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1. Jo YS, Lee JC, Li S, Choi YS, Bai YS, Kim YJ, Lee IS, Rha SY, Ro HK, Kim JM, Shong M: Significance of the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II antigen, HLA-DR and -DQ, with recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer. Int J Cancer; 2008 Feb 15;122(4):785-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • To investigate the frequency of MHC Class II antigen expression in PTC and to identify the effects of MHC Class II antigen expression on clinical outcomes in PTC patients, the expression of HLA-DR/-DQ antigen was analyzed in surgical specimens from 77 PTCs and 44 benign nodules (23 nodular hyperplasias, 21 follicular adenomas).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. HLA-DQ Antigens / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / metabolism. Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17957790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HLA-DQ Antigens; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class II; 0 / Ku autoantigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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2. Milas M, Mazzaglia P, Chia SY, Skugor M, Berber E, Reddy S, Gupta M, Siperstein A: The utility of peripheral thyrotropin mRNA in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms and surveillance of thyroid cancers. Surgery; 2007 Feb;141(2):137-46; discussion 146
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  • [Title] The utility of peripheral thyrotropin mRNA in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms and surveillance of thyroid cancers.
  • Thyroid cancer detection was assessed from known clinical diagnostic criteria and mRNA for patients with follicular neoplasms (n = 64) and long-term cancer follow-up (n = 13).
  • When FNAB specimens indicated follicular neoplasm, a decision algorithm combining TSHR mRNA and abnormal thyroid ultrasound features correctly diagnosed all cancer patients (100% sensitivity) and would have spared operation for benign disease in 38%.

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  • (PMID = 17263967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
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3. Zhu X, Sun T, Lu H, Zhou X, Lu Y, Cai X, Zhu X: Diagnostic significance of CK19, RET, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression for papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Sep;63(9):786-9
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  • The expression of these markers, particularly CK19 and RET, was diffuse and strong in the papillary structure of PTC, but weak and focal in the papilla of tissue with benign disease.
  • The expression of CK19 in follicular PTC was significantly higher than in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: CK19, RET, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in PTC was higher than that in benign disease cases, but these were not specific markers for PTC.
  • It is also worth noting that CK19 was very useful not only for the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary structure but also for the differential diagnosis of follicular PTC and FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Humans. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20644217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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4. Shi Y, Ding X, Klein M, Sugrue C, Matano S, Edelman M, Wasserman P: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration with atypia of undetermined significance: a necessary or optional category? Cancer; 2009 Oct 25;117(5):298-304
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  • These cases were reinterpreted blindly by 2 experienced reviewers, who eliminated atypia of undetermined significance as a diagnostic possibility and reclassified these cases as either benign, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, or malignant.
  • In those atypia of undetermined significance cases that were reclassified as benign, 37% had PTC.
  • In those reclassified as follicular neoplasm or suspicious for malignancy, 38% were histologically proven to be benign lesions.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19711470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Giuliani C, Cotellese R, Cino M, Angelucci D, Monari F, Napolitano G, Monaco F, Francomano F: Metastasis as presenting feature of thyroid follicular carcinoma; report of a patient thyroidectomized for benign multinodular nontoxic goiter. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):624-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis as presenting feature of thyroid follicular carcinoma; report of a patient thyroidectomized for benign multinodular nontoxic goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16029132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Yasuoka H, Kakudo K, Inohara H, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):296-8
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma.
  • AIMS: Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside binding family of lectins, has been regarded as a useful tool for discriminating malignant tumours from benign nodules of the thyroid, including the distinction between follicular carcinoma and adenoma.
  • However, there are follicular tumours with unclear vascular or capsular invasion, which makes diagnosis more difficult.
  • In this study, we investigated the relationship between galectin-3 expression and the degree of vascular or capsular invasion of follicular tumours.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated galectin-3 expression in 260 cases of follicular tumour with various degrees of vascular or capsular invasion classified into four categories.
  • However, its diagnostic value for follicular carcinoma was not high because the sensitivity and specificity were 68.7% and 57.5%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that galectin-3 plays a role in the transformation of follicular tumours from benign to malignant; however, when diagnosing follicular tumours, the presence of this protein should not be required for diagnosing malignant transformation in all cases.
  • Therefore, we must conclude that galectin-3 should only be considered an adjuvant marker for follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16194828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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7. Katona TM, Ravis SM, Perkins SM, Moores WB, Billings SD: Expression of androgen receptor by fibroepithelioma of Pinkus: evidence supporting classification as a basal cell carcinoma variant? Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Feb;29(1):7-12
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  • Tumor-associated Merkel cells, a feature of benign follicular tumors, was identified by cytokeratin 20 stains.
  • Merkel cells were identified in 85% (11/13) of fibroepitheliomas of Pinkus, 27% (3/11) of basal cell carcinoma cases, and 73% (11/15) of benign follicular tumors.
  • Cytokeratin 20 expression was significantly higher in fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and benign follicular tumors compared with basal cell carcinomas (P = 0.0111 and P = 0.025, respectively).
  • Conversely, fibroepithelioma of Pinkus demonstrates retention of Merkel cells, a feature of benign follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Variation / genetics. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Keratin-20 / genetics. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Merkel Cells / metabolism. Merkel Cells / pathology. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology


8. Di Cristofaro J, Silvy M, Lanteaume A, Marcy M, Carayon P, De Micco C: Expression of tpo mRNA in thyroid tumors: quantitative PCR analysis and correlation with alterations of ret, Braf , ras and pax8 genes. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Jun;13(2):485-95
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  • We performed a qualitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis to measure the expression of variants of tpo mRNA in 13 normal tissue samples, 30 benign tumors (BT), 21 follicular carcinomas (FC), 20 classical papillary carcinomas (PCc), 12 follicular variants of papillary carcinomas (PCfv) and nine oncocytic carcinomas (OC).
  • The ratio tpo2 or tpo3 to tpo1 was inversed in follicular tumors.
  • These results confirmed the decrease of TPO expression in 97% of thyroid carcinomas regardless of histological type and the overexpression of shorter splice variants in follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Iodide Peroxidase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16728576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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9. Karger S, Berger K, Eszlinger M, Tannapfel A, Dralle H, Paschke R, Führer D: Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies. Thyroid; 2005 Sep;15(9):997-1003
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  • [Title] Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies.
  • The aim of our study was to perform a systematic evaluation of PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression in normal thyroid tissue as opposed to benign thyroid pathologies of different functional status and thyroid malignancy, to gain further insights into a putative physiological role of PPAR-gamma in the thyroid and to define whether PPAR-gamma could serve as a marker of thyroid cell differentiation.
  • Ten cold benign (CTN) and 10 toxic (TTN) thyroid nodules and corresponding normal thyroid tissues, 10 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 10 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) and 8 Graves' disease (GD) thyroids were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR (PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene).
  • When comparing benign nodular and normal thyroid tissue of the same patient no significant difference in PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was observed.
  • In contrast, PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was downregulated in 9 of 10 PTC and all GD samples, whereby at least 4 fold downregulation (compared with normal and benign nodular thyroid tissues) was observed in the latter.
  • In conclusion PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression levels are not concordant in benign thyroid nodular disease.
  • Furthermore there is no clear-cut association of PPAR-gamma mRNA expression with follicular thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Absence of a PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene in the series of 68 thyroid samples is in agreement with the suggestion of PAX-8/PPAR-gamma rearrangement being restricted to a subset of follicular thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Apoptosis / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Graves Disease / genetics. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16187907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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10. Nigam S, Gupta SK, Chaturvedi KU: Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor--a rare cause of jaw swelling. Braz Dent J; 2005;16(3):251-3
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor--a rare cause of jaw swelling.
  • Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon tumor of odontogenic origin, characterized histologically by the formation of ductlike structures with amyloid-like deposits.
  • Histogenesis of AOT is still uncertain and it is often considered as a hamartomatous lesion rather than a true neoplasm.
  • AOT has a benign behavior and conservative surgical enucleation or curettage is sufficient.
  • Histopathology revealed intraosseus follicular variant of AOT.

