid and to define whether PPAR-gamma could serve as a marker of thyroid cell differentiation.
  • Ten cold benign (CTN) and 10 toxic (TTN) thyroid nodules and corresponding normal thyroid tissues, 10 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 10 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) and 8 Graves' disease (GD) thyroids were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR (PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene).
  • When comparing benign nodular and normal thyroid tissue of the same patient no significant difference in PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was observed.
  • In contrast, PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was downregulated in 9 of 10 PTC and all GD samples, whereby at least 4 fold downregulation (compared with normal and benign nodular thyroid tissues) was observed in the latter.
  • In conclusion PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression levels are not concordant in benign thyroid nodular disease.
  • Furthermore there is no clear-cut association of PPAR-gamma mRNA expression with follicular thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Absence of a PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene in the series of 68 thyroid samples is in agreement with the suggestion of PAX-8/PPAR-gamma rearrangement being restricted to a subset of follicular thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Apoptosis / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Graves Disease / genetics. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16187907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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67. Hedayati M, Kołomecki K, Pasieka Z, Korzeniowska M, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of VEGF and VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):252-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Assessment of VEGF and VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors].
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of crucial angiogenic cytokine VEGF and its soluble receptors in peripheral blood of patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The study comprised 35 patients with thyroid cancer and 10 patients with follicular neoplasm, both diagnosed by means of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Analysing obtained results, we demonstrated high VEGF concentrations and low soluble VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Disequilibrium of the above-mentioned angiogenic factor concentrations is probably essential for the growth and progression of benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16350718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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68. Layfield LJ, Morton MJ, Cramer HM, Hirschowitz S: Implications of the proposed thyroid fine-needle aspiration category of "follicular lesion of undetermined significance": A five-year multi-institutional analysis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Oct;37(10):710-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Implications of the proposed thyroid fine-needle aspiration category of "follicular lesion of undetermined significance": A five-year multi-institutional analysis.
  • Six diagnostic categories were proposed including "follicular lesion of undetermined significance" (FLUS).
  • FLUS was defined as findings neither convincingly benign nor sufficiently atypical for a diagnosis of "follicular neoplasm" or "suspicious for malignancy."

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19373907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Kumar PV, Monabati A, Tabei SZ, Ramzy M, Husseini SV, Khajeh F: Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):177-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually have a benign clinical course, with an excellent long-term prognosis and a propensity for vascular invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anemia / etiology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone and Bones / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15839624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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71. Foukakis T, Gusnanto A, Au AY, Höög A, Lui WO, Larsson C, Wallin G, Zedenius J: A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Jun;14(2):381-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in the absence of metastasis can only be established postoperatively.
  • In this study, we aimed to identify transcriptional markers of malignancy and high-risk disease in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The expression levels of 26 potential markers of malignancy were determined in a panel of 75 follicular thyroid tumors by a TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR approach.
  • The metastatic potential could be predicted in all four cases with apparently benign or minimally invasive (MI) disease at the time of diagnosis, but poor long-term outcome.
  • In addition, a second model was produced by implementing two genes (TERT and TFF3), which was able to distinguish adenomas from de facto carcinomas.
  • When this model was tested in an independent series of atypical adenomas (AFTA) and MI-FTCs, 16 out of 17 AFTAs were classified as 'benign', while MI-FTCs with vascular invasion (sometimes referred to as 'moderately invasive') and/or large tumor size tended to classify in the 'malignant' group.
  • The reported models can be the foundation for the development of reliable preoperative diagnostic and prognostic tests that can guide the therapeutic approach of follicular thyroid neoplasms with indeterminate cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Gene Expression. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17639052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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72. Mitmaker E, Alvarado C, Bégin LR, Trifiro M: Microsatellite instability in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms. J Surg Res; 2008 Nov;150(1):40-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microsatellite instability in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • The purpose of this study was to further define the distribution of MSI in both normal and neoplastic thyroid follicular epithelium.
  • DESIGN: Using laser capture microdissection, cells from both normal and tumor tissue were individually collected.
  • RESULTS: Forty benign and malignant thyroid tumors were compared with their adjacent normal thyroid follicular tissue and were analyzed for MSI.
