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1. Khoo JJ, Alwi RI, Abd-Rahman I: Myoid hamartoma of breast with chondroid metaplasia: a case report. Malays J Pathol; 2009 Jun;31(1):77-80
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  • [Title] Myoid hamartoma of breast with chondroid metaplasia: a case report.
  • Breast hamartoma is an uncommon poorly recognised benign breast neoplasm.
  • Hamartoma displaying marked smooth muscle components known as myoid hamartoma of the breast is a much rarer entity.
  • We present a case of myoid hamartoma of breast with chondroid differentiation in a 46-year-old woman.
  • The painless breast lump was circumscribed and mammography showed a well-encapsulated large, dense mass with no calcification.
  • The various immuno-histochemical staining as well as the cyto-histological changes encountered in myoid hamartomas are discussed with clinical, radiological and pathological correlation to differentiate it from other benign and malignant breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Muscle, Smooth / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cartilage / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19694319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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2. Gashi-Luci LH, Limani RA, Kurshumliu FI: Invasive ductal carcinoma within fibroadenoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:174

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  • INTRODUCTION: Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the female breast with the highest incidence before age 30.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present a rare case of a 39 years old female with invasive ductal carcinoma arising within fibroadenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: There is a low percentage of fibroadenomas harboring carcinoma; however, all breast lumps should be seriously managed; extirpation and histological examination is recommended.

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  • (PMID = 19946485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2783130
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3. Yang JX, Han YJ, Zheng H, Luo RC: [Expression of PAK4 in breast cancer and benign breast pathological changes]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2010 May;30(5):981-3
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  • [Title] [Expression of PAK4 in breast cancer and benign breast pathological changes].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the role of p21-activated kinase-4 (PAK4) in the occurrence, progression and metastasis of breast cancer.
  • METHOD: PAK4 expression was detected in 35 cases of normal breast, 22 breast cystic hyperplasia, 28 breast adenofibroma, 37 breast cancer (including 7 non-invasive cancer, 9 early invasive cancer and 21 invasive cancer) and 13 metastatic breast cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry for a comparison of PAK4 expression and distribution.
  • RESULTS: PAK4 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, occasionally in the cell nuclei, and virtually not expressed in the matrix surrounding the breast cells.
  • PAK4 positivity rates increased in the order of normal breast tissues, benign changes (including breast cystic hyperplasea and breast adenoma), breast cancer and metastatic cancer tissues; in the cancer tissues, the positivity rates increased in the order of non-invasive breast tumor, early invasive tumor and invasive tumor tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: PAK4 is closely correlated to the progression and metastasis of breast cancer and may become a new diagnostic and therapeutic target of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. p21-Activated Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20501374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.1.11 / PAK4 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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4. Yang GZ, Li J, Ding HY: [Nipple adenoma: report of 18 cases with review of literatures]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Sep;38(9):614-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of nipple adenoma of the breast.
  • RESULTS: The neoplasms were localized at nipples or under the areola of breast, adherent to the epidermis, mainly composed of dilated ducts in a tubular appearance associated with fibrotic matrix.
  • The tumor cells were crowding, lack of an uniform morphology and polarity with intact myoepithelial cells around the ducts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nipple adenoma is an infrequent type of benign breast neoplasm, presenting as sclerosing papilloma, papillomatosis or florid sclerosing adenosis.
  • A correct diagnosis is based on the peculiar location and morphology of the tumor, and immunohistochemistry is helpful in some cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Nipples / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratin-5 / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20079190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / Keratin-5; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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5. Woodhams R, Matsunaga K, Kan S, Hata H, Ozaki M, Iwabuchi K, Kuranami M, Watanabe M, Hayakawa K: ADC mapping of benign and malignant breast tumors. Magn Reson Med Sci; 2005;4(1):35-42
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  • [Title] ADC mapping of benign and malignant breast tumors.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions and evaluating the detection accuracy of the cancer extension.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used DWI to obtain images of 191 benign and malignant lesions (24 benign, 167 malignant) before surgical excision.
  • The ADC values of the benign and malignant lesions were compared, as were the values of noninvasive ductal carcinoma (NIDC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).
  • RESULTS: The mean ADC value of each type of lesion was as follows: malignant lesions, 1.22+/-0.31 x 10(-3) mm2/s; benign lesions, 1.67+/-0.54 x 10(-3) mm2/s; normal tissues, 2.09+/-0.27 x 10(-3) mm2/s.
  • The mean ADC value of the malignant lesions was statistically lower than that of the benign lesions and normal breast tissues.
  • The main causes of false negative and underestimation of cancer spread were susceptibility artifact because of bleeding and tumor structure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DWI has the potential in clinical appreciation to detect malignant breast tumors and support the evaluation of tumor extension.
  • However, the benign proliferative change remains to be studied as it mimics the malignant phenomenon on the ADC map.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Artifacts. Female. Humans. Information Storage and Retrieval / methods. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16127252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medical sciences : MRMS : an official journal of Japan Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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6. Cui Y, Koop EA, van Diest PJ, Kandel RA, Rohan TE: Nuclear morphometric features in benign breast tissue and risk of subsequent breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Jul;104(1):103-7
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  • [Title] Nuclear morphometric features in benign breast tissue and risk of subsequent breast cancer.
  • Certain nuclear morphometric features measured in breast tumor tissue have been shown to predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients.
  • However, the application of these features to predicting risk of breast cancer development has received little attention.
  • We conducted a case-control study to evaluate nuclear morphometric features in benign breast tissue in association with subsequent breast cancer risk.
  • The study was nested within a cohort of 4,888 women with a histopathologic diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) and involved 61 cases and 71 controls, amongst whom there were 53 matched case-control sets.
  • Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to assess various measurements of nuclear size and nuclear shape factors in relation to subsequent breast cancer risk.
  • In multivariate analysis, subsequent breast cancer risk was positively associated with a nuclear shape factor that takes the shortest nuclear axis and the longest nuclear axis into consideration simultaneously (highest quartile versus lowest 3 quartiles: odds ratio = 3.07, 95% confidence limits = 1.61, 5.84).
  • In contrast, there was no alteration in subsequent breast cancer risk in association with nuclear size features and other shape factors.
  • In conclusion, our study results suggest that the shape factor that takes both the shortest nuclear axis and the longest nuclear axis into consideration might be of value to predict subsequent development of breast cancer among women with BBD.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Canada / epidemiology. Case-Control Studies. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Registries. Risk Factors. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 17061043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2092407
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7. Ren Z, Shin A, Cai Q, Shu XO, Gao YT, Zheng W: IGFBP3 mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast tumors. Breast Cancer Res; 2007;9(1):R2
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  • [Title] IGFBP3 mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Most previous studies have focused on evaluating the association between circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels and breast cancer risk.
  • METHODS: To understand the role of IGFBP-3 in breast tumorigenesis, we investigated IGFBP3 mRNA expression levels in benign and malignant breast tumors and their adjacent normal tissues using real-time quantitative PCR.
  • RESULTS: Cancer tissues had significantly lower IGFBP3 expression than benign tumor tissues (p < 0.001).
  • IGFBP3 expressions in both tumor and adjacent tissues were higher in patients who had proliferative benign tumors than in those who had non-proliferative benign tumors.
  • Among patients with benign breast disease, IGFBP3 expression in the tumor was significantly higher than that in their adjacent normal tissue.
  • There were no apparent associations of IGFBP3 expression in cancer tissues with either overall survival or disease-free survival in a cohort of 521 patients with breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the expression level of IGFBP3 in breast tissues may be involved in breast tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17210081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA064277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090899; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA64277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA90899
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1851392
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8. Kinkor Z, Havlícek F, Michal M: [Benign mesenchymal stromal tumor of the breast simulating benign schwannoma in an 81-year-old male--a case report]. Cesk Patol; 2006 Oct;42(4):186-90
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  • [Title] [Benign mesenchymal stromal tumor of the breast simulating benign schwannoma in an 81-year-old male--a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Benigní vretenobunecný stromální tumor prsu podobný schwannomu u 81letého muze-- kazuistika.
  • Presented is an unusual case of a benign mesenchymal stromal tumor of the breast in an 81-year-old male.
  • The basic appearance of the lesion simulated benign schwannoma and was misinterpreted as a low-grade myxoid liposarcoma initially.
  • Well-circumscribed, gray-white mass measuring 35 mm in maximum diameter was discovered deep in the parenchyma of the completely removed breast.
  • Microscopically, the lesion consisted of myxoid, richly vascular background where dominated oval or spindle cells with impressive palisading replicating that of benign schwannoma.
  • On the background of both detailed review and differential diagnosis of benign, so-called stromal tumor of the female breast, the rarity of this microscopic finding in male is documented.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Liposarcoma, Myxoid / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17171974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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9. Anyikam A, Nzegwu MA, Ozumba BC, Okoye I, Olusina DB: Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria. Saudi Med J; 2008 Feb;29(2):241-4
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  • [Title] Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize benign breast diseases in Eastern Nigeria and to highlight the age variations of these lesions as base line data.
  • Seven hundred and twenty-two benign breast specimens were analyzed over 5 years from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004, out of 1050 breast samples received.
  • RESULTS: Of 1050 breast specimens received, 722 (68.8%) were benign.
  • Normal breast in the axillary tail region was seen in 32 cases (4.4%), represented as no pathology, with a mean presentation age of 20-46 years.
  • Low grade Phyllodes tumor had 28 cases (3.9%), presenting at an average mean age of 17-32 years.
  • Benign breast lesions peaked at the 20-24 age range and then declined.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign breast lesions occur more frequently than malignant breast lesions with a ratio of 2.3:1 and were presented 20 years earlier than their malignant counterparts.
  • Fibroadenoma was the most common benign lesion followed by fibrocystic disease, similar to the findings in Western Nigeria.
  • In Northern Nigeria, fibrocystic breast disease was more common.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Fibroadenoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / epidemiology. Gynecomastia / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18246234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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10. Porter GJ, Evans AJ, Lee AH, Hamilton LJ, James JJ: Unusual benign breast lesions. Clin Radiol; 2006 Jul;61(7):562-9
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  • [Title] Unusual benign breast lesions.
  • The purpose of this article is to show examples of the radiological (mammography and/or ultrasound) and pathological appearances of unusual benign breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Fasciitis / radiography. Fasciitis / ultrasonography. Female. Fibroma / radiography. Fibroma / ultrasonography. Granular Cell Tumor / radiography. Granular Cell Tumor / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / radiography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Humans. Leiomyoma / radiography. Leiomyoma / ultrasonography. Mammography / methods. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / ultrasonography. Neurofibroma / radiography. Neurofibroma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods

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  • (PMID = 16784941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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11. Hikino H, Nagaoka S, Miura H, Kurosumi M: Benign myoepithelioma of the breast: origin and development. Pathol Int; 2009 Jun;59(6):422-6
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  • [Title] Benign myoepithelioma of the breast: origin and development.
  • A case of benign myoepithelioma of the breast in a 55-year-old woman is described.
  • The tumor was a well-circumscribed solid mass, measuring 13 x 12 mm.
  • Histopathology indicated that the tumor was composed of entirely myoepithelial cells, which was confirmed by immunoreactivity to calponin and S-100.
  • There was no ductal differentiation in the tumor, and staining for pan-cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen was weak and negative, respectively.
  • Although the biological behavior of the tumor remains to be ascertained, the tumor was considered to be myoepithelioma with benign features due to mild nuclear pleomorphism, sparse mitotic figures, low Ki-67 labeling index and low S-phase fraction.
  • Diagnostic confusion between benign myoepithelioma and other myoepithelial-rich cell tumors is possible.
  • Considering the classification of myoepithelial tumor in the salivary glands, benign myoepithelioma of the breast may possess a different development process from adenomyoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19490475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Aranda C, Sotelo M, Torres A, Zárate M: [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 Jul;73(7):387-92
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes y embarazo. Reporte de un caso.
  • Phyllodes tumor is a rare breast fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast, predominant in females (0.3 to 0.5%).
  • Phyllodes tumor during pregnancy grows fast and its size is relatively big.
  • These tumors can be classified as benign, malignant or neighboring.
  • A 32-year-old patient at 23.4 week of gestation was admitted in the National Institute of Perinatology with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast; diagnosis confirmed by ultrasound study reporting echoic images on right breast, 10 x 10 cm the greatest and 3x3 cm the smallest.
  • A simple mastectomy was performed at the 26.6 week of gestation on the right breast.
  • A possible phyllodes tumour in the right breast was observed during surgery, weight 9.6 pounds, with partial infiltration to major pectoral muscle.
  • Pathology reported a benign phyllodes tumor in the right breast, with surgical borders free of tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumor is rare and can occur during pregnancy.
  • It is unknown if the tumor is hormone-dependent.
  • The growth of a tumor on a subsequent pregnancy is not necessarily associated with recurrency or with a new disorder on the patient, who has had a complete excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 16304962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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13. Orea-Estudillo D, Jaimes-López L, Bernal-Cano J: [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review]. Cir Cir; 2008 Mar-Apr;76(2):165-8
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes en un paciente pediátrico. Informe de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • We present a phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old female and we reviewed the literature regarding this pathology.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 11-year-old female with a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor.
  • Histological report demonstrated benign phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Mastectomy