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  • (PMID = 16429194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4760
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian dental journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz Dent J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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11. Hedayati M, Kołomecki K, Pasieka Z, Korzeniowska M, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of VEGF and VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):252-8
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  • [Title] [Assessment of VEGF and VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors].
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of crucial angiogenic cytokine VEGF and its soluble receptors in peripheral blood of patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The study comprised 35 patients with thyroid cancer and 10 patients with follicular neoplasm, both diagnosed by means of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Analysing obtained results, we demonstrated high VEGF concentrations and low soluble VEGF receptor concentrations in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Disequilibrium of the above-mentioned angiogenic factor concentrations is probably essential for the growth and progression of benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16350718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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12. Guerriero E, Ferraro A, Desiderio D, Pallante P, Berlingieri MT, Iaccarino A, Palmieri E, Palombini L, Fusco A, Troncone G: UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Jun 25;118(3):157-65
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  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples belonging to the follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy classes are controversial.
  • METHODS: A series of 84 follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy FNAs with histological follow-up (30 malignant) was prospectively collected.
  • RESULTS: UbcH10 and Ki-67 shared a similar pattern; although UbcH10 expression was higher in malignant than in benign lesions (P < .001), staining was sporadic, and the cutoff value derived by the ROC analysis was too low (1.25%) for routine application.
  • UbcH10 mRNA levels associated with malignant histology were significantly higher than those associated with benign histology (P = .02).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / analysis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20544706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 6.3.2.19 / UBE2C protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
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13. Bremer AA, Feldman BJ, Iezza G, Clark OH, Rosenthal SM: Report of a hürthle cell neoplasm in a peripubertal girl. Thyroid; 2007 Feb;17(2):175-8
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  • [Title] Report of a hürthle cell neoplasm in a peripubertal girl.
  • Although most thyroid nodules are benign, the risk of malignancy is greater in pediatric patients.
  • Papillary and follicular cell tumors account for the majority of thyroid neoplasms; Hürthle cell tumors account for less than 5%.
  • Despite being uncommon, malignant Hürthle cell tumors are potentially more aggressive than papillary and follicular cell tumors.
  • To our knowledge, she represents the youngest patient with a Hürthle cell neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 17316121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK073697
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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15. Zekri JM, Manifold IH, Wadsley JC: Metastatic struma ovarii: late presentation, unusual features and multiple radioactive iodine treatments. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2006 Dec;18(10):768-72
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  • Here we describe a patient with struma ovarii that was initially diagnosed as benign and presented 10 years later with distant metastases.
  • At this time, a pathological review of the initial lesion found that it contained invasive well-differentiated follicular carcinoma.
  • The case was associated with a number of unusual features and challenging management issues, such as a delayed diagnosis of recurrence, functioning metastases with treatment consequences, tumour lysis-induced thyrotoxicosis and cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ovarian Follicle / pathology. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17168212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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16. Brailey LL, Davis T, Kolker SE, Murry TC, Thomas D, Bale AE, Ruhoy SM: Congenital linear unilateral basal cell nevus: a case report with patched gene molecular studies. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jan;34(1):65-70
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  • BACKGROUND: Linear unilateral basal cell nevus represents a linear collection of macules and papules histologically similar to basal cell carcinoma but with benign clinical behavior.
  • Furthermore, we discuss the relationship between linear basal cell nevus and basaloid follicular hamartoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Loss of Heterozygosity. Microsatellite Repeats. Mutation. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17214858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / SMO protein, human; 0 / patched receptors
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17. Drieschner N, Belge G, Rippe V, Meiboom M, Loeschke S, Bullerdiek J: Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1091-6
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  • [Title] Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin.
  • Recently, we have been able to describe the involvement of a novel gene called THADA in benign thyroid lesions with 2p21 rearrangements.
  • The latter occurs in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a t(2;3)(q13;p25).
  • Here we present molecular-cytogenetic and cytogenetic investigations on a follicular thyroid adenoma with a t(2;20;3)(p21;q11.2; p25).
  • Our findings suggest that the close surrounding of PPAR(gamma) is a breakpoint hot spot region, leading to recurrent alterations of this gene in thyroid tumors of follicular origin including carcinomas as well as adenomas with or without involvement of PAX8.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Chromosome Breakage. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17123335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / THADA protein, human
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18. Weyers W, Hörster S, Diaz-Cascajo C: Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):634-41
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  • [Title] Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor of follicular infundibulum (TFI) is currently thought to be a benign epithelial neoplasm with follicular differentiation.
  • We reexamined 24 cases of TFI and noted, often only focally, many changes typical of BCC, including palisading of cells at the periphery of aggregations, germinative cells, follicular germs in the absence of a follicular papilla, crowding of cells, individual necrotic neoplastic cells, fibromucinous stroma, and clefts between aggregations of neoplastic cells and stroma.

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  • (PMID = 19652582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. De Falco M, Oliva G, Ragusa M, Misso C Jr, Parmeggiani D, Sperlongano P, Calzolari F, Puxeddu E, Misso C, Marzano LA, Barbarisi A, Parmeggiani U, Avenia N: Surgical treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective study. G Chir; 2008 Apr;29(4):152-8
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  • The multivariate analysis evidences the most important variables, i.e. age > 45 ys, tumor of intermediate malignancy, with size 1.5 cm, operative M+, significantly condition the prognosis, noticeably getting worse it, independently by the kind of carried out operation.
  • CONCLUSION: Our present therapeutic choices are: 1. total thyroidectomy in the treatment of the apparently benign pathology when bilaterally with spread; the checking at the final histological exam of a cancer makes however think adequate the carried out operation; 2. lobo-isthmectomy in the treatment of unilateral benign pathology or with suspect FNAB for follicular neoplasm; the histological checking of a cancer makes think the operation adequate only in presence of favourable prognostic parameters, but in presence even of just one unfavourable variable, we consider necessary the totalization; 3. total thyroidectomy in presence of a certain or strongly suspected preoperative diagnosis of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18419979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. Dickinson M, Wotherspoon A, Cunningham D: Sub-clinical dissemination of follicular lymphoma in normal sized lymph nodes may not be detected by radiologic staging: a case of disseminated follicular lymphoma detected in nodal clearance as part of therapy for cutaneous melanoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Mar;47(3):553-6
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  • [Title] Sub-clinical dissemination of follicular lymphoma in normal sized lymph nodes may not be detected by radiologic staging: a case of disseminated follicular lymphoma detected in nodal clearance as part of therapy for cutaneous melanoma.
  • Patients with localized follicular lymphoma are potentially curable; however, the failure rate for local treatment suggests that a proportion of apparently localized disease is being under-staged.
  • We report a case of incidentally diagnosed follicular lymphoma found in association with a stage II malignant melanoma, with immunohistochemical evidence of disseminated lymphoma in radiologically and clinically benign regional lymph nodes.
  • This case provides some evidence to the cause of treatment failure in patients with clinically localized follicular lymphoma, and is a histologically proven example of the association between melanoma and lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16396780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Pu RT, Yang J, Wasserman PG, Bhuiya T, Griffith KA, Michael CW: Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration? Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 May;34(5):330-4
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  • [Title] Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration?
  • The diagnosis of an adequately sampled thyroid FNA is generally grouped into three categories: benign, malignant, and indeterminate.
  • The latter group usually includes follicular neoplasm, follicular lesion, and sometimes a more specific diagnosis such as Hurthle cell neoplasm or follicular lesion/neoplasm with Hurthle cell change.
  • Whether a FNA diagnosis of Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm (HLN) denotes a worse clinical outcome than follicular lesion/neoplasm (FLN) remains controversial.
  • Upon excision, the FNA diagnosis of HLN group had 14 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (16%), 46 cases of adenoma (12 follicular adenoma (14%) and 34 cases of Hurthle cell adenoma (39%)), and 27 cases of carcinoma (31%, 12 papillary carcinoma and 15 Hurthle cell carcinoma).
  • The FLN group had 74 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (34.3%), 8 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis (3.7%), 73 cases of follicular adenoma (33.8%), one case of granular cell tumor, and 60 cases of carcinoma (27.8%, 46 papillary carcinoma, 12 follicular carcinoma, and 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma and 1 parathyroid carcinoma) upon excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16604553.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Bosco M, Galliano D, La Saponara F, Pacchioni D, Bussolati G: Cytologic features of metanephric adenoma of the kidney during pregnancy: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 May-Jun;51(3):468-72
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  • BACKGROUND: Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a relatively rare neoplasm derived from metanephric blastema and composed of well-differentiated epithelial nephroblastic cells.
  • In view of its invariably benign clinical outcome, a preoperative diagnosis of this tumor could be of critical importance.
  • Since computed tomography and ultrasound imaging are not per se sufficient to unequivocally distinguish between MA and malignant neoplasms, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) could be the only accurate method to establish a preoperative diagnosis of this tumor.
  • FNA smears showed small, uniform cells with bland nuclei arranged in compact acinar and follicular structures; immunocytochemical staining revealed a diffuse, positive reaction for CD57, WT-1 and vimentin, and epithelial membrane antigen and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase yielded negative results.

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  • (PMID = 17536558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Marchevsky AM, Walts AE, Bose S, Gupta R, Fan X, Frishberg D, Scharre K, Zhai J: Evidence-based evaluation of the risks of malignancy predicted by thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Apr;38(4):252-9
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  • Among our patients, the percentages of malignancies calculated with follow-up data from all patients as the denominator were similar to the "risk estimates" proposed by the NCI, but estimates based on surgical follow-up overestimated the probability of thyroid malignancy for patients with FNA diagnosis of "benign" and "follicular lesions of undetermined significance" (FLUS).
  • Relative risk and 95% CI calculations suggested that the NCI classification could be simplified into three categories: "benign," "FLUS + neoplasm," and "suspicious + malignant. "

