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1. Perkins RS, Sahm K, Marando C, Dickson-Witmer D, Pahnke GR, Mitchell M, Petrelli NJ, Berkowitz IM, Soteropoulos P, Aris VM, Dunn SP, Krueger LJ: Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus reservoirs in paired blood and breast cancer primary biopsy specimens by real time PCR. Breast Cancer Res; 2006;8(6):R70
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  • [Title] Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus reservoirs in paired blood and breast cancer primary biopsy specimens by real time PCR.
  • This infection is considered benign, even though in limited cases EBV is associated with infectious and neoplastic conditions.
  • Over the past decade, the EBV association with breast cancer has been constantly debated.
  • Adding to this clinical and biological uncertainty, different techniques gave contradictory results for the presence of EBV in breast carcinoma specimens.
  • In this study, minor groove binding (MGB)-TaqMan real time PCR was used to detect the presence of EBV DNA in both peripheral blood and tumor samples of selected patients.
  • METHODS: Peripheral blood and breast carcinoma specimens from 24 patients were collected.
  • RESULTS: Of 24 breast tumor specimens, 11 (46%) were positive for EBV DNA.
  • Of these 11 breast tumor specimens, 7 (64%) were also positive for EBV DNA in the peripheral blood, while 4 (36%) were positive for EBV DNA in the tumor, but negative in the blood.
  • Furthermore, our finding of the presence of EBV in the tumor specimens coupled to the absence of detection of EBV genomic DNA in the peripheral blood is consistent with the epithelial nature of the virus.
  • Because of the low levels of viral DNA in tumor tissue, further studies are needed to assess the biological input of EBV in breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17163997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016472; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 2 P20 RR016472-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1797024
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2. Enfield LC, Gibson AP, Hebden JC, Douek M: Optical tomography of breast cancer-monitoring response to primary medical therapy. Target Oncol; 2009 Sep;4(3):219-33
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  • [Title] Optical tomography of breast cancer-monitoring response to primary medical therapy.
  • Studies have demonstrated that diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy are able to distinguish malignant lesions from benign tissues.
  • Breast cancer is characterized by an increase in total hemoglobin and a decrease in tissue oxygen saturation.
  • Benign lesions such as cysts and fibroadenomas have also been studied, with less conclusive results.
  • This provides a unique functional and dynamic imaging method that reflects changes in tumor angiogenesis and hypoxia.
  • When breast cancers are treated with primary medical therapy, this can result in a selective antiangiogenic effect that could help predict response to treatment earlier than by assessment of tumor size.
  • Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy have been used to scan women at several points prior to and during their neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment, with images and data showing physiological changes in the tumor in response to treatment.
  • In the women who respond to therapy, the total hemoglobin concentration decreases and the level of oxygenation increases in the tumor over the course of the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Tomography, Optical / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19777322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-260X
  • [Journal-full-title] Targeted oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Target Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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3. Dordević M, Jovanović B, Mitrović S, Dordević G: Ectopic mammary tissue in vulva. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2008 May;65(5):407-9
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  • CASE REPORT: A woman, 27-year old, admitted to Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic Kragujevac for surgery, of goose-egg size, vulva tumor, of elastic consistency.
  • Excision of the tumor was completely done in the total endotracheal anesthesia.
  • CONCLUSION: Ectopic mammary tissue in vulva in adult period is very rarely seen, and can be changed pathologically as well as normally positioned breast tissue into benign cystic changes, benign tumors, adenomas and fibroadenomas and tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18630137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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4. Rabban JT, Crawford B, Chen LM, Powell CB, Zaloudek CJ: Transitional cell metaplasia of fallopian tube fimbriae: a potential mimic of early tubal carcinoma in risk reduction salpingo-oophorectomies from women With BRCA mutations. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jan;33(1):111-9
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  • Germline mutations in the hereditary breast/ovary carcinoma genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 confer increased lifetime risk for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma.
  • Transitional cell metaplasia is a benign epithelial alteration that is a common finding in the serosa of the tube but is underrecognized in the tubal fimbriae, where it may mimic tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.
  • Median tumor size was 2.7 mm (range: 1 to 11 mm).
  • No particular clinical variables (BRCA 1 vs. BRCA 2 mutation, parity, personal history of breast cancer, prior abdomino-pelvic surgery, or intraoperative findings) or benign pathologic alterations in the RRSO specimens were associated with the presence of transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae.
  • This study demonstrates that transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae is a common benign finding in RRSO specimens that should not be confused with the much less common finding of tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


5. Hisaoka M, Takamatsu Y, Hirano Y, Maeda H, Hamada T: Sebaceous carcinoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature. Virchows Arch; 2006 Oct;449(4):484-8
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  • [Title] Sebaceous carcinoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature.
  • Sebaceous differentiation has been described in only limited examples of benign and malignant epithelial lesions of the breast.
  • Microscopically, the tumor, arising in the right mammary gland of a 63-year-old woman, was composed of well-defined solid sheets or lobules of atypical epithelial cells including many large pale or clear cells with often scalloped nuclei and coarsely vacuolated cytoplasm, in which abundant lipid droplets were identified with oil-red-O staining.
  • Besides, a subset of the tumor cells co-expressed synaptophysin, neurofilament, and PGP9.5, suggesting neuroendocrine differentiation that is a hitherto undescribed phenomenon in the mammary tumors with sebaceous features.
  • This case would expand the morphologic diversity of carcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Azo Compounds. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Coloring Agents. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Keratins / analysis. Mammography. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16944238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Azo Compounds; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; G7S71FND9B / oil red O
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6. Calaf GM: Susceptibility of human breast epithelial cells in vitro to hormones and drugs. Int J Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):285-95
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  • [Title] Susceptibility of human breast epithelial cells in vitro to hormones and drugs.
  • Breast cancer is often hormone responsive with growth or regression of tumors modulated by endocrine manipulations.
  • Knowledge of tumor response to hormones will greatly improve the ability to plan therapy for breast cancer patients.
  • Chemoprevention of breast cancer has been mostly aimed at reducing the rate of cell division through administration of anti-hormones.
  • Normal, benign lesions, and duct carcinomas of human breast tissues were processed for organ culture.
  • In the case of the normal breast tissue it was enzymatically digested and culture as organoid culture as well.
  • Several immortalized normal and malignant human breast cell lines were also used in these studies to analyze the effect of 17beta estradiol, progesterone, tamoxifen and anti-progestin RU486.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogen Antagonists / pharmacology. Tamoxifen / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mifepristone / pharmacology. Organ Culture Techniques. Progesterone / pharmacology. Progestins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16391781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Progestins; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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7. Kuroda H, Saito K, Kuroda M, Suzuki Y: Differential expression of glu-tubulin in relation to mammary gland disease. Virchows Arch; 2010 Oct;457(4):477-82
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  • Of the 78 malignant tumor cases, staining for glu-tubulin was observed in 56 (71.8%), and only 22 cases showed no significant staining.
  • However, in benign disease, glu-tubulin staining was detected in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts and endothelial cells, but was completely absent from epithelial cells in 64 of 69 cases.
  • When the expression of glu-tubulin was compared between malignant tumor, benign tumor, and other benign disease, a significant differentiation was found among expressions of this protein.
  • These results indicate that glu-tubulin represents a strong selective expression for cancer cells and may be useful to identify and quantify human breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Glutamic Acid / analysis. Tubulin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tyrosine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20697907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tubulin; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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8. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • Mammaglobin (MGB), a secretory protein belonging to the uteroglobin/Clara cell protein family, is a sensitive marker for breast carcinoma, but is also reported to be expressed in the female genital tract and its neoplasms.
  • Details of MGB expression pattern and its pathologic significance in the female genital tract have not been systematically studied.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • These results confirm that MGB is not specific for breast carcinoma, but is also variably expressed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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9. Somiari SB, Shriver CD, Heckman C, Olsen C, Hu H, Jordan R, Arciero C, Russell S, Garguilo G, Hooke J, Somiari RI: Plasma concentration and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in patients with breast disease, breast cancer and at risk of developing breast cancer. Cancer Lett; 2006 Feb 20;233(1):98-107
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  • [Title] Plasma concentration and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in patients with breast disease, breast cancer and at risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Specifically, MMP2 and MMP9 are implicated in both early and late processes of tumor development.
  • However, there is limited knowledge on the role of each form in disease and/or the significance of changes in the plasma concentration and/or activity in breast cancer patients.
  • The aim of this study was to determine if patients with breast cancer, benign disease and at risk for developing breast cancer display characteristic levels of active and/or total MMP2 and MMP9 in plasma.
  • Concentration and activity of MMP2 and MMP9 were determined quantitatively in the plasma of 124 female volunteers diagnosed with breast cancer (n=31), benign disease (n=38), or determined by the Gail Model to be at high risk (n=31) or low risk (controls, n=24) of developing breast cancer.
  • Concentration of total MMP2 was significantly lower in control individuals than benign, high risk (P<0.001 respectively) and breast cancer patients (P=0.002).
  • Activity of total MMP2 was significantly lower in controls compared to cancer, benign and high risk patients (P<0.001 respectively).
  • Attempts to build a predictive/descriptive model using canonical discriminant analysis (utilizing all eight features; concentrations and activity levels of active/total MMP2 and MMP9) enabled the distinction of the controls from the high risk, benign and cancer groups.
  • Our results suggest that preoperative plasma concentration and activity of MMP2 and MMP9 may permit sub-classification of female patients with breast disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / blood. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16473671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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10. Chung EM, Cube R, Hall GJ, González C, Stocker JT, Glassman LM: From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):907-31
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • The spectrum of breast lesions in children and adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign.
  • A breast mass in a young boy or girl may arise from normal and abnormal breast development.
  • After onset of puberty, most cases of breast enlargement arise from benign fibroadenoma in girls and gynecomastia in boys.
  • These conditions have specific imaging appearances, although juvenile (often giant) fibroadenoma cannot be distinguished from phyllodes tumor, which can be benign or malignant.
  • A diagnosis of juvenile papillomatosis (a benign lesion) portends later development of breast cancer, and patients with this condition should be closely monitored.
  • Malignant lesions of the breast in children are rare.
  • The most common primary breast malignancy is malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Primary breast carcinoma is exceedingly rare in the pediatric age group, but its imaging appearance in children is the same as seen in adults and is different from that of almost all benign lesions.
  • In girls, diagnostic interventions may injure the developing breast and cause subsequent disfigurement.
  • Given this risk and the low prevalence of malignant disease in this population, a prudent course should be followed in the diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast / abnormalities. Breast / anatomy & histology. Breast / growth & development. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / radiography. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / radiography. Gynecomastia / pathology. Gynecomastia / radiography. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Nipples / abnormalities. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / radiography. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / radiography. Puberty. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19448124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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11. Tremblay G, Deschênes J, Alpert L, Quenneville LA: Overexpression of estrogen receptors in columnar cell change and in unfolding breast lobules. Breast J; 2005 Sep-Oct;11(5):326-32
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  • [Title] Overexpression of estrogen receptors in columnar cell change and in unfolding breast lobules.
  • However, some investigators have suggested that it may be a marker for increased risk of breast cancer.
  • To see whether CCC is subject to hormonal influences, the distribution of estrogen receptors (ER) was determined in a series of breast specimens showing this change.
  • The cases came from 51 women age 35-80 years (mean 52 years) with the following associated findings: 27 carcinomas and 24 benign lesions.
  • It is now recognized that columnar cell lesions include a wide spectrum of changes reaching a point at the upper end where the differential diagnosis is ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16174153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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12. Leto G, Incorvaia L, Badalamenti G, Tumminello FM, Gebbia N, Flandina C, Crescimanno M, Rini G: Activin A circulating levels in patients with bone metastasis from breast or prostate cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2006;23(2):117-22
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  • [Title] Activin A circulating levels in patients with bone metastasis from breast or prostate cancer.
  • Activin A serum concentrations were determined, by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, in 72 patients with breast cancer (BC) or prostatic cancer (PC) with (BM+) or without (BM-) bone metastases, in 15 female patients with age-related osteoporosis (OP), in 20 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and in 48 registered healthy blood donors (HS) of both sex (25 female and 23 male).
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / blood. Prostatic Hyperplasia / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity