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  • (PMID = 18492439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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14. Sato K, Ueda Y, Shimasaki M, Ozaki M, Nitta N, Chada K, Ishikawa Y, Katsuda S: Pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor) of the breast: a case report and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;201(4):333-9
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor) of the breast: a case report and review of the literature.
  • We report a case of pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor) of the breast, which is an extremely rare location for this tumor.
  • Examination of a 55-year-old woman unexpectedly revealed a mass measuring 0.8 cm in diameter in the subareolar region of the right breast.
  • Excisional biopsy was performed, and the tumor histologically showed pleomorphic adenoma composed of duct epithelial cells, myoepithelial cells, and a myxochondroid matrix.
  • Sixty-nine cases of this type of tumor arising in the breast have been described previously.
  • Using imaging procedures, the tumor has occasionally been misdiagnosed as malignant clinically and even pathologically in frozen section diagnosis.
  • Careful diagnosis based on paraffin sections is required to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgery, and pathologists should include pleomorphic adenoma in the differential diagnosis of a demarcated, juxtaareolar, small hard mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. HMGA1a Protein / analysis. HMGA2 Protein / analysis. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15991841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 124544-67-8 / HMGA1a Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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15. Siddiqui MK, Jyoti, Singh S, Mehrotra PK, Singh K, Sarangi R: Comparison of some trace elements concentration in blood, tumor free breast and tumor tissues of women with benign and malignant breast lesions: an Indian study. Environ Int; 2006 Jul;32(5):630-7
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  • [Title] Comparison of some trace elements concentration in blood, tumor free breast and tumor tissues of women with benign and malignant breast lesions: an Indian study.
  • Fifty women residing in and around New Delhi, India and identified to have benign (25 nos.) and malignant (25 nos.) breast lesions were studied for the first time to access the association between environmental exposure to lead and risk of breast cancer and to determine the potential of changes in trace elements concentration as a diagnostic marker and/or its etiological involvement in the disease.
  • Blood, tumor tissue and breast adipose tissue from tumor free area from each patient of the two groups, collected at the time of lumpectomy or mastectomy (only blood sample was collected from disease free control group), were analyzed to determine the concentration of Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.
  • Blood lead was significantly higher in malignant cases than in those of benign and control (p<0.05 each).
  • Lead level was also higher in tumor tissue when compared with their respective normal tumor free breast tissue, though non-significant, in both benign and malignant cases.
  • Interestingly, Zn, Fe, and Ca levels were higher in blood of malignant cases than in those of their benign counterparts.
  • Furthermore, these metals were also higher in tumor of malignant and benign cases as compared to normal tumor free breast tissue, many of them statistically significant (p<0.05/0.01/0.001).
  • However, Cu level was insignificantly lower in the blood and tumor tissue of malignant cases when compared with their benign counterparts while it was significantly higher (p<0.05) in tumor of benign cases when compared with those of their respective normal tumor free breast tissue.
  • There were statistically significant correlations between lead and trace element levels only in normal tumor free breast tissue of benign and malignant cases (r=0.41-0.73; p<0.05-0.001) but neither in blood nor tumor tissue of the two groups.
  • These results suggest that in the backdrop of existing experimental and epidemiological evidences exposure to lead may be one of the risk factors for breast lesions; though it warrants further investigation.
  • Further, modulation of trace elements level in both benign and malignant breast diseases patients may be of potential to be used as diagnostic marker of the disease process and its possible relationship etiologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Trace Elements / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. India. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission

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  • (PMID = 16580070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0160-4120
  • [Journal-full-title] Environment international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Trace Elements
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16. Valdes EK, Feldman SM, Krassilnik N: Neuroendocrine tumor of the breast. Am Surg; 2006 Feb;72(2):185-7
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumor of the breast.
  • Mammary carcinoid is an uncommon neoplasm.
  • It accounts for approximately 5 per cent of all breast carcinomas.
  • However, it is still controversial whether mammary carcinoid tumors should be considered a distinct clinical entity or be treated as a variant of conventional breast carcinoma.
  • Differentiating these lesions from benign lesions such as epithelial hyperplasia and papillomas can be challenging at times.
  • We present a case of neuroendocrine tumor of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16536254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Gupta S, Nair MS, Pradhan A, Biswal NC, Agarwal N, Agarwal A, Panigrahi PK: Wavelet-based characterization of spectral fluctuations in normal, benign, and cancerous human breast tissues. J Biomed Opt; 2005 Sep-Oct;10(5):054012
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  • [Title] Wavelet-based characterization of spectral fluctuations in normal, benign, and cancerous human breast tissues.
  • Fluorescence intensity fluctuations in the visible wavelength regime in normal, benign, and cancerous human breast tissue samples are studied through wavelet transform.
  • Furthermore, for cancerous tissues, the same is very well described by the normal distribution, which is not the case for normal and benign samples.
  • The differences in the average, low-pass wavelet coefficients of normal, cancerous, pericanalicular, and intracanalicular benign tissues are also pointed out.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods. Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 16292972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-3668
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. de Moraes Schenka NG, Schenka AA, de Souza Queiroz L, de Almeida Matsura M, Alvarenga M, Vassallo J: p63 and CD10: reliable markers in discriminating benign sclerosing lesions from tubular carcinoma of the breast? Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Mar;14(1):71-7
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  • [Title] p63 and CD10: reliable markers in discriminating benign sclerosing lesions from tubular carcinoma of the breast?
  • The immunohistochemical detection of myoepithelial cells in benign sclerosing lesions of the breast is useful in distinguishing them from tubular carcinoma.
  • The authors assessed the use of p63 and CD10 in the differential diagnosis between benign sclerosing lesions, such as sclerosing adenosis and radial scar, and tubular carcinoma, in comparison to the traditional myoepithelial markers 1A4 and calponin. p63, CD10, 1A4, and calponin were expressed in myoepithelial cells of all benign lesions and were consistently negative in all cases of tubular carcinoma.
  • In conclusion, p63 and CD10 may be used as a complement to 1A4 in distinguishing benign sclerosing lesions from tubular carcinoma of the breast.

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  • (PMID = 16540734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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19. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • Mammaglobin (MGB), a secretory protein belonging to the uteroglobin/Clara cell protein family, is a sensitive marker for breast carcinoma, but is also reported to be expressed in the female genital tract and its neoplasms.
  • Details of MGB expression pattern and its pathologic significance in the female genital tract have not been systematically studied.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • These results confirm that MGB is not specific for breast carcinoma, but is also variably expressed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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20. Croce S, Letourneux C, Dale G, Mathelin C: [Breast fibromatosis: An uncommon benign breast disease]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2009 May;37(5):442-6
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  • [Title] [Breast fibromatosis: An uncommon benign breast disease].
  • [Transliterated title] La fibromatose mammaire : une lésion bénigne peu connue.
  • Extra-abdominal fibromatosis is an uncommon benign breast lesion resembling an infiltrative carcinoma in its clinical and radiological presentation.
  • Surgical excision with wide margins remains the treatment of choice to avoid recurrence of this locally aggressive tumor.
  • We present a case in which surgical biopsy allowed the diagnosis of a breast fibromatosis and we discuss its clinical, diagnostic, pathological and therapeutic particularities.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Fibroma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Genes, APC. Humans. Middle Aged. Postmenopause

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  • (PMID = 19362506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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21. Biondi A, Di Giuntao M, Motta S, Privitera G, Fichera DS, Ciuni R, Basile F: [Benign phylloides tumor of the breast. Considerations on a clinical case]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):471-4
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  • [Title] [Benign phylloides tumor of the breast. Considerations on a clinical case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumore fillode gigante benigno della mammella. Considerazioni a proposito di un caso clinico.
  • Phyllodes tumors are unusual biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast, accounting for < 1% of all breast tumors and raising issues of diagnosis and therapeutic choice.
  • Core tissue biopsy or incisional biopsy represent the preferred means of pre-operative diagnosis.
  • Conservative treatment can be effective also in giant tumors depending upon the size of the tumor and the breast if a complete excision with an adequate margin of normal breast tissue can be achieved, so avoiding local recurrence often accompanied by worse histopathology.
  • The Authors report the case of a giant benign phyllode tumor of the breast treated with conservative surgery, quadrantectomy and oncoplasty.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20476682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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22. Nio Y, Iguchi C, Itakura M, Toga T, Hashimoto K, Koike M, Omori H, Sato Y, Endo S: High incidence of synchronous or metachronous breast cancer in patients with malignant and benign thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders. Anticancer Res; 2009 May;29(5):1607-10
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  • [Title] High incidence of synchronous or metachronous breast cancer in patients with malignant and benign thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders.
  • BACKGROUND: Although many reports indicated an association between thyroid diseases and breast cancer, such an association still remains controversial.
  • The present study was aimed to clarify the association of thyroid diseases with the breast cancer incidence.
  • In the patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders, the incidence of other malignancies was surveyed, and the frequency of thyroid cancer in patients with breast cancer was also surveyed.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 2005, a total of 201 female patients received surgery for tumor or tumor-like disorders, including 65 carcinoma, 68 adenoma, 61 adenomatous goiter and 7 chronic thyroiditis cases.
  • Furthermore, during the same periods, 340 female patients underwent breast cancer surgery and their outcomes were also surveyed in December 2006.
  • RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of breast cancer was 16.4% (33/201) in the patients, who received thyroid surgeries and was much higher than other malignancies: 2.0% gastric cancer, 1.0% uterine and colorectal cancer.
  • The incidence rate of breast cancer in each disease was 13.8% for thyroid cancer, 16.2% for adenoma and 21.3% for adenomatous goiter, but no incidence for chronic thyroiditis.
  • On the other hand, in the patients with breast cancer during the same period in our department, the frequency of thyroid cancer was only 2.1% (7/340).
  • CONCLUSION: It appears that thyroid cancer, adenoma and adenomatous goiter were associated with the risk of breast cancer, but chronic thyroiditis was not related.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Incidence


23. Chang DS, McGrath MH: Management of benign tumors of the adolescent breast. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Jul;120(1):13e-19e
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  • [Title] Management of benign tumors of the adolescent breast.
  • Describe the differential diagnosis of breast tumors in adolescent girls.
  • 2. Compare and contrast surgical options for the management of adolescent breast tumors.
  • SUMMARY: Although 99 percent of breast lesions in female adolescents are benign tumors, surgical intervention is commonly required.
  • This article reviews the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management of these benign tumors.
  • A modified surgical technique for resection of large fibroadenomas and reconstruction of the remaining breast is described.
  • The authors review the approach to five specific breast lesions: fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumors, juvenile hypertrophy, inflammatory processes, and premature breast development.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Biopsy, Needle. Esthetics. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008 Aug;122(2):679-80 [18626406.001]
  • (PMID = 17572540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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24. Euhus DM, Bu D, Milchgrub S, Xie XJ, Bian A, Leitch AM, Lewis CM: DNA methylation in benign breast epithelium in relation to age and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 May;17(5):1051-9
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  • [Title] DNA methylation in benign breast epithelium in relation to age and breast cancer risk.
  • BACKGROUND: Many established breast cancer risk factors are related to the timing and duration of exposure to reproductive hormones, which are known to drive breast epithelial cell proliferation.
  • The epigenetic molecular clock hypothesis suggests that CpG island methylation records the cell division history of benign epithelium.
  • In proliferative epithelium, such as breast, this may provide an individualized cell-based measure of cancer risk.
  • METHODS: Methylation of cyclin D2, APC, HIN1, RASSF1A, and RAR-beta2 was measured by quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR in 290 benign and malignant breast epithelial cell samples obtained by palpation-directed fine-needle aspiration biopsy from 164 women.
  • Univariate, multivariate, and unsupervised cluster analysis was used to establish the relationship between TSG methylation and a personal history of breast cancer, predicted breast cancer risk, and specific breast cancer risk factors.
  • RESULTS: RASSF1A methylation was highly correlated with breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 5.28; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.95-14.32; P = 0.001], atypical cytology (OR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.30-12.98; P = 0.016), and benign breast disease requiring biopsy (OR, 6.12; 95% CI, 1.41-26.51; P = 0.016).
  • CONCLUSIONS: TSG methylation increases in benign breast epithelium with increasing age.
  • Because it is independently related to a personal history of benign or malignant breast disease and to predicted breast cancer risk, it may have value for breast cancer risk stratification and as a surrogate endpoint marker in prevention trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast / pathology. Cluster Analysis. CpG Islands / genetics. Cyclin D2. Cyclins / genetics. Cytokines / genetics. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Genes, APC. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18483325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / SCGB3A1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta
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25. Vasaturo F, Sallusti E, Gradilone A, Malacrino C, Nardo T, Avagnano G, Aglianò AM, Granato T, De Vincenzi B, Coppotelli G, Marzullo A, Soda G, Simonelli L, Modesti M, Scarpa S: Comparison of extracellular matrix and apoptotic markers between benign lesions and carcinomas in human breast. Int J Oncol; 2005 Oct;27(4):1005-11
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  • [Title] Comparison of extracellular matrix and apoptotic markers between benign lesions and carcinomas in human breast.
  • The expression of the extracellular matrix-related genes, such as fibronectin, laminin and tenascin C, and apoptosis-related genes, such as bax, bcl2 and survivin, was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by immunohistochemistry in normal breast tissue and benign and malignant breast tumors and then correlated to several clinical parameters: estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki67, ErbB2, tumor size, lymph node status and grading.
  • Seventy-three breast tissue samples were examined.
  • The negative correlation between laminin transcription and Ki67 could suggest that laminin impacts negatively on tumor proliferation, and the positive correlation between fibronectin and lymph node status may lead to consider fibronectin as predictive of long distance metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Breast Diseases / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Fibronectins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Laminin / metabolism. Lymphatic Metastasis. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. RNA / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tenascin / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16142317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tenascin; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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26. Ikeda S, Shibata T, Funakoshi N: Immunohistochemical detection of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein in benign and malignant tumor cells of the breast. Rinsho Byori; 2005 Jun;53(6):487-93
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein in benign and malignant tumor cells of the breast.
  • In this study, the expression of TERT was investigated by immunocytochemistry to determine whether it is a useful marker for differential diagnosis in benign or malignant breast tumors.
  • We examined imprint smears prepared from 63 surgically resected breast lesions, and 27 cases of secretion or aspiration cytology smears had been routinely diagnosed.
  • In conclusion, the expression of TERT protein might be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in malignant and benign breast tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Telomerase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. In Situ Hybridization. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Rinsho Byori.2005 Aug;53(8):748
  • (PMID = 16026073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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27. Wilke LG, Brown JQ, Bydlon TM, Kennedy SA, Richards LM, Junker MK, Gallagher J, Barry WT, Geradts J, Ramanujam N: Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins. Am J Surg; 2009 Oct;198(4):566-74
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  • [Title] Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins.
  • BACKGROUND: In women undergoing breast conserving surgery (BCS), up to 60% can require re-excision.
  • Our objective is to develop an optically based technology which can differentiate benign from malignant breast tissues intraoperatively through differences in tissue composition factors.
  • Within 34 specimens with pathologically confirmed positive margins, the ratio map of b-carotene/scattering showed the most significant difference reflecting a decrease in adipose and an increase in cell density within malignant margins (p=.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We present a novel optical spectral imaging device that provides a rapid, non-destructive assay of the tissue composition of breast tumor margins.

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  • (PMID = 19800470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024128; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024128-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1UL1 RR024128-01
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS137679; NLM/ PMC2764289
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28. Behera MA, Dai Q, Garde R, Saner C, Jungheim E, Price TM: Progesterone stimulates mitochondrial activity with subsequent inhibition of apoptosis in MCF-10A benign breast epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;297(5):E1089-96
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  • [Title] Progesterone stimulates mitochondrial activity with subsequent inhibition of apoptosis in MCF-10A benign breast epithelial cells.
  • The effects of progesterone on breast epithelial cells remain poorly defined with observations showing both proliferative and antiproliferative effects.
  • The release of paracrine growth factors from nuclear receptor-positive cells has been postulated as a mechanism, since in vitro studies show a lack of growth effect by progesterone in breast epithelial cells lacking nuclear receptors.
  • This study examined possible nongenomic effects of progesterone in breast epithelia by using MCF-10A cells known to lack nuclear progesterone receptor expression.
  • Our study demonstrates a nongenomic action of progesterone on benign breast epithelial cells, resulting in enhanced cellular respiration and protection from apoptosis.