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  • (PMID = 19813257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Mitmaker E, Alvarado C, Bégin LR, Trifiro M: Microsatellite instability in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms. J Surg Res; 2008 Nov;150(1):40-8
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  • [Title] Microsatellite instability in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • The purpose of this study was to further define the distribution of MSI in both normal and neoplastic thyroid follicular epithelium.
  • DESIGN: Using laser capture microdissection, cells from both normal and tumor tissue were individually collected.
  • RESULTS: Forty benign and malignant thyroid tumors were compared with their adjacent normal thyroid follicular tissue and were analyzed for MSI.
  • Nine of 14 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 10/16 of follicular thyroid carcinomas demonstrated MSI at > or =30-40% of loci tested.
  • For benign follicular adenomas, 9/10 demonstrated microsatellite stability or low-frequency MSI.
  • In addition our study showed a significant difference in MSI frequency between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • More importantly, the technique of laser capture microdissection allows for more accurate selection of benign, malignant, and normal DNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA Mismatch Repair. DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. Microsatellite Instability. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18243241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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25. Davidov T, Trooskin SZ, Shanker BA, Yip D, Eng O, Crystal J, Hu J, Chernyavsky VS, Deen MF, May M, Artymyshyn RL: Routine second-opinion cytopathology review of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsies reduces diagnostic thyroidectomy. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1294-9; discussion 1299-301
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  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid carcinoma cannot be distinguished reliably from benign follicular neoplasia by fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy.
  • The FNA biopsy results were categorized into nondiagnostic (Bethesda I), benign (Bethesda II), indeterminate (follicular/Hurthle cell neoplasm, follicular/Hurthle cell lesion; Bethesda III & IV), and malignant (papillary or suspicious for papillary or other malignancy; Bethesda V and VI).
  • Indeterminate FNA biopsies were reread as nondiagnostic in 21% (27/129) of patients and as benign in 42% (54/129) of patients.
  • Twenty-two patients with an indeterminate FNA biopsy reread as benign progressed to operative therapy for reasons other than cytology (eg, symptomatic nodule and radiation exposure/high risk) and were found to be benign in 95% (21/22) of patients on operative pathology for a 95% negative predictive value.
  • An additional 11 patients with an indeterminate FNA reread as benign had follow-up FNA biopsies, each of which was benign.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21134564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Killian JK, Bilke S, Davis S, Walker RL, Killian MS, Jaeger EB, Chen Y, Hipp J, Pittaluga S, Raffeld M, Cornelison R, Smith WI Jr, Bibikova M, Fan JB, Emmert-Buck MR, Jaffe ES, Meltzer PS: Large-scale profiling of archival lymph nodes reveals pervasive remodeling of the follicular lymphoma methylome. Cancer Res; 2009 Feb 1;69(3):758-64
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  • [Title] Large-scale profiling of archival lymph nodes reveals pervasive remodeling of the follicular lymphoma methylome.
  • Emerging technologies allow broad profiling of the cancer genome for differential DNA methylation relative to benign cells.
  • Herein, bisulfite-modified DNA from lymph nodes with either reactive hyperplasia or follicular lymphoma (FL) were analyzed using a commercial C/UpG genotyping assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / genetics. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] CpG Islands. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Formaldehyde. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Paraffin Embedding. Reproducibility of Results. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 19155300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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27. Giovanella L, Ceriani L, Ghelfo A, Maffioli M: Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jan-Mar;23(1):54-7
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  • [Title] Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • The present study was planned to assess the serum expression of Cyfra 21.1 in patients with benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancies.
  • We enrolled 135 patients with histologically proven benign thyroid nodules (n=79) and thyroid carcinomas (n=56).
  • No differences were found in serum Cyfra 21.1 levels between patients with benign nodules and patients with carcinomas.
  • When thyroid malignancies were subdivided according to tumor histology, serum Cyfra 21.1 increased significantly from classical differentiated thyroid carcinomas (papillary or follicular) to less differentiated or undifferentiated carcinomas (poorly differentiated or anaplastic).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Keratin-19 / blood. Keratins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Nodule / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 18409152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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28. Subramanian M, Pilli T, Bhattacharya P, Pacini F, Nikiforov YE, Kanteti PV, Prabhakar BS: Knockdown of IG20 gene expression renders thyroid cancer cells susceptible to apoptosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;94(4):1467-71
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  • METHODS: We determined the expression levels of the major isoforms of IG20 by quantitative RT-PCR in normal and thyroid tumor tissues/cell lines.
  • We evaluated the functional consequence of IG20 knockdown in WRO (follicular carcinoma) and FRO (anaplastic carcinoma) thyroid cancer cell lines by measuring spontaneous, TNFalpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and TNFalpha-induced apoptosis.
  • RESULTS: The IG20 gene expression levels were higher in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and in WRO and FRO cells relative to normal tissues.
  • These observations, combined with overexpression of IG20 noted in thyroid tumor tissues, may suggest a potential role in thyroid cancer survival and growth and indicate that IG20 may be targeted either alone or in conjunction with TRAIL or TNFalpha treatment in certain thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19190106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107506; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA107506
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / MADD protein, human; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2682475
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29. Ersoz S, Sert H, Yandi M, Erem C, Mungan S, Ersoz HO, Cobanoglu U, Hacihasanoglu A: The significance of Galectin-3 expression in the immunocytochemical evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):457-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of immunohistochemical expression of Galectin-3 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
  • Three cases of five follicular carcinomas had positive staining for Galectin-3, while two had not.
  • Two cases with follicular adenomas were negative for Galectin-3.
  • None of the cases with a benign thyroid pathology had positive staining for Galectin-3.
  • For the evaluation of follicular neoplasm, Galectin-3 immunocytochemical staining had a sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 50%.
  • Galectin-3 expression in thyrocytes is a strong indicator of a malignant proliferative lesion especially for papillary and to an extent in follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18415710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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30. Mills SC, Haq M, Smellie WJ, Harmer C: Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;35(3):230-4
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  • INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have included Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) as a variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma in analysis of clinical outcome and others have failed to adequately distinguish between benign and malignant Hürthle cell neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of histologically confirmed malignant HCC, identifying patient, tumour and treatment factors that predict outcome.
  • Lymph node status (p=0.008), presence of metastases at diagnosis (p=0.005) and tumour stage (p=0.009) were independent predictors of DFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HCC appears to be a separate entity from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), with a more aggressive disease profile.
  • Lymph node status, tumour stage, and the presence of metastases are independent predictors of DFS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18722077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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31. Puskas LG, Juhasz F, Zarva A, Hackler L Jr, Farid NR: Gene profiling identifies genes specific for well-differentiated epithelial thyroid tumors. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand); 2005 Sep 5;51(2):177-86
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  • Studies done to date have concentrated on single tumor types and thus provide no help in identifying tumor subtype specific markers.
  • To that end we have studied gene profiles of 5 types of benign and malignant thyroid nodular tissue (multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas).
  • Despite the differences in the microarray panels used, we confirmed the differential regulation of 12 genes previously reported in thyroid cancer, although we found the expression of several genes to be regulated in other histological tumor subtypes than originally described.
  • We found, PCSK2, TRIB1, RAP1 GA1 to be specifically overexpressed in follicular cancer and S100A4 and GK2 in papillary carcinoma.
  • It is apparent that a range of nodular thyroid tissue using large tumor sample numbers is necessary to establish robust markers for malignancy and to categorize tumors on the basis of small tumor samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, Neoplasm. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / physiopathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / physiopathology. Humans. Microscopy, Confocal. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16171553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1165-158X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Clerici T, Kolb W, Beutner U, Bareck E, Dotzenrath C, Kull C, Niederle B, German Association of Endocrine Surgeons: Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas. Br J Surg; 2010 Jun;97(6):839-44
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid microcarcinomas (mFTCs) of 10 mm or less in size rarely manifest clinically and their clinical significance is controversial.
  • Most initial diagnoses had to be revised because of incorrect size assessment or incorrect diagnosis (benign adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant of PTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Austria. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Switzerland. Thyroidectomy. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20473996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Kaserer K; Perren A; Schmid KW; Köberle-Wührer R; Wenzl E; Asari R; Klinge U; Müller G; Kroell KP; Blankenburg C; Voss H; Cupisti K; Witte J; Knoefel WT; Simon D; Lienenlüke RH; Vorländer C; Wacha H; Schabram J; Lorenz K; Dralle H; Wojciechowski B; Kussmann J; Weber Y; Schürmann G; Goretzki PE; Ulitzer H; Eberle A; Mayer M; Stabenow R; Stegmaier C; Bühlmann R; Schlumpf R; Triponez F; Ess SM
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33. Eszlinger M, Krohn K, Hauptmann S, Dralle H, Giordano TJ, Paschke R: Perspectives for improved and more accurate classification of thyroid epithelial tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Sep;93(9):3286-94
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  • CONTEXT: Histologic examination of thyroid nodules is the current standard to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid epithelial tumors and to classify histologic subtypes.
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Published literature, addressing the current recommendations for thyroid tumor classification, as well as literature on the application of histology and molecular studies on the etiology of thyroid tumors is analyzed.
  • EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The current histologic criteria to classify thyroid tumors, especially follicular-patterned tumors, are hampered by considerable interobserver variability.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is very likely that molecular definitions of thyroid tumors mentioned in the current World Health Organization classification will be further developed, leading to future progress in defining thyroid tumor types by an integrated histologic and molecular approach.
  • These integrated classifications need to be evaluated for their specific impact on thyroid tumor diagnosis and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / classification. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18593772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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34. Nosé V, Volante M, Papotti M: Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: an update.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization.
  • This tumor is known to share morphological and architectural similarities with paraganglioma and medullary thyroid carcinoma, as well as the nuclear features and RET/PTC1 translocations of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Of great interest is the characteristic strong peripheral cytoplasmic and membranous staining of the tumor cells with MIB1 immunostain, not seen in any other thyroid neoplasm.
  • Although cases of malignant HTT have been recorded, HTT should be considered a benign neoplasm or, at most, a neoplasm of extremely low malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcitonin / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Chromogranin A / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / pathology. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 17960500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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35. Pavelić K, Dedivitis RA, Kapitanović S, Cacev T, Guirado CR, Danić D, Radosević S, Brkić K, Pegan B, Krizanac S, Kusić Z, Spaventi S, Bura M: Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions. Mutat Res; 2006 Jul 25;599(1-2):45-57
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  • [Title] Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions.
  • Several oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes are involved either as early or late event in thyroid gland carcinogenesis.
  • Status of these genes as well as intensity of apoptosis was analyzed in tumor tissues by molecular genetic methods, immunohistochemistry, and FACS-scan analysis.
  • We found higher incidence of p53 mutation and aberrant processing of FHIT mRNA in malignant tumors (papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic carcinomas) and in those tumors with distant metastasis.
  • The growth of p53(-)/FHIT(-) follicular carcinoma of human origin was much faster in nude mice than p53(+)/FHIT(+) follicular carcinoma, and mice had shorter survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics. Genes, p53. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Animals. Apoptosis. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Molecular Biology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16698048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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36. Paramo JC, Mesko T: Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):447-51
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  • [Title] Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical predictors of malignancy in patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 71 patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm who underwent thyroidectomy between January 1992 and December 2000.
  • Age, sex, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography characteristics of the lesions were assessed.
  • These clinical factors were compared between cases that had benign definitive pathologic findings and those that were found to be carcinomas on permanent sections.
  • RESULTS: Nine (13%) of the 71 follicular neoplasms were found to be carcinomas after definitive pathologic evaluation.
  • When the in-office ultrasonography findings were interpreted as benign, only 7% (3/46) of cases were malignant compared with 40% (4/10) when the ultrasonography findings were suspicious (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age and tumor size are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • Total thyroidectomy is reasonable in patients with follicular neoplasm on frozen section if they are young (<45 years old), with large (>4 cm) tumors or if there are suspicious findings on in-office ultrasonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18558598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Daneshbod Y, Daneshbod K, Rasekhi AR, Mosayebi Z, Negahban S, Hodjati SR, Bedayat GR, Ganjei-Azar P: Cytologic differentiation of struma ovarii from other ovarian neoplasms. Acta Cytol; 2008 Jan-Feb;52(1):72-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: To present the cytologic findings of struma ovarii and value of cytology and immunocytochemistry (ICC) using thyroglobulin (TGB) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) in evaluation of this unusual ovarian neoplasm, together with the diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Cytologic findings were typically colloid with mosaic pattern, follicles, follicular cells only, sheets of follicular cells, both colloid and follicular cells, proteinaceous background or degenerated epithelial cells indistinguishable from other cystic ovarian neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic findings of struma ovarii are distinct enough to be suggested intraoperatively, and ICC for TGB or TTF-1 is a valuable tool for preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy and intraoperative diagnosis of this benign ovarian neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18323278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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38. Fornelli A, Bondi A, Jovine E, Eusebi V: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resembling a thyroid follicular neoplasm. Virchows Arch; 2010 Mar;456(3):339-42
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  • [Title] Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resembling a thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • The first case of well-differentiated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with remarkable follicular architecture resembling a follicular neoplasm of thyroid is described in a 52-year-old man.
  • The follicles contained homogenous eosinophilic material akin to colloid and were lined by benign-looking cuboidal cells.
  • Immunohistochemically, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and thyroglobulin were negative and the patient had no evidence of a previous or concomitant thyroid tumour.