13. McNeill RE, Miller N, Kerin MJ: Evaluation and validation of candidate endogenous control genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies of breast cancer. BMC Mol Biol; 2007;8:107
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  • [Title] Evaluation and validation of candidate endogenous control genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies of breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) forms the basis of many breast cancer biomarker studies and novel prognostic assays, paving the way towards personalised cancer treatments.
  • Despite widespread recognition that the accuracy of the normalised data is largely dependent on the reliability of the EC, there are no reports of the systematic validation of genes commonly used for this purpose in the analysis of gene expression by RQ-PCR in primary breast cancer tissues.
  • The aim of this study was to identify the most suitable endogenous control genes for RQ-PCR analysis of primary breast tissue from a panel of eleven candidates in current use.
  • RESULTS: The expression and validity of candidate ECs (GAPDH, TFRC, ABL, PPIA, HPRT1, RPLP0, B2M, GUSB, MRPL19, PUM1 and PSMC4) was determined in 6 benign and 21 malignant primary breast cancer tissues.
  • ESR1 expression was appreciably higher in malignant compared to benign tissues and there was a significant effect of EC on the magnitude of the error associated with the relative quantity of ESR1.
  • CONCLUSION: We have validated two endogenous control genes, MRPL19 and PPIA, for RQ-PCR analysis of gene expression in primary breast tissue.
  • The combination identified here is a good candidate for use as a two-gene endogenous control in a broad spectrum of future research and diagnostic applications in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Reproducibility of Results


14. Bartella L, Morris EA, Dershaw DD, Liberman L, Thakur SB, Moskowitz C, Guido J, Huang W: Proton MR spectroscopy with choline peak as malignancy marker improves positive predictive value for breast cancer diagnosis: preliminary study. Radiology; 2006 Jun;239(3):686-92
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  • [Title] Proton MR spectroscopy with choline peak as malignancy marker improves positive predictive value for breast cancer diagnosis: preliminary study.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: After institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study, breast MR spectroscopy was performed in patients with suspicious or biopsy-proved malignant lesions measuring 1 cm or larger at MR imaging.
  • Histologically, 31 (54%) of 57 lesions were malignant, and 26 (46%) were benign.
  • A choline peak was present in 34 of 57 lesions (including all cancers) and in three of 26 benign lesions, giving MR spectroscopy a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 88%.
  • CONCLUSION: Proton MR spectroscopy was successfully incorporated into breast MR imaging studies for lesions measuring 1 cm or larger.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choline / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Protons. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) RSNA, 2006.
  • (PMID = 16603660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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15. Diebold T, Hahn T, Solbach C, Rody A, Balzer JO, Hansmann ML, Marx A, Viana F, Peters J, Jacobi V, Kaufmann M, Vogl TJ: Evaluation of the stereotactic 8G vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in the histologic evaluation of suspicious mammography findings (BI-RADS IV). Invest Radiol; 2005 Jul;40(7):465-71
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the stereotactic 8G vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in the histologic evaluation of suspicious mammography findings (BI-RADS IV).
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of the new 8G stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (ST-driver, Mammotome; Ethicon Endosurgery) in the histologic evaluation of BI-RADS IV microcalcifications.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with 61 mammographic BI-RADS IV microcalcifications underwent stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVAB).
  • Those 2 patients showed evidence of severe bleeding into the breast tissue and operative revision had to be performed (3.5%).
  • In 7 of 12 of the initial DCIS histologies, the operative histology was also DCIS, whereas in 4 of 12, no residual malignant tumor was found.
  • Most frequent benign histologies were mastopathy (13), ductal hyperplasia (9), fibroadenoma (8), and sclerosing adenosis (5).
  • CONCLUSION: The 11-G SVAB has proven to be a perfect adjunct to the existing breast biopsy methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / instrumentation. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Mammography. Vacuum
  • [MeSH-minor] Equipment Design. Female. Humans. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15973139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9996
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Wen W, Ren Z, Shu XO, Cai Q, Ye C, Gao YT, Zheng W: Expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase in breast tissue and their associations with breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 May;16(5):917-20
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  • [Title] Expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase in breast tissue and their associations with breast cancer risk.
  • Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) are important estrogen-metabolizing enzymes that may affect breast cancer risk.
  • Few studies have directly measured the expression of CYP1B1 and COMT genes in breast tissue samples.
  • The subjects in this study were a subgroup of participants of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study including 64 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 68 patients diagnosed with benign breast diseases (BBD) who provided samples of tumor tissue and adjacent nontumor tissue to the study.
  • We compared CYP1B1 and COMT mRNA expression in tumor tissue and adjacent nontumor tissue in both breast cancer patients and BBD patients.
  • High levels of CYP1B1 expression and low levels of COMT expression in adjacent nontumor tissue were associated with a significantly increased breast cancer risk in a nonlinear manner.
  • These results support the hypothesis that the formation and accumulation of catechol estrogens in breast tissue through increased CYP1B1 expression and reduced COMT expression may play a significant role in breast cancer risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / genetics. Breast / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Catechol O-Methyltransferase / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Diseases / enzymology. Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Breast Diseases / genetics. Case-Control Studies. China / epidemiology. Confidence Intervals. Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1. Estrogens / metabolism. Female. Genotype. Humans. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17507616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA64277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA90899
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases; EC 1.14.14.1 / CYP1B1 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1; EC 2.1.1.6 / Catechol O-Methyltransferase
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17. Ławicki S, Szmitkowski M, Wojtukiewicz M: The pretreatment plasma level and diagnostic utility of M-CSF in benign breast tumor and breast cancer patients. Clin Chim Acta; 2006 Sep;371(1-2):112-6
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  • [Title] The pretreatment plasma level and diagnostic utility of M-CSF in benign breast tumor and breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the plasma levels of M-CSF and commonly accepted tumor marker (antigen CA 15-3) in breast cancer patients in relation to the group with benign breast tumor and to the healthy controls.
  • Additionally, we compared the plasma level of M-CSF with the tumor stage of breast cancer and defined the diagnostic criteria: sensitivity, specificity, the positive and the negative predictive values.
  • METHODS: M-CSF and CA 15-3 were measured in 80 patients with breast cancer, 17 patients with benign breast tumor and in 30 healthy subjects.
  • RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the levels of circulating M-CSF and CA 15-3 in the breast cancer patients comparing to the group with benign breast tumor and to the control group.
  • The levels of M-CSF and CA 15-3 were also significantly higher in patients with more advanced tumor stage.
  • We observed a higher range of the diagnostic sensitivity of M-CSF in more advanced breast tumor stage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that M-CSF is the good candidate for a breast cancer tumor marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Mucin-1 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. ROC Curve. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16631152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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18. Destounis SV, Vogt C, Arieno AL, Morgan RC: Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Jul;29(7):1125-31
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  • [Title] Difficult management of a rapidly growing benign phyllodes tumor in a 49-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20587436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Djordjevic B, Hanna WM: Expression of c-kit in fibroepithelial lesions of the breast is a mast cell phenomenon. Mod Pathol; 2008 Oct;21(10):1238-45
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  • [Title] Expression of c-kit in fibroepithelial lesions of the breast is a mast cell phenomenon.
  • The expression of c-kit, a protooncogene tyrosine kinase receptor (CD117), in phyllodes tumors of the breast has been the subject of recent investigations.
  • We examined stromal c-kit expression by immunohistochemistry in 68 cases comprising fibroadenomas, fibroadenomas with cellular stroma, and benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors.
  • However, when toluidine blue and tryptase staining was performed, the staining pattern matched that of c-kit in the number of cells and their distribution, thereby confirming the presence of mast cells and excluding any appreciable level of true stromal c-kit staining.
  • One borderline and one malignant phyllodes tumor showed a diffuse weak stromal signal, which could not be accounted for by toluidine blue and tryptase.
  • Our findings indicate that c-kit is an unlikely player in the pathogenesis of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast.
  • C-kit, therefore, has neither a diagnostic nor a prognostic role in phyllodes tumors, and there is no rationale for the treatment of recurrent of malignant phyllodes tumor patients with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Mast Cells / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18500266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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20. Prasad SN, Houserkova D, Svach I, Zlamalova N, Kucerova L, Cwiertka K: Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of breast: a case report. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; 2008 Jun;152(1):117-20
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  • [Title] Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of breast: a case report.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A woman 39 years of age with a history of mass in her right breast of 3 months duration was subjected to a routine examination of the mass using MG & USG.
  • RESULTS: Bilateral mammogram views revealed in the patient's right breast a huge well-bordered tumour of lobulated contour without halo sign.
  • Sonography revealed a big well-demarcated tumour in the central part of the right breast which was cystic and lobulated in shape.
  • MRI under a breast array coil revealed a mass of 85 x 75 x 35mm in the right breast.
  • Finally, based on the clinical, radiological and histological report the mass was diagnosed as benign and despite the massive size of the mass, tumour excision alone was done and not mastectomy.
  • The right breast after the huge tumour excision was almost normal in size compared to the left.
  • CONCLUSION: PASH should be included in the differential diagnosis of a circumscribed or partially circumscribed mass, especially in the pre-menopausal female population.
  • These benign masses often grow over time and can recur locally.
  • Radiological diagnosis of PASH is usually done by MG and USG followed by core cut biopsy for histological analysis.
  • However great the mass is, excision only of the tumor mass is recommended and not mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 18795085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1213-8118
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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21. Garijo MF, Val-Bernal JF, Vega A, Val D: Postoperative spindle cell nodule of the breast: Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation following endo-surgery. Pathol Int; 2008 Dec;58(12):787-91
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  • [Title] Postoperative spindle cell nodule of the breast: Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation following endo-surgery.
  • Presented herein is the case of a 52-year-old woman who developed a 7 mm mammary nodular lesion 66 days after removal of an area of columnar cell hyperplasia involving cellular and architectural atypia, performed with the Mammotome Breast Biopsy System.
  • PSCN is a reactive, benign myofibroblastic proliferation.
  • Differential diagnosis includes benign and malignant spindle cell lesions of the breast.
  • Recognition of this reactive lesion will avoid overdiagnosis of spindle cell malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / adverse effects. Breast Diseases / etiology. Fibroblasts / pathology. Postoperative Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19067854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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22. Koirala K, Shrestha ML, Chalise PR, Shrestha BB, Shrestha R: Leiomyoma of breast: a report of rare case. Nepal Med Coll J; 2008 Sep;10(3):207-8
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  • [Title] Leiomyoma of breast: a report of rare case.
  • Leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm.
  • Leiomyoma of breast is a rare benign non epithelial tumor.
  • Most leiomyomas in the breast are found in the subareolar region.
  • Here we report a case of 52 years old lady who presented to us with a painless right sided breast lump.
  • Excisional biopsy revealed a growth pattern of interlacing fascicles of smooth-muscle cells consistent with leiomyoma of breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19253869.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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23. McLaren BK, Schuyler PA, Sanders ME, Jensen RA, Simpson JF, Dupont WD, Page DL: Excellent survival, cancer type, and Nottingham grade after atypical lobular hyperplasia on initial breast biopsy. Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;107(6):1227-33
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  • [Title] Excellent survival, cancer type, and Nottingham grade after atypical lobular hyperplasia on initial breast biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) is associated with a 10% to 20% risk of subsequent invasive carcinoma, primarily in the ipsilateral breast.
  • Nottingham grading, special tumor types, and survival after invasive cancer diagnosis were analyzed consistently for the first time.
  • METHODS: A longitudinal follow-up study of 252 women who underwent 261 benign surgical biopsies between 1950 and 1985 with a diagnosis of ALH was undertaken.
  • Subsequent invasive breast cancers were graded and subtyped based on histologic features and the cohort assessed for cancer survival.
  • RESULTS: Forty-eight (19%) women developed invasive breast cancer at an average of 15.1 years.
  • By an average of 13 years after invasive cancer diagnosis, 2 (10%) of 20 women with special type and variant tumors had died of breast cancer, compared with 9 (32%) of 28 women with tumors of no special type (24 tumors) or an unknown type (4 tumors).
  • Only 1 patient with a tumor of low Nottingham grade died of breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ALH is a nonobligate cancer precursor associated with a moderate risk of breast cancer and predicts that later cancers are associated with overall excellent survival.
  • Treatment of women with ALH should be influenced by their modest elevation in breast cancer risk and the good prognosis and low mortality of many of these cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia. Longitudinal Studies. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16894523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098131; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-31698; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-50468; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-62212
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Jung EM, Clevert DA, Schreyer AG, Schmitt S, Rennert J, Kubale R, Feuerbach S, Jung F: Evaluation of quantitative contrast harmonic imaging to assess malignancy of liver tumors: a prospective controlled two-center study. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Dec 21;13(47):6356-64
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  • METHODS: One hundred patients with histologically confirmed malignant or benign hepatic tumor (maximum size 5 cm) were analyzed.
  • The cut-off of the gray value differences between tumor and normal liver tissue was established using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis 64-line multi-slice computed tomography served as reference method in all cases.
  • RESULTS: One hundred patients with 59 malignant (43 colon, 5 breast, 2 endocrine metastases, 7 hepatocellular carcinomas and 2 kidney cancers) and 41 benign (15 hemangiomas, 7 focal nodular hyperplasias, 5 complicated cysts, 2 abscesses and 12 circumscribed fatty changes) tumors were included.
  • The late venous phase proved to be the most sensitive for classification of the tumor type.
  • Of the 41 benign tumors, 37 were classified as true negative and 4 as false negative, which corresponds to a specificity of 90.2%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Feasibility Studies. Female. Germany. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. ROC Curve. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18081224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4205454
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25. Tse GM, Tsang AK, Putti TC, Scolyer RA, Lui PC, Law BK, Karim RZ, Lee CS: Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):185-9
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: CD10 (CALLA) has recently been reported to be expressed in spindle cell neoplasia, and has been used to differentiate endometrial stromal sarcoma from leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • In the breast, myoepithelial cells express CD10, but there are few studies of the expression of CD10 in mammary fibroepithelial lesions.
  • METHODS: Stromal CD10 expression was studied in 181 mammary phyllodes tumours (102 benign, 51 borderline malignant, and 28 frankly malignant) and 33 fibroadenomas using immunohistochemistry, to evaluate whether differences in expression correlated with the degree of malignancy.
  • Stromal CD10 expression was positive in one of 33 fibroadenomas, six of 102 benign phyllodes tumours, 16 of 51 borderline malignant phyllodes tumours, and 14 of 28 frankly malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • Stromal CD10 expression had a high specificity (95%) for differentiating between benign lesions (fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumours) and malignant (borderline and frankly malignant) phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Fibroadenoma / immunology. Neprilysin / immunology. Phyllodes Tumor / immunology. Stromal Cells / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15677540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770579
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26. Bianco C, Strizzi L, Mancino M, Rehman A, Hamada S, Watanabe K, De Luca A, Jones B, Balogh G, Russo J, Mailo D, Palaia R, D'Aiuto G, Botti G, Perrone F, Salomon DS, Normanno N: Identification of cripto-1 as a novel serologic marker for breast and colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Sep 1;12(17):5158-64
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  • [Title] Identification of cripto-1 as a novel serologic marker for breast and colon cancer.
  • We evaluated whether CR-1 is present in the plasma of patients with breast and colon cancer, and if it can represent a new biomarker for these malignancies.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We determined CR-1 plasma levels using a sandwich-type ELISA in 21 healthy volunteers, 54 patients with breast cancer, 33 patients with colon carcinoma, and 21 patients with benign breast lesions.
  • A statistically significant increase in the levels of plasma CR-1 was found in patients with colon carcinoma (4.68+/-3.5 ng/mL) and in patients with breast carcinoma (2.97+/-1.48 ng/mL; P<0.001).
  • Although moderate levels of plasma CR-1 were found in women with benign lesions of the breast (1.7+/-0.99 ng/mL), these levels were significantly lower than in patients with breast cancer (P<0.001).
  • Finally, immunohistochemical analysis and real-time reverse transcription-PCR confirmed strong positivity for CR-1 in colon and/or breast tumor tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggests that plasma CR-1 might represent a novel biomarker for the detection of breast and colon carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Epidermal Growth Factor / blood. Membrane Glycoproteins / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16951234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / TDGF1 protein, human; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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27. Fine RE, Staren ED: Percutaneous radiofrequency-assisted excision of fibroadenomas. Am J Surg; 2006 Oct;192(4):545-7
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  • INTRODUCTION: Fibroadenomas are a frequently encountered benign tumor that will occur in approximately 10% of women during their lifetime.
  • METHODS: Between April 2004 and November 2005, 100 patients underwent ultrasound- or stereotactic-guided, radiofrequency-assisted intact percutaneous excision of 106 diagnosed fibroadenomas of the breast.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous ultrasound- or stereotactic-guided, radiofrequency-assisted excision of fibroadenomas of the breast may be performed in an ambulatory setting under local anesthesia.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Electrosurgery / instrumentation. Fibroadenoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Ambulatory Surgical Procedures. Biopsy / instrumentation. Equipment Design. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16978972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Su KL, Xu HB, Hu ZJ, He JL, Yang OO, Hu WH: [Vacuum-assisted biopsy and wire localization for the diagnosis of non-palpable breast lesions]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Jun;32(6):472-5
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  • [Title] [Vacuum-assisted biopsy and wire localization for the diagnosis of non-palpable breast lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and accuracy of the use of vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) versus wire localization (WL) in the diagnosis of non-palpable breast lesions (NPBL).
  • The patients were requested to score the cosmetic appearance of their breast after operation, and a numerical rating scale was used to measure pain on the first postoperative day.
  • CONCLUSION: VAB is highly reliable and may avoid diagnostic open surgery in the majority of patients with benign lesions.
  • However, because of the underestimation of histologic diagnosis and tumor margin involvement, VAB can not be used to completely substitute wire localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Stereotaxic Techniques / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Vacuum