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  • (PMID = 19690070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1555
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 1R03HD-052770-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1; 0 / Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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29. Jiang YX, Liu H, Liu JB, Zhu QL, Sun Q, Chang XY: Breast tumor size assessment: comparison of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2007 Dec;33(12):1873-81
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  • [Title] Breast tumor size assessment: comparison of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound.
  • Accurate assessment of tumor size is necessary when selecting patients for breast-conserving surgery.
  • In the study of breast contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), we found that tumor size discrepancy between CEUS and conventional ultrasound (US) existed in some breast lesions, for which the reasons are not clear.
  • Breast CEUS examinations were performed in 104 patients with breast lesions.
  • The measurement of the 104 breast tumors on conventional US was obtained and compared with the measurement on CEUS.
  • A difference in measuring tumor size of >3 mm for tumors up to 1.7 cm and 4 mm for tumors >or=1.7 cm, was defined as a significant discrepancy between conventional US and CEUS.
  • The histopathological examination of size discrepancy was performed and the margin characteristics of breast cancers with larger measurements were compared with those with unchanged measurements.
  • Among the 104 lesions (43 malignant, 60 benign, 1 borderline), the size of 27 breast cancers and one granulomatous mastitis appeared larger at CEUS.
  • Pathologic examinations of the region corresponding to the measurement discrepancy were mainly ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), invasive carcinoma with a DCIS component, adenosis with lobular hyperplasia in breast cancers and inflammatory cell infiltration in one granulomatous mastitis.
  • Well-defined margin characteristics were significantly different between breast cancers with larger measurements at CEUS and those with unchanged measurements of size (p = 0.002), whereas no significant difference was found between the two groups in ill-defined, spiculated, hyperechoic halo, microlobulated and angulated margins (p = 0.463, 0.117, 0.194, 0.666 and 0.780, respectively).
  • This initial study suggests that significant discrepancy of breast lesion measurement between conventional US and CEUS is more likely presented in breast cancer than benign lesions.
  • The pathologic findings corresponding to the region of size increased at CEUS are malignant in most malignant lesions and benign in benign lesions.
  • It is difficult to predict whether the size measurement of the breast cancer increases at CEUS based on the margin characteristics showed on conventional US.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phospholipids. Reproducibility of Results. Sulfur Hexafluoride

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  • (PMID = 17686569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-5629
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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30. Buch A, Rout P, Makhija P: Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):259-61
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  • [Title] Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump.
  • An unusual combination of two benign breast neoplasms adenomyoepithelioma and phyllodes tumor presenting as a solitary breast lump have been described.
  • This patient also presented with a recurrent breast neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;49(3):476
  • (PMID = 16933731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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31. Zhu Y, Wang T, Lin J, Li D, Peng Y, Luo Y: [Fast edge extraction for ultrasound image of breast tumor based on fuzzy number]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;23(3):488-91
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  • [Title] [Fast edge extraction for ultrasound image of breast tumor based on fuzzy number].
  • An accurate edge extraction method for the ultrasound breast tumor image is useful for classifying tumors as benign or malignant.
  • This paper refers to a fast technique to extract edge of breast tumor from ultrasound image.
  • Experiments of benign and malignant breast tumor in ultrasound images have shown that our method can extract the breast tumor edge faster than many conventional methods can do separately, and the results are reliable and credible.
  • Our experiments demonstrate that it can be efficiently used to extract the edge of breast tumor from the ultrasound image.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Fuzzy Logic. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16856374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-5515
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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32. Cichon MA, Degnim AC, Visscher DW, Radisky DC: Microenvironmental influences that drive progression from benign breast disease to invasive breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia; 2010 Dec;15(4):389-97
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  • [Title] Microenvironmental influences that drive progression from benign breast disease to invasive breast cancer.
  • Invasive breast cancer represents the endpoint of a developmental process that originates in the terminal duct lobular units and is believed to progress through stages of increasing proliferation, atypical hyperplasia, and carcinoma in situ before the cancer acquires invasive and metastatic capabilities.
  • By comparison with invasive breast cancer, which has been studied extensively, the preceding stages of benign breast disease are more poorly understood.
  • Much less is known about the molecular changes underlying benign breast disease development and progression, as well as the transition from in situ into invasive disease.
  • More challenges are posed by limitations of the models used to investigate the lesions preceding invasive breast cancer.
  • However, recent studies have identified alterations in stromal cell function that may be critical for disease progression from benign disease to invasive cancer: key functions of myoepithelial cells that maintain tissue structure are lost, while tissue fibroblasts become activated to produce proteases that degrade the extracellular matrix and trigger the invasive cellular phenotype.

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  • (PMID = 21161341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7039
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116201; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90628-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122086; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132879; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128660; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA128660; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA116201; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA132879; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122086
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3011086
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33. Zhu W, Qin W, Hewett JE, Sauter ER: Quantitative evaluation of DNA hypermethylation in malignant and benign breast tissue and fluids. Int J Cancer; 2010 Jan 15;126(2):474-82
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  • [Title] Quantitative evaluation of DNA hypermethylation in malignant and benign breast tissue and fluids.
  • The assessment of DNA had demonstrated altered methylation in malignant compared to benign breast tissue.
  • The purpose of our study was to (i) confirm the predictive ability of methylation assessment in breast tissue, and (ii) use the genes found to be cancer predictive in tissue to evaluate the diagnostic potential of hypermethylation assessment in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and mammary ductoscopic (MD) samples.
  • Methylation of CCND-2, p16, RAR-beta and RASSF-1a was significantly more prevalent in tumor than in normal tissue specimens.
  • Methylation frequency was higher in MD specimens from breasts with cancer than benign samples for p16 and RASSF-1a.
  • In summary, i) routine quantitative DNA methylation assessment in NAF and MD samples is possible, and ii) genes hypermethylated in malignant breast tissue are also altered in matched NAF and in MD samples, and may be useful to assist in early breast cancer detection.

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  • (PMID = 19618401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124818-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124818; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124818; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124818-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS144203; NLM/ PMC3398695
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34. Kamate B, Traore CB, Diallo D, Foko I, Sangare F, Malle B, Coulibaly B, Mounkoro N, Bayo S: [Epidemiology and morphology of breast benign tumors in Mali: about 186 cases]. Mali Med; 2008;23(3):36-9
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  • [Title] [Epidemiology and morphology of breast benign tumors in Mali: about 186 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Epidemiologie et morphologie des tumeurs benignes du sein au Mali: a propos de 186 cas.
  • Benign tumors are more frequent, and are characterized by a possibility of recurrence or malignant transformation.
  • The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and morphological characteristics of breast benign tumors.
  • The study had concerned all benign tumors confirmed by histology.
  • FINDINGS: In total, 186 benign tumors were diagnosed over 611 mammary pathologies (30.44%).
  • The main complaint was feeling a nodule in the breast (91.9%).
  • The most affected breast was the right side (50.8%).
  • Tumor sizes were variable, and the color changed through white to yellow.
  • Histological aspects were: fibroadenoma (72%), lipoma (8.6%), tubular adenoma (5.9%), papilloma (5.4%), lactating adenoma (3.8%), phyllodes tumor (3.8%), and syringomatous tumor (0.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: Benign tumors are frequent in mammary pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Mali / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1993-0836
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Mali médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mali Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mali
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35. Papachristopoulou G, Avgeris M, Scorilas A: Expression analysis and study of KLK4 in benign and malignant breast tumours. Thromb Haemost; 2009 Feb;101(2):381-7
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  • [Title] Expression analysis and study of KLK4 in benign and malignant breast tumours.
  • The purpose of this study was the expression analysis and study of KLK4 in benign and malignant breast tumours.
  • Total RNA was isolated from 16 benign and 45 malignant breast tissue specimens.
  • Relative quantification analysis was performed using the comparative C(T) method 2(-DeltaDeltaC)(T) KLK4 expression was found to vary in both patients' cohorts; however, a statistically significant elevation of the KLK4 mRNA levels was observed in malignant compared to benign tumour patients.
  • ROC and logistic regression analysis recommended that KLK4 gene expression may be used as a new potential biomarker in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Kallikreins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. ROC Curve. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19190825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6245
  • [Journal-full-title] Thrombosis and haemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thromb. Haemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins; EC 3.4.21.- / kallikrein 4
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36. Belkacémi Y, Bousquet G, Marsiglia H, Ray-Coquard I, Magné N, Malard Y, Lacroix M, Gutierrez C, Senkus E, Christie D, Drumea K, Lagneau E, Kadish SP, Scandolaro L, Azria D, Ozsahin M: Phyllodes tumor of the breast. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Feb 1;70(2):492-500
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast.
  • Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%).
  • Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size < or = 3 cm and no tumor necrosis for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control.
  • Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17931796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Ashbeck EL, Rosenberg RD, Stauber PM, Key CR: Benign breast biopsy diagnosis and subsequent risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Mar;16(3):467-72
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  • [Title] Benign breast biopsy diagnosis and subsequent risk of breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: We examine benign breast biopsy diagnoses as reported by community pathologists in New Mexico and investigate associations with future breast cancer development.
  • METHODS: Using data collected between 1992 and 2000 by the New Mexico Mammography Project and cancer data through 2003 from the New Mexico Tumor Registry, we calculated breast cancer rates following 14,602 benign breast biopsies for women ages 30 to 89 years.
  • For comparison, we also calculated the breast cancer rate following 215,283 normal screening mammograms.
  • RESULTS: We identified 480 subsequent breast cancer diagnoses among 14,602 women with benign breast biopsies and 4,402 breast cancer diagnoses among 215,283 women with mammograms assigned a "negative" or "benign finding" assessment.
  • Among low-risk histologic diagnoses, the strongest associations with subsequent breast cancer development included adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, calcifications, and ductal hyperplasia.
  • Fibroadenoma, inflammation, and cysts did not exhibit an association with breast cancer development.
  • Women with low-risk diagnoses and breast tissue characterized as fatty or with scattered densities had a HR of 2.09 (95% CI, 1.68-2.60), whereas women with low-risk histologic diagnoses and dense breasts had a HR of 3.36 (95% CI, 2.83-3.99).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The observed breast cancer occurrence contributes to evidence of increased risk following benign biopsy.
  • The risk associated with histologic diagnoses in absence of atypia was twice the risk experienced by women with normal mammogram evaluations and may be modified by breast density.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Risk
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. New Mexico / epidemiology. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries

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  • (PMID = 17337650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U01 CA69976
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Lewis CM, Cler LR, Bu DW, Zöchbauer-Müller S, Milchgrub S, Naftalis EZ, Leitch AM, Minna JD, Euhus DM: Promoter hypermethylation in benign breast epithelium in relation to predicted breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;11(1):166-72
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  • [Title] Promoter hypermethylation in benign breast epithelium in relation to predicted breast cancer risk.
  • INTRODUCTION: The tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A, APC, H-cadherin, RARbeta2, and cyclin D2 are methylated more frequently in breast cancer than in adjacent benign tissue.
  • However, it is unclear whether promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in benign breast tissue is associated with an increased risk for breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Promoter hypermethylation was measured in benign and malignant breast samples obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy from 27 breast cancer patients and 55 unaffected women whose risk of breast cancer had been defined using the Gail, Claus, and BRCAPRO models.
  • RESULTS: Cyclin D2 methylation occurred in 57% of tumor samples but not in corresponding benign breast samples and in only one sample from an unaffected patient (P < 0.0001).
  • RARbeta2 methylation occurred in 32% of benign breast samples from cancer patients but only 9% of similar samples from unaffected women (P = 0.002).
  • Promoter methylation of RASSF1A and APC occurred more frequently (70% and 56%, respectively) in unaffected women at high-risk for breast cancer as defined by the Gail model than in low/intermediate risk women (29% and 20%, P = 0.04 and P = 0.03).
  • Of the Gail model risk factors, only number of prior breast biopsies was highly correlated with APC and RASSF1A methylation (P = 0.0001 and 0.02, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Since cyclin D2 promoter methylation occurs almost exclusively in tumors, it may be possible to exploit it for the early detection of breast cancer.
  • Promoter methylation of APC, RARbeta2, and RASSF1A in benign breast epithelium is associated with epidemiologic markers of increased breast cancer risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA Methylation. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Biopsy. Breast / pathology. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Cyclin D2. Cyclins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Models, Theoretical. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein C / biosynthesis. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / biosynthesis. Risk. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15671542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA71618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / H-cadherin; 0 / Protein C; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta
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39. Hu X, Zhang Y, Zhang A, Li Y, Zhu Z, Shao Z, Zeng R, Xu LX: Comparative serum proteome analysis of human lymph node negative/positive invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and benign breast disease controls via label-free semiquantitative shotgun technology. OMICS; 2009 Aug;13(4):291-300
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  • [Title] Comparative serum proteome analysis of human lymph node negative/positive invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and benign breast disease controls via label-free semiquantitative shotgun technology.
  • In the present study, a two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) on a linear ion trap was utilized to identify and compare serum proteins from breast cancer patients.
  • Three groups of 21 human sera, 7 from patients with lymph node-negative invasive ductal carcinoma (IDCB), 7 from patients with lymph node-positive IDCB, and 7 controls from patients with benign breast diseases, were analyzed.
  • By quantification with label-free spectral counting, a fruitful list of serum proteins with significant differences in abundance accompanying the progression of breast cancer was found.
  • Among the selected proteins, tenascin-XB (TNXB) was further validated by the ELISA method in 131 serum samples as a promising biomarker for early metastasis of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Proteome / analysis. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Chromatography, Liquid / methods. Cluster Analysis. Computational Biology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods

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  • (PMID = 19624269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8100
  • [Journal-full-title] Omics : a journal of integrative biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] OMICS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proteome
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40. André F, Michiels S, Dessen P, Scott V, Suciu V, Uzan C, Lazar V, Lacroix L, Vassal G, Spielmann M, Vielh P, Delaloge S: Exonic expression profiling of breast cancer and benign lesions: a retrospective analysis. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Apr;10(4):381-90
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  • [Title] Exonic expression profiling of breast cancer and benign lesions: a retrospective analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Gene-expression arrays have generated molecular predictors of relapse and drug sensitivity in breast cancer.
  • We aimed to identify exons differently expressed in malignant and benign breast lesions and to generate a molecular classifier for breast-cancer diagnosis.
  • METHODS: 165 breast samples were obtained by fine-needle aspiration.
  • A nearest centroid prediction rule was developed to classify lesions as malignant or benign on a training set, and its performance was assessed on an independent validation set.
  • A two-way ANOVA model identified probe sets with differential expression in malignant and benign lesions while adjusting for scan dates.
  • FINDINGS: 120 breast cancers and 45 benign lesions were included in the study.
  • A molecular classifier for breast-cancer diagnosis with 1228 probe sets was generated from the training set (n=94).
  • When the 165 samples were taken into account, 37 858 exon probe sets (5.4%) and 3733 genes (7.0%) were differently expressed in malignant and benign lesions (threshold: adjusted p<0.05).
  • In the same population of 165 samples, 956 exon probe sets presented both higher intensity and higher splice index in breast cancer than in benign lesions, although located on unchanged genes.
  • INTERPRETATION: Many exons are differently expressed by breast cancer and benign lesions, and alternative transcripts contribute to the molecular characteristics of breast malignancy.
  • Development of molecular classifiers for breast-cancer diagnosis with fine-needle aspiration should be possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Exons / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA Splicing / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome. Validation Studies as Topic. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2009 Apr;10(4):314-5 [19341968.001]
  • (PMID = 19249242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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41. Lv S, Niu Y, Wei L, Liu Q, Wang X, Chen Y: Chromosomal aberrations and genetic relations in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast: a comparative genomic hybridization study. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Dec;112(3):411-8
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  • [Title] Chromosomal aberrations and genetic relations in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast: a comparative genomic hybridization study.
  • Phyllodes tumors are not quite rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast that show a broad spectrum of clinical behaviour.
  • We have used comparative genomic hybridization to analyze chromosomal copy number changes in 36 cases of phyllodes tumors (including benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, 12 cases each).
  • The average number of chromosome copy changes (range) in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors were 5.58 (0-20), 14.08 (3-23), and 12.42 (0-29) respectively.
  • In benign phyllodes tumors the number of gains and losses was in balance (2.50 vs 3.08), while in borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors gains occurred more often than losses (9.25 vs 4.83, 9.5 vs 2.92).
  • The result suggests the molecular cytogenetics of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors is similar, and the most striking difference with benign phyllodes tumors is an increased number of chromosomal gains in a nonrandom distribution.
  • Gains of 4q12 seem especially to be involved in the progression of benign to borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, possibly because of overexpression of oncogenes at these loci.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chromosome Mapping. Cytogenetic Analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Microdissection. Middle Aged. Models, Genetic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18189161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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42. Schneider HP, Böcker W: Hormones and progeny of breast tumor cells. Climacteric; 2006 Apr;9(2):88-107
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  • [Title] Hormones and progeny of breast tumor cells.
  • The rudimentary human glandular breast, with the approach of puberty, starts to grow both at glandular and stromal sites.
  • The risk of breast cancer is inversely related to parity.
  • Women during adolescence have the highest susceptibility to breast cancer development.
  • Immunophenotypia of benign proliferative breast disease favors a fundamentally different epithelial composition from that of most malignant epithelial proliferations such as atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular neoplasia and invasive breast carcinoma.
  • Immunophenotypical characterization of these lesions assists in distinguishing benign from malignant disease.
  • One should, however, realize that ductal as well as lobular premalignant breast lesions ultimately arise from stem cells in the terminal duct lobular units.
  • Based on our immunocytochemical observations, the most likely target cell of malignant transformation is the Ck18/18-positive and ER-negative transient cell of normal breast epithelium.
  • Pregnancy confers a different genomic imprint to breast epithelial stem cells.
  • Further elucidation of this mechanism may assist in developing appropriate means of breast cancer prevention.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Mammary Glands, Human / cytology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Estrogens / physiology. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Parity. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 16698656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1369-7137
  • [Journal-full-title] Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Climacteric
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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43. Cîmpean AM, Raica M, Nariţa D: Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):123-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the distribution of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin positive myofibroblasts in the stroma of the normal mammary gland, benign and malignant tumors.
  • METHODS: Our study included 112 female patients with suspect breast masses obtained by surgery or biopsy.
  • RESULTS: We have found normal breast tissue, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenomas, fibrocystic diseases, phyllodes tumor, DCIS, ductal invasive, lobular, squamous, medullary, mucinous, and papillary carcinomas.
  • All the normal breast tissues and most of benign lesions were positive for CD34 and negative for SMA.
  • The exceptions were represented by a case of fibroadenoma and the phyllodes tumor, with CD34 positivity and a focal acquisition of SMA; fibrocystic disease with associated apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a squamous carcinoma with loss of CD34 expression and focal acquisition of SMA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although there were some exceptions especially when one of the two markers was interpreted separately and in some cases associated with sclerotic stroma, we conclude that the combined expression of CD34 and a-SMA is of potential diagnostic value in the distinction between benign and malignant tumors in some difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Muscle, Smooth / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Smad Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16286998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Smad Proteins
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44. Siddiqui MK, Anand M, Mehrotra PK, Sarangi R, Mathur N: Biomonitoring of organochlorines in women with benign and malignant breast disease. Environ Res; 2005 Jun;98(2):250-7
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  • [Title] Biomonitoring of organochlorines in women with benign and malignant breast disease.
  • Established risk factors for breast cancer explain breast cancer risk only partially.
  • A hospital-based case-control study, the first from India, was conducted among 50 women undergoing surgery for breast disease to examine the association between organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk.
  • Blood, tumor, and surrounding adipose tissue of the breast were collected from the subjects with benign (control) and malignant breast (study) lesions and analyzed to determine organochlorine insecticides using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector.
  • However, both total HCH and total DDT were higher in the tumor tissues of the controls than in those of the study group; gamma-HCH was significantly different (P<0.05).
  • The level of total HCH (alpha-HCH was significantly different, P<0.05) was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the study group, whereas total DDT was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the control group.
  • The distribution of known confounders of breast cancer including age, body mass index, age at menarche and menopause, duration of breast feeding, and family history related to breast disease did not differ significantly between benign and malignant groups.
  • This pilot study with limited statistical power does not support a positive association between exposure to organochlorines and risk of breast cancer but paves the way for a larger Indian study with greater statistical power encompassing different regions of the country to enable statistically sound conclusions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Environmental Monitoring. Environmental Pollutants / pharmacokinetics. Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / metabolism. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Case-Control Studies. Chromatography, Gas. Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Risk Factors. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15820732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
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45. Zhang JJ, Ouyang T, Wan WH, Deng GR: [Detection of free tumor-related DNA in the serum of breast cancer patients]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;29(8):609-13
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  • [Title] [Detection of free tumor-related DNA in the serum of breast cancer patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the APC and E-cadherin gene promoter hypermethylation as tumor marker and to investigate the correlation of free tumor-related DNA in serum and tumor tissue with clinicopathological parameters.
  • Their feasibility in early diagnosis, predicting therapeutic effect and monitoring recurrence was evaluated.
  • METHODS: 84 cases with operated breast cancer were recruited from March 2002 to August 2002 at Beijing Cancer Hospital.
  • Aberrant methylation of E-cadherin and APC genes was detected in tumor tissues, adjacent normal tissues and peripheral blood serum by methylation-specific PCR (MSP).
  • 10 cases with benign breast diseases were selected as control group.
  • RESULTS: The positive rate of promoter hypermethylation of E-cadherin and APC genes in tumor tissues was 52.4% and 45.2%, in the paired serum was 33.3% and 31.0%, respectively.
  • Aberrant methylation of free DNA in serum presented the same alteration in tumor tissues.
  • E-cadherin and APC hypermethylation in serum and tumor samples significantly correlated each other (E-cadherin P < 0.001; APC P = 0.002).
  • There was no correlation for the aberrant methylation in cancer tissues and serum with the clinicopathological parameters of patients including age, tumor staging, tumor size, histological type and receptor.
  • CONCLUSION: The same aberrant methylation in cancer tissues and serum, not correlating with tumor staging, can be detected in about one third of breast cancer patients.
  • The results imply that this approach may be feasible for early diagnosis, evaluation of therapeutic effects and monitoring recurrence of breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / blood. Genes, APC. Genes, Tumor Suppressor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. CpG Islands. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18210882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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46. Somiari SB, Somiari RI, Heckman CM, Olsen CH, Jordan RM, Russell SJ, Shriver CD: Circulating MMP2 and MMP9 in breast cancer -- potential role in classification of patients into low risk, high risk, benign disease and breast cancer categories. Int J Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;119(6):1403-11
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  • [Title] Circulating MMP2 and MMP9 in breast cancer -- potential role in classification of patients into low risk, high risk, benign disease and breast cancer categories.
  • Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 are involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, and increased levels occur in serum and plasma of breast cancer (BC) patients.
  • In our study, we measured concentration and activity of MMP2/9 in sera of 345 donors classified as low risk (Gail score <1.7), high risk (HR) (Gail score > or =1.7), benign disease or BC.
  • Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney nonparametric tests showed that total-MMP2 concentration is higher in HR compared to control (p = 0.012), benign (p = 0.001) and cancer (p = 0.007).
  • Active MMP2 (aMMP2) concentration is higher in control than benign and cancer (p < 0.001, respectively).
  • Total and aMMP9 concentrations are higher in cancer than benign (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively).
  • Total-MMP2 and total-MMP9 activities are lower in control than benign (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively) and cancer (p < 0.001, respectively).
  • Total-MMP2 and MMP9 activities are also higher in cancer than benign (p = 0.004, p < 0.001) and HR (p = 0.008, p = 0.007, respectively).
  • Our study provides evidence supporting the potential role of serum MMP2/9 as biomarkers for breast disease classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / blood. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast / enzymology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / enzymology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Cancer. 2007 Jul 1;121(1):216-8; author reply 219-23 [17315186.001]
  • (PMID = 16615109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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47. Khan QJ, Kimler BF, Clark J, Metheny T, Zalles CM, Fabian CJ: Ki-67 expression in benign breast ductal cells obtained by random periareolar fine needle aspiration. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Apr;14(4):786-9
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  • [Title] Ki-67 expression in benign breast ductal cells obtained by random periareolar fine needle aspiration.
  • Ki-67 expression in ductal cells obtained by random periareolar fine needle aspiration (RPFNA) is currently being used as a response biomarker in phase II breast cancer chemoprevention trials; however, Ki-67 in RPFNA has not been well studied as a risk predictor for cancer, which would support its use as a response indicator.
  • We examined the expression of Ki-67 in RPFNA specimens with hyperplasia +/- atypia obtained from 147 women at high risk for development of breast cancer.
  • The association of Ki-67 expression with cytologic atypia, a known risk factor for development of breast cancer, provides preliminary justification for its use as a response biomarker in phase II chemoprevention trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / isolation & purification. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Hyperplasia. Menopause. Middle Aged. Postmenopause

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  • (PMID = 15824144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-15135
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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48. Gönenç A, Erten D, Aslan S, Akinci M, Simşek B, Torun M: Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in blood and tissue of malignant breast tumor and benign breast disease. Cell Biol Int; 2006 Apr;30(4):376-80
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  • [Title] Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in blood and tissue of malignant breast tumor and benign breast disease.
  • Changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrate and nitrite (as an index of nitric oxide production), lipid hydroperoxide (LOH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and lipoproteins (HDL- and LDL-cholesterol) were estimated in breast cancer patients (n = 15) and benign breast disease (n = 15).
  • Serum and tissue MDA levels were found to be decreased in breast cancer patients compared to the benign group (p < 0.05).
  • In contrast, nitrate and nitrite levels were increased in serum and tissue of the cancer group compared to benign breast disease patients (p < 0.05).
  • Compared to the benign group, tissue TAC levels were elevated in the breast cancer patient group (p < 0.05).
  • Total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were elevated in the benign group compared with cancer patients (p < 0.05).
  • These findings support the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation in serum and tissue of benign breast disease is greater than in breast cancer.
  • However, the enhanced levels of nitric oxide may be in response to inflammation in patients with breast cancer.
  • Total antioxidant status is lower in benign tissue than in cancerous tissue, probably to compensate for this elevated free radical production.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / metabolism. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Lipid Peroxidation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lipid Peroxides / blood. Malondialdehyde / blood. Middle Aged. Nitrates / blood. Nitrites / blood

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  • (PMID = 16616293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1065-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell biology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Biol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Lipid Peroxides; 0 / Nitrates; 0 / Nitrites; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde
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49. Iglesias A, Arias M, Santiago P, Rodríguez M, Mañas J, Saborido C: Benign breast lesions that simulate malignancy: magnetic resonance imaging with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 Mar-Apr;36(2):66-82
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  • [Title] Benign breast lesions that simulate malignancy: magnetic resonance imaging with radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • The typical appearance of benign breast conditions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well established and diagnosis is usually easy.
  • However, cases of benign breast lesions that are extremely difficult to differentiate from malignant breast tumors are occasionally encountered in MRI of the breast because overlap between benign and malignant lesions characteristics is found.
  • This article describes the MRI features of a variety of suspicious breast conditions that were confirmed to be benign in the histopathologic study.
  • We evaluated both enhancement kinetics and lesion morphological information to differentiate malignant from benign lesions.
  • Lesions evaluated included benign proliferative breast disease, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, granular cell tumor, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, fat necrosis, mastitis, inflammatory granuloma, epidermal inclusion cyst, and benign intramammary lymph node.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Cyst / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Humans. Mastitis / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17331838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. El-Attar HA, Ragab MS, Sheta MI, Ahmed AS: Hepatocyte growth factor in Egyptian females with breast benign lumps and cancers. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(4):893-6
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  • [Title] Hepatocyte growth factor in Egyptian females with breast benign lumps and cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) also known as scatter factor (SF) and its receptor c-met play important roles in mammary differentiation and have been implicated in mammary carcinogenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Estimation of the plasma level of HGF in females with benign breast lumps or breast carcinomas and correlating levels with important prognostic parameters.
  • SUBJECTS: Sixty eight adult premenopausal females were divided into control group of fifteen healthy volunteers and fifty-three patients subdivided into fifteen with benign breast lumps and thirty-eight with breast carcinomas.
  • METHODS: A thorough clinical examination, plain chest x-rays, ultrasonography of the abdomen and pelvis, pre- operative fine needle aspiration cytology, estimation of fasting serum glucose, urea, creatinine and uric acid levels, alanine aminotransferase activities, C-reactive protein, HGF level and histopathological examination of the breast masses were performed.
  • RESULTS: Significant increase in HGF levels was found in patients with benign breast lumps and in breast cancer patients when each was compared to controls and when cancer patients were compared to the benign breast lumps group.
  • CONCLUSION: The serum level of HGF is an independent prognostic indicator for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / blood. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Fibroadenoma / blood. Hepatocyte Growth Factor / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Egypt. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / blood. Humans. Inflammation / blood. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 21133597.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor
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51. Lee JH, Kim SH, Kang BJ, Lee AW, Song BJ: Ultrasonographic features of benign adenomyoepithelioma of the breast. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Sep-Oct;11(5):522-7
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  • [Title] Ultrasonographic features of benign adenomyoepithelioma of the breast.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic features of benign adenomyoepithelioma of the breast.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2005 and 2009, five patients had histologically confirmed adenomyoepithelioma of the breast.
  • The ultrasonographic assessments were classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4A, with low suspicion of malignancy in two cases, and as category 4B, with intermediate suspicion of malignancy in three cases.
  • The pathology revealed benign adenomyoepithelioma in all patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign adenomyoepitheliomas appear as solid or complex echoic masses with suspicious malignant ultrasonographic features, which may be associated with adjacent ductectasia.
  • Although adenomyoepithelioma is a rare breast tumor, awareness of its sonographic features will be helpful for the differential diagnosis from other tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoepithelioma / ultrasonography. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20808695.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2930160
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenomyoepithelioma / Breast / Ultrasonography
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52. Corzo C, Corominas JM, Tusquets I, Salido M, Bellet M, Fabregat X, Serrano S, Solé F: The MYC oncogene in breast cancer progression: from benign epithelium to invasive carcinoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Mar;165(2):151-6
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  • [Title] The MYC oncogene in breast cancer progression: from benign epithelium to invasive carcinoma.
  • One hypothesis for breast cancer development suggests that breast carcinogenesis involves a progression of events leading from benign epithelium to hyperplasia (with or without atypia) to carcinoma in situ and then invasive carcinoma.
  • Benign lesions and normal adjacent cells were classified as normal.
  • The presence of MYC amplification only in invasive cells suggests that the finding of MYC amplification could reflect an advanced tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, myc
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paraffin Embedding