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  • (PMID = 20082203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Abu-Amero KK, Alzahrani AS, Zou M, Shi Y: High frequency of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human thyroid carcinomas and complex I respiratory defect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Oncogene; 2005 Feb 17;24(8):1455-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Significant progress has been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine thyroid tumor development and progression.
  • In the present study, we investigated the frequency of mtDNA mutations in 24 thyroid tumor specimens (19 primary papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), one follicular thyroid carcinoma, and four multinodular hyperplasias) and four thyroid cancer cell lines by sequencing the entire coding regions of mitochondrial genome.
  • All the thyroid tumor cell lines carried sequence variations that change amino acid and have not been reported previously as normal sequence variants.
  • Flow cytometry analysis of mitochondria respiratory function in the thyroid tumor cell lines revealed a severe defect in mitochondrial complex I activity.
  • Given that mtDNA mutation is present in the benign multinodular hyperplasia, it might be involved in the early stage of tumor development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15608681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; EC 1.6.5.3 / Electron Transport Complex I
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40. Mihai R, Parker AJ, Roskell D, Sadler GP: One in four patients with follicular thyroid cytology (THY3) has a thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Jan;19(1):33-7
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  • [Title] One in four patients with follicular thyroid cytology (THY3) has a thyroid carcinoma.
  • Cytological criteria for benign (THY2) and malignant (THY5) aspirates are well established and reliable.
  • When cytology suggests a follicular neoplasm (THY3), only formal histological assessment can differentiate between benign and malignant lesions.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the factors predictive of malignancy in thyroid nodules when cytological assessment is restricted to euthyroid patients living in an area without endemic goiter who undergo routine diagnostic lobectomy once the FNA raises the suspicion of a follicular neoplasm.
  • Histology demonstrated thyroid carcinomas in 57 patients (31 follicular carcinomas, 11 Hurthle cell carcinomas, 11 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, 1 poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, 1 lymphoma, and 1 metastatic renal carcinoma).
  • Benign tumors were found in 144 patients with follicular adenomas (n = 76), Hurthle cell adenomas (n = 33), multinodular goiter (n = 13), adenomatoid nodules (n = 15), colloid nodules (n = 4), and thyroiditis (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSION: One in four patients with cytological features of a follicular neoplasm has a thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18976164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Wang C, Zhou L, Li S, Wei J, Wang W, Zhou T, Liao S, Weng D, Deng D, Weng Y, Wang S, Ma D: C4orf7 contributes to ovarian cancer metastasis by promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Oncol Rep; 2010 Oct;24(4):933-9
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  • Gene C4orf7, renamed FDC-SP (follicular dendritic cell secreted protein, FDC-SP) was first isolated from human tonsils.
  • In this study, we report the expression of gene C4orf7 in a panel of tumor types.
  • The percentages of C4orf7 positive expression in the tumor patients with metastases were notably higher than those in the cancer without metastases.
  • On the contrary, the expression was hardly noted in normal tissues and corresponding benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Movement / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


42. Coulibaly B, Le Hémon A, Sorbier C, George L, Blanc JL, Fernandez C: [Ameloblastic carcinoma: primary or secondary?]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Feb;29(1):28-31
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  • Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare neoplasm.
  • It can arise de novo or in a preexisting benign ameloblastoma.
  • The second case concerns a woman with an ameloblastic carcinoma secondary-type developed on a preexisting follicular ameloblastoma of the mandible.

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  • (PMID = 19233091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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43. Kang TW, Kang H, Kim HO, Song KY, Park YM: Trichoblastoma in a child. Pediatr Dermatol; 2009 Jul-Aug;26(4):476-7
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  • A trichoblastoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm composed of follicular germinative cells.

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  • (PMID = 19689532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Kapur U, Wojcik EM: Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis? Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Aug;35(8):525-8
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis?
  • The significance of making a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy remains a controversial issue, considering that the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma is based on histological criteria and the significantly decreasing incidence of follicular carcinoma in the general population.
  • On FNA the main differential diagnoses of follicular neoplasm includes follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and benign solitary nodule occurring in a goiter.
  • Several studies have looked at immunohistochemical and molecular markers to distinguish benign from malignant lesions but none of them have proved to be infallible.
  • Although, FVPC is a distinct entity from the follicular neoplasm group, it is not always possible to separate it from the other follicular lesions because of overlapping cytologic features and often-sporadic presence of nuclear features, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma remains the main pitfall in a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm.
  • Since a significant number of cases that are malignant on follow-up are usually FVPC, consequently, follicular neoplasm is an essential diagnostic consideration on FNA.
  • In addition, follicular carcinoma, despite a decreasing incidence continues to be a real entity.
  • Therefore, it is essential that follicular neoplasm continue to be part of our diagnostic repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17636488.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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45. Pallante P, Federico A, Berlingieri MT, Bianco M, Ferraro A, Forzati F, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Pierantoni GM, Leone V, Sacchetti S, Troncone G, Santoro M, Fusco A: Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;68(16):6770-8
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  • Indeed, it decreased in an increasing percentage of cases going from benign adenomas to papillary (PTC), follicular, and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mice. Mice, Nude. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18701502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CBX7 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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46. Bogdańska M, Górnicka B, Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B, Koperski L, Morton M, Wasiutyński A: [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):314-9
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  • [Title] [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms].
  • INTRODUCTION: Estimation of malignancy in thyroid follicular neoplasms is a common diagnostic problem, thus revealing of differences in expression of some antigens in both benign and malignant lesions seems to be essential.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 in follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of 38 follicular adenomas (23 "classical", 5 with intracapsular invasion, 10 oncocytic) and 15 follicular carcinomas (9 "classic", 6 oncocytic) were stained immunohistochemically with anti-CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1.
  • RESULTS: In the whole group we found statistically significant differences in CD15 expression between follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • "Classic" follicular carcinomas (without oncocytic tumors) showed stronger CD15 and HBME- 1 expression than "classic" adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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47. Camargo RY, Tomimori EK: [Usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):783-92
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  • Conversely, nodules presenting benign ultrasonographic characteristics such as hyperechogenicity and a mixed sponge-like aspect, and a concordant cytology, have a negative predictive value of 96.6%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17891242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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48. Besic N, Sesek M, Peric B, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Sep;14(9):CR459-67
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with follicular neoplasm.
  • The specific aim was to discover whether preoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration in patients with thyroid neoplasm can differentiate between those with thyroid carcinoma and those with benign disease.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: A total of 327 patients (263 females, 64 males, median age: 51.5 years) with follicular neoplasm in whom carcinoma was only suspected and who were surgically treated at the authors' institute in 1988-2004 were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: The histopathological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter, and adenoma in 119 (36%), 104 (32%), and 104 (32%) patients, respectively.
  • The independent predictors of malignancy as shown by multivariate logistic regression were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • Thyroid carcinoma was more common in the patients with follicular neoplasm and serum Tg concentration over 300 ng/ml than in those with lower Tg concentrations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of malignancy were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18758416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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49. Moslavac S, Matesa N, Kusić Z: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology in children and adolescents. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):197-200
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  • The cytologic diagnoses were: unsatisfactory (9), cyst fluid (7), benign (204), cellular follicular lesion/follicular neoplasm (9) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (7).
  • The remainder had benign thyroid lesions; follicular adenomas (8), multinodular goiters (5), diffuse goiters (2) and Hashimoto thyreoiditis (1).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Croatia / epidemiology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / epidemiology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Prevalence. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20432751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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50. Ali F, Brown A, Gottwald L, Thomas J: Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation in a transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jul;32(6):445-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Shadow cells, characterized by basaloid squamous cells with a distinct well-defined border and a central unstained area as a shadow of lost nuclei, are characteristic of pilomatricoma, a distinct neoplasm of hair matrix differentiation.
  • The presence of shadow cells within tumor islands composed of follicular germinative cells of an otherwise classic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been considered as a distinct diagnostic category of BCC with matrical differentiation.
  • RESULTS: The H&E-stained sections of the hand lesion revealed multiple nodular masses of basaloid follicular germinative cells.
  • In these areas, the tumor nodules were connected to the epidermis, whereas in others, it extended deep into the reticular dermis to the subcutaneous fat junction.
  • Elsewhere, the majority of the tumor contained a population of shadow cells, similar to those in pilomatricoma, with basaloid-appearing matrical cells in the periphery.
  • These granules are one of the characteristic features of follicular matrix differentiation.
  • Areas of cystic degeneration were present throughout the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: BCC with matrical differentiation is a distinct pathologic entity and a rare subtype of BCC featuring shadow and matrical cells, typically seen in pilomatricoma, a benign hair matrix neoplasm.
  • This tumor has not yet been reported in an immunosuppressed transplant patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hand / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilomatrixoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15953381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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51. Haro R, González-Guerra E, Fariña MC, Martín-Moreno L, Requena L: [Trichilemmal horn: a new case and review of the literature]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):65-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Cuerno tricolémico: presentación de un nuevo caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • Trichilemmal horn, or trichilemmal keratosis, is an uncommon benign neoplasm of follicular lineage with trichilemmal differentiation.
  • The essential characteristics of this tumor are its clinical presentation in the form of a cutaneous horn with trichilemmal keratinization apparent in the histology study (with a hyperplastic epithelium giving rise to dense, orthokeratotic eosinophilic keratin).
  • We present a new case of this type of tumor in an 82-year-old woman who developed a solitary lesion on her scalp after surgical removal of a trichilemmal cyst.
  • On the basis of the pathology report, the tumor was diagnosed as trichilemmal horn.
  • We review the 33 reports of this tumor in the literature to date.