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  • (PMID = 20819495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
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29. Ye C, Cai Q, Dai Q, Shu XO, Shin A, Gao YT, Zheng W: Expression patterns of the ATM gene in mammary tissues and their associations with breast cancer survival. Cancer; 2007 May 1;109(9):1729-35
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  • [Title] Expression patterns of the ATM gene in mammary tissues and their associations with breast cancer survival.
  • However, to date, no study has directly investigated the association between ATM gene expression and breast cancer survival.
  • METHODS: ATM gene expression levels were evaluated in tumor and adjacent normal tissue from patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer or BBD using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays.
  • Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association of ATM gene expression and survival in a cohort of 471 breast cancer patients.
  • RESULTS: In breast cancer cases, ATM expression in cancer tissues was decreased by approximately 50% compared with adjacent normal tissues from the same patients.
  • In BBD cases, the expression level of the ATM gene was similar in benign tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissues.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ATM gene expression was down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and a high ATM gene expression level in breast cancer tissue was associated with a favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins. Female. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 17366603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA64277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA90899
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / ATM protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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30. Sailors JL, French SW: The unique simultaneous occurrence of granular cell tumor, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 May;129(5):e121-3
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  • [Title] The unique simultaneous occurrence of granular cell tumor, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • Granular cell tumors are generally benign oncocytoid lesions of schwannian origin that are often incidental findings in many locations.
  • This report is prompted by the simultaneous appearance of 2 granular cell tumors, a gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and a gastric adenocarcinoma in a 65-year-old woman with a history of breast carcinoma and granular cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15859656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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31. Alemán C, Manuel Porcel J, Ma Segura R, Alegre J, Esquerda A, Ruiz E, Bielsa S, de Sevilla TF: Pleural fluid mesothelin for the differential diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions. Med Clin (Barc); 2009 Oct 3;133(12):449-53
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  • [Title] Pleural fluid mesothelin for the differential diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive tumor that can be difficult to diagnose, resulting in a delayed diagnosis in some cases.
  • Recent studies have reported that determination of soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP) in pleural fluid may be a promising marker for use in the diagnosis of MM.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pleural fluid SMRP concentration was measured in 68 patients: 47 had malignant pleural effusions (18 MM and 29 metastatic effusion) and 21 had benign pleural effusion (8 infectious disease and 13 idiopathic effusion).
  • RESULTS: Pleural fluid SMRP concentration was significantly higher in patients with malignant pleural effusion than in those with benign effusion (P=0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Soluble mesothelin-related peptide measurement in pleural fluid may aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with pleural effusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Hematologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Membrane Glycoproteins / analysis. Mesothelioma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Humans. Male. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric


