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1. Kobayashi S, Ohnuma N, Yoshida H, Ohtsuka Y, Terui K, Asano T, Ryu M, Ochiai T: Preferable operative age of choledochal dilation types to prevent patients with pancreaticobiliary maljunction from developing biliary tract carcinogenesis. Surgery; 2006 Jan;139(1):33-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM), which frequently accompanies choledochal dilation, is a high risk factor for biliary tract (gallbladder, bile duct) carcinoma because of the continuous reflux of pancreatic juice into the biliary tract.
  • The aim of this study was to clarify the preferable operative age in PBM patients for the prevention of biliary tract carcinogenesis, with reference to the dilation types of bile ducts.
  • METHODS: There were 165 PBM patients in total studied, including 92 pediatric patients (< or =15 y) (cystic, 63; spindle-like, 29; nondilation, 0) and 73 adult patients (>15 y) (cystic, 45; spindle-like, 18; nondilation, 10) who underwent operative excision of extrahepatic bile ducts or cholecystectomy.
  • In the adult group, bile duct carcinomas could be detected in 6 cases of a cystic type (6 of 45; 13.3%) (3 preoperative, 3 postoperative).
  • Among the bile duct carcinoma cases, the youngest patient was a 21-year-old woman who had undergone excision of an extrahepatic bile duct 3 years previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Age Factors. Bile Ducts / abnormalities. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / prevention & control. Common Bile Duct. Common Bile Duct Diseases / complications. Pancreatic Ducts / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 16364715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Cleary SP, Dawson LA, Knox JJ, Gallinger S: Cancer of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts. Curr Probl Surg; 2007 Jul;44(7):396-482
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Gallbladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17693325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-3840
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 292
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3. De Filippo M, Calabrese M, Quinto S, Rastelli A, Bertellini A, Martora R, Sverzellati N, Corradi D, Vitale M, Crialesi G, Sarli L, Roncoroni L, Garlaschi G, Zompatori M: Congenital anomalies and variations of the bile and pancreatic ducts: magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings, epidemiology and clinical significance. Radiol Med; 2008 Sep;113(6):841-59
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  • [Title] Congenital anomalies and variations of the bile and pancreatic ducts: magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings, epidemiology and clinical significance.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this paper is to document the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings and the epidemiology of congenital anomalies and variations of the bile and pancreatic ducts and to discuss their clinical significance.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-hundred and fifty patients of both sexes (150 females, 200 males, age range 0-76 years, average age 38 years) underwent MRCP for clinically suspected lithiasic, neoplastic or inflammatory disease of the bile and pancreatic ducts.
  • RESULTS: MRCP demonstrated recurrent and therefore normal bile and pancreatic ducts in 57% of patients.
  • Variants of the intrahepatic bile duct were seen in 21% of cases: crossover anomaly (6.7%), anterior branch of the right hepatic duct draining the IV and VII segments that flow together with the left bile duct (3.1%) and anterior and posterior branches of the right hepatic duct that flow together with the common hepatic duct (3.3%).
  • Variants of the extrahepatic bile ducts were present in 8.8% of patients: low insertion of the cystic duct into the common hepatic duct (4.5%), emptying of the cystic duct into the right hepatic duct (2.7%) and a second-order large branch draining into the cystic duct (1.6%).
  • Finally, congenital anomalies were diagnosed in 1.3% of cases: bile duct cysts (0.3%), atresia of the bile ducts (0.3%) and multiple biliary hamartomatosis (0.7%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The congenital anomalies and anatomical variants of the bile and pancreatic ducts present a complex spectrum of frequent alterations, which are worthy of attention in both the clinical and surgical settings and are readily identified by MRCP.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts / abnormalities. Bile Ducts / anatomy & histology. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Pancreatic Ducts / abnormalities. Pancreatic Ducts / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / abnormalities. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / anatomy & histology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cystic Duct / abnormalities. Cystic Duct / anatomy & histology. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Fourier Analysis. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18592141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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4. Delbaldo C, Laurent A, Grenier J, Cherqui D, Luciani A, Piedbois P: [Management of biliary tract carcinomas]. Rev Prat; 2009 Apr 20;59(4):469-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge thérapeutique des cancers des voies biliaires et de la vésicule biliaire.
  • Biliary tract carcinomas comprise gallbladder carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, which arise from the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts.