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  • (PMID = 16527609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Hagemann T, Binder C, Binder L, Pukrop T, Trümper L, Grimshaw MJ: Expression of endothelins and their receptors promotes an invasive phenotype of breast tumor cells but is insufficient to induce invasion in benign cells. DNA Cell Biol; 2005 Nov;24(11):766-76
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  • [Title] Expression of endothelins and their receptors promotes an invasive phenotype of breast tumor cells but is insufficient to induce invasion in benign cells.
  • There is increased staining of endothelins (ET-1, -2, and -3) and receptors (ET-RA and -RB) in invasive breast tumors compared to nonneoplastic tissue, and ETs stimulate MCF-7 cell invasion in vitro.
  • We analyzed ETstimulation of benign and transformed mammary epithelial cells, and whether expression of ETs is sufficient to induce invasiveness.
  • In breast cancer patient serum, ET-1 was increased in those patients with lymph node metastases compared to those with no lymph node involvement; ETs, however, had no mitogenic effect on breast tumor cell lines in vitro.
  • The benign mammary epithelial cell line, hTERT-HME1, and the poorly invasive breast tumor cell line MCF-7 secreted low levels of ET-1, while the invasive cell lines SKBR3 and MDAMB231 secreted high levels.
  • In contrast to transformed cells, ET stimulation or overexpression did not induce an invasive phenotype in benign cells.
  • Benign cells do not respond to ETs, and ET expression is not sufficient to induce invasion; however, the level of ET production by tumor cells correlates with their invasiveness, and increasing expression of the ET axis promotes breast tumor cell invasion via both receptors, while MMP-14 is induced via ET-RA.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelins / biosynthesis. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Receptor, Endothelin A / biosynthesis. Receptor, Endothelin B / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Endothelin-1 / blood. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Enzyme Induction. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Matrix Metalloproteinases / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phenotype. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 16274297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-5498
  • [Journal-full-title] DNA and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] DNA Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Endothelins; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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54. Román-Díaz J, Alayón-Laguer D, Fernández Nelson M, Luis B, Caceres-Perkins W, Conde-Sterling D: Rare benign breast tumor. Bol Asoc Med P R; 2010 Apr-Jun;102(2):50-2
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  • [Title] Rare benign breast tumor.
  • We report the case of a female patient with an incidental finding at routine mammography evaluation which consisted of a benign spindle cell tumor, namely Breast Myofibroblastoma.
  • It is important to recognize the benign nature of this neoplasm to prevent extensive mutilating surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20939206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Asoc Med P R
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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55. Girgin G, Tolga Sahin T, Fuchs D, Kasuya H, Yuksel O, Tekin E, Baydar T: Immune system modulation in patients with malignant and benign breast disorders: tryptophan degradation and serum neopterin. Int J Biol Markers; 2009 Oct-Dec;24(4):265-70
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  • [Title] Immune system modulation in patients with malignant and benign breast disorders: tryptophan degradation and serum neopterin.
  • Tryptophan degradation metabolites are known to suppress T-cell function, which is a mechanism of resistance of tumor cells against immune surveillance.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate tryptophan degradation along with serum neopterin levels in benign and malignant breast disease.
  • Serum tryptophan and kynurenine levels and neopterin concentrations of 30 patients with malignant and 27 patients with benign breast disease were determined by HPLC and ELISA, respectively.
  • Neopterin levels in patients with malignant breast disease were significantly higher than in the benign group (p<0.05).
  • Tryptophan degradation positively correlates with the aggressiveness of the tumor because it changes with tumor grade rather than disease stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Neopterin / blood. Tryptophan / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase / physiology. Kynurenine / blood. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20082276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase; 343-65-7 / Kynurenine; 670-65-5 / Neopterin; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan
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56. Hagen A, Grosenick D, Macdonald R, Rinneberg H, Burock S, Warnick P, Poellinger A, Schlag PM: Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions. Opt Express; 2009 Sep 14;17(19):17016-33
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  • [Title] Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions.
  • Using scanning time-domain instrumentation we recorded fluorescence projection mammograms on few breast cancer patients prior, during and after infusion of indocyanine green (ICG), while monitoring arterial ICG concentration by transcutaneous pulse densitometry.
  • Late-fluorescence mammograms recorded after ICG had been largely cleared from the blood by the liver, showed invasive carcinomas at high contrast over a rather homogeneous background, whereas benign lesions did not produce (focused) fluorescence contrast.
  • During infusion, tissue concentration contrast and hence fluorescence contrast is determined by intravascular contributions, whereas late-fluorescence mammograms are dominated by contributions from protein-bound ICG extravasated into the interstitium, reflecting relative microvascular permeabilities of carcinomas and normal breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Capillary Permeability / physiology. Mammography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Computer Simulation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorescence. Humans. Indocyanine Green / metabolism. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19770920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-4087
  • [Journal-full-title] Optics express
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Opt Express
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
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57. Shin S, Cazares L, Schneider H, Mitchell S, Laronga C, Semmes OJ, Perry RR, Drake RR: Serum biomarkers to differentiate benign and malignant mammographic lesions. J Am Coll Surg; 2007 May;204(5):1065-71; discussion 1071-3
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  • [Title] Serum biomarkers to differentiate benign and malignant mammographic lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Mammographic screening has increased detection of earlier-stage breast cancers and has decreased mortality from breast cancer.
  • A Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) 4 classification prompts a biopsy that most often reveals benign disease.
  • Our objective was to determine if serum protein-expression profiles could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant mammographic lesions.
  • Sera from 92 subjects were randomly selected to form benign (n = 46) and cancer (n = 46) cohorts.
  • The MALDI-TOF spectra analysis yielded 273 peaks, with 14 peaks expressed differentially (p < 0.05) between the cancer and benign cohorts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF protein-expression profiles generated from BIRADS 4 sera could be used to distinguish between benign and malignant mammographic lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17481542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA085067; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA98028
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Proteins
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58. Williams MB, Judy PG, Gunn S, Majewski S: Dual-modality breast tomosynthesis. Radiology; 2010 Apr;255(1):191-8
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  • [Title] Dual-modality breast tomosynthesis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical performance of a hybrid scanner that uses dual-modality tomosynthesis (DMT) and technetium 99m sestamibi to provide coregistered anatomic and functional breast images in three dimensions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective pilot evaluation of the scanner was performed in women scheduled to undergo breast biopsy after institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained.
  • RESULTS: Of the 21 lesions, seven were malignant, and 14 were benign.
  • CONCLUSION: Pilot clinical evaluation of the DMT scanner suggests that it is a feasible and accurate method with which to detect and diagnose breast cancer.
  • Systems such as the DMT scanner that are designed specifically for three-dimensional multimodality breast imaging could make possible some of the advances in tumor detection, localization, and characterization of breast cancer that are now being observed with whole-body three-dimensional hybrid systems, such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) or single photon emission computed tomography/CT.