32. Chen Y, Zou TN, Wu ZP, Zhou YC, Gu YL, Liu X, Jin CG, Wang XC: Detection of cytokeratin 19, human mammaglobin, and carcinoembryonic antigen-positive circulating tumor cells by three-marker reverse transcription-PCR assay and its relation to clinical outcome in early breast cancer. Int J Biol Markers; 2010 Apr-Jun;25(2):59-68
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  • [Title] Detection of cytokeratin 19, human mammaglobin, and carcinoembryonic antigen-positive circulating tumor cells by three-marker reverse transcription-PCR assay and its relation to clinical outcome in early breast cancer.
  • AIMS: To investigate the diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic value of the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using a three-marker (CK19, hMAM and CEA) RT-PCR assay in patients with early breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained from 50 patients with early-stage breast cancer before any systemic adjuvant therapy and analyzed for the presence of CK-19, hMAM and CEA mRNA-positive CTCs using an RT-PCR assay.
  • The specificity of the primers used was evaluated in 20 healthy individuals, 24 patients with benign breast disease, and 30 patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: The detection rate of three-marker-positive CTCs in the blood of patients with early breast cancer was 54.0%, significantly higher than in patients with benign breast disease and healthy blood donors (p=0.002 and p=0.000, respectively).
  • For early breast cancer, correlation analysis between detection of three-marker-positive CTCs and clinicopathological characteristics indicated that detection of threemarker-positive CTCs was significantly correlated with elevated serum CEA levels (p=0.001).
  • Detection of three-marker-positive CTCs was associated with relapse and might have important predictive and prognostic implications in early breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / genetics. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Keratin-19 / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Uteroglobin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Progression. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. Female. Humans. Mammaglobin A. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20586026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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33. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;14(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia (APM) is a common finding in the breast of postmenopausal women and is seen in a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from microscopic cysts to invasive apocrine carcinoma.
  • Apocrine metaplasia within sclerosing adenosis is known as apocrine adenosis (AA) and is considered a benign lesion of the breast.
  • The results showed that all cases studied by immunohistochemistry were positive for the expression of Bak, Mcl-1, Bcl-x, and Bcl-x(L) showing a pattern of staining similar to that seen in the normal breast epithelium.
  • There was no statistical significance between the AI of these 2 groups and that of the normal breast epithelium (0.3%).
  • There was no statistical significance between the AI of these 2 groups and that of the normal breast epithelium (0.3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Division. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Metaplasia. Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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34. Vasaturo F, Sallusti E, Gradilone A, Malacrino C, Nardo T, Avagnano G, Aglianò AM, Granato T, De Vincenzi B, Coppotelli G, Marzullo A, Soda G, Simonelli L, Modesti M, Scarpa S: Comparison of extracellular matrix and apoptotic markers between benign lesions and carcinomas in human breast. Int J Oncol; 2005 Oct;27(4):1005-11
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  • [Title] Comparison of extracellular matrix and apoptotic markers between benign lesions and carcinomas in human breast.
  • The expression of the extracellular matrix-related genes, such as fibronectin, laminin and tenascin C, and apoptosis-related genes, such as bax, bcl2 and survivin, was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by immunohistochemistry in normal breast tissue and benign and malignant breast tumors and then correlated to several clinical parameters: estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki67, ErbB2, tumor size, lymph node status and grading.
  • Seventy-three breast tissue samples were examined.
  • The negative correlation between laminin transcription and Ki67 could suggest that laminin impacts negatively on tumor proliferation, and the positive correlation between fibronectin and lymph node status may lead to consider fibronectin as predictive of long distance metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Breast Diseases / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Fibronectins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Laminin / metabolism. Lymphatic Metastasis. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. RNA / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tenascin / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16142317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tenascin; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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35. Behera MA, Dai Q, Garde R, Saner C, Jungheim E, Price TM: Progesterone stimulates mitochondrial activity with subsequent inhibition of apoptosis in MCF-10A benign breast epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;297(5):E1089-96
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  • [Title] Progesterone stimulates mitochondrial activity with subsequent inhibition of apoptosis in MCF-10A benign breast epithelial cells.
  • The effects of progesterone on breast epithelial cells remain poorly defined with observations showing both proliferative and antiproliferative effects.
  • The release of paracrine growth factors from nuclear receptor-positive cells has been postulated as a mechanism, since in vitro studies show a lack of growth effect by progesterone in breast epithelial cells lacking nuclear receptors.
  • This study examined possible nongenomic effects of progesterone in breast epithelia by using MCF-10A cells known to lack nuclear progesterone receptor expression.
  • Our study demonstrates a nongenomic action of progesterone on benign breast epithelial cells, resulting in enhanced cellular respiration and protection from apoptosis.

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  • (PMID = 19690070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1555
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 1R03HD-052770-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1; 0 / Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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36. Buch A, Rout P, Makhija P: Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):259-61
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  • [Title] Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump.
  • An unusual combination of two benign breast neoplasms adenomyoepithelioma and phyllodes tumor presenting as a solitary breast lump have been described.
  • This patient also presented with a recurrent breast neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;49(3):476
  • (PMID = 16933731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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37. Orlando FA, Brown KD: Unraveling breast cancer heterogeneity through transcriptomic and epigenomic analysis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Aug;16(8):2270-9
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  • [Title] Unraveling breast cancer heterogeneity through transcriptomic and epigenomic analysis.
  • Breast cancer diversity is histologically evident as various proliferative benign lesions, in situ carcinomas, and invasive carcinomas that may develop into distant metastases.
  • Breast tumor molecular subtypes have been defined by genome-wide expression microarray technology and reveal associations between genetic alterations and the malignant phenotype.
  • Early work has been conducted to use subtype-specific biomarkers to elucidate targeted treatment options early in the course of breast cancer progression.
  • Additionally, DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to breast cancer progression by transcriptionally silencing certain tumor suppressor genes.
  • Among the genes characterized as targets for silencing are well-established tumor suppressors such as RASSF1A, RARB, SFN, and TGM2.
  • Measuring elevated gene copy number and aberrant gene promoter methylation can further facilitate characterization of breast tumor molecular subtype; however, profiling of breast tumors based on epigenetic criteria has yet to be established.

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  • (PMID = 19452229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA106493; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5T32CA106493-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 119
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS565761; NLM/ PMC4011015
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38. Román-Díaz J, Alayón-Laguer D, Fernández Nelson M, Luis B, Caceres-Perkins W, Conde-Sterling D: Rare benign breast tumor. Bol Asoc Med P R; 2010 Apr-Jun;102(2):50-2
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  • [Title] Rare benign breast tumor.
  • We report the case of a female patient with an incidental finding at routine mammography evaluation which consisted of a benign spindle cell tumor, namely Breast Myofibroblastoma.
  • It is important to recognize the benign nature of this neoplasm to prevent extensive mutilating surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20939206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Asoc Med P R
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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39. Wu ZS, Wu Q, Ding XD, Wang HQ, Shen YX, Fang SY: [Expression of a novel metastasis-inducing protein human anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) in breast cancer and its clinical and prognostic significance]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;37(2):109-13
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  • [Title] [Expression of a novel metastasis-inducing protein human anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) in breast cancer and its clinical and prognostic significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of a novel metastasis-inducing protein human anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) in breast cancer and its clinical and prognostic significance.
  • METHODS: AGR2 expression was assessed in 160 cases of breast cancer and 20 cases of benign breast diseases by immunohistochemistry using tissue chip technology.
  • In addition the expression of ERa, PR and c-erbB-2 in breast cancer was also evaluated.
  • Follow-up information of 5-year duration was available in 127 patients with breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: The expression of AGR2 was significantly higher in breast cancers than that in benign diseases (68.3% vs. 25.0% , P < 0.01).
  • There was a negative correlation between AGR2 expression and the histological grade of breast cancer (P <0.05) , whereas positive correlations was found between the expression of AGR2 and ERalpha (P <0.05), and between the expression of AGR2 and PR (P <0.01).
  • In the subgroup of ERalpha-positive breast cancer, Logistic regression model demonstrated AGR2 and TNM stage were important factors affecting lymph node metastasis (both P < 0.01).
  • Moreover, COX regression model confirmed the expression of AGR2 as an independent prognostic factor among patients with ERa-positive breast cancer (P <0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The abnormal expression of AGR2 may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer.
  • Therefore, AGR2 may be a useful molecular marker for prognostication for patient with hormone-responsive breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA2 Protein / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Proteins / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18681322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / BRCA2 Protein; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 5.3.4.1 / AGR2 protein, human
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40. Yabuuchi H, Matsuo Y, Okafuji T, Kamitani T, Soeda H, Setoguchi T, Sakai S, Hatakenaka M, Kubo M, Sadanaga N, Yamamoto H, Honda H: Enhanced mass on contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging: Lesion characterization using combination of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR images. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Nov;28(5):1157-65
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  • [Title] Enhanced mass on contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging: Lesion characterization using combination of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR images.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a combination of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in characterization of enhanced mass on breast MR imaging and to find the strongest discriminators between carcinoma and benignancy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed consecutive breast MR images in 270 patients; however, 13 lesions in 93 patients were excluded based on our criteria.
  • We analyzed tumor size, shape, margin, internal mass enhancement, kinetic curve pattern, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values.
  • We added the corresponding categories to these prediction probabilities for malignancy and calculated diagnostic accuracy when we consider category 4b, 4c, and 5 lesions as malignant and category 4a, 3, and 2 lesions as benign.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of DWI and DCE-MRI could produce high diagnostic accuracy in the characterization of enhanced mass on breast MR imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gadolinium DTPA. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18972357.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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41. Yavelsky V, Rohkin S, Shaco-Levy R, Tzikinovsky A, Amir T, Kohn H, Delgado B, Rabinovich A, Piura B, Chan G, Kalantarov G, Trakht I, Lobel L: Native human autoantibodies targeting GIPC1 identify differential expression in malignant tumors of the breast and ovary. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:247
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  • [Title] Native human autoantibodies targeting GIPC1 identify differential expression in malignant tumors of the breast and ovary.
  • We previously described the isolation and characterization of two fully human monoclonal antibodies, 27.F7 and 27.B1, from breast cancer patients that target the protein known as GIPC1, an accessory PDZ-domain binding protein involved in regulation of G-protein signaling.
  • Human monoclonal antibodies, 27.F7 and 27.B1, to GIPC1 demonstrate specific binding to malignant breast cancer tissue with no reactivity with normal breast tissue.
  • To further clarify the association of GIPC1 with breast and ovarian cancer we carefully studied 27.F7 and 27.B1 using immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical techniques.
  • An immunohistochemical study of normal ovarian tissue, benign, borderline and malignant ovarian serous tumors, and different types of breast cancer revealed high expression of GIPC1 protein in neoplastic cells.
  • Examination of different types of breast cancer demonstrates that the level of GIPC1 expression depends on tumor invasiveness and displays a higher expression than in benign tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: The present pilot study demonstrates that the GIPC1 protein is overexpressed in ovarian and breast cancer, which may provide an important diagnostic and prognostic marker and will constitute the basis for further study of the role that this protein plays in malignant diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / biosynthesis. Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / immunology. Autoantibodies / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Breast / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Progression. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Pilot Projects

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  • (PMID = 18721484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / GIPC1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2535783
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42. Kleer CG, Bloushtain-Qimron N, Chen YH, Carrasco D, Hu M, Yao J, Kraeft SK, Collins LC, Sabel MS, Argani P, Gelman R, Schnitt SJ, Krop IE, Polyak K: Epithelial and stromal cathepsin K and CXCL14 expression in breast tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Sep 1;14(17):5357-67
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  • [Title] Epithelial and stromal cathepsin K and CXCL14 expression in breast tumor progression.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression of cathepsin K (CTSK) and CXCL14 in stromal and epithelial cells in human breast tumor progression.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We did immunohistochemical analyses of CTSK and CXCL14 expression in normal breast tissue, biopsy sites, benign lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ, and invasive breast tumors of different stages.
  • The effect of CTSK+ breast stromal fibroblasts on CTSK- breast cancer cells was assessed in coculture.
  • The expression of CXCL14 was not associated with any tumor or patient characteristics analyzed.
  • Stromal CTSK expression was significantly higher in invasive compared with in situ carcinomas, and in one of the two data sets analyzed, it correlated with higher tumor stage.
  • Coculture of CTSK+ fibroblasts enhanced the invasion of CTSK- breast tumor epithelial cells and this was blocked by CTSK inhibitors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CTSK may function as a paracrine factor in breast tumorigenesis.
  • CTSK+ fibroblasts may play a role in tumor progression by promoting the invasiveness of tumor epithelial cells.
  • The possibility that CTSK inhibitors may have a clinical role in decreasing the risk of tumor progression merits further investigation.

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  • (PMID = 18765527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116235-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116235; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116235-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA094074-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116235-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116235-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089393-050004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089393-060014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089393-060014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116235; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA094074-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA094074-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA006516; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089393-050004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA094074-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA090876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA107469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006516; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089393-070014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089393-070014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA094074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL14 protein, human; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.38 / CTSK protein, human; EC 3.4.22.38 / Cathepsin K
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS72319; NLM/ PMC2630242
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43. Ilić I, Randelović P, Ilić R, Katić V, Milentijević M, Velicković L, Krstić M: An approach to malignant mammary phyllodes tumors detection. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2009 Apr;66(4):277-82
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  • They are divided into benign, borderline malignant and malignant groups.
  • A total of 35 cases of MPT were included: 20 benign (57%), 6 borderline malignant (17%) and 9 malignant (26%).
  • The mean size of malignant MPT (7.8 cm) was larger than that of benign MPT (4.5 cm).
  • Significant features of the malignant MPT were: stromal cellularity, stromal cellular atypism, high mitotic activity, atypic mitoses, stromal overgrowth, infiltrative tumor contour and heterologous stromal elements.
  • Benign MPT showed strong enzymohistochemical Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) activity in both epithelial and stromal components while it was weak or absent in the epithelial parts of the malignant tumors.
  • Benign MPT had a lower Ki-67 than did borderline malignant MPT (4 versus 28).
  • Malignant MPT had a greater than 8-fold higher Ki-67 activity than did benign tumors (35 versus 4).
  • Intracyto-plasmatic c-kit expression was associated with a pathological diagnosis of malignant MPT, correlating with increasing grade (p < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19441158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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44. Abaffy T, Duncan R, Riemer DD, Tietje O, Elgart G, Milikowski C, DeFazio RA: Differential volatile signatures from skin, naevi and melanoma: a novel approach to detect a pathological process. PLoS One; 2010 Nov 04;5(11):e13813
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  • Discovering new melanoma biomarkers would improve early detection and diagnosis.
  • Volatiles released from fresh biopsy tissue of melanoma and benign naevus were compared based on their difference in frequency distribution and their expression level.