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  • (PMID = 19268114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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52. Raparia K, Min SK, Mody DR, Anton R, Amrikachi M: Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):787-90
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  • Approximately 10% of thyroid FNA diagnoses are "suspicious for neoplasm," warranting surgical resection.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of a patient's age, sex, size of nodule, and morphologic features as possible predictors of malignancy in patients with cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for neoplasm."
  • RESULTS: Of the 108 cases suspicious for follicular neoplasm on cytologic evaluation, histologic follow-up showed malignancy in 26 (24%).
  • Of the 37 cases suspicious for Hürthle cell neoplasm, 15 (41%) had malignancy.
  • Among cases with cytologic diagnoses of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm," the rate of malignancy in female patients was 22% as compared to 43% in male patients (P = .02).
  • No statistically significant difference was noted between the age of the patient and the rate of benign versus malignant diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant tumors were more frequent in male patients with a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm" than in female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19415954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Bornstein MM, Filippi A, Altermatt HJ, Lambrecht JT, Buser D: [The odontogenic keratocyst--odontogenic cyst or benign tumor?]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed; 2005;115(2):110-28
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  • [Title] [The odontogenic keratocyst--odontogenic cyst or benign tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Die odontogene Keratozyste--odontogene Zyste oder benigner Tumor?
  • The odontogenic keratocyst is the third most common cyst of the jaws, after the follicular and radicular cyst.
  • This led to the tentative suggestion that the keratocyst might be a benign cystic neoplasm rather than simply an odontogenic cyst.

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  • (PMID = 15771334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-2855
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Monatsschrift fur Zahnmedizin = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie = Rivista mensile svizzera di odontologia e stomatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed
  • [Language] FRE; GER
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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54. Takeyama H, Hosoya T, Shinozaki N, Watanabe M, Manome Y, Shioya H, Kinoshita S, Uchida K, Anazawa S, Morikawa T: Cytological and histological diagnoses of recurrent thyroid carcinoma with monoclonal antibody JT-95, which can detect modified fibronectin. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(7):507-15
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  • Although fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has increasingly gained importance as a tool in thyroid diagnosis over the recent years, up to 20% of thyroid carcinomas, in particular follicular tumors and follicular variant tumors, are inconclusive by FNA.
  • The pathological results of aspirated specimens, after a change in diagnosis following recurrence, revealed that 43 of 47 malignant lesions were positive, while nine of 10 benign tumors remained unreactive using MoAb JT-95.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Fibronectins / immunology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17573201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / JT95 monoclonal antibody
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55. Gerhard R, Nonogaki S, Fregnani JH, Soares FA, Nagai MA: NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Jun;65(8):757-62
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  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry.
  • Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined.
  • METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody.
  • RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001).
  • A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas) compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas) (P = 0.043).
  • In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007) and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES) high-risk group (P = 0.012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20835551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2933120
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / NDRG1 / Thyroid Carcinoma / Thyroid Gland / Tissue Microarray
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56. Schiro AJ, Pinchot SN, Chen H, Sippel RS: Clinical efficacy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules in males. J Surg Res; 2010 Apr;159(2):645-50
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  • FNA biopsy results were reported as benign, malignant, inconclusive (i.e., follicular neoplasm), or nondiagnostic; final surgical pathology was reported as benign or malignant.
  • Preoperative FNA biopsy results were obtained in 60% of these male patients and were read as benign in 45/165 (27%) patients, malignant in 47/165 (28%) patients, inconclusive in 66/165 (40%) patients, and nondiagnostic in 7/165 (4%) patients.
  • In male patients with cytology reported as benign, 3/45 (6.7%) FNAs were determined to be malignant on final pathology.

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  • (PMID = 19932905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS213770; NLM/ PMC3087882
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57. Miseikyte-Kaubriene E, Ulys A, Trakymas M: [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(3):189-94
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  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the most important procedure for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones.
  • Traditionally, findings of fine-needle aspiration biopsy are divided into four categories: nondiagnostic, benign lesions, suspected cancer, and malignant lesions.
  • Group suspicious for cancer largely involves follicular neoplasms as well as lesions with cytological features of malignancy.
  • In 59.8% of cases, cytological examination revealed benign lesions; in 11.8%, suspected cancer; and in 22.5%, malignant lesions.
  • However, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is not effective diagnostic method for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones in follicular neoplasm group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18413985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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58. Ruschenburg I, Vollheim B, Stachura J, Cordon-Cardo C, Korabiowska M: Analysis of DNA mismatch repair gene expression and mutations in thyroid tumours. Anticancer Res; 2006 May-Jun;26(3A):2107-12
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  • In this study, the expression and mutations of MLH1, MSH2, PMS1 and PMS2 in a panel of thyroid tumours, including nodular hyperplasia, follicular adenomas and carcinomas, were investigated.
  • The expressions of MLH1, MSH2 and PMS1 were generally higher in malignant tumours than in benign lesions (p < 0.01).
  • This observation can find potential diagnostic application in the differentiation of follicular adenomas from follicullar carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenosine Triphosphatases / biosynthesis. Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Carrier Proteins / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / biosynthesis. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / biosynthesis. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16827152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PMS1 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / PMS2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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59. Sanabria A, Carvalho AL, Piana de Andrade V, Pablo Rodrigo J, Vartanian JG, Rinaldo A, Ikeda MK, Devaney KO, Magrin J, Augusto Soares F, Ferlito A, Kowalski LP: Is galectin-3 a good method for the detection of malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules and a cytologic diagnosis of "follicular neoplasm"? A critical appraisal of the evidence. Head Neck; 2007 Nov;29(11):1046-54
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  • [Title] Is galectin-3 a good method for the detection of malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules and a cytologic diagnosis of "follicular neoplasm"? A critical appraisal of the evidence.
  • Immunostaining of cytological smears from FNAB with galectin-3 has been proposed as a tool for differentiating between benign and malignant nodules.
  • METHODS: Prospective studies of nodules with FNAB reports of "follicular neoplasm" and with a definitive diagnosis confirmed by histopathology were selected.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 could be a good tool to guide therapeutic decision in patients with thyroid nodules and FNAB results of follicular neoplasm, but available information has methodological flaws that precludes a definitive answer about galectin-3 utility in the clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17525969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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60. Guarino V, Faviana P, Salvatore G, Castellone MD, Cirafici AM, De Falco V, Celetti A, Giannini R, Basolo F, Melillo RM, Santoro M: Osteopontin is overexpressed in human papillary thyroid carcinomas and enhances thyroid carcinoma cell invasiveness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5270-8
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  • DESIGN: Thyroid samples from 117 patients who had undergone surgical resection of the thyroid gland for benign or malignant lesions were collected.
  • RESULTS: In this study we show that OPN is overexpressed in human PTCs with respect to normal thyroid tissue, follicular adenomas, and multinodular goiters (P < 0.05).
  • The prevalence and intensity of OPN staining were significantly correlated with the presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.0091) and tumor size (P = 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Membranes / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Osteopontin. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction


61. Theoharis CG, Schofield KM, Hammers L, Udelsman R, Chhieng DC: The Bethesda thyroid fine-needle aspiration classification system: year 1 at an academic institution. Thyroid; 2009 Nov;19(11):1215-23
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  • All FNAs were classified prospectively into unsatisfactory, benign, indeterminate (cells of undetermined significance), follicular neoplasm (FN), suspicious for malignancy, and positive for malignancy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of these categories from 3207 evaluated nodules was as follows: 11.1% unsatisfactory, 73.8% benign, 3.0% indeterminate, 5.5% FN, 1.3% suspicious, and 5.2% malignant.
  • The distribution of diagnoses of patients who underwent surgery was as follows: 10% unsatisfactory, 4.6% benign, 30.3% indeterminate, 61.4% FN, 76.9% suspicious, and 77.2% malignant.
  • There was an excellent association between the categories and in predicting benign versus malignant thyroid nodules (p < 0.0001).
  • However, the false-negative rate cannot be calculated because only a small number of patients with benign diagnosis underwent surgery.