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2010
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  • (PMID = 20308457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA069452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 69452
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2843832
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59. Yamamoto H, Okumura K, Toshima S, Mukaisho K, Sugihara H, Hattori T, Kato M, Asano S: FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues. Biol Pharm Bull; 2009 Jul;32(7):1148-54
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  • [Title] FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues.
  • FXYD3, also known as Mat-8 (Mammary tumor 8 kDa), is one of mRNAs highly expressed in mouse and human breast cancers.
  • Here, we newly found that FXYD3 protein was also overexpressed in human breast cancer specimens; invasive ductal carcinomas and intra-ductal carcinomas, whereas its expression was low in benign lesion specimens; mastopathy, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors.
  • Here, we found that FXYD3a mRNA is a major transcript product expressed in human normal tissues as well as in breast, colon, stomach and pancreas cancer cell lines.
  • Cell proliferation rate of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was drastically decreased when FXYD3a and 3b mRNAs were suppressed by the small interfering RNA.
  • These results suggest that FXYD3a protein is highly expressed in breast cancers, and responsible for cancer cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amino Acid Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Alignment. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19571376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FXYD3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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60. Thitaikumar A, Mobbs LM, Kraemer-Chant CM, Garra BS, Ophir J: Breast tumor classification using axial shear strain elastography: a feasibility study. Phys Med Biol; 2008 Sep 7;53(17):4809-23
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  • [Title] Breast tumor classification using axial shear strain elastography: a feasibility study.
  • In this paper, we report a feasibility study on the utility of the axial-shear strain elastograms in the classification of in vivo breast tumor as being benign or malignant.
  • The study was performed using data sets obtained from 15 benign and 15 malignant cases that were biopsy proven.
  • The observers also outlined the tumor area on the corresponding sonogram, which was used to normalize the area of the axial-shear strain region.
  • First, the result indicates that the observers consistently ( approximately 82% of the cases) noticed the characteristic pattern of the axial-shear strain distribution data as predicted in the previous simulation studies, i.e. alternating regions of positive and negative axial-shear strain values around the tumor-background interface.
  • Second, the analysis of the result suggests that in approximately 57% of the cases in which the observers did not visualize tumor in the sonogram, the elastograms helped them to locate the tumor.
  • Feature values between 0.46 and 0.75 may result in an overlap between benign and malignant cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Biopsy. Elasticity. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Medical Oncology / methods. Models, Statistical. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18701768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9155
  • [Journal-full-title] Physics in medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Yagata H, Nakamura S, Toi M, Bando H, Ohno S, Kataoka A: Evaluation of circulating tumor cells in patients with breast cancer: multi-institutional clinical trial in Japan. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jun;13(3):252-6
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  • [Title] Evaluation of circulating tumor cells in patients with breast cancer: multi-institutional clinical trial in Japan.
  • BACKGROUND: With the development of the CellSearch System, it has become possible to measure circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels with high reproducibility, and the CTC test is currently being used clinically for patients with metastatic breast cancer in the United States.
  • METHODS: Using the CellSearch System, CTC levels were evaluated in 57 healthy individuals and patients with benign breast disease; 30 patients with primary breast cancer (stages 1-3); and 38 patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Then, the patients with metastatic breast cancer were divided into two groups, using a cutoff score of 5 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood, and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared in the two groups.
  • RESULTS: When the clinical cutoff score was set at 2 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood, 0% of the healthy individuals and patients with benign breast disease (0/57), 3.3% of the patients with primary breast cancer (1/30), and 50% of the patients with metastatic breast cancer (19/38) were identified as as having 2 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood.
  • CONCLUSION: As concluded in a similar clinical trial in the United States, for patients with breast cancer, measuring CTC levels can be both an accurate indicator of metastases and an important measure of patient prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Count. Cell Separation / instrumentation. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18553236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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62. Eby PR, DeMartini WB, Gutierrez RL, Saini MH, Peacock S, Lehman CD: Characteristics of probably benign breast MRI lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Sep;193(3):861-7
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  • [Title] Characteristics of probably benign breast MRI lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to describe the characteristics of probably benign breast MRI lesions and determine how these characteristics could be used to define the MRI BI-RADS 3 category.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively collected morphology and kinetic data on lesions assessed as BI-RADS 3 in 2,569 consecutive breast MRI examinations from January 2003 through November 2006.
  • Data were linked to the regional tumor registry to identify cases of malignancy in patients who did not follow-up at our institution.
  • Characteristics of probably benign lesions were analyzed for predictors of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Contrast Media / pharmacokinetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Registries. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19696303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 84F6U3J2R6 / gadodiamide; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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63. Tse GM, Niu Y, Shi HJ: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update.
  • Phyllodes tumor is an uncommon biphasic breast tumor, with the ability to recur and metastasize, and it behaves biologically like a stromal neoplasm.
  • Traditionally, phyllodes tumors are graded by the use of a set of histologic data into benign, borderline, and malignant.
  • The expression of many biological markers, including p53, hormone receptors, proliferation markers, angiogenesis group of markers, c-kit, CD10 and epidermal growth factor receptor have been explored, and many have been shown to be variably expressed, depending on the grade of the tumor.
  • These markers are, however, of limited value in predicting the behavior of the tumor.
  • It is foreseeable that more exciting data will be generated to help us to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19434472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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64. Poczobutt JM, Tentler J, Lu X, Schedin PJ, Gutierrez-Hartmann A: Benign mammary epithelial cells enhance the transformed phenotype of human breast cancer cells. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:373
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  • [Title] Benign mammary epithelial cells enhance the transformed phenotype of human breast cancer cells.
  • However, the role of adjacent benign epithelial cells, which provide initial cell-cell contacts with cancer cells, in tumor progression has not been thoroughly examined.
  • In this report we addressed the question whether benign MECs alter the transformed phenotype of human breast cancer cells.
  • METHODS: We used both in vitro and in vivo co-cultivation approaches, whereby we mixed GFP-tagged MCF-10A cells (G2B-10A), as a model of benign mammary epithelial cells (MECs), and RFP-tagged MDA-MB-231-TIAS cells (R2-T1AS), as a model of breast cancer cells.
  • Moreover, two other models of benign MECs, MCF-12A and HuMECs, also enhanced R2-T1AS colony growth in soft agar and clonogenicity assays.
  • These data reveal that factors secreted by benign MECs are responsible for the observed enhancement of the R2-T1AS transformed phenotype.
  • Co-injecting R2-T1AS cells with G2B-10A cells +/- PFA-fixation, revealed that G2B-10A cells promoted a ~3-fold increase in tumor growth, irrespective of PFA pre-treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data shift our understanding of adjacent benign epithelial cells in the cancer process, from passive, noncontributory cells to an active and tumor-promoting vicinal cell population that may have significant effects early, when benign cells outnumber malignant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Communication. Cell Proliferation. Cells, Cultured. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Culture Media, Conditioned / pharmacology. Cytokines / metabolism. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Phenotype. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20637104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Conditioned; 0 / Cytokines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913961
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65. Pasha Q, Malik SA, Shaheen N, Shah MH: Comparison of trace elements in the scalp hair of malignant and benign breast lesions versus healthy women. Biol Trace Elem Res; 2010 May;134(2):160-73
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  • [Title] Comparison of trace elements in the scalp hair of malignant and benign breast lesions versus healthy women.
  • Trace elements including Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, and Zn were analyzed in the scalp hair samples of women with malignant breast lesions, women with benign breast lesions, and healthy donors using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method.
  • In the scalp hair of malignant-tumor patients, the highest average concentration was shown by Ca (1,187 microg/g), followed by Na (655 microg/g), Mg (478 microg/g), Zn (391 microg/g), Sr (152 microg/g), Fe (114 microg/g), and K (89.8), while in the case of benign-tumor patients, the average estimated element levels were 1,522, 1,093, 572, 457, 217, 80.4, and 74.7 microg/g, respectively.
  • Average levels of Na, Sr, K, Cd, Co, Pb, Mg, Ca, Zn, Ni, Sb, and Mn were revealed to be significantly higher in the hair of malignant and benign patients compared to the healthy women; however, Fe, Cu, Al, and Cr were not significantly different in the scalp hair of the three groups.
  • The quartile distributions of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Sr revealed maximum spread in the scalp hair of malignant and benign groups; nevertheless, Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn exhibited almost comparable quartile levels in the three groups.
  • Strong correlation coefficients were found between Fe and Cd, Al and Na, Mn and Sr, Co and Cr, Cd and Cr, Pb and K, Pb and Mn, Cu and Na, and Al and Fe in the scalp hair of malignant-tumor patients, while Fe and K, Cd and Co, Na and Co, and Cr and Pb showed strong correlations in the scalp hair of benign-tumor patients, both of which were significantly different compared with the healthy subjects.
  • Multivariate cluster analysis also revealed divergent clustering of the elements in the scalp hair of malignant and benign patients in comparison with the healthy women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 19644659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological trace element research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol Trace Elem Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Trace Elements
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66. Hsiao YH, Huang YL, Liang WM, Lin C, Kuo SJ, Chen DR: Characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses: harmonic versus nonharmonic 3D power Doppler imaging. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2009 Mar;35(3):353-9
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  • [Title] Characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses: harmonic versus nonharmonic 3D power Doppler imaging.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of nonharmonic ultrasound (US) and tissue harmonic imaging (THI) using three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler sonographic technique to classify benign and malignant breast tumors by vascularization.
  • All subjects with one or more breast masses were studied with 3D power Doppler US nonharmonic and harmonic technologies.
  • A total of 97 benign and 86 pathologically proven malignant breast tumor images were analyzed.
  • Three histogram indices, the vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization-flow index (VFI), on both nonharmonic and harmonic images were calculated for the intratumor and for shells with an outside thickness of 3 mm surrounding the breast lesion.
  • A multilayer perception (MLP) neural network classifier used the vascularity indices to determine whether the breast tumors are benign or malignant.
  • ROC curve analysis used overall age, volume, VI, FI and VFI for both intratumor and shells with an outside thickness of 3 mm surrounding the breast lesions in nonharmonic US and THI.
  • In conclusion, the performance of 3D power Doppler US with respect to the characterization of solid breast masses as benign or malignant was not significantly improved with tissue harmonic imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Neural Networks (Computer). Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19041173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Ławicki S, Czygier M, Bedkowska E, Wojtukiewicz M, Szmitkowski M: Comparative evaluation of plasma levels and diagnostic values of macrophage-colony stimulating factor in patients with breast cancer and benign tumors. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2008 Sep;118(9):464-9
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  • [Title] Comparative evaluation of plasma levels and diagnostic values of macrophage-colony stimulating factor in patients with breast cancer and benign tumors.
  • The direct production of this cytokine has been reported in tumor cell lines in vitro and in solid tumors in vivo.
  • OBJECTIVES: In the present study, the levels of M-CSF in patients with breast cancer and in those with a benign breast tumor were evaluated.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group was made up of 70 patients with breast cancer and 20 patients with benign tumors and the control group of 30 healthy women.
  • RESULTS: Statistically higher levels of M-CSF and CA 15-3 were found in breast cancer patients as compared to the benign tumor and control groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The above data suggests that M-CSF might be useful in both diagnostics and differential diagnosis of benign tumors and breast cancer (except for the lowest degree of the clinical progression).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Poland. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18846980.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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68. Beier JP, Jaeger K, Horch RE: Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up. Breast; 2006 Aug;15(4):550-3
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  • [Title] Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up.
  • Phyllodes tumours are rare neoplasms of the female breast, especially among adolescent women.
  • We present the case of a 17-year old female patient with a large benign phyllodes tumour.
  • Symmetry of breast contour and nipple-areola complex position could be restored.
  • Standard plastic surgical techniques like reduction mammaplasty might be applied in treating large benign tumours compromising the aesthetic aspect of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cosmetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16310356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics
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69. Zhu Q, Cronin EB, Currier AA, Vine HS, Huang M, Chen N, Xu C: Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction. Radiology; 2005 Oct;237(1):57-66
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  • [Title] Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate prospectively the feasibility of using optical tomography with ultrasonographic (US) localization to differentiate malignant from benign breast masses and to compare optical tomography with color Doppler US.
  • Between May 2003 and March 2004, 65 consecutive women (mean age, 51 years; age range, 24-80 years) with 81 breast lesions underwent US-guided biopsy and were scanned with a combined imager.
  • From these measurements, tumor angiogenesis was assessed on the basis of calculated total hemoglobin concentration.
  • A Student t distribution was used to calculate the statistical significance of mean maximum and mean average hemoglobin concentrations obtained in malignant and benign lesion groups, and P < .001 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference.
  • RESULTS: Biopsy results revealed eight early stage invasive carcinomas (malignant group) and 73 benign lesions (benign group).
  • The mean maximum and mean average hemoglobin concentrations in the benign group were 55 micromol/L +/- 24.8 and 38 micromol/L +/- 17.4, respectively.
  • Both the maximum and average total hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher in the malignant group compared with the benign group (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that optical tomography with US localization is feasible for differentiating benign and early stage malignant breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, Optical / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Feasibility Studies. Female. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2005
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  • (PMID = 16183924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA094044; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB002136
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS10036; NLM/ PMC1533766
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70. Wells WA, Wang X, Daghlian CP, Paulsen KD, Pogue BW: Phase contrast microscopy analysis of breast tissue: differences in benign vs. malignant epithelium and stroma. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2009 Aug;31(4):197-207
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  • [Title] Phase contrast microscopy analysis of breast tissue: differences in benign vs. malignant epithelium and stroma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess how optical scatter properties in breast tissue, as measured by phase contrast microscopy and interpreted pathophysiologically, might be exploited as a diagnostic tool to differentiate cancer from benign tissue.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated frozen human breast tissue sections of adipose tissue, normal breast parenchyma, benign fibroadenoma tumors and noninvasive and invasive malignant cancers by phase contrast microscopy through quantification of grayscale values, using multiple regions of interest (ROI).
  • RESULTS: Stroma demonstrated significantly higher scatter intensity than did epithelium, with lower scattering in tumor-associated stroma as compared with normal or benign-associated stroma.
  • Measures were comparable for invasive and noninvasive malignant tumors but were higher than those found in benign tumors and were lowest in adipose tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: Significant differences were found in scatter coefficient properties of epithelium and stroma across diagnostic categories of breast tissue, particularly between benign and malignant-associated stroma.

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  • (PMID = 19736867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA105480-010002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA105480; None / None / / U54 CA105480-010002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA080139-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA080139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA080139-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS183687; NLM/ PMC2857332
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71. Mukherjee S, Frolova N, Sadlonova A, Novak Z, Steg A, Page GP, Welch DR, Lobo-Ruppert SM, Ruppert JM, Johnson MR, Frost AR: Hedgehog signaling and response to cyclopamine differ in epithelial and stromal cells in benign breast and breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Jun;5(6):674-83
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  • [Title] Hedgehog signaling and response to cyclopamine differ in epithelial and stromal cells in benign breast and breast cancer.
  • Using real-time, quantitative PCR, laser capture microdissection, and immunohistochemistry, distinctive patterns of expression of the hedgehog pathway members patched 1 (PTCH1), smoothened, GLI1, GLI2 and the 3 hedgehog ligands were identified for epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts in benign breast and breast cancer.
  • GLI1 protein and mRNA, and PTCH1 and sonic hedgehog (SHH) proteins were elevated in 3 of 10 breast cancers; however, PTCH1 transcripts were not consistently increased.
  • Hedgehog-mediated transcription, as indicated by a reporter of GLI-dependent promoter activity and by expression of GLI1 transcripts, was reduced by the hedgehog pathway inhibitor cyclopamine in both MDA-MB-435 cancer epithelial cells and MCF10AT epithelial cells, a cell line derived from benign breast.
  • However, cyclopamine reduced viability of cancer epithelial cell lines, including MDA-MB-435, but did not specifically affect fibroblasts or epithelial cells from benign breast, including MCF10AT.
  • These results demonstrate modulation of GLI-mediated transcription in both cancer and benign-derived epithelial cells by cyclopamine and sonic hedgehog, and further suggest that hedgehog signaling contributes to the survival of only the cancer epithelial cells.
  • Determination as to whether the increase in GLI1 and SHH expression in breast cancer indicates a significant increase in hedgehog signaling will require further evaluation.