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  • (PMID = 21079799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132046-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA132046; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA 132046; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA132046-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA132046-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Volatile Organic Compounds
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2973952
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45. Boyer B, Graef C: [Breast hamartoma: a rare benign tumor diagnosed by mammography]. Presse Med; 2007 Dec;36(12 Pt 3):1999-2000
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  • [Title] [Breast hamartoma: a rare benign tumor diagnosed by mammography].
  • [Transliterated title] Hamartome du sein: une tumeur bénigne rare de diagnostic mammographique.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Hamartoma / diagnostic imaging. Mammography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17604590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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46. Büchler T, Vorzilková E, Koukolík F, Melínova H, Abrahámová J: [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):446-8
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  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an uncommon type of breast tumour.
  • Benign, borderline, and malignant subtypes have been described.
  • We report on a patient with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes who developed metastatic disease six years after resection of the primary breast tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21351423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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47. Tiling R, Kessler M, Untch M, Sommer H, Linke R, Hahn K: Initial evaluation of breast cancer using Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography. Eur J Radiol; 2005 Feb;53(2):206-12
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  • [Title] Initial evaluation of breast cancer using Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography.
  • AIM: Aim of the study was to elaborate on the diagnostic role of Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) in the initial diagnosis of breast cancer, partially in comparison to MRI.
  • A subgroup of 68 patients with indeterminate preliminary diagnosis underwent additional MRI.
  • Depending on tumor size sensitivity ranged from 60% for stage pT1a,b carcinomas to 94% stage pT1c or higher.
  • In the subgroup with indeterminate preliminary diagnosis sensitivity of SMM decreased to 76% which was lower as compared to MRI (84%).
  • CONCLUSION: SMM has severe limitations in the diagnosis of small carcinoma and therefore should not be used for breast cancer screening.
  • SMM can be used to further evaluate indeterminate or probably benign mammographic findings, especially when conventional mammography is inconclusive due to dense breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15664284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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48. Zúbor P, Kajo K, Dussan CA, Szunyogh N, Danko J: Rapidly growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast in an 18-year-old girl. APMIS; 2006 May;114(5):389-92
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  • [Title] Rapidly growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast in an 18-year-old girl.
  • Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a rare benign proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells with irregular slit-like formations resembling angiomatous structures.
  • In the majority of cases this lesion is a focal microscopic finding in breast biopsies performed for benign or malignant diseases.
  • The exact etiology and pathogenesis of this tumor-like lesion is still unknown, but a proliferative response of myofibroblasts to hormonal stimuli has been postulated.
  • A large 12 x 9 x 3.5 cm rapidly growing nodular form of PASH of the breast in an 18-year-old woman is here described with clinical and histological findings.
  • To the authors' knowledge this is only the fourth case of nodular PASH of the breast reported in the English literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / cytology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anovulation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / pathology. Progesterone / blood. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16725017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
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49. Zeng Y, Yang WT, Zhang GH, Zhu XZ: [Study of HOXA5 gene expression in breast carcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;34(9):569-74
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  • [Title] [Study of HOXA5 gene expression in breast carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study mRNA and protein expression of HOXA5 gene in breast carcinoma, to correlate the expression of HOXA5 gene with clinicopathologic parameters and to explore the possible role of HOXA5 gene in carcinogenesis, progression and metastasis of breast carcinoma.
  • METHODS: TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied on 60 cases of primary breast carcinoma and 24 cases of benign mammary lesions in order to detect mRNA expression of HOXA5 gene.
  • Statistical analysis was carried out to analyze the correlation between HOXA5 gene expression and various clinical parameters in these breast cancer patients. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The relative expression level of HOXA5 mRNA ranged from 0.73 to 193.07 (average = 20.85) in primary breast carcinoma, in contrast to 5.42 to 81.91 (average = 30.94) in benign mammary lesions.
  • Compared with benign mammary lesions, a significant reduction in expression of HOXA5 mRNA was noted in primary breast carcinoma (P < 0.01). (2) There was a decreased or completely diminished HOXA5 protein expression in breast carcinoma. (3) HOXA5 mRNA expression was significantly lower in lymph node-positive cases, when compared with that in lymph node-negative cases (P < 0.05).
  • On the other hand, moderately or strongly positive HOXA5 staining was noted in lymph node-negative cases. (4) Neither mRNA nor protein expression of HOXA5 gene correlated with clinicopathologic parameters such as age of patients, size of tumor, clinical stage, pathologic subtype or histologic grade (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Disordered expression of HOXA5 gene may play a role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer.
  • Reduced expression of HOXA5 gene may be related to the metastatic potential of breast carcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 16468307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HOXA5 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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50. Königsberg R, Rögelsperger O, Jäger W, Thalhammer T, Klimpfinger M, De Santis M, Hudec M, Dittrich C: Cell cycle dysregulation influences survival in high risk breast cancer patients. Cancer Invest; 2008 Aug;26(7):734-40
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  • [Title] Cell cycle dysregulation influences survival in high risk breast cancer patients.
  • Recent immunohistological studies suggested that dysregulation of cyclin A, cyclin D, cyclin E, p16(ink4), p21(waf1/cip1), and p27(kip1) are of prognostic value in patients with breast cancer.
  • Our study represents the first comprehensive immunohistochemical cell cycle marker analysis for cdc25A, cyclin A, cyclin D, cyclin E, p16(ink4), p21(waf1/cip1), p27(kip1), and pRb in tumor tissue and adjacent benign breast tissue from 69 primarily untreated breast cancer patients.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients with untreated, invasive breast cancer (n = 69) were divided into a low/ intermediate and a high risk group according to the St. Gallen 2005 consensus conference.
  • A subgroup of high risk breast cancer patients characterized in addition by overexpression of cdc25A, cyclin A, cyclin E, p16(ink4a), and p27(kip1) experienced a shortened mean survival of 222.03, 235.71, 257.25, 239.18, and 261.94 weeks, respectively.
  • Regarding benign breast tissue adjacent to breast cancer tissue, 59.4% of the patients investigated overexpressed cdc25A, 23.2% overexpressed pRb, and 63.2% exerted dysregulation of p27(kip1) while they proved to be negative for immunohistochemical staining regarding all other markers tested.
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistological analyses of cdc25A, cyclin A, cyclin E, p16(ink4a), and p27(kip1) have the potential for further refining the risk assessment in patients with untreated breast cancer who belong to the high risk category defined according to the St. Gallen 2005 consensus conference.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Cell Cycle. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Cell Proliferation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclin A / analysis. Cyclin D. Cyclin E / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Cyclins / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proportional Hazards Models. Retinoblastoma Protein / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome. cdc25 Phosphatases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18665474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-4192
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 3.1.3.48 / CDC25A protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / cdc25 Phosphatases
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51. Cox K, North M, Burke M, Singhal H, Renton S, Aqel N, Islam S, Knight SC: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are the major DC subset innately producing cytokines in human lymph nodes. J Leukoc Biol; 2005 Nov;78(5):1142-52
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  • Cell suspensions were prepared from tumor draining LN (n=20) and control LN (n=11) of women undergoing surgical resection for primary breast cancer and elective surgery for benign conditions, respectively.
  • Thus, PDC innately producing cytokines were identified in cell suspensions from human LN, and the character of PDC cytokine secretion may differ between two breast cancer prognostic groups.
  • We speculate that a shift towards PDC IL-10 and IL-4 expression could promote tumor tolerance in LN draining poor px breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Immunity, Innate / immunology. Lymph Nodes / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis. Interferon-gamma / immunology. Interleukin-10 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-10 / immunology. Interleukin-12 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-12 / immunology. Interleukin-4 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-4 / immunology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Escape / immunology

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  • [ErratumIn] J Leukoc Biol. 2008 Mar;83(3):797
  • (PMID = 16260587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0741-5400
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of leukocyte biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Leukoc. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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52. Liu H, Jiang YX, Liu JB, Zhu QL, Sun Q, Chang XY: Contrast-enhanced breast ultrasonography: imaging features with histopathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med; 2009 Jul;28(7):911-20
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced breast ultrasonography: imaging features with histopathologic correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify histopathologic correlates for the varied appearances of breast masses on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS).
  • RESULTS: In malignant masses, heterogeneous enhancement corresponded to tumor cell cords or clusters in a variable amount of desmoplastic stroma.
  • In benign masses, heterogeneous enhancement corresponded to loose cell proliferation in a more sclerotic stroma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast mass CEUS findings correlated with histologic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Microbubbles. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Software. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19546333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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53. del Cura JL, Elizagaray E, Zabala R, Legórburu A, Grande D: The use of unenhanced Doppler sonography in the evaluation of solid breast lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Jun;184(6):1788-94
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  • [Title] The use of unenhanced Doppler sonography in the evaluation of solid breast lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objectives of our study were to investigate differences in Doppler sonography features between benign and malignant breast lesions and between malignant lesions with different prognostic factors and to propose diagnostic criteria for Doppler sonography of breast lesions.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed power and duplex Doppler sonography examinations in 826 breast lesions scheduled for sonographically guided core needle biopsy.
  • RESULTS: Color flow was more frequently seen in malignant (237/348 lesions, 68%) than in benign (171/478, 36%) lesions (p < 0.001).
  • Although an overlap in these values between benign and malignant lesions was observed, all but one nodule with an RI of greater than 0.99 (those with null or inverted diastolic flow) or a PI of greater than 4 were malignant.
  • No significant relationship was found between PI, RI, or flow visualization on power Doppler sonography and tumor grade or lymph node involvement in cancers.
  • Doppler findings are not useful to predict tumor grade or lymph node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Breast / blood supply. Breast / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Doppler. Ultrasonography, Mammary


54. Hsiao YH, Lien HC, Hwa HL, Kuo WH, Chang KJ, Hsieh FJ: SPARC (osteonectin) in breast tumors of different histologic types and its role in the outcome of invasive ductal carcinoma. Breast J; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):305-8
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  • [Title] SPARC (osteonectin) in breast tumors of different histologic types and its role in the outcome of invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to characterize the immunohistochemical distribution of secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein (SPARC) in benign and malignant breast tumors of different histologic types and define its association with the outcome of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients.
  • A total of 286 samples of benign and malignant breast lesions between 1994 and 2005 were retrieved from National Taiwan University Hospital.
  • Secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein was not expressed in benign breast phylloides and all benign breast tumors, while expressed in 17.2% of IDC, 85% of metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), and all malignant breast phylloides.
  • Individuals with positive SPARC expression had 2.34 times higher hazard of death compared with those with negative SPARC expression after adjusting for factors including positive lymph node, TNM tumor stage, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / chemistry. Osteonectin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models