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  • (PMID = 19888859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Schwarz EI, Ramach C, Mende KA, Strobel K: Physiologic FDG uptake in the ovary together with an abdominal wall leiomyoma mimicking metastasizing ovarian cancer on PET/CT imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Apr;34(4):249-50
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  • However, there is a considerable overlap in the imaging features of malignant and benign ovarian lesions because physiological FDG-uptake in the ovaries can occur, depending on the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women.We present a case of FDG uptake in the ovary co-occurring with an intensely FDG active tumor of the abdominal wall in a 44-year-old woman.
  • However, histologic examination demonstrated benign findings, namely abdominal wall leiomyoma and an ovarian follicular cyst.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19300062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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63. Milas M, Shin J, Gupta M, Novosel T, Nasr C, Brainard J, Mitchell J, Berber E, Siperstein A: Circulating thyrotropin receptor mRNA as a novel marker of thyroid cancer: clinical applications learned from 1758 samples. Ann Surg; 2010 Oct;252(4):643-51
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  • In initial studies, the detection of circulating DTC cells by thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) mRNA measurement distinguished benign from malignant thyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: TSHR mRNA was measured by quantitative RT-PCR from blood drawn perioperatively in patients undergoing thyroid surgery (n = 526), postoperatively in patients undergoing DTC follow-up (n = 418) and in patients monitored for known benign disease (n = 151).
  • The reference range and applications for TSHR mRNA were previously defined from 663 samples from patients with normal, benign, and malignant thyroid disease.
  • RESULTS: In patients with follicular neoplasms or suspicious cytology, preoperative TSHR mRNA >1 ng/μg had 96% predictive value for DTC, whereas 95% of patients with undetectable mRNA and benign thyroid sonography had benign disease.
  • It is particularly useful in guiding appropriate initial surgery for follicular neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Autoantibodies / blood. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood. Prospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroglobulin / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20881771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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64. Reschini E, Ferrari C, Castellani M, Matheoud R, Paracchi A, Marotta G, Gerundini P: The trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland: prevalence study. Thyroid; 2006 Aug;16(8):757-62
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  • Five had benign thyroid nodules, one follicular carcinoma, and one extrathyroid metastases of papillary-follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / therapy. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m


65. Finn LS, Argenyi ZB: Congenital panfollicular nevus: report of a new entity. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):59-62
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  • We report a unique congenital follicular nevus that fails to meet the criteria of any previously described follicular neoplasm, despite the plethora of alternatives.
  • Clinically considered a syringocystadenoma papilliferum, the excised lesion contained multiple dermal nodules that exhibited nearly all stages of follicular differentiation.
  • The periodicity of the follicular proliferations was akin to normal terminal hair, and a prominent perifollicular sheath surrounded each.
  • This benign lesion of abortive hair follicles was unassociated with any established genodermatous syndrome or other adnexal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / congenital. Hamartoma / congenital. Nevus / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital


66. Akhtar S, Awan MS: Role of fine needle aspiration and frozen section in determining the extent of thyroidectomy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Sep;264(9):1075-9
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  • FNA reported 8 benign, 7 papillary carcinoma, 22 follicular neoplasm, 1 medullary and 6 suspicious lesions.
  • On final pathology there were 16 benign and 28 malignant cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17431657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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67. Sugiyama T, Kouyama R, Tani Y, Izumiyama H, Akashi T, Kishimoto S, Arii S, Hirata Y: Giant malignant insulinoma which developed from a non-functioning pancreatic tumor over a long period of time. Intern Med; 2010;49(15):1573-9
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  • [Title] Giant malignant insulinoma which developed from a non-functioning pancreatic tumor over a long period of time.
  • Insulinomas are the most common hormone-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which are usually benign, solitary and small.
  • We describe herein a patient with a giant insulinoma (>10 cm in diameter) with concomitant thyroid tumor as detected by Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS).
  • A 50-year-old man presented hypoglycemic symptoms 20 years after the first detection of a pancreatic tumor, which was ameliorated by administration of a somatostatin analogue, octreotide.
  • SRS showed abnormal uptake by the insulinoma as well as by the thyroid tumor.
  • RT-PCR and immunohistochemical study revealed abundant expression of somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-1, -2, and -5 in his insulinoma and SSTR-1 and -2 in his thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • Furthermore, SRS proves to be a useful tool for localization of insulinoma as well as concomitant thyroid neoplasm with predominant expression of SSTRs.

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  • (PMID = 20686293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Butros R, Boyvat F, Ozyer U, Bilezikci B, Arat Z, Aytekin C, Güvener N, Demirhan B: Management of infracentimetric thyroid nodules with respect to ultrasonographic features. Eur Radiol; 2007 May;17(5):1358-64
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  • Of these, 473 (94%) were benign, 13 (2.6%) were suspicious for malignancy, 13 (2.6%) were malignant, and 4 (0.8%) were follicular neoplasms.
  • With respect to the high benign nature of the micronodules (94%), the number of interventional procedures should be lowered by making assessments based on a combination of US features including lymphadenopathy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 17021705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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69. Melillo RM, Santoro M, Vecchio G: Differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules using fine-needle aspiration cytology and oncogene mutation screening: are we ready? F1000 Med Rep; 2010;2:62
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  • Thyroid nodules are a very common clinical finding, and although the majority of them are benign, thyroid carcinoma accounts for about 5-15% of nodules.
  • Although in most cases this examination clearly distinguishes benign from malignant lesions, some fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples fall into undetermined thyroid cytology categories, which according to the most recent classification of thyroid FNAC consist of 'suspicious for malignancy', 'suspicious for follicular or Hurtle cell neoplasm', and 'follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance'.
  • On the other hand, patients with 'atypia of undetermined significance' undergo repeated FNAs, and patients with 'suspicious for follicular or Hurtle cell neoplasm' are subjected to diagnostic lobectomy and subsequently, in the case of histological diagnosis of carcinoma, total thyroidectomy.

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  • (PMID = 21170417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-5931
  • [Journal-full-title] F1000 medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] F1000 Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994260
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70. Liu Z, Liu D, Bojdani E, El-Naggar AK, Vasko V, Xing M: IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Dec 15;16(24):6009-18
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  • RESULTS: We found IQGAP1 copy number (CN) gain ≥ 3 in 1 of 30 (3%), 24 of 74 (32%), 44 of 107 (41%), 8 of 16 (50%), and 27 of 41 (66%) of benign thyroid tumor, follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), tall cell papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, in the increasing order of invasiveness of these tumors.
  • A similar tumor distribution trend of CN ≥ 4 was also seen.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20959410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113507-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / ras GTPase-Activating Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242709; NLM/ PMC3005072
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71. Mills LJ, Poller DN, Yiangou C: Galectin-3 is not useful in thyroid FNA. Cytopathology; 2005 Jun;16(3):132-8
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  • One benign and one inadequate FNA were negative for galectin-3 staining.
  • Four follicular neoplasm/suspicious of carcinoma cases showed negative staining.
  • One malignant FNA case, a papillary carcinoma showed positive staining with galectin-3 but three further carcinomas, two papillary and one follicular were galectin-3 negative.
  • CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 immunohistochemistry does not appear to be a useful adjunct to diagnosis in thyroid FNA as it does not reliably distinguish malignant and benign lesions.