  • Nine of 14 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 10/16 of follicular thyroid carcinomas demonstrated MSI at > or =30-40% of loci tested.
  • For benign follicular adenomas, 9/10 demonstrated microsatellite stability or low-frequency MSI.
  • In addition our study showed a significant difference in MSI frequency between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • More importantly, the technique of laser capture microdissection allows for more accurate selection of benign, malignant, and normal DNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA Mismatch Repair. DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. Microsatellite Instability. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18243241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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73. Pinchot SN, Al-Wagih H, Schaefer S, Sippel R, Chen H: Accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy for predicting neoplasm or carcinoma in thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger. Arch Surg; 2009 Jul;144(7):649-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy for predicting neoplasm or carcinoma in thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger.
  • The FNAB results were reported as nondiagnostic, benign, inconclusive (follicular neoplasm), or malignant, whereas the final surgical pathologic data were reported as benign or malignant.
  • Preoperative cytologic testing of the mass was performed on 97 patients, and the results read as benign for 52, inconclusive for 23, nondiagnostic for 11, and malignant for 11.
  • In lesions 4 cm or larger, 26 of 52 FNAB results reported as benign (50.0%) turned out to be either neoplastic (22) or malignant (4) on final pathologic analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger, the FNAB results are highly inaccurate, misclassifying half of all patients with reportedly benign lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19620545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS215984; NLM/ PMC2910711
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74. Aron M, Kapila K, Verma K: Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):376-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • This study was conducted to study the role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules onfine needle aspirates (FNAC).
  • The cytology diagnosis of these cases was: papillary carcinoma (25), follicular neoplasm (16), adenomatous goiter (20), hyperplastic nodule (5), medullary carcinoma (5) and anaplastic carcinoma (1).
  • Galectin-3 positivity was seen in 80% of papillary carcinomas, 37.5% offollicular neoplasms and in 60% of benign nodules.
  • However, since it is also expressed in a variety of benign lesions, its role as a pre-surgical markerfor differentiating benignfrom malignant thyroid nodules is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17001889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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75. Rosario PW, Salles DS, Bessa B, Purisch S: Low false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules &gt;or= 4 cm. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2009 Dec;53(9):1143-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Excluding cases of insufficient material, cytology was benign in only 3/31 carcinomas (90.3% sensitivity).
  • The frequency of malignancy was 35% among nodules with indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm), and there was a predominance (77%) of papillary carcinoma.
  • The negative predictive value of benign cytology was 96.4%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm does not justify systematic resection of these nodules in asymptomatic patients with benign cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20126872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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76. Yang J, Schnadig V, Logrono R, Wasserman PG: Fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: a study of 4703 patients with histologic and clinical correlations. Cancer; 2007 Oct 25;111(5):306-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cytologic diagnoses were classified as unsatisfactory, benign, atypical cellular lesion (ACL), follicular neoplasm (FN), suspicious for malignancy, and positive for malignancy.
  • RESULTS: Of 4703 FNA samples, 10.4% were classified as unsatisfactory, 64.6% were classified as benign, 3.2% were classified as ACL, 11.6% were classified as FN, 2.6% were classified as suspicious, and 7.6% were classified as malignant.
  • One thousand fifty-two patients had surgical follow-up, including 14.9% of patients with unsatisfactory FNA results, 9.8% of patients with benign results, 40.6% of patients with ACL results, 63.1% of patients with FN results, 86.1% of patients with suspicious results, and 79.3% of patients with malignant results.
  • Sources of errors included diagnoses on inadequate specimens, sample errors, and overlapping cytologic features between hyperplastic nodules and follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17680588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Akhtar S, Awan MS: Role of fine needle aspiration and frozen section in determining the extent of thyroidectomy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Sep;264(9):1075-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • FNA reported 8 benign, 7 papillary carcinoma, 22 follicular neoplasm, 1 medullary and 6 suspicious lesions.
  • On final pathology there were 16 benign and 28 malignant cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17431657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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78. van Roosmalen J, van Hemel B, Suurmeijer A, Groen H, Ruitenbeek T, Links TP, Plukker JT: Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings. Thyroid; 2010 Dec;20(12):1359-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings.