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  • (PMID = 20210803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Osteonectin
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55. Tumminello FM, Badalamenti G, Incorvaia L, Fulfaro F, D'Amico C, Leto G: Serum interleukin-6 in patients with metastatic bone disease: correlation with cystatin C. Med Oncol; 2009;26(1):10-5
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  • The clinical significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its correlation with cystatin C (Cyst C), an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteinase cathepsin K, was investigated by immunoassays in patients with bone metastasis from breast cancer (BCa) or prostate cancer (PCa).
  • Mean IL-6 levels were also higher in PCa patients and in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) than in HS while Cyst C resulted significantly higher in PCa but not in BPH patients as compared to HS.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cystatin C / blood. Interleukin-6 / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / blood. Osteoporosis / complications. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. ROC Curve

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  • (PMID = 18461289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Cystatin C; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Interleukin-6; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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56. Jeryong K, Jinsun L, Hyegyong K, Eilsung C, Jiyoung S, Insang S, Moonsang A, Jiyeon K, Jaeeun H: Total endoscopic thyroidectomy with bilateral breast areola and ipsilateral axillary (BBIA) approach. World J Surg; 2008 Nov;32(11):2488-93
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  • [Title] Total endoscopic thyroidectomy with bilateral breast areola and ipsilateral axillary (BBIA) approach.
  • The present study reviews our experiences with endoscopic thyroidectomy using bilateral breast areola and ipsilateral axillary (BBIA) approach to evaluate its safety and feasibility.
  • METHODS: From June 2003 through November 2007, the study group was comprised of 68 consecutive patients with benign thyroid nodules (66 women; mean age, 33.28 +/- 10.3 (range, 15-72) years).
  • RESULTS: The mean maximum diameter of the tumor was 3.14 +/- 1.61 (range, 1-10.7) cm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Nipples. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18668282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Vleugel MM, Greijer AE, Bos R, van der Wall E, van Diest PJ: c-Jun activation is associated with proliferation and angiogenesis in invasive breast cancer. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jun;37(6):668-74
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  • [Title] c-Jun activation is associated with proliferation and angiogenesis in invasive breast cancer.
  • To evaluate expression patterns of activated c-Jun in breast cancer in relation to angiogenesis and proliferation, we performed immunohistochemistry on 103 cases of invasive breast cancer with an antibody recognizing phosphorylated c-Jun at serine 73.
  • Activated c-Jun showed a predominantly nuclear expression at the invasive front in 38% of invasive breast cancer cases.
  • Occasionally, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and benign breast cells showed nuclear expression.
  • Our results show that activated c-Jun is predominantly expressed at the invasive front in breast cancer and is associated with proliferation and angiogenesis.
  • Earlier studies have established a functional, in vitro link between activated c-Jun and tumor angiogenesis.
  • Our present results in breast cancer patients confirm this relation in vivo for the first time.
  • Therefore, c-Jun/AP-1 targeting may provide new ways to block tumor angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Enzyme Activation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


58. Grosso M, Chiacchio S, Bianchi F, Traino C, Marini C, Cilotti A, Manca G, Volterrani D, Roncella M, Rampin L, Marzola MC, Rubello D, Mariani G: Comparison between 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography and X-ray mammography in the characterization of clusters of microcalcifications: a prospective long-term study. Anticancer Res; 2009 Oct;29(10):4251-7
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  • BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of non-palpable breast cancer is the object of recent developments in the imaging procedures employed for screening purposes.
  • In some patients, the presence of microcalcifications (MC) is the only indication of tumor.
  • The aim of this study was to compare (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) and MRx in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant clusters of MC and to assess the possible incremental value of SMM on specificity.
  • Scintigraphic images were acquired 10 minutes after the i.v. injection of (99m)Tc-sestamibi (740 MBq).
  • Sixty-nine women underwent surgery, whereas the remaining 214 patients had completely negative follow-up for 5 years (a 5-year follow-up period is considered the "gold standard" for diagnosing benign lesions).
  • RESULTS: Histology demonstrated 32/69 primary breast carcinomas (prevalence of disease: 11% of all the 283 patients) and 37/69 benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: SMM can be considered as a complementary tool in the pre-operative work-up of patients with breast lesions.
  • Furthermore, the high negative predictive value of this technique, makes it especially valuable in the perspective of reducing the number of negative breast biopsies or unnecessary surgical interventions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Mammography / methods. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19846982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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59. Veltman J, Mann R, Kok T, Obdeijn IM, Hoogerbrugge N, Blickman JG, Boetes C: Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI. Eur Radiol; 2008 May;18(5):931-8
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  • [Title] Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI.
  • Thus, 29 BRCA-MCs with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated and the results compared with an age, tumor size and tumor type matched control group of 29 sporadic breast cancer cases.
  • Malignant lesions in BRCA-MC frequently have morphological characteristics commonly seen in benign lesions, like a rounded shape or sharp margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Contrast Media. False Negative Reactions. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Mammography. Mutation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18270717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2292493
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60. Karam M, Roberts-Klein S, Shet N, Chang J, Feustel P: Bilateral hilar foci on 18F-FDG PET scan in patients without lung cancer: variables associated with benign and malignant etiology. J Nucl Med; 2008 Sep;49(9):1429-36
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  • [Title] Bilateral hilar foci on 18F-FDG PET scan in patients without lung cancer: variables associated with benign and malignant etiology.
  • Our objective was to evaluate features of these foci associated with benign or malignant etiology.
  • Variables evaluated were maximum standard uptake values (SUV max), purity (absence of (18)F-FDG-avid foci in nonhilar mediastinal nodes), symmetry (difference between left and right side SUV max), the primary tumor, node size determined by CT, and, in those who participated in 2 studies, stability of uptake over time.
  • The gold standard was histologic diagnosis or long-term clinical follow-up (range, 19-41 mo; mean, 25 mo).
  • On univariate analysis, variables associated with malignancy were SUV max (6.6+/-4.1 vs. 3.5+/-1.0 for benign, P<0.001; t test); impurity (P<0.001; chi(2) test), with 79% of impure scans versus 18% of pure scans being malignant; node size determined by CT (P=0.027); and change in uptake between scans 1 and 2 (change in SUV=2.7+/-2.1 vs. 0.73+/-1.1 for benign, P < 0.01; t test).
  • Variables associated with benign etiology were: symmetry (difference between left and right sides=0.57+/-0.54 for benign vs. 1.8+/-1.7 for malignant, P<0.01), purity, and colorectal primary (75% of colorectal were benign vs. 34% of breast, 49% of lymphoma, and 37% of other, P=0.030; chi(2) test).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with nonlung cancer, in particular colorectal, foci of symmetric and mild uptake limited to the hilar regions that are stable on 2 sequential PET studies despite intervening anticancer therapy are likely related to a benign etiology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2009 Mar;50(3):489-90 [19223415.001]
  • (PMID = 18765585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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61. Sasaki Y, Kamata S, Saito K, Nishikawa Y, Ogawa J: Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the mammary gland: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(4):340-3
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  • Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is an uncommon benign breast disease.
  • We herein report the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with a huge mass in her right breast.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of abundant fibrous stroma containing non-vascular slit-like spaces and scattered ducts and lobules.
  • We therefore diagnosed the tumor to be PASH.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomatosis / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Mammography. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


62. Tanaka Y, Bhunchet E, Shibata T: A case of malignant eccrine spiradenoma metastatic to intramammary lymph node. Breast Cancer; 2008;15(2):175-80
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  • Eccrine spiradenoma (ES) is a fairly common, benign, cutaneous tumor originating from the sweat glands.
  • We present the first reported case of this tumor metastasizing to an intramammary lymph node (IMLN).
  • The uncommon metastasizing focus of the periumbilical MES and its histopathological similarity with a primary breast carcinoma made the diagnosis difficult.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 18270794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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63. Huang YL, Kuo SJ, Chang CS, Liu YK, Moon WK, Chen DR: Image retrieval with principal component analysis for breast cancer diagnosis on various ultrasonic systems. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Oct;26(5):558-66
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  • [Title] Image retrieval with principal component analysis for breast cancer diagnosis on various ultrasonic systems.
  • OBJECTIVES: We present a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system with textural features and image retrieval strategies for classifying benign and malignant breast tumors on various ultrasonic systems.
  • This study evaluated a series of pathologically proven breast tumors using various ultrasonic systems.
  • METHODS: Altogether, 600 ultrasound images of solid breast nodules comprising 230 malignant and 370 benign tumors were investigated.
  • The suspicious tumor area in the ultrasound image was manually chosen as the region-of-interest (ROI) subimage.
  • Textural features extracted from the ROI subimage are supported in classifying the breast tumor as benign or malignant.
  • In practice, high-dimensional vectors are unsatisfactory at differentiating breast tumors.
  • The image retrieval techniques were employed to differentiate breast tumors, according to the similarities of the principal vectors.
  • The query ROI subimages were identified as malignant or benign tumors according to characteristics of retrieved images from the ultrasound image database.
  • CONCLUSION: The CAD system identified solid breast nodules with comparatively high accuracy in the different ultrasound systems investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Area Under Curve. Breast Diseases / classification. Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Databases, Factual. Female. Humans. Principal Component Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 ISUOG.
  • (PMID = 16086435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Balci P, Kabakci N, Topcu I, Canda T, Güray M, Ozfidan S: Breast myxoma: Radiologic and histopathologic features. Breast J; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):88-90
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  • [Title] Breast myxoma: Radiologic and histopathologic features.
  • Myxomas are benign mesenchymal tumors, which rarely develop in the breast.
  • We present a case of this rare type of breast tumor with sonographic and mammographic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myxoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mammography

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  • (PMID = 17214801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Yang W, Zhang S, Chen Y, Li W, Chen Y: Shape symmetry analysis of breast tumors on ultrasound images. Comput Biol Med; 2009 Mar;39(3):231-8
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  • [Title] Shape symmetry analysis of breast tumors on ultrasound images.
  • Shape characteristics of malignant and benign breast tumors are significantly different.
  • In this paper, the reflective symmetry of breast tumor shapes on ultrasound images was investigated.
  • A new reflective symmetry measure (RSML) derived from multiscale local area integral invariant was proposed to quantify the shape symmetry of breast tumor, which could be computed directly from the binary mask image without the shape parameterization in terms of arc length.
  • The performance of several symmetry measures for differentiating malignant and benign breast tumors at varying scales was evaluated and compared by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.
  • RSML with Gaussian kernel at scale 0.04 (related to the maximal diameter) achieved the highest area under the ROC curve (0.85) on the image data of 168 tumors (104 benign and 64 malignant).
  • The experimental results showed that the reflective symmetry of breast tumor shape was capable of providing potential diagnostic information, which could be characterized quantitatively by RSML with the appropriate scale parameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Ultrasonography / methods. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Normal Distribution. Principal Component Analysis. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19178908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0534
  • [Journal-full-title] Computers in biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comput. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Yavisheva TM, Shcherbakov SD, Golubeva IS, Savluchinskaya LA: Comparative analysis of the work of morphofunctional zones in normal epithelium, fibroadenoma, and cancer of the breast. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2005 Aug;140(2):231-4
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the work of morphofunctional zones in normal epithelium, fibroadenoma, and cancer of the breast.
  • The number of cambial cells in morphofunctional zone of a malignant tumor is reduced at least 2-fold.
  • The percentage of cambial cells in a benign tumor decreases 1.5 times.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Epithelium / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Differentiation. Cells, Cultured. Culture Techniques. Electromagnetic Fields. Female. Humans. Microscopy, Video. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16283009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Iqbal J, He G, Biesecker LG, Rosen P, Duray PH, Schwartzentruber D, Beg M, Kahn E: Morphological characterization of the breast in Proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2006;36(4):469-74
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  • [Title] Morphological characterization of the breast in Proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Proteus syndrome (PS) is a severe, variable, and rare disorder with asymmetric and disproportionate overgrowth of body parts, cerebriform connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, dysregulated adipose tissue, and vascular malformations.
  • It is associated with benign and occasionally malignant tumors.
  • This case highlights the difficulty of recognizing small foci of carcinoma in an asymmetrical overgrowth of the breast in a young woman with PS.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Proteus Syndrome / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Mastectomy