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  • (PMID = 15924608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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72. Holland KE, Galbraith SS: Generalized congenital smooth muscle hamartoma presenting with hypertrichosis, excess skin folds, and follicular dimpling. Pediatr Dermatol; 2008 Mar-Apr;25(2):236-9
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  • [Title] Generalized congenital smooth muscle hamartoma presenting with hypertrichosis, excess skin folds, and follicular dimpling.
  • We describe an interesting patient with a diffuse smooth muscle hamartoma who presented with hypertrichosis, increased skin folds, and follicular dimpling.
  • While smooth muscle hamartoma classically presents as a small hairy, skin-colored to hyperpigmented patch or plaque, rare presentations with diffuse involvement or follicular papules have been described.
  • We present our patient and review the literature to highlight the diverse and under recognized manifestations of this benign neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 18429788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Fukushima M, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Akasu H, Shimizu K, Miyauchi A: Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule. World J Surg; 2009 May;33(5):963-8
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  • [Title] Excellent prognosis of patients with nonhereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma with ultrasonographic findings of follicular tumor or benign nodule.
  • However, in our experience, some MTC may be diagnosed as a follicular tumor or a benign nodule on ultrasonography because ultrasonographic findings of malignancy are lacking.
  • Of these patients, 54 were diagnosed as having thyroid carcinoma (malignant, or M-type) but the remaining 23 were diagnosed as having follicular tumor or benign nodule (benign, or B-type) on ultrasonography.
  • RESULTS: Clinically apparent lateral node metastasis, extrathyroid extension, and extranodal tumor extension were observed in 37%, 17%, and 11% of M-type patients, respectively, but none of the B-type patients showed any of these features.
  • Lymph node metastasis was pathologically confirmed in 38 and 65% of B-type and M-type patients, respectively.
  • However, thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection for B-type MTC should be the same as for M-type MTC because 38% of B-type MTC showed pathologic node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19198929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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74. Lee KJ, Jung YS, Kim WH, Yoon TI, Joo HJ, Soh EY: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human thyroid disease. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Feb;31(2):111-8
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  • METHODS: We used immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis to characterize the expression of COX-2 proteins in thyroid tissues from 64 patients with thyroiditis, benign tumors, and malignant tumors with or without metastasis.
  • However, each type of tumor tissue showed intense bands of COX-2 protein expression in Western blot analyses, and the immunoreactivity scores were 7.67+/-1.17 (SD) for thyroiditis, 7.87+/-0.9 for benign tumors, 7.53+/-1.53 for follicular cancer, 7.63+/-1.11 for papillary cancer without metastasis, and 7.17+/-1.55 for papillary cancer with metastasis.
  • No significant differences were found in the levels of COX-2 expression between different tumor tissue types.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18362501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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75. Finkelstein SE, Grigsby PW, Siegel BA, Dehdashti F, Moley JF, Hall BL: Combined [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for detection of recurrent, 131I-negative thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):286-92
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  • In 2002, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) approved positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) for Tg-positive/WBS-negative patients with follicular-cell-origin thyroid cancer.
  • Suspected FDG-PET/CT abnormalities were reported as benign or malignant.
  • Lesions were ultimately declared benign or malignant by surgical pathology or clinical outcome (disease progression).
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Iodine Radioisotopes. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17882493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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76. Drieschner N, Kerschling S, Soller JT, Rippe V, Belge G, Bullerdiek J, Nimzyk R: A domain of the thyroid adenoma associated gene (THADA) conserved in vertebrates becomes destroyed by chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid adenomas. Gene; 2007 Nov 15;403(1-2):110-7
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  • THADA, mapping to chromosomal band 2p21 is target gene of specific chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid benign tumors.
  • Thus, it is one of the most common gene targets in chromosomal rearrangements in benign epithelial tumors.
  • The truncations observed in human thyroid adenomas disrupt this conserved domain of the protein indicating a loss of function of THADA contributing to the development of the follicular neoplasias of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Gene Rearrangement. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17889454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-1119
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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77. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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78. Sillery JC, Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Henrichsen TL, Hay ID, Mandrekar JN: Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):44-54
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate sonography of thyroid follicular neoplasms for features that would aid in distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma and for any imaging features that distinguish the Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma from classic follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma and patients with the diagnosis of follicular adenoma.
  • Fifty patients (25 men and 25 women; median age, 59.5 years) with a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (27 with classic follicular carcinoma, 22 with Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma, and one insular variant) in a 6-year period were included.
  • Fifty-two control patients (10 men and 42 women; median age, 46.5 years) were selected from a random sampling of all cases of follicular adenoma during the same time period.
  • All study patients and control patients underwent surgical resection and pathologic analysis of their thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Hypoechoic appearance (82% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 50% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; odds ratio [OR]), 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), absence of halo (64% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 42% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), absence of cystic change (90% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 69% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), greater patient age (median age of 59.5 years for follicular carcinoma patients vs 46.5 years for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), size of the tumor (median size of 11.75 mL for follicular carcinoma patients vs 5.95 mL for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), and male sex (50% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 19.2% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.9) were more frequently associated with follicular thyroid cancer than with benign adenoma.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, homogeneous or predominantly homogeneous echotexture (67% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 36% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-11.4) and the presence of calcifications (22% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 4% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients [multivariate analysis including age]; p < 0.05; OR, 22.9; 95% CI, 2.0-261.9) were associated with classic follicular carcinoma.
  • Greater patient age (median age of 53 years for classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 64.5 years for Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05) was associated with Hürthle-cell variant follicular carcinoma.
  • There was no association between tumor volume, sex, sonographic halo, refractive shadowing, echogenicity, visible invasion, lymph node enlargement, adjacent nonfollicular suspicious lesions, vascularity subtype, and cystic change between the subgroups of follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic features of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are very similar, but larger lesion size, lack of a sonographic halo, hypoechoic appearance, and absence of cystic change favored a follicular carcinoma diagnosis.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma is more often seen in older patients with nodules having a heterogeneous appearance and lacking internal calcifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20028904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Jaffar R, Mohanty SK, Khan A, Fischer AH: Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms. Cytojournal; 2009;6:3
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  • [Title] Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity.
  • METHODS: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells.
  • The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA) and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101), follicular adenoma (47), or follicular carcinoma (17).
  • RESULTS: Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101) of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64) of follicular neoplasms (P<.0001).
  • All four follicular neoplasms with hemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas.
  • Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically.
  • None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages (P<.12).
  • Macrophages without hemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17%) but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas.
  • Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101) of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin (P<.0003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: If papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasm are ruled out, our findings indicate that the presence of hemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

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  • [Cites] Cytojournal. 2008;5:6 [18394201.001]
  • [Cites] Diagn Cytopathol. 2007 Aug;35(8):525-8 [17636488.001]
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  • (PMID = 19495407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678825
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Benign colloid nodule / follicular cells / hemosiderin laden macrophages / hemosiderin within follicular neoplasms / macrophages
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80. Zedek DC, Langel DJ, White WL: Clear-cell acanthoma versus acanthosis: a psoriasiform reaction pattern lacking tricholemmal differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Aug;29(4):378-84
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  • Clear-cell acanthoma (CCA) has been reported to be a benign epidermal neoplasm; however, several authors have suggested alternative differentiation as well as other nosologic categories, including a reactive dermatosis.
  • These findings support the contention that CCA does not show outer follicular sheath (tricholemmal) differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Psoriasis / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17667172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NGFR protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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81. Bezdekova M, Brychtova S, Sedlakova E, Steigerova J, Hlobilkova A, Bienova M, Kucerova R, Brychta T, Krejci V, Kolar Z: Immunohistochemical assessment of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; 2007 Dec;151(2):251-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas are benign skin neoplasms originating from hair follicle cells.
  • They result from defects in the signaling pathways that regulate hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration.
  • AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate their involvement in benign hair follicle tumor development.
  • RESULTS: The intensity of E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression in tumor cells did not differ from controls.
  • However, normal hair follicles cells exhibited membranous E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression, whereas both types of tumors, particularly trichoepitheliomas, showed E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression with a predominantly cytoplasmic localization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that this dystopic distribution of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex in hair follicle tumor cells may be a marker of cell-cell adhesion disruption which may contribute to the tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / analysis. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18345259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1213-8118
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / beta Catenin
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82. Kim TY, Kim WB, Ryu JS, Gong G, Hong SJ, Shong YK: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jun;115(6):1074-8
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  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of incidental thyroid F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomogram (PET) scan for evaluation in cancer patients and the role of standard uptake value (SUV) measurement in differentiation of thyroid malignancy from benign disease.
  • In 16 (50%) patients, the tumor was found to be malignant; 14 were papillary thyroid carcinoma (surgically confirmed in 7 cases), 2 were metastatic tumor from breast and esophagus.
  • Sixteen were cytologically diagnosed as follicular cell lesions: follicular neoplasm (n = 2), nodular hyperplasia (n = 7), indeterminate follicular lesion (n = 7).
  • There was no significant difference in maximum SUV between benign and malignant nodules.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroiditis

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  • (PMID = 15933524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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83. Hartl DM, Chami L, Al Ghuzlan A, Leboulleux S, Baudin E, Schlumberger M, Travagli JP: Charcoal suspension tattoo localization for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Sep;16(9):2602-8
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  • During ultrasound 19 lesions were discovered in regions already addressed by en bloc neck dissection.
  • Surgery removed 18 lesions (95%) in 14 patients (93%): carcinoma (16), benign lymphadenitis (2).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cell Differentiation. Charcoal. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tattooing / methods. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19551443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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84. Ohori NP, Nikiforova MN, Schoedel KE, LeBeau SO, Hodak SP, Seethala RR, Carty SE, Ogilvie JB, Yip L, Nikiforov YE: Contribution of molecular testing to thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology of "follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance". Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Feb 25;118(1):17-23
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  • [Title] Contribution of molecular testing to thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology of "follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance".
  • BACKGROUND: "Follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance" is a heterogeneous category of cases that cannot be classified into 1 of the other established categories.
  • METHODS: All thyroid cytology cases diagnosed as follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance were retrieved from April 2007 to December 2008.
  • RESULTS: From a total of 513 follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases identified, 455 had adequate molecular results.
  • In correlating the molecular results with surgical pathology outcome, we found that the cancer probability for follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases with molecular alteration was 100%, while the probability for follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases without molecular alteration was 7.6% (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: By cytomorphology alone, follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance specimens represent cases that are intermediate in risk between the benign and "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" categories.
  • Although not all papillary carcinoma cases are detected by molecular testing, a positive molecular test result is very helpful in refining follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases into high-risk and low-risk categories.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer Cytopathol. 2010 Feb 25;118(1):14-6 [20087906.001]
  • (PMID = 20099311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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85. Carney JA: Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland: quadruply described but not by the discoverer. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):622-34
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  • The nuclei of the tumor cells had cytoplasmic invaginations and grooves similar to those of papillary carcinoma.
  • Carney and colleagues labeled the neoplasms hyalinizing trabecular adenomas because of their microscopic appearance, absence of invasion, and benign natural history.
  • Subsequently, the nuclear features of the tumor and the molecular genetic findings led to the introduction of equivocal designations for it, hyalinizing trabecular tumor and hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm, and later to its designation as a variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Experience has shown that most circumscribed or encapsulated follicular thyroid tumors with intratrabecular hyalin and nuclear features of papillary carcinoma behave as benign neoplasms.
  • Hyalinizing trabecular carcinoma is a very rare tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18367942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Vorburger SA, Ubersax L, Schmid SW, Balli M, Candinas D, Seiler CA: Long-term follow-up after complete resection of well-differentiated cancer confined to the thyroid gland. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Oct;16(10):2862-74
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  • BACKGROUND: Papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas exhibit a relatively benign course.
  • DSS at 10 and 20 years was 81 and 69%, respectively, and correlated with age, histology, tumor size, radio-iodide ablation (RIA), and external beam irradiation (EBR) treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Cell Differentiation. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 Feb;18(2):600 [20607419.001]
  • (PMID = 19655202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Monteros Alvi M, Romero NM, Gonorazky S, Galvez V, Galvez M, Virgili E, De Soler GG: [Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules]. Medicina (B Aires); 2009;69(5):497-501
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  • [Title] [Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules].
  • [Transliterated title] Marcadores de riesgo de neoplasia folicular en nódulos tiroideos.
  • Thyroid nodules of follicular origin include neoplastic and non neoplastic processes.
  • No methods of diagnosis or cytological features (obtained by fine-needle aspiration, FNA) may differentiate both types, and therefore differential diagnosis still constitutes a dilemma.We analyzed the existing association between clinical variables and methods of diagnosis in thyroid nodules of follicular type with the aim of defining risk of neoplasm.
  • Ninety two patients with nodular goiters, of follicular origin by cytology, previously submitted to surgical treatment were analyzed.
  • Markers, that were related to high risk of follicular neoplasm corresponded to the cytological diagnosis of proliferation of high follicular degree, in iso or hypoechoic, and hypofunctioning nodules with I131.
  • The carcinomas presented cytology of follicular proliferation of high degree, in hipoechoic nodules, of irregular edges with microcalcifications and hypofunctioning, in male patients or patients younger than 20 years.
  • The presence of macrocalcifications and hypercaptation would be in favor of nodules of benign origin.The correlation of diagnostic methods and clinical variables in thyroid nodules of follicular type would allow us to differentiate the risk of neoplasm or carcinoma, and plan surgical selective treatments.