  • Although some recommend routinely repeating FNA for nodules that are initially read as benign, there is no consensus.
  • We evaluated clinical relevancy and considered costs of routine follow-up FNA in nodules initially read as benign.
  • According to their physicians practice, some patients had a "follow-up biopsy" after an initially benign FNA reading as a matter of routine (Group I approach) or if their clinical status changed (Group II approach).
  • RESULTS: The initial FNA was benign in 576 (78%), suspicious for follicular neoplasms in 106 (14.4%), and malignant in 57 patients (7.7%).
  • Follow-up FNA was performed in 292 patients with initially benign lesions, 235 in Group I approach and 57 in Group II approach.
  • The FNA diagnosis according to Group I approach remained benign on follow-up biopsy in 96.2% (226/235), was altered to follicular neoplasm in 3% (7/235), and was suspicious for malignancy in 0.8% (2/235).
  • When following Group II approach, the follow-up FNA was benign in 93% (53/57), undetermined in 1.7% (1/57), and showed follicular neoplasm in 5.3% (3/57).
  • Cost-consequence analysis showed no benefit in routine follow-up FNA after initially benign FNA readings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Routine follow-up FNA in patients whose initial FNA is benign has a low diagnostic upgrading value and is relatively costly.
  • In patients whose initial FNA is benign, we recommend the FNA be repeated only if clinically suspicious signs or complaints develop.

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  • (PMID = 20954810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Demirer AN, Kemal Y, Gursoy A, Sahin M, Tutuncu NB: Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer in patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. Thyroid; 2008 Jan;18(1):45-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Then we compared the data of thyroid cancer patients on dialysis (n = 9) with the data of patients who had histopathologically verified benign thyroid disease on dialysis (n = 23) and with the histopathological data of thyroid cancer patients without ESRD.
  • Multifocal PTC was found in eight of nine patients; of them, four had follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC).
  • Eight PTCs were classified as tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage I and one as stage II.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Renal Dialysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


80. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • A patient with suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas underwent a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-Pentetreotide.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Serotonin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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81. Pavelić K, Dedivitis RA, Kapitanović S, Cacev T, Guirado CR, Danić D, Radosević S, Brkić K, Pegan B, Krizanac S, Kusić Z, Spaventi S, Bura M: Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions. Mutat Res; 2006 Jul 25;599(1-2):45-57
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  • [Title] Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions.
  • Several oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes are involved either as early or late event in thyroid gland carcinogenesis.
  • Status of these genes as well as intensity of apoptosis was analyzed in tumor tissues by molecular genetic methods, immunohistochemistry, and FACS-scan analysis.
  • We found higher incidence of p53 mutation and aberrant processing of FHIT mRNA in malignant tumors (papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic carcinomas) and in those tumors with distant metastasis.
  • The growth of p53(-)/FHIT(-) follicular carcinoma of human origin was much faster in nude mice than p53(+)/FHIT(+) follicular carcinoma, and mice had shorter survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics. Genes, p53. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Animals. Apoptosis. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Molecular Biology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16698048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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82. Bishop JA, Owens CL, Shum CH, Ali SZ: Thyroid bed fine-needle aspiration: experience at a large tertiary care center. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Aug;134(2):335-9
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  • Of the patients, 36 were being followed up for papillary carcinoma, 7 for medullary carcinoma, 4 for follicular carcinoma (1 also had papillary carcinoma), and 1 for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma; 3 had previous benign diagnoses.
  • The FNA result was benign in 12 of 57, including 6 cases of benign thyroid and 1 case of parathyroid tissue.
  • Residual benign thyroid and parathyroid tissue are potential pitfalls; awareness of these and judicious use of immunohistochemical staining can prevent misdiagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20660340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Cardoso JC, Reis JP, Figueiredo P, Tellechea O: Infundibulomatosis: a case report with immunohistochemical study and literature review. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(1):14
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  • Tumor of the follicular infundibulum was first described in 1961 by Mehregan and Butler in a patient presenting with multiple papules.