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  • (PMID = 17127737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-7370
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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68. Conway K, Parrish E, Edmiston SN, Tolbert D, Tse CK, Geradts J, Livasy CA, Singh H, Newman B, Millikan RC: The estrogen receptor-alpha A908G (K303R) mutation occurs at a low frequency in invasive breast tumors: results from a population-based study. Breast Cancer Res; 2005;7(6):R871-80
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  • [Title] The estrogen receptor-alpha A908G (K303R) mutation occurs at a low frequency in invasive breast tumors: results from a population-based study.
  • INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that alterations in estrogen signaling pathways, including estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), occur during breast cancer development.
  • This mutation was initially reported in one-third of hyperplastic benign breast lesions, although several recent studies failed to detect it in benign or malignant breast tissues.
  • METHODS: We screened 653 microdissected, newly diagnosed invasive breast tumors from patients in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in African American and white women in North Carolina, for the presence of the ER-alpha A908G mutation by using single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and 33P-cycle sequencing.
  • RESULTS: We detected the ER-alpha A908G mutation in 37 of 653 (5.7%) breast tumors.
  • The ER-alpha A908G mutation was found more frequently in higher-grade breast tumors (odds ratio (OR) 2.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 7.34, grade II compared with grade I), and in mixed lobular/ductal tumors (OR 2.10; 95% CI 0.86 to 5.12) compared with ductal carcinomas, although the latter finding was not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSION: This population-based study, the largest so far to screen for the ER-alpha A908G mutation in breast cancer, confirms the presence of the mutant in invasive breast tumors.
  • The mutation was associated with higher tumor grade and mixed lobular/ductal breast tumor histology.

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  • (PMID = 16280033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5-P50-CA58223
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1410768
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69. Mouton WG, Kienle Y, Muggli B, Naef M, Wagner HE: Tumors associated with superficial thrombophlebitis. Vasa; 2009 May;38(2):167-70
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  • BACKGROUND: To assess the incidence of malignant tumors in patients with thrombophlebitis of the leg with regard to potential early tumor detection.
  • RESULTS: There were 18 patients (12.9%) suffering from thrombophlebitis in association with a malignant tumor: breast cancer in seven patients, colon carcinoma and haematologic cancer in four, skin cancer in three patients and one case each of oesophageal, prostatic, kidney and neck cancer .
  • In two patients thrombophlebitis preceded the diagnosis of the malignancy.
  • Superficial thrombophlebitis may have been associated in four cases (2.9%) with a benign tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast, colonic, haematological and skin cancer were mainly associated with superficial thrombophlebitis in our patients.
  • In case of a thrombophlebitis without a known malignancy a thorough clinical examination with special regard to skin, breast and abdomen is mandatory.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Comorbidity. Cross-Sectional Studies. Early Diagnosis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex. Venous Insufficiency / complications. Venous Insufficiency / epidemiology. Venous Insufficiency / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19588305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1526
  • [Journal-full-title] VASA. Zeitschrift für Gefässkrankheiten
  • [ISO-abbreviation] VASA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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70. Cichon MA, Degnim AC, Visscher DW, Radisky DC: Microenvironmental influences that drive progression from benign breast disease to invasive breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia; 2010 Dec;15(4):389-97
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  • [Title] Microenvironmental influences that drive progression from benign breast disease to invasive breast cancer.
  • Invasive breast cancer represents the endpoint of a developmental process that originates in the terminal duct lobular units and is believed to progress through stages of increasing proliferation, atypical hyperplasia, and carcinoma in situ before the cancer acquires invasive and metastatic capabilities.
  • By comparison with invasive breast cancer, which has been studied extensively, the preceding stages of benign breast disease are more poorly understood.
  • Much less is known about the molecular changes underlying benign breast disease development and progression, as well as the transition from in situ into invasive disease.
  • More challenges are posed by limitations of the models used to investigate the lesions preceding invasive breast cancer.
  • However, recent studies have identified alterations in stromal cell function that may be critical for disease progression from benign disease to invasive cancer: key functions of myoepithelial cells that maintain tissue structure are lost, while tissue fibroblasts become activated to produce proteases that degrade the extracellular matrix and trigger the invasive cellular phenotype.

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  • (PMID = 21161341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7039
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116201; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90628-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122086; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132879; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128660; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA128660; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA116201; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA132879; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122086
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3011086
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71. Wong CM, Anderton DL, Smith-Schneider S, Wing MA, Greven MC, Arcaro KF: Quantitative analysis of promoter methylation in exfoliated epithelial cells isolated from breast milk of healthy women. Epigenetics; 2010 Oct 1;5(7):645-55
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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of promoter methylation in exfoliated epithelial cells isolated from breast milk of healthy women.
  • Promoter methylation analysis of genes frequently silenced in breast cancer is a promising indicator of breast cancer risk, as these methylation events are thought to occur long before presentation of disease.
  • The numerous exfoliated epithelial cells present in breast milk may provide the breast epithelial DNA needed for detailed methylation analysis and assessment of breast cancer risk.
  • Fresh breast milk samples and health, lifestyle, and reproductive history questionnaires were collected from 111 women.
  • Pyrosequencing analysis was conducted on DNA isolated from the exfoliated epithelial cells immunomagnetically separated from the total cell population in the breast milk of 102 women.
  • A total of 65 CpG sites were examined in six tumor suppressor genes: PYCARD (also known as ASC or TMS1), CDH1, GSTP1, RBP1 (also known as CRBP1), SFRP1, and RASSF1.
  • Methylation scores were in general low as expected of benign tissue, but analysis of outlier methylation scores revealed a significant relationship between breast cancer risk, as indicated by previous biopsy, and methylation score for several CpG sites in CDH1, GSTP1, SFRP1, and RBP1.
  • Promoter methylation patterns in DNA from breast milk epithelial cells can likely be used to assess breast cancer risk.
  • Additional studies of women at high breast cancer risk are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Milk, Human / cytology. Milk, Human / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Breast / cytology. Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. CpG Islands. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Glutathione S-Transferase pi / genetics. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Lactation / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Middle Aged. Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular / genetics. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20716965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-2308
  • [Journal-full-title] Epigenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epigenetics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDH1 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / PYCARD protein, human; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / RBP1 protein, human; 0 / Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular; 0 / SFRP1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTP1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione S-Transferase pi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3052848
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72. Zhao TT, Li JG, Li YM: [Performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of primary breast cancer and staging of the regional lymph nodes]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Mar;29(3):206-9
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  • [Title] [Performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of primary breast cancer and staging of the regional lymph nodes].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of primary breast cancer, and the staging of regional lymph nodes.
  • METHODS: Twenty four females with highly suspected breast cancer, underwent PET/CT imaging of the breast preoperatively.
  • Three nuclear medicine physicians analyzed the image and made the diagnosis.
  • 32 breast lesions were evaluated by histology, revealing 25 breast carcinomas and 7 benign pathological changes.
  • 23 patients had histological diagnosis of the breast tumor and regional lymph nodes.
  • RESULTS: 20 of 25 breast carcinomas were successfully diagnosed by FDG-PET/CT.
  • No Tis breast carcinoma was detected.
  • 75.0% of T1 breast carcinomas were detected, and with 85.7% of stage T2, 100.0% of T3.
  • As to a suspicious distant metastasis, PET/CT convinced the diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: As a noninvasive technique, FDG PET/CT appears to be a useful method in staging patient with breast cancer, especially in cases in which the lesion is hard to predict by routine examination.
  • In the detection of breast lesions, PET/CT doesn't seem to have a high sensitivity, especially in early stage breast cancers.
  • The high cost and the space resolution limit its use as a routine diagnostic method of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17649638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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73. Deutscher SL, Dickerson M, Gui G, Newton J, Holm JE, Vogeltanz-Holm N, Kliethermes B, Hewett JE, Kumar SR, Quinn TP, Sauter ER: Carbohydrate antigens in nipple aspirate fluid predict the presence of atypia and cancer in women requiring diagnostic breast biopsy. BMC Cancer; 2010 Oct 01;10:519
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  • [Title] Carbohydrate antigens in nipple aspirate fluid predict the presence of atypia and cancer in women requiring diagnostic breast biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: The goal of this prospective study was to determine (a) concentrations of the carbohydrate biomarkers Thomsen Friedenreich (TF) antigen and its precursor, Tn antigen, in nipple discharge (ND) collected from women requiring biopsy because of a suspicious breast lesion; and (b) if concentration levels predicted pathologic diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Adult women requiring biopsy to exclude breast cancer were enrolled and ND obtained.
  • TF was higher in women with 1) cancer (DCIS or invasive) vs. either no cancer (atypia or benign pathology, p = .048), or benign pathology (p = .018); and 2) abnormal (atypia or cancer) versus benign pathology (p = .016); and was more predictive of atypia or cancer in post- compared to premenopausal women.
  • High TF concentration and age were independent predictors of disease, correctly classifying either cancer or abnormal vs. benign pathology 83% of the time in postmenopausal women.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TF concentrations in ND were higher in women with precancer and cancer compared to women with benign disease, and TF was an independent predictor of breast atypia and cancer.
  • TF may prove useful in early breast cancer detection.

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  • (PMID = 20920311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119095
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carbohydrates
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2958935
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74. Kennedy S, Geradts J, Bydlon T, Brown JQ, Gallagher J, Junker M, Barry W, Ramanujam N, Wilke L: Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast. Breast Cancer Res; 2010;12(6):R91
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  • [Title] Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast.
  • INTRODUCTION: Residual cancer following breast conserving surgery increases the risk of local recurrence and mortality.
  • Breast tissue is markedly heterogeneous, which makes distinguishing small foci of cancer within the spectrum of normal tissue potentially challenging.
  • Here, we evaluate ex-vivo breast tissue and determine which sources of optical contrast have the potential to detect malignancy at the margins in women of differing breast composition.
  • The diagnostic ability of the optical parameters was affected by distance of tumor from the margin as well as menopausal status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that the ability of an optical parameter to differentiate benign from malignant breast tissues may be dictated by patient demographics.
  • Patient demographics are therefore an important component to incorporate into optical characterization of breast specimens.