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  • (PMID = 19897432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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88. Slosar M, Vohra P, Prasad M, Fischer A, Quinlan R, Khan A: Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):149-57
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate IMP3 expression in thyroid follicular lesions, to determine whether it has a role in differentiating among these lesions, and to understand their biological relationships.
  • We immunostained 219 thyroid lesions selected from our surgical pathology archives including 14 hyperplastic colloid nodules (CN), 19 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), two Graves disease (GD), ten Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA), 20 follicular adenoma (FA), 37 conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 60 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), 19 Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 32 follicular carcinoma (FC), and six poorly differentiated/anaplastic carcinoma.
  • No significant correlation was found between pathologic tumor characteristics and IMP3 expression in differentiated follicular pattern thyroid carcinoma.
  • With 100% specificity and 69% sensitivity for FC as compared to FA and 100% specificity for FVPC, again compared to FA, IMP3 has the potential to be diagnostically useful in differentiating malignant and benign follicular pattern thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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89. Kołomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepień H, Cywiński J, Cielecka J, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors].
  • The aim of study was evaluation of p53 and sFasL blood concentration in patients with benign follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was composed of 28 patients: 14 with thyroid carcinoma and 14 patients with follicular neoplasm (NF).
  • RESULTS: The analysis revealed high sFasL blood concentration in patients with follicular thyroid cancer in comparison with the group with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of sFasL serum level concentration may be useful in preoperative diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fas Ligand Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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90. Robboy SJ, Shaco-Levy R, Peng RY, Snyder MJ, Donahue J, Bentley RC, Bean S, Krigman HR, Roth LM, Young RH: Malignant struma ovarii: an analysis of 88 cases, including 27 with extraovarian spread. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):405-22
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  • Adhesions (graded 2 to 4+), peritoneal fluid (> or =1 L) or ovarian serosal rent were worrisome features, occurring in 74% of 27 biologically malignant tumors but only 10% of 61 clinically benign tumors.
  • Among the consult cases, 7% with histologic follicular adenomas and 29% with papillary carcinomas were clinically malignant.
  • Papillary carcinomas recurred earlier (average 4 y) than follicular adenomatous neoplasms (average 11 y, range: 1-29 y).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19696610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. van Roosmalen J, van Hemel B, Suurmeijer A, Groen H, Ruitenbeek T, Links TP, Plukker JT: Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings. Thyroid; 2010 Dec;20(12):1359-65
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value and cost considerations of routine fine-needle aspirations in the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign readings.
  • Although some recommend routinely repeating FNA for nodules that are initially read as benign, there is no consensus.
  • We evaluated clinical relevancy and considered costs of routine follow-up FNA in nodules initially read as benign.
  • According to their physicians practice, some patients had a "follow-up biopsy" after an initially benign FNA reading as a matter of routine (Group I approach) or if their clinical status changed (Group II approach).
  • RESULTS: The initial FNA was benign in 576 (78%), suspicious for follicular neoplasms in 106 (14.4%), and malignant in 57 patients (7.7%).
  • Follow-up FNA was performed in 292 patients with initially benign lesions, 235 in Group I approach and 57 in Group II approach.
  • The FNA diagnosis according to Group I approach remained benign on follow-up biopsy in 96.2% (226/235), was altered to follicular neoplasm in 3% (7/235), and was suspicious for malignancy in 0.8% (2/235).
  • When following Group II approach, the follow-up FNA was benign in 93% (53/57), undetermined in 1.7% (1/57), and showed follicular neoplasm in 5.3% (3/57).
  • Cost-consequence analysis showed no benefit in routine follow-up FNA after initially benign FNA readings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Routine follow-up FNA in patients whose initial FNA is benign has a low diagnostic upgrading value and is relatively costly.
  • In patients whose initial FNA is benign, we recommend the FNA be repeated only if clinically suspicious signs or complaints develop.

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  • (PMID = 20954810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Mete O, Rotstein L, Asa SL: Controversies in thyroid pathology: thyroid capsule invasion and extrathyroidal extension. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Feb;17(2):386-91
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  • Controversies surrounding diagnostic criteria that distinguish benign from malignant thyroid follicular lesions have been brought to the attention of this community.
  • Moreover, the presence of adipose tissue within the thyroid gland and its pseudocapsule implies that thyroid tumor within fat tissue cannot be accepted as a criterion of ETE by that thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 19949881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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93. Troncone G, Cozzolino I, Fedele M, Malapelle U, Palombini L: Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Mar;38(3):172-6
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  • Cytological diagnoses were inadequate (2%), benign (85%), follicular lesion of undetermined significance (5%), follicular neoplasms (2%), suspicious for malignancy (2%), and malignant (4%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19693938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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94. Yeh DW, Lee KS, Han J, Yi CA, Lee HY, Chung MJ, Kim TS: Mediastinal nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: MRI findings with PET/CT and pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Sep;193(3):813-21
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  • Benign nodes (with follicular hyperplasia, sinus histiocytosis, fibrotic micronodules, or calcification) may show high FDG uptake at PET, whereas MRI may help distinguish benign from malignant nodes by showing low signal intensity in nodes on T2-weighted MRI.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity


95. Rosario PW, Salles DS, Bessa B, Purisch S: Low false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules &gt;or= 4 cm. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2009 Dec;53(9):1143-5
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  • Excluding cases of insufficient material, cytology was benign in only 3/31 carcinomas (90.3% sensitivity).
  • The frequency of malignancy was 35% among nodules with indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm), and there was a predominance (77%) of papillary carcinoma.
  • The negative predictive value of benign cytology was 96.4%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm does not justify systematic resection of these nodules in asymptomatic patients with benign cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20126872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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96. Gombos K, Zele E, Kiss I, Varjas T, Puskás L, Kozma L, Juhász F, Kovács E, Szanyi I, Ember I: Characterization of microarray gene expression profiles of early stage thyroid tumours. Cancer Genomics Proteomics; 2007 Nov-Dec;4(6):403-9
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A high-density oligonucleotide array with 20,000 human gene-specific oligonucleotide was used to analyze benign and early-stage malignant thyroid tumours of epithelial origin: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma, compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18204203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genomics & proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genomics Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B
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97. Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, Torchio B, Mormile A, Garino F, Magliona G, Gamarra E, Ramunni MJ, Garberoglio R, Limone PP: Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid; 2010 Oct;20(10):1077-83
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation.
  • To date, however, among lesions showing a follicular pattern, FNAC is still unable to differentiate between benign and malignant ones.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate whether a subclassification of follicular cytologic specimens, based on cytoarchitectural patterns, could differentiate categories with a different risk of malignancy, thus improving the clinical management of patients harboring follicular nodules.
  • All the cytologic specimens were divided into five categories (Thy 1: inadequate material, Thy 2: benign, Thy 3: indeterminate, Thy 4: suspicious for malignancy, Thy 5: malignant).
  • Thy3 specimens were further divided into three subcategories (Thy 3a, or "follicular lesions of indeterminate significance": scant colloid, microfollicular pattern, or small clusters of thyrocytes with round nuclei usually without, but sometimes with, minimal cellular pleomorphism; Thy 3b, or "follicular neoplasm": absence of colloid, small clusters, or microfollicles of medium-large sized cell populations arranged in cohesive groups with nuclear overlapping, crowding, and pleomorphisms; and Thy 3c or "Hurthle-cell neoplasm": scant colloid, sheets or clusters of oxyphilic cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the National Cancer Institute consensus showing a different risk of malignancy for "follicular lesions of undetermined significance” compared with "follicular neoplasms" and "Hurthle cells neoplasms," which are more suspect for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20883171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Chung KW, Yang SK, Lee GK, Kim EY, Kwon S, Lee SH, Park DJ, Lee HS, Cho BY, Lee ES, Kim SW: Detection of BRAFV600E mutation on fine needle aspiration specimens of thyroid nodule refines cyto-pathology diagnosis, especially in BRAF600E mutation-prevalent area. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Nov;65(5):660-6
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 137 specimens of FNAB (107 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC); 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC); 2 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas; 25 benign lesions), both direct DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP were used for detecting the BRAF(V600E) mutation.
  • Three (60%) of 5 PTCs and 1 out of 17 benign lesions had BRAF(V600E) mutation (only one false positive case and the definitive pathology showed atypical nodular hyperplasia that could be a premalignant lesion).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17054470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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99. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • In addition, there were occasional germinative cells in the palisade, and scattered hair papilla-like structures showing follicular differentiation.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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100. Jo VY, Stelow EB, Dustin SM, Hanley KZ: Malignancy risk for fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Sep;134(3):450-6
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  • Of the 3,080 FNAs, 18.6% were nondiagnostic, 59.0% were benign, 3.4% were atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 9.7% were "suspicious" for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 2.3% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 7.0% were malignant.
  • Rates of malignancy were as follows: nondiagnostic, 8.9%; benign, 1.1%; AFLUS, 17% (9/53); SFN, 25.4%; SM, 70% (39/56), and malignant, 98.1%.






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