  • Clinical presentation is variable, requiring histology for the diagnosis, which reveals typically a plate-like proliferation of keratinocytes in continuity with the epidermis and hair follicles; some morphological features are reminiscent of the outer root sheath of the hair follicle.
  • A well defined network of elastic fibers surrounding the tumor is usually present using the appropriate staining and this finding is specific because it is not found in other benign follicular tumors.
  • Histopathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of tumor of the follicular infundibulum.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypopigmentation / etiology. Keratinocytes / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20137756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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84. Kang TW, Kang H, Kim HO, Song KY, Park YM: Trichoblastoma in a child. Pediatr Dermatol; 2009 Jul-Aug;26(4):476-7

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  • A trichoblastoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm composed of follicular germinative cells.

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  • (PMID = 19689532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Mitteldorf CA, de Sousa-Canavez JM, Massumoto C, da Camara-Lopes LH: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules as a possible source for molecular studies: analysis of RNA obtained from routine cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):899-903
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  • Cytological diagnosis was positive for malignancy in 3 cases, indeterminate for malignancy in 3, most probably benign follicular lesion in 7, negative for malignancy in 32, and suggestive of benign follicular lesion in 1.
  • [MeSH-major] RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18925567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin
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86. Layfield LJ, Abrams J, Cochand-Priollet B, Evans D, Gharib H, Greenspan F, Henry M, LiVolsi V, Merino M, Michael CW, Wang H, Wells SA: Post-thyroid FNA testing and treatment options: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Jun;36(6):442-8
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  • Follow-up options for "nondiagnostic" and "benign" thyroid aspirates are given.
  • The value of ultrasound examination in the follow-up of "nondiagnostic" and "benign" thyroid aspirates is discussed.
  • Ultrasound findings requiring reaspiration or surgical resection are described as are the timing and length of clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance for cytologically "benign" nodules.
  • Options for surgical intervention are given for the diagnostic categories of "atypical/borderline," "follicular neoplasm," "suspicious for malignancy" and "malignant" (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/).

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  • (PMID = 18478610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Raparia K, Min SK, Mody DR, Anton R, Amrikachi M: Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):787-90
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  • Approximately 10% of thyroid FNA diagnoses are "suspicious for neoplasm," warranting surgical resection.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of a patient's age, sex, size of nodule, and morphologic features as possible predictors of malignancy in patients with cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for neoplasm."
  • RESULTS: Of the 108 cases suspicious for follicular neoplasm on cytologic evaluation, histologic follow-up showed malignancy in 26 (24%).
  • Of the 37 cases suspicious for Hürthle cell neoplasm, 15 (41%) had malignancy.
  • Among cases with cytologic diagnoses of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm," the rate of malignancy in female patients was 22% as compared to 43% in male patients (P = .02).
  • No statistically significant difference was noted between the age of the patient and the rate of benign versus malignant diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant tumors were more frequent in male patients with a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm" than in female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19415954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Salvatore G, Chiappetta G, Nikiforov YE, Decaussin-Petrucci M, Fusco A, Carney JA, Santoro M: Molecular profile of hyalinizing trabecular tumours of the thyroid: high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and absence of B-raf and N-ras point mutations. Eur J Cancer; 2005 Mar;41(5):816-21
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  • [Title] Molecular profile of hyalinizing trabecular tumours of the thyroid: high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and absence of B-raf and N-ras point mutations.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumour (HTT) of the thyroid is a neoplasm of follicular derivation that shares several morphological similarities with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B-raf point mutations, RET/PTC rearrangements and N-ras point mutations in a large HTT series (28 samples).
  • Twenty benign thyroid lesions and 10 PTC served as control cases.