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  • (PMID = 21054873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R41CA128160-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1UL1 RR024128-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins; 01YAE03M7J / beta Carotene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3046432
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75. Dietzel M, Baltzer PA, Vag T, Herzog A, Gajda M, Camara O, Kaiser WA: The adjacent vessel sign on breast MRI: new data and a subgroup analysis for 1,084 histologically verified cases. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Mar-Apr;11(2):178-86
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  • [Title] The adjacent vessel sign on breast MRI: new data and a subgroup analysis for 1,084 histologically verified cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The adjacent vessel sign (AVS) is a descriptor for differentiating malignant from benign breast lesions on breast MRI (bMRI).
  • This investigation was designed to verify the previous reports on the diagnostic accuracy of AVS and to assess correlation between AVS, histopathological diagnosis, lesion size and lesion grade.
  • The exclusion criteria were no histological verification after bMRI and breast interventions that were done up to one year before bMRI (surgery, core biopsy, chemo- or radiation therapy).
  • There was no correlation of the AVS with the tumor grade.
  • Thus, it can be used to accurately assess breast lesions on bMRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20191065.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2827781
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast, MR / Contrast media / Descriptor / Histology / Neoangiogenesis / Sign
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76. Moon HJ, Kim MJ, Kwak JY, Yoon JH, Kim SJ, Sohn YM, Kim EK: Malignant lesions initially categorized as probably benign breast lesions: retrospective review of ultrasonographic, clinical and pathologic characteristics. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2010 Apr;36(4):551-9
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  • [Title] Malignant lesions initially categorized as probably benign breast lesions: retrospective review of ultrasonographic, clinical and pathologic characteristics.
  • The primary objective of this study was to review the ultrasonographic features of BI-RADS category 3 ("probably benign") lesions that eventually proved to be malignant.
  • Thirty-two (0.8%) of 4000 women with lesions that were initially classified as "probably benign" proved to be malignant and formed the study group.
  • There was no statistical difference in the mean age, mean size of lesions, or tumor stage between patients who underwent early biopsy (n = 19) or biopsy after 6 months (n = 13).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / statistics & numerical data. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ultrasonography, Mammary / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Korea / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20350681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Kiuru M, Lehtonen R, Eerola H, Aittomäki K, Blomqvist C, Nevanlinna H, Aaltonen LA, Launonen V: No germline FH mutations in familial breast cancer patients. Eur J Hum Genet; 2005 Apr;13(4):506-9
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  • [Title] No germline FH mutations in familial breast cancer patients.
  • Fumarate hydratase: (FH) was recently identified as the predisposing gene for a tumor predisposition syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) (MIM 605839).
  • In HLRCC, individuals with a germline heterozygous mutation in the FH gene typically develop benign leiomyomas of the skin and the uterus (fibroids, myomas).
  • Other malignancies including breast cancer have also been detected in patients with a germline FH mutation.
  • To examine whether FH could be involved in predisposition to breast cancer, we analyzed germline FH mutations from 85 Finnish breast cancer patients.
  • These results show that FH is not a major predisposing gene for familial breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Fumarate Hydratase / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15523491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-4813
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of human genetics : EJHG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
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78. Nabhan ZM, West KW, Eugster EA: Oophorectomy in McCune-Albright syndrome: a case of mistaken identity. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Sep;42(9):1578-83
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  • Variables analyzed included presenting features, presence of café au lait macules, presence of fibrous dysplasia, radiographic studies, estradiol levels, tumor markers, surgery, and pathology reports.
  • Eight (88%) also had breast development and 2 (22%) had associated pubic hair.
  • Four (44%) girls underwent salpingo-oophorectomy before the diagnosis of MAS was made.
  • Surgical pathology revealed benign ovarian cysts in all 4 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Unnecessary oophorectomy is common in girls with MAS who are taken to the operating room for a presumed ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / diagnosis. Ovarian Cysts / surgery. Ovariectomy. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Uterine Hemorrhage / complications

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  • (PMID = 17848252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Fajdić J, Gotovac N, Hrgović Z, Kristek J, Horvat V, Kaufmann M: Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):113-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • BACKGROUND: This article compares experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumors from 2 regional institutions with the relevant literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 2,848 breast cancer patients were treated in our institutions, 36 (1.44%) for phyllodes tumors.
  • The average tumor size was 5.1 cm (range 1.4-19.6).
  • Wide excision with tumor-free margins was carried out in 29 (80.5%) cases and mastectomy in 7 (19.4%) cases.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed the phyllodes tumors to be benign in 27 (75.0%), malignant in 6 (16.6%), and borderline in 3 (8.3%) cases.
  • In this period, recurrences of 3 (8.3%) malignant and 2 (5.6%) benign phyllodes tumors were diagnosed and treated.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study shows that tumor size, margin infiltration, mitotic activity and degree of cellular atypia are important prognostic factors.
  • Although wide local excision is usually the treatment of choice, tumor recurrence is common.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mammography. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17341897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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80. Yuan K, Frolova N, Xie Y, Wang D, Cook L, Kwon YJ, Steg AD, Serra R, Frost AR: Primary cilia are decreased in breast cancer: analysis of a collection of human breast cancer cell lines and tissues. J Histochem Cytochem; 2010 Oct;58(10):857-70
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  • [Title] Primary cilia are decreased in breast cancer: analysis of a collection of human breast cancer cell lines and tissues.
  • PC were detected by immunofluorescence of cultured cells and breast tissues.
  • After growth for 7 days in vitro, PC were detected in ∼70% of breast fibroblasts and in 7-19% of epithelial cells derived from benign breast (184A1 and MCF10A).
  • In 11 breast cancer cell lines, PC were present at a low frequency in four (from 0.3% to 4% of cells), but were absent in the remainder.
  • The cancer cell lines with PC were all of the basal B subtype, which is analogous to the clinical triple-negative breast cancer subtype.
  • In histologically normal breast tissues, PC were frequent in fibroblasts and myoepithelial cells and less common in luminal epithelial cells.
  • Of 26 breast cancers examined, rare PC were identified in cancer epithelial cells of only one cancer, which was of the triple-negative subtype.
  • These data indicate a decrease or loss of PC in breast cancer and an association of PC with the basal B subtype.

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  • (PMID = 20530462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-5044
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03-CA130057
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2942739
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81. Chen DT, Nasir A, Culhane A, Venkataramu C, Fulp W, Rubio R, Wang T, Agrawal D, McCarthy SM, Gruidl M, Bloom G, Anderson T, White J, Quackenbush J, Yeatman T: Proliferative genes dominate malignancy-risk gene signature in histologically-normal breast tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jan;119(2):335-46
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  • [Title] Proliferative genes dominate malignancy-risk gene signature in histologically-normal breast tissue.
  • Historical data have indicated the potential for the histologically-normal breast to harbor pre-malignant changes at the molecular level.
  • We postulated that a histologically-normal tissue with "tumor-like" gene expression pattern might harbor substantial risk for future cancer development.
  • From a total of 90 breast cancer patients, we collected a set of 143 histologically-normal breast tissues derived from patients harboring breast cancer who underwent curative mastectomy, as well as a set of 42 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of various histologic grades.
  • For the purpose of this study we defined normal breast tissue to include histologically normal and benign lesions.
  • Here we report the discovery of a "malignancy-risk" gene signature that may portend risk of breast cancer development in benign, but molecularly-abnormal, breast tissue.
  • These results suggest a predictive role for the malignancy-risk signature in normal breast tissue.
  • Proliferative biology dominates the earliest stages of tumor development.

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  • (PMID = 19266279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098522; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112215; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112215-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA076292; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098522-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA076292-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA112215; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 098522; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098522-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112215-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA076292-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS96617; NLM/ PMC2796276
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82. Kapila K, Pathan SK, Al-Mosawy FA, George SS, Haji BE, Al-Ayadhy B: Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast masses in children and adolescents: experience with 1404 aspirates. Acta Cytol; 2008 Nov-Dec;52(6):681-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast masses in children and adolescents: experience with 1404 aspirates.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution and efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of breast lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients.
  • STUDY DESIGN: From January 1993 to December 2006, the cytology reports of 1404 breast aspirates (178 males and 1226 females) performed on children and adolescents (ranging from 1 to 21 years) were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The morphologic spectrum seen in females was inflammatory lesions (4%), benign ductal cells (20%), ductal hyperplasia (0.6%), papillary lesions (0.7%), benign neoplasms (69%), suspicious cytology (0.3%) and cancer (0.3%).
  • Of the benign neoplasms, 98% (831 of 851) were fibroadenomas, with 12 cases of phyllodes (benign), 5 cases of lipoma and 3 cases of adenoma.
  • Only 3% of the male breast aspirates provided a diagnostic challenge, while 89% of them showed benign ductal cells.
  • CONCLUSION: FNAC of children and adolescent breast masses is helpful and can reduce the need for open surgery to prevent later deformity.
  • The aspirates are mostly benign and can be managed conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19068671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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83. Ren Z, Shin A, Cai Q, Shu XO, Gao YT, Zheng W: IGFBP3 mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast tumors. Breast Cancer Res; 2007;9(1):R2
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  • [Title] IGFBP3 mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Most previous studies have focused on evaluating the association between circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels and breast cancer risk.
  • METHODS: To understand the role of IGFBP-3 in breast tumorigenesis, we investigated IGFBP3 mRNA expression levels in benign and malignant breast tumors and their adjacent normal tissues using real-time quantitative PCR.
  • RESULTS: Cancer tissues had significantly lower IGFBP3 expression than benign tumor tissues (p < 0.001).
  • IGFBP3 expressions in both tumor and adjacent tissues were higher in patients who had proliferative benign tumors than in those who had non-proliferative benign tumors.
  • Among patients with benign breast disease, IGFBP3 expression in the tumor was significantly higher than that in their adjacent normal tissue.
  • There were no apparent associations of IGFBP3 expression in cancer tissues with either overall survival or disease-free survival in a cohort of 521 patients with breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the expression level of IGFBP3 in breast tissues may be involved in breast tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17210081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA064277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090899; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA64277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA90899
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1851392
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84. Hafner C, Schmiemann V, Ruetten A, Coras B, Landthaler M, Reifenberger J, Vogt T: PTCH mutations are not mainly involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic trichoblastomas. Hum Pathol; 2007 Oct;38(10):1496-500
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  • Trichoblastomas are rare, benign tumors of the appendix in human skin.
  • This mutation at codon 1,315 represents an already described PTCH germline polymorphism and results in a heterozygous Pro to Leu substitution in the tumor.
  • The Pro/Leu polymorphism in germline is associated with a higher risk for breast cancer, but a potential contribution to the tumorigenesis of trichoblastoma is unknown.
  • The genetic basis of this rare appendageal tumor remains elusive.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational

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  • (PMID = 17597182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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85. Kowalski W, Mierzwa T, Grabiec M, Laskowski R, Walentowicz M: [Problems in diagnosing breast cancer in women younger than 25 years old]. Ginekol Pol; 2006 May;77(5):376-82
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  • [Title] [Problems in diagnosing breast cancer in women younger than 25 years old].
  • OBJECTIVES: There are several challenges in the diagnosis of breast cancer in young women.
  • Special consideration must be given to the woman's fertility and body image issues, but the difficulty in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions in this group of patients still exists.
  • The aim of our study was to show five cases of breast cancer in young women.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on 5 cases of breast cancer in women younger than 25, several methods used in diagnosis in this group of patients were discussed.
  • RESULTS: Diagnosing and treatment of young patients with breast cancer should be performed in specialized oncological centers experienced in dealing with breast cancer in very young women.
  • Because of the possibility of breast cancer in women under 25 years old, each case of breast tumor should be precisely diagnosed, especially by ultrasonography and biopsy (BAC) 2.
  • Each case suspected of breast cancer in young women should be diagnosed in highly equipped and specialized medical center.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mammography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16958227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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86. Nattkemper TW, Wismüller A: Tumor feature visualization with unsupervised learning. Med Image Anal; 2005 Aug;9(4):344-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor feature visualization with unsupervised learning.
  • Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) is applied for diagnosis and therapy control of breast cancer.
  • Computer-based diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed to analyze and classify signal time curve data, extracted from hand selected ROI in the DCE MRI data.
  • In this paper, we apply the self-organizing map (SOM) to a set of time curve feature vectors of single voxels from seven benign lesions and seven malignant tumors.
  • Using the trained SOM, we are able to identify voxels with benign or malignant signal characteristics and to visualize lesion cross-sections with pseudo-colors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neural Networks (Computer)
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans


87. Gorringe KL, Choong DY, Visvader JE, Lindeman GJ, Campbell IG: BARD1 variants are not associated with breast cancer risk in Australian familial breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Oct;111(3):505-9
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