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  • (PMID = 16855373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA091421; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA105950
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS11622; NLM/ PMC1557635
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72. Pereira WC, Alvarenga AV, Infantosi AF, Macrini L, Pedreira CE: A non-linear morphometric feature selection approach for breast tumor contour from ultrasonic images. Comput Biol Med; 2010 Nov-Dec;40(11-12):912-8
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  • [Title] A non-linear morphometric feature selection approach for breast tumor contour from ultrasonic images.
  • Ultrasound breast images have been used to improve diagnostics and decrease the number of unneeded biopsies.
  • Malignant breast tumors tend to present irregular and blurred contours while benign ones are usually round, smooth and well-defined.
  • Accordingly, investigating the tumor contour may help in establishing diagnosis.
  • Herein, Mutual Information and Linear Discriminant Analysis were implemented to rank morphometric features in discriminating breast tumors in ultrasound images.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Image Enhancement / methods. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Databases, Factual. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20979993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0534
  • [Journal-full-title] Computers in biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comput. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Abdallah A, Saklaoui O, Stückle C, Sommerer F, Hatzmann W, Audretsch W, Wesemann A, Zink M, Skoljarev L, Papadopoulos S: [Case reports of operative management of very large, benign phylloid tumors--is a safety margin necessary?]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch; 2009;49(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Case reports of operative management of very large, benign phylloid tumors--is a safety margin necessary?].
  • The phylloid tumor (PT, formerly called cystosarcoma phylloides) is a rare neoplasia of the female breast.
  • Usually the PT is treated with breast-conserving surgery.
  • In spite of progress in early diagnosis, PTs recur frequently--independently of tumor's degree of malignancy.
  • Especially in cases of malignant PT, complete resection with tumor-free margins is seen as the only predictive marker for tumor recurrence or metastases.
  • Benign PT is also often resected with wide tumor-free margins.
  • Because of the tumor's occasionally enormous dimensions, this therapy concept makes breast-conserving surgery almost impossible.
  • A simple enucleation of benign PT is an option to facilitate the preservation of breast tissue and a cosmetically satisfactory breast reconstruction.
  • In the case of particularly large benign PT, enucleation even without wide margins prevents tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Subcutaneous / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Breast / pathology. Esthetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammaplasty / methods. Mammography. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 20530948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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74. Veltman J, Mann R, Kok T, Obdeijn IM, Hoogerbrugge N, Blickman JG, Boetes C: Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI. Eur Radiol; 2008 May;18(5):931-8
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  • [Title] Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI.
  • Thus, 29 BRCA-MCs with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated and the results compared with an age, tumor size and tumor type matched control group of 29 sporadic breast cancer cases.
  • Malignant lesions in BRCA-MC frequently have morphological characteristics commonly seen in benign lesions, like a rounded shape or sharp margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Contrast Media. False Negative Reactions. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Mammography. Mutation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18270717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2292493
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75. Ezeome ER, Okafor OC, Nwajiobi CE, Osuagwu CC: Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature. Niger J Clin Pract; 2007 Mar;10(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma Phyllodes is an uncommon disease of the breast with variable clinical behaviour.
  • Its incidence is reported as 1% of all breast tumours.
  • In this communication, we present a case of metachronous bilateral benign cystosarcoma phyllodes presenting in a 24year old nulliparous lady.
  • She had right breast mastectomy after two recurrences following local excision.
  • The left breast lesion developed one year after the treatment of the right lesion, again she had to be treated with mastectomy after 2 recurrences.
  • The problems of diagnosis, clinical behaviour and management are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17668718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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76. Wu YC, Chen DR, Kuo SJ: Personal experience of ultrasound-guided 14-gauge core biopsy of breast tumor. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Sep;32(7):715-8
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  • [Title] Personal experience of ultrasound-guided 14-gauge core biopsy of breast tumor.
  • AIM: This study was aimed to examine the efficacy of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of breast tumor and compared with the results of previous publications.
  • METHODS: From January 2001 to September 2003, 546 lesions in 513 consecutive patients with the identification of a tumor on ultrasound examination categorized belong and above C3 according to BIRADS (Breast Image Reporting and Data Systems).
  • There were 341 lesions with benign findings, 202 lesions with malignancy and 3 lesions with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both palpable and impalpable breast lesions should be examined under image guidance and automated core biopsy is the technique of first choice.
  • Fourteen-gauge core biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis in 99% of solid tumors in this series.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16769196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Chandru H, Sharada AC, Manjunath S: [Expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinases inducer (EMMPRIN) in benign and advanced breast cancer tissue samples]. Biomed Khim; 2007 Jul-Aug;53(4):461-7
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  • [Title] [Expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinases inducer (EMMPRIN) in benign and advanced breast cancer tissue samples].
  • Tumor cell derived matrix metalloproteinases are a family of enzymes associated with the tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • In the present study the role of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN in the progression of breast cancer has been investigated.
  • Gelatinase-A and EMMPRIN were analyzed in benign and stage II and stage III breast cancer tissue samples by gelatin zymography assay, immunoprecipation analysis and Western blot analysis with a monoclonal primary antibody specific for EMMPRIN.
  • Our results showed overexpression of EMMPRIN in advanced stages of breast cancer tissues compared with benign tumor tissue samples.
  • The expression of MMP-2, the active and latent forms of the enzyme increased with tumor progression from Stage II to Stage III of breast cancer and it was not expressed in benign tissues.
  • The expression MMP-2 correlates with tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD147 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18035727.001).
  • [ISSN] 2310-6972
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ khimii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Khim
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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78. Mercado CL, Toth HK, Axelrod D, Cangiarella J: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of benign adenomyoepithelioma of the breast: radiologic and pathologic correlation in four cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Nov;35(11):690-4
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of benign adenomyoepithelioma of the breast: radiologic and pathologic correlation in four cases.
  • Benign adenomyoepithelioma of the breast is a rare tumor in which the cytologic findings have been described in only a few cases.
  • While benign, the imaging and pathologic features may be mistaken for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / isolation & purification. Female. Humans. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Microfilament Proteins / isolation & purification. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17924402.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / calponin
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79. Lee SH, Kim JH, Cho N, Park JS, Yang Z, Jung YS, Moon WK: Multilevel analysis of spatiotemporal association features for differentiation of tumor enhancement patterns in breast DCE-MRI. Med Phys; 2010 Aug;37(8):3940-56
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  • [Title] Multilevel analysis of spatiotemporal association features for differentiation of tumor enhancement patterns in breast DCE-MRI.
  • PURPOSE: Analyzing spatiotemporal enhancement patterns is an important task for the differential diagnosis of breast tumors in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and yet remains challenging because of complexities in analyzing the time-series of three-dimensional image data.
  • The authors propose a novel approach to breast MRI computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) using a multilevel analysis of spatiotemporal association features for tumor enhancement patterns in DCE-MRI.
  • METHODS: A database of 171 cases consisting of 111 malignant and 60 benign tumors was used.
  • The images were first registered for motion compensation, and then tumor regions were segmented using a fuzzy c-means clustering-based method.
  • Spatiotemporal associations of tumor enhancement patterns were analyzed at three levels: Mapping of pixelwise kinetic features within a tumor, extraction of spatial association features from kinetic feature maps, and extraction of kinetic association features at the spatial feature level.
  • A least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifier was used for tumor differentiation and the performances were evaluated using a leave-one-out testing.
  • By applying multilevel analysis strategy, the spatiotemporal association features became more informative in predicting tumor malignancy, which was shown by a statistical testing in ten spatiotemporal association features.
  • By using a LS-SVM classifier with the optimized second and third level feature set, the CAD scheme showed Az of 0.88 in classification of malignant and benign tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the multilevel analysis strategy characterizes the complex tumor enhancement patterns effectively with the spatiotemporal association features, which in turn leads to an improved tumor differentiation.
  • The proposed CAD scheme has a potential for improving diagnostic performance in breast DCE-MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Artificial Intelligence. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gadolinium DTPA. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20879557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-2405
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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80. Thomas A, Degenhardt F, Farrokh A, Wojcinski S, Slowinski T, Fischer T: Significant differentiation of focal breast lesions: calculation of strain ratio in breast sonoelastography. Acad Radiol; 2010 May;17(5):558-63
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  • [Title] Significant differentiation of focal breast lesions: calculation of strain ratio in breast sonoelastography.
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Initial data suggest that elastography can improve the specificity of ultrasound in differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions.
  • The aim of this study was to compare elastography and B-mode ultrasound to determine whether the calculation of strain ratios (SRs) can further improve the differentiation of focal breast lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 227 women with histologically proven focal breast lesions (113 benign, 114 malignant) were included at two German breast centers.
  • B-mode scans and sonoelastograms were analyzed by two experienced readers using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System criteria.
  • SRs were calculated from a tumor-adjusted region of interest (mean color pixel density) and a comparable region of interest placed in the lateral fatty tissue.
  • An SR cutoff value of 2.45 (area under the curve, 0.949) allowed significant differentiation (P < .001) of malignant (mean, 5.1 +/- 4.2) and benign (mean, 1.6 +/- 1.0) lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Calculation of SRs contributes to the standardization of sonoelastography with high sensitivity and allows significant differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions with higher specificity compared to B-mode ultrasound but not elastography.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anisotropy. Diagnosis, Differential. Elastic Modulus. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20171905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-4046
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Jordan SJ, Green AC, Whiteman DC, Webb PM: Risk factors for benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors. Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Mar;109(3):647-54
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  • [Title] Risk factors for benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • METHODS: Cases were women newly diagnosed with benign serous ovarian tumors (n=230) or benign mucinous tumors (n=133) between 2002 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: Current smoking was associated with a three-fold increase in risk of benign mucinous tumors (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.97-5.34), and there was a trend of increasing risk with increasing amount smoked (P<.001).
  • Both recent obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.30-2.88) and obesity at age 20 (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.88-10.20) were associated with increased risk of benign serous ovarian tumors, and having had a hysterectomy was also related to increased risk of serous (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.90-3.96), but not mucinous tumors.
  • Ever having had a term pregnancy was inversely associated with both tumor types (combined OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.97), although greater numbers of pregnancies did not decrease risk further.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest some differences in risk factors between benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors and that risk factors for benign serous tumors differ from those well established for ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / statistics & numerical data. Life Style. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Parity. Pregnancy. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17329516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Dahl E, Kristiansen G, Gottlob K, Klaman I, Ebner E, Hinzmann B, Hermann K, Pilarsky C, Dürst M, Klinkhammer-Schalke M, Blaszyk H, Knuechel R, Hartmann A, Rosenthal A, Wild PJ: Molecular profiling of laser-microdissected matched tumor and normal breast tissue identifies karyopherin alpha2 as a potential novel prognostic marker in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jul 1;12(13):3950-60
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  • [Title] Molecular profiling of laser-microdissected matched tumor and normal breast tissue identifies karyopherin alpha2 as a potential novel prognostic marker in breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to identify human genes that might prove useful in the diagnosis and therapy of primary breast cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty-four matched pairs of invasive ductal breast cancer and corresponding benign breast tissue were investigated by a combination of laser microdissection and gene expression profiling.
  • Differential expression of candidate genes was validated by dot blot analysis of cDNA in 50 pairs of matching benign and malignant breast tissue.
  • Cellular expression of candidate genes was further validated by RNA in situ hybridization, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray analysis of 272 nonselected breast cancers.
  • Dot blot analysis reduced the number of up-regulated genes to 15 candidate genes that showed at least a 2-fold overexpression in >15 of 50 (30%) tumor/normal pairs.
  • PPAPDC1A and KPNA2 RNA was up-regulated (fold change >2) in 84% and 32% of analyzed tumor/normal pairs, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression profiling of laser-microdissected breast cancer tissue revealed novel genes that may represent potential molecular targets for breast cancer therapy and prediction of outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast. Gene Expression Profiling. Lasers. Microdissection / methods. alpha Karyopherins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphatidate Phosphatase / genetics. Prognosis. RNA / genetics. Regression Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Sulfotransferases / genetics. Survival Rate. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. Up-Regulation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16818692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha Karyopherins; 0 / karyopherin alpha 2; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.8.2.- / SULF1 protein, human; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 3.1.3.- / lipid phosphate phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.4 / Phosphatidate Phosphatase
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83. Aghaei M, Karami-Tehrani F, Salami S, Atri M: Diagnostic value of adenosine deaminase activity in benign and malignant breast tumors. Arch Med Res; 2010 Jan;41(1):14-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of adenosine deaminase activity in benign and malignant breast tumors.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The present study was carried out to evaluate the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and its isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2 activities as a diagnostic tool in patients with benign and malignant breast disease.
  • METHODS: Total ADA, ADA1, and ADA2 activities of serum and tumor were analyzed using 58 subjects including 20 patients with benign breast disease (BBD), 34 patients with primary breast cancer, and 20 patients as normal control subjects.
  • RESULTS: The mean values for total ADA and ADA2 activities in the serum and tumor of BBD were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (p <0.01).
  • Furthermore, the mean values for total ADA and ADA2 activities of patients with breast cancer were significantly higher than those of the benign group (p <0.005) and healthy subjects (p <0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present results, it is concluded that the assessment of total ADA and ADA2 activities may be used as a reliable test for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine Deaminase / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] 2010 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20430249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5487
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.5.4.4 / Adenosine Deaminase
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84. Tsui PH, Liao YY, Chang CC, Kuo WH, Chang KJ, Yeh CK: Classification of benign and malignant breast tumors by 2-d analysis based on contour description and scatterer characterization. IEEE Trans Med Imaging; 2010 Feb;29(2):513-22
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  • [Title] Classification of benign and malignant breast tumors by 2-d analysis based on contour description and scatterer characterization.
  • Ultrasound B-mode scanning based on the echo intensity has become an important clinical tool for routine breast screening.
  • The efficacy of the Nakagami parametric image based on the distribution of the backscattered signals for quantifying properties of breast tissue was recently evaluated.
  • The B-mode and Nakagami images reflect different physical characteristic of breast tumors: the former describes the contour features, and the latter reflects the scatterer arrangement inside a tumor.
  • The functional complementation of these two images encouraged us to propose a novel method of 2-D analysis based on describing the contour using the B-mode image and the scatterer properties using the Nakagami image, which may provide useful clues for classifying benign and malignant tumors.
  • To validate this concept, raw data were acquired from 60 clinical cases, and five contour feature parameters (tumor circularity, standard deviation of the normalized radial length, area ratio, roughness index, and standard deviation of the shortest distance) and the Nakagami parameters of benign and malignant tumors were calculated.
  • The clinical results demonstrated the presence of a tradeoff between the sensitivity and specificity when either using a single parameter or combining two contour parameters to discriminate between benign and malignant cases.
  • However, combining the contour parameters and the Nakagami parameter produces sensitivity and specificity that simultaneously exceed 80%, which means that the functional complementation from the B-scan and the Nakagami image indeed enhances the performance in diagnosing breast tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Area Under Curve. Cluster Analysis. Female. Humans. ROC Curve. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20129851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-254X
  • [Journal-full-title] IEEE transactions on medical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] IEEE Trans Med Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Manfrin E, Mariotto R, Remo A, Reghellin D, Falsirollo F, Dalfior D, Bricolo P, Piazzola E, Bonetti F: Benign breast lesions at risk of developing cancer--a challenging problem in breast cancer screening programs: five years' experience of the Breast Cancer Screening Program in Verona (1999-2004). Cancer; 2009 Feb 1;115(3):499-507
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  • [Title] Benign breast lesions at risk of developing cancer--a challenging problem in breast cancer screening programs: five years' experience of the Breast Cancer Screening Program in Verona (1999-2004).
  • BACKGROUND: Cytology and core-needle biopsies are not always sufficient to exclude malignancy in benign breast lesions (BBL) that are at risk of developing cancer, and open biopsy often is mandatory.
  • In screening programs, open biopsies performed for lesions that are at risk of developing malignancy are considered benign.
  • The authors of this report evaluated the impact of the screen-detected BBL at risk of developing cancer that were counted in the quota of benign breast open biopsies in the Breast Cancer Screening Program of Verona.
  • METHODS: Benign open biopsies were subdivided into 4 groups according to their risk of developing cancer: Histo1, normal histology; Histo2, 'pure' BBL (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, mastitis, adenosis); Histo3, BBL with a low risk of developing cancer (radial scar, papilloma, papillomatosis, phyllodes tumor, mucocele-like lesion); and Histo4, BBL with a high risk of developing cancer (atypical columnar cell hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia).
  • RESULTS: Of 510 open biopsies, 83 biopsies were benign, and the ratio of benign to malignant biopsies was 1:5.
  • Histo1 was observed in 4.8% of all benign open biopsies, Histo2 was observed in 37.4%, Histo3 was observed in 31.3%, and Histo4 was observed 26.5%.
  • It is inappropriate to include BBL at risk of developing cancer in the overall benign open biopsy rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Breast Diseases / complications. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Mass Screening. Middle Aged. Risk