  • Thus, in clinical practice, the detection of B-raf mutations in a thyroid follicular tumour may prove to be a valuable tool, supplementing histological examination, and allowing a differential diagnosis between PTC and HTT.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Genes, ras. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Point Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15763659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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89. Reschini E, Ferrari C, Castellani M, Matheoud R, Paracchi A, Marotta G, Gerundini P: The trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland: prevalence study. Thyroid; 2006 Aug;16(8):757-62
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  • Five had benign thyroid nodules, one follicular carcinoma, and one extrathyroid metastases of papillary-follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / therapy. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m

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  • (PMID = 16910877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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90. Ruschenburg I, Vollheim B, Stachura J, Cordon-Cardo C, Korabiowska M: Analysis of DNA mismatch repair gene expression and mutations in thyroid tumours. Anticancer Res; 2006 May-Jun;26(3A):2107-12
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  • In this study, the expression and mutations of MLH1, MSH2, PMS1 and PMS2 in a panel of thyroid tumours, including nodular hyperplasia, follicular adenomas and carcinomas, were investigated.
  • The expressions of MLH1, MSH2 and PMS1 were generally higher in malignant tumours than in benign lesions (p < 0.01).
  • This observation can find potential diagnostic application in the differentiation of follicular adenomas from follicullar carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenosine Triphosphatases / biosynthesis. Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Carrier Proteins / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / biosynthesis. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / biosynthesis. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16827152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PMS1 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / PMS2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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91. Sarda AK, Kapur MM: Thyroid surgery in an area of iodine deficiency. Head Neck; 2005 May;27(5):383-9
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  • The indications for surgery were hyperthyroidism or cytologically diagnosed malignancy and large size, pressure symptoms, cosmesis, suspicious cytologic findings for malignancy, and clinical suspicion of malignancy in clinically benign euthyroid goiters.
  • RESULTS: Histologically, 83 of 703 solitary thyroid nodules, 36 of 329 clinically benign euthyroid multinodular goiters, and four of 181 Graves' disease were cancers.
  • Of all follicular cell cancers in this study, 132 were papillary, 83 were follicular, and 38 were anaplastic and squamous cell cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. India / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects. Thyroidectomy / methods. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15772954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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92. Haro R, González-Guerra E, Fariña MC, Martín-Moreno L, Requena L: [Trichilemmal horn: a new case and review of the literature]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):65-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Cuerno tricolémico: presentación de un nuevo caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • Trichilemmal horn, or trichilemmal keratosis, is an uncommon benign neoplasm of follicular lineage with trichilemmal differentiation.
  • The essential characteristics of this tumor are its clinical presentation in the form of a cutaneous horn with trichilemmal keratinization apparent in the histology study (with a hyperplastic epithelium giving rise to dense, orthokeratotic eosinophilic keratin).
  • We present a new case of this type of tumor in an 82-year-old woman who developed a solitary lesion on her scalp after surgical removal of a trichilemmal cyst.
  • On the basis of the pathology report, the tumor was diagnosed as trichilemmal horn.
  • We review the 33 reports of this tumor in the literature to date.

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  • (PMID = 19268114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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93. Malterling RR, Andersson RE, Falkmer S, Falkmer U, Niléhn E, Järhult J: Differentiated thyroid cancer in a Swedish county--long-term results and quality of life. Acta Oncol; 2010 May;49(4):454-9
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  • Thirty nine patients had papillary cancers incidentally detected during surgery for benign disorders (median size 7 (1-30) mm).
  • RESULTS: Eleven of 106 patients considered tumour-free after primary surgery developed recurrences during follow-up.
  • Survival rate was significantly better for papillary than for follicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Sample Size. Sweden / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20092427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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94. Chuang TC, Chuang AY, Poeta L, Koch WM, Califano JA, Tufano RP: Detectable BRAF mutation in serum DNA samples from patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas. Head Neck; 2010 Feb;32(2):229-34
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  • METHODS.: In this study, 28 matched tumor and serum samples obtained from patients with both benign and malignant thyroid disorders were analyzed for BRAF mutation using a gap-ligase chain reaction technique.
  • RESULTS.: The BRAF mutation was absent in tumor DNA samples obtained from patients with benign adenomas, follicular neoplasms or carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma.
  • Moreover, 3 of 14 patients with PTC were positive for BRAF mutation in serum and tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / blood. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19626635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / 1R01DE015939-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA96784
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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95. Ersoz S, Sert H, Yandi M, Erem C, Mungan S, Ersoz HO, Cobanoglu U, Hacihasanoglu A: The significance of Galectin-3 expression in the immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):457-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of immunohistochemical expression of Galectin-3 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
  • Three cases of five follicular carcinomas had positive staining for Galectin-3, while two had not.
  • Two cases with follicular adenomas were negative for Galectin-3.
  • None of the cases with a benign thyroid pathology had positive staining for Galectin-3.
  • For the evaluation of follicular neoplasm, Galectin-3 immunocytochemical staining had a sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 50%.
  • Galectin-3 expression in thyrocytes is a strong indicator of a malignant proliferative lesion especially for papillary and to an extent in follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18415710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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96. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):767-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We hypothesized that genes that regulate cell-cycle progression would be differentially expressed in malignant versus benign thyroid nodules and could serve as diagnostic markers and markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • METHODS: We used a cDNA array with 96 cell-cycle regulatory genes to identify differentially expressed genes in pooled benign versus malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Genes up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold in malignant thyroid neoplasms were further evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 95 patients with hyperplastic nodules (n = 19), follicular adenoma (n = 19), follicular thyroid cancer (n = 19), the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19), and papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19).
  • Real-time quantitative PCR showed that MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression were significantly higher in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms (< or = 0.0012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 are overexpressed in malignant thyroid neoplasms of follicular cell origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression. Humans. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16547620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 139691-42-2 / rad9 protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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97. Daneshbod Y, Daneshbod K, Rasekhi AR, Mosayebi Z, Negahban S, Hodjati SR, Bedayat GR, Ganjei-Azar P: Cytologic differentiation of struma ovarii from other ovarian neoplasms. Acta Cytol; 2008 Jan-Feb;52(1):72-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the cytologic findings of struma ovarii and value of cytology and immunocytochemistry (ICC) using thyroglobulin (TGB) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) in evaluation of this unusual ovarian neoplasm, together with the diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Cytologic findings were typically colloid with mosaic pattern, follicles, follicular cells only, sheets of follicular cells, both colloid and follicular cells, proteinaceous background or degenerated epithelial cells indistinguishable from other cystic ovarian neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic findings of struma ovarii are distinct enough to be suggested intraoperatively, and ICC for TGB or TTF-1 is a valuable tool for preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy and intraoperative diagnosis of this benign ovarian neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18323278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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98. Tömböl Z, Szabó P, Rácz K, Tulassay Z, Igaz P: [Relevance of microRNA-s in neoplastic diseases]. Orv Hetil; 2007 Jun 17;148(24):1135-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MicroRNA profiles enable the distinction of benign follicular adenomas from follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] MicroRNAs / metabolism. Neoplasms / genetics. RNA Interference. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17561483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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99. Lyshchik A, Drozd V, Demidchik Y, Reiners C: Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):604-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Thirty-five patients had thyroid cancer (mean age, 14.6 years +/- 2.6 [standard deviation]; range, 10-18 years), and 68 patients had benign thyroid nodules (mean age, 14.2 years +/- 2.9; range 9-18 years).
  • CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that US is most helpful in diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, with detection of irregular tumor outline, subcapsular location, and increased intranodular vascularization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood supply. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15770036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Fontaine JF, Mirebeau-Prunier D, Franc B, Triau S, Rodien P, Houlgatte R, Malthièry Y, Savagner F: Microarray analysis refines classification of non-medullary thyroid tumours of uncertain malignancy. Oncogene; 2008 Apr 3;27(15):2228-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Conventional histology failed to classify part of non-medullary thyroid lesions as either benign or malignant.
  • The group of tumours of uncertain malignancy (T-UM) concerns either atypical follicular adenomas or the recently called 'tumours of uncertain malignant potential'.
  • To refine this classification we analysed microarray data from 93 follicular thyroid tumours: 10 T-UM, 3 follicular carcinomas, 13 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 67 follicular adenomas, compared to 73 control thyroid tissue samples.
  • The correlation between the T-UM gene profiles and the pathological score allowed a separation of the samples in two groups of benign or malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cluster Analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Nodule / classification. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17968324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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