86. Bereznaya NM, Kirnasovskaya EA, Vinnichuk YD, Belova OB, Lukyanova NY: Expression of CD40 by the cells of benign and malignant breast tumors and antitumor action of autologous lymphocytes against chemoresistant and chemosensitive tumors. Exp Oncol; 2008 Dec;30(4):295-9
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  • [Title] Expression of CD40 by the cells of benign and malignant breast tumors and antitumor action of autologous lymphocytes against chemoresistant and chemosensitive tumors.
  • AIM: To study the expression of CD40 by cells of benign and malignant tumors of mammary gland, and to compare the efficacy of lymphocytes antitumor activity against drug resistant and sensitive breast tumors in relevance to CD40 expression.
  • METHODS: Breast tumor explants were cultured with autologous lymphocytes in double diffusion chambers.
  • Expression level of molecules on tumor cells was analyzed using immunohistochemical method (paraffin embedded slides), and on lymphocytes - by the method of indirect immunofluorescence.
  • RESULTS: The highest level of CD40 expression was detected on cells of chemoresistant malignant breast tumors, and the lowest one - on cells of benign breast tumors.
  • The decreased CD40 expression on lymphocytes from patients with drug resistant breast cancer was compared with that on lymphocytes of the patients with drug sensitive breast cancer.
  • The study of antitumor activity of autologous lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK) has shown their pronounced antitumor activity against drug resistant malignant breast tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Marked antitumor activity of LAK from the patients with drug resistant breast cancer is associated with high expression level of CD40 on tumor cells and with its decreased expression on lymphocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD40 / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / immunology. Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / immunology. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism. Lymphocytes / immunology. Lymphocytes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19112427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD40; 126547-89-5 / Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
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87. Ben Hassouna J, Ben Bachouche W, Bouzid T, Bouzaiene H, Maamouri F, Chargui R, Khomsi F, Mtaalah MH, Dhiab T, Hechiche M, Gamoudi A, Rahal K: [Benign schwannoma of the breast: about two cases]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 Dec;34(12):1147-50
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  • [Title] [Benign schwannoma of the breast: about two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Schwannome mammaire bénin: à propos de deux cas.
  • Schwannoma is a rare nervous tumor developed on schwan cells.
  • Only 22 cases of breast schwannoma have been published since 2005.
  • It usually appears as a breast lump having clinical and radiological characteristics suggestive of kindness.
  • Its diagnosis is histological.
  • Through two observations and a review of the literature we would try to remind the characteristics of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 17134932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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88. Tse GM, Tan PH, Ma TK, Gilks CB, Poon CS, Law BK: CD44s is useful in the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Nov;58(11):1185-8
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  • [Title] CD44s is useful in the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: CD44s, the standard form of CD44, has been shown to be downregulated during malignant transformation of breast cancers.
  • It has also been reported recently to be a useful marker in differentiating between benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast, with high expression in the former.
  • CD44s expression in benign and malignant papillary lesions was evaluated.
  • METHODS: CD44s expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 101 benign papillomas and 59 papillary carcinomas (seven invasive papillary carcinomas, 41 papillary ductal carcinomas in situ, and 11 ductal carcinomas involving papillomas).
  • Using CD44s positive staining to differentiate between benign and malignant papillary lesions gives a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 45%, 92%, and 62%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD44s may be useful as an adjunct in the evaluation of morphologically problematic cases of papillary lesion of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16254109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44S antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770758
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89. Foschini MP, Krausz T: Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;27(1):77-90
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  • [Title] Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential.
  • Salivary gland-type neoplasms of the breast are uncommon and comprise numerous entities analogous to that more commonly seen in salivary glands.
  • The clinicopathologic spectrum ranges from benign to malignant but there are important differences as compared with those of their salivary counterpart.
  • In the breast, benign adenomyoepithelioma is recognized in addition to malignant one, whereas in the salivary gland a histologically similar tumor is designated as epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma without a separate benign subgroup.
  • Mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma is a low-grade neoplasm compared with its salivary equivalent.
  • It is also important to appreciate that in contrast to "triple negative" conventional breast carcinomas with aggressive course, most salivary-type malignant breast neoplasms behave in a low-grade manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / metabolism. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Adenomyoepithelioma / metabolism. Adenomyoepithelioma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20306833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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90. Furman-Haran E, Schechtman E, Kelcz F, Kirshenbaum K, Degani H: Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional diversity of the vasculature in benign and malignant breast lesions. Cancer; 2005 Aug 15;104(4):708-18
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional diversity of the vasculature in benign and malignant breast lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumor perfusion through the microvascular network can be imaged noninvasively by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).
  • The objective of the current study was to quantify the microvascular perfusion parameters in various human breast lesions and to determine whether they varied between benign lesions and malignancy and whether they were altered with increased invasiveness.
  • METHODS: Perfusion parameters in 22 benign fibrocystic changes, 15 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), 30 infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDC), and 22 fibroadenomas were measured using high-resolution DCE-MRI.
  • Logistic regression analysis evaluated the best predictors of the kinetic parameters that differentiate between IDC and benign lesions.
  • RESULTS: The perfusion parameters exhibited a progressive increase from benign fibrocystic changes to DCIS and IDC, with a significant correlation between lesion type and the parameters' values (range of correlation coefficients, 0.56-0.76; P < 0.0001).
  • Stepwise logistic regression selected k(trans) as the best predictor for distinguishing benign fibrocystic changes from IDC, yielding 93% sensitivity and 96% specificity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The microvascular perfusion parameters in breast lesions were elevated with invasiveness.
  • Quantification of these parameters using high-resolution DCE-MRI was helpful for differentiating between breast lesions and should improve breast carcinoma diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / blood supply. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Neovascularization, Pathologic / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15971199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Diaz NM, Vrcel V, Centeno BA, Muro-Cacho C: Modes of benign mechanical transport of breast epithelial cells to axillary lymph nodes. Adv Anat Pathol; 2005 Jan;12(1):7-9
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  • [Title] Modes of benign mechanical transport of breast epithelial cells to axillary lymph nodes.
  • The status of axillary lymph nodes is a key prognostic indicator available for the management of patients with breast cancer.
  • So-called "occult" micrometastases detected by such methods have led to speculation that some may have reached the SLNs by benign mechanical transport (BMT) rather than a metastatic process.
  • We review evidence suggesting two potential modes of BMT: lymphatic transport of epithelial cells displaced by biopsy of the primary breast tumor and by breast massage-assisted SLN localization.
  • The evidence implicating breast massage prior to SLN biopsy as a mode of BMT has been supported by statistical analysis; however, no method of distinguishing massage-associated cells in SLNs from true occult micrometastases is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / pathology. Biopsy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Massage / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15614159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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92. Uematsu T, Kasami M: MR imaging findings of benign and malignant circumscribed breast masses: part 1. Solid circumscribed masses. Jpn J Radiol; 2009 Dec;27(10):395-404
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  • [Title] MR imaging findings of benign and malignant circumscribed breast masses: part 1. Solid circumscribed masses.
  • The purpose of our study was to review the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings and pathological diagnoses of benign and malignant solid circumscribed breast masses.
  • This article reviews the MR imaging findings of solid circumscribed breast masses.
  • A strategy for the diagnosis of solid circumscribed breast masses with MR imaging is herein presented that incorporates the signal intensity characteristics on T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images with the kinetic curve assessment reflected by the temporal and spatial uptake of contrast medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 20035410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-108X
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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93. Hsiao YH, Kuo SJ, Liang WM, Huang YL, Chen DR: Intra-tumor flow index can predict the malignant potential of breast tumor: dependent on age and volume. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2008 Jan;34(1):88-95
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  • [Title] Intra-tumor flow index can predict the malignant potential of breast tumor: dependent on age and volume.
  • The aim of this study was to assess tumor vascularity through three dimensional (3D) power Doppler breast ultrasound (US) and propose a decision model for the classification of benign and malignant breast tumors.
  • A total of 102 benign and 93 malignant solid breast images were analyzed.
  • Histogram indices of the vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization-flow index (VFI) for the intra-tumor and for shells with a thickness of 3 mm surrounding the breast lesion were calculated and showed that for both, malignancy had a higher VI, FI and VFI than benignancy, with statistical significance.
  • Multivariate and stepwise logistic regression revealed the model (including patient age, volume and intra-tumor FI in 3D power Doppler vascularity) to be the best choice for malignant breast tumor characterization.
  • Histogram indices for the intra-tumor FI in the 3D power Doppler scan are a good choice of parameter for differentiating between malignant and benign tumors with respect to the power of sensitivity, no matter whether one index is suggested or the patients' age and volume are considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods

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  • (PMID = 17720297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-5629
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Gallicchio L, McSorley MA, Newschaffer CJ, Huang HY, Thuita LW, Hoffman SC, Helzlsouer KJ: Body mass, polymorphisms in obesity-related genes, and the risk of developing breast cancer among women with benign breast disease. Cancer Detect Prev; 2007;31(2):95-101
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  • [Title] Body mass, polymorphisms in obesity-related genes, and the risk of developing breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.
  • BACKGROUND: A cohort study was conducted among post-menopausal women to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in selected obesity-related genes (PPARG, LPL, LEPR, PON1, PON2, TNF-alpha) were associated with the progression of benign breast disease (BBD) to breast cancer and whether the selected polymorphisms modified the association between body mass and breast cancer among women with BBD.
  • METHODS: Among participants in an ongoing cohort study, 994 Caucasian post-menopausal women had a breast biopsy for BBD.
  • Of these women, 61 subsequently developed breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: In this cohort, body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • In contrast, polymorphisms in PON1 (Gln192Arg) and LEPR (IVS2+6920) were associated with a decreased risk of developing invasive breast cancer.
  • No statistically significant associations were observed for polymorphisms in PPARG, PON2, LPL, or TNF and breast cancer risk or for interactions between the polymorphisms and BMI and breast cancer risk.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that specific polymorphisms in the PON1 and LEPR genes may play a role in progression of BBD to breast cancer among post-menopausal Caucasian women.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Body Weight. Breast Diseases / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Obesity / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • [MeSH-minor] Aryldialkylphosphatase / genetics. Cohort Studies. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Humans. Middle Aged. PPAR gamma / genetics. Postmenopause. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Receptors, Leptin. Risk Factors. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17428620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-090X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer detection and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Detect. Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Leptin; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 3.1.8.1 / Aryldialkylphosphatase; EC 3.1.8.1 / PON1 protein, human; EC 3.1.8.1 / PON2 protein, human
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95. Yabuuchi H, Soeda H, Matsuo Y, Okafuji T, Eguchi T, Sakai S, Kuroki S, Tokunaga E, Ohno S, Nishiyama K, Hatakenaka M, Honda H: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: correlation between MR findings and histologic grade. Radiology; 2006 Dec;241(3):702-9
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: correlation between MR findings and histologic grade.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of phyllodes tumor of the breast and to compare these findings with the histologic grade.
  • The authors reviewed the MR findings in 30 female patients aged 16-73 years (mean, 40.2 years) with surgically confirmed phyllodes tumors.
  • Analyzed MR findings included tumor shape, margin, internal enhancement, and size; signal intensity (SI) of tumor higher than that of normal breast tissue on T1-weighted images; SI of tumor lower than or equal to that of normal tissue on T2-weighted images; cyst wall appearance; kinetic curve assessment; and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
  • RESULTS: Nineteen benign, six intermediate (characterized by five to nine cell reproductions at 10 high-power fields, pushing or infiltrative margins, moderate stromal cellularity, and atypia and overgrowth), and five malignant phyllodes tumors were assessed.
  • Irregular cyst wall (P = .003), tumor SI lower than or equal to normal tissue SI on T2-weighted images (P = .005), and low ADC (P = .001) correlated significantly with histologic grade.
  • Tumor SI higher than normal tissue SI on T1-weighted images was more frequent in the malignant (in three of five tumors) and intermediate (in three of six tumors) groups than in the benign group (in two of 19 tumors); however, it was not a significant finding (P = .024).
  • Tumor SI higher than normal tissue SI on T1-weighted images and irregular cyst wall corresponded histopathologically to hemorrhagic infarction and necrosis, respectively.
  • Tumor SI lower than or equal to normal tissue SI on T2-weighted images and low ADC corresponded histopathologically to stromal hypercellularity.
  • CONCLUSION: Several MR findings can be used to help determine the histologic grade of phyllodes breast tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2006.
  • (PMID = 17032912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Herrera Espiñeira C, Fernández Valdivia J, López-Cuervo JE, Martínez Tapias J: Textural analysis in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast cells. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Dec;29(6):365-9
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  • [Title] Textural analysis in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the discriminatory capacity of textural variables to classify the nuclei of breast tumor cells as benign or malignant, using a statistical approach.
  • The sample comprised 95 cases of malignant lesions and 47 cases of benign lesions (approximately 25 nuclei per case), and 27 textural variables were measured.
  • RESULTS: The variance in gray levels was the most decisive variable in the CART analysis, correctly classifying 57% and 97% of benign and malignant cases, respectively.
  • Discriminant analysis yielded the best results, correctly classifying 79% and 85% of benign and malignant cases, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 18225392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Ying MG, Chen Q, Ye YB, Chen HJ, Chen X, Zheng HY, Wu F: [Application of serum proteomic mass spectrum analysis in breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;32(9):698-702
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  • [Title] [Application of serum proteomic mass spectrum analysis in breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of serum proteins mass spectra in healthy controls, benign breast tumors, and CA15-3 negative or CA15-3 positive breast cancer patients by surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS).
  • METHODS: Tissue samples of 113 cases of breast cancer (93 case of CA15-3 negative, 20 case of CA15-3 positive), 103 cases of benign breast tumor and 92 cases of healthy controls were examined and analyzed by SELDI and protein chip (CM10) techniques.
  • RESULTS: Twelve significantly different protein peaks were found in serum samples between breast cancer patients and healthy controls.
  • Eleven significantly different peaks were found between benign breast tumor patients and healthy controls.
  • By combined analysis of those three different protein mass spectra, the peak 15 952 was found to be significantly different between breast cancer group and healthy controls, and the peak 7985 was significantly different among breast cancer group, benign breast tumor group and health controls.
  • The blind test with the differential proteins for the serum samples of 93 cases of CA15-3 negative breast cancer and 36 cases of benign breast tumors showed that the sensitivity was 80.6% and specificity was 91.7%.
  • The blind test in 20 cases of CA15-3 positive breast cancer and 36 cases of benign breast tumors showed that the sensitivity was 75.0% and specificity was 91.7%.
  • Four significantly different protein peaks were found between the benign breast tumor patients and CA15-3 negative breast cancer patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Significantly different protein peaks can be screened out in breast cancer, benign breast tumor patients and healthy controls by SELDI-TOF-MS analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Protein Array Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 21122387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Mucin-1
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98. Rageth CJ, Tausch C: Intramammarian flap reconstruction (IFR) technique in breast conserving surgery. Breast; 2009 Dec;18(6):387-92
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  • [Title] Intramammarian flap reconstruction (IFR) technique in breast conserving surgery.
  • As large segmentectomies often lead to asymmetries and indentations in the breast, numerous oncoplastic reconstruction methods have been published over the past years.
  • First, the breast gland body is being detached from the pectoralis major muscle; then the largest part of the remaining gland body is being cut horizontally parallel to the thoracic wall, exactly in the middle between the skin and the pectoralis major muscle.
  • The pectoral part of the gland body can then be placed into the tumor bed without tension as a f;ap with a length of approximately 7-14 cm and a width of approximately 4-10 cm.
  • In 2007, the first author performed a total of 134 breast conserving surgeries (9 benign and 125 malignant diagnoses) which have been prospectively documented.
  • The results in the 4 remaining patients were cosmetically unsatisfactory; 3 were treated with and 1 without the intramammarian flap reconstruction.In most cases the technique leads to a quick and acceptable filling of the defect and avoids nipple deviation even after a large segmentectomy, so that the breast shape can be preserved and the original breast size is being only marginally reduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Diseases / surgery. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19913416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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99. Zhang Y, Zhang G, Li J, Tao Q, Tang W: The expression analysis of periostin in human breast cancer. J Surg Res; 2010 May 1;160(1):102-6
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  • [Title] The expression analysis of periostin in human breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: To investigate the expression of periostin in breast cancer and its clinical relevance.
  • METHODS: Periostin mRNA expression in breast tissues was measured by RT-PCR.
  • Periostin protein in breast tissues was evaluated by Western blot.
  • Immunohistochemistry method (Envision method) was carried out to detect the expression of periostin in breast cancer tissues of different clinical stages and metastasized lymph nodes, as well as benign breast disease.
  • RESULTS: The expression of periostin in cancer tissue was increased at both mRNA level (P < 0.05) and protein level (P < 0.05) compared with benign and normal breast tissues.
  • The periostin protein expression level increased with breast cancer clinical stages as shown by IHC.
  • CONCLUSION: Periostin was overexpressed in breast cancer tissues as opposed to normal breast, which implies its role in the pathogenesis and development of this disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19524268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / POSTN protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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100. Li ZD, Wu Y, Bao YL, Yu CL, Guan LL, Wang YZ, Meng XY, Li YX: Identification and characterization of human ARIP2 and its relation to breast cancer. Cytokine; 2009 May;46(2):251-9
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  • [Title] Identification and characterization of human ARIP2 and its relation to breast cancer.
  • Activin, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells.
  • Previous studies showed that mouse ARIP2 can reduce activin signaling by interacting with activin type II receptors (ActRIIs); however, the activity of ARIP2 in breast cancer is still unclear.
  • Overexpression of hARIP2 reduced activin-induced transcriptional activity and enhanced cell proliferation and colony formation in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that hARIP2 was expressed more frequently and much more intensely in malignant breast tissues such as simple carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma than in benign hyperplasia or fibroadenoma cases.
  • These results suggest that hARIP2 is a putative growth-promoting factor involved in breast tumorigenesis and tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Activin Receptors, Type II / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Activins / genetics. Activins / metabolism. Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Mice. Molecular Sequence Data. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic. Two-Hybrid System Techniques

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  • (PMID = 19349195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0023
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytokine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytokine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / SYNJ2BP protein, human; 0 / Synj2bp protein, mouse; 104625-48-1 / Activins; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type II
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