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  • (PMID = 19462864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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5. Hsing AW, Bai Y, Andreotti G, Rashid A, Deng J, Chen J, Goldstein AM, Han TQ, Shen MC, Fraumeni JF Jr, Gao YT: Family history of gallstones and the risk of biliary tract cancer and gallstones: a population-based study in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer; 2007 Aug 15;121(4):832-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cancers of the biliary tract arise from the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater.
  • A total of 627 biliary tract cancers (368 gallbladder, 191 bile duct, 68 ampulla of Vater), 1,037 biliary stone cases (774 gallbladder, 263 bile duct) and 959 healthy subjects randomly selected from the population were included in this study.
  • A family history of gallstones was associated with increased risks of biliary stones [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.1-3.8], gallbladder cancer (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4-3.3) and bile duct cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.9-2.5), after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol drinking and body mass index.

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  • (PMID = 17450525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CP010158-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS189658; NLM/ PMC2885776
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6. Mieli-Vergani G, Vergani D: Biliary atresia. Semin Immunopathol; 2009 Sep;31(3):371-81
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  • It results from inflammatory destruction of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • It is the most frequent surgically correctable liver disorder in infancy and the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in paediatric age.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / immunology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / immunology. Biliary Atresia / diagnosis. Biliary Atresia / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19533128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-2300
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Immunopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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7. Pătraşcu T, Burcoş T, Doran H, Cristian D, Brezean I, Voiculescu S, Catrina E, Vereanu I: [Injuries of the extrahepatic bile ducts in laparoscopic cholecystectomy]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2006 Jul-Aug;101(4):385-90
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  • [Title] [Injuries of the extrahepatic bile ducts in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].
  • In laparoscopic technique, the incidence and the severity of injuries of the extrahepatic bile ducts are significantly higher (0-2,7%) than in open surgery (0,2-0,5%).
  • In complete transections of the common bile duct, a hepatico-jejuno-anastomosis using a Roux en Y-loop appears to be the best solution.
  • It is emphasized the fact that an accurate diagnosis and surgical technique are essential for a favourable evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / injuries. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17059149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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8. Hsing AW, Gao YT, Han TQ, Rashid A, Sakoda LC, Wang BS, Shen MC, Zhang BH, Niwa S, Chen J, Fraumeni JF Jr: Gallstones and the risk of biliary tract cancer: a population-based study in China. Br J Cancer; 2007 Dec 3;97(11):1577-82
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  • We conducted a population-based study of 627 patients with biliary tract cancers (368 of gallbladder, 191 bile duct, and 68 ampulla of Vater), 1037 with biliary stones, and 959 healthy controls randomly selected from the Shanghai population, all personally interviewed.
  • Gallstones removed from cancer cases and gallstone patients were classified by size, weight, colour, pattern, and content of cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile acids.
  • Compared with subjects without gallstones, odds ratios associated with gallstones were 23.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 17.0-33.4), 8.0 (95% CI 5.6-11.4), and 4.2 (95% CI 2.5-7.0) for cancers of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater, respectively, persisting when restricted to those with gallstones at least 10 years prior to cancer.
  • Subjects with bile duct cancer were more likely to have pigment stones, and with gallbladder cancer to have cholesterol stones (P<0.001).
  • We estimate that in Shanghai 80% (95% CI 75-84%), 59% (56-61%), and 41% (29-59%) of gallbladder, bile duct, and ampulla of Vater cancers, respectively, could be attributed to gallstones.

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  • (PMID = 18000509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360257
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9. Mohanty SK, Shivakumar P, Sabla G, Bezerra JA: Loss of interleukin-12 modifies the pro-inflammatory response but does not prevent duct obstruction in experimental biliary atresia. BMC Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr 19;6:14
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  • [Title] Loss of interleukin-12 modifies the pro-inflammatory response but does not prevent duct obstruction in experimental biliary atresia.
  • While the expression of IFNgamma regulates the obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts by lymphocytes, the role of IL-12 in the pathogenesis of biliary obstruction is unknown.
  • Based on the role of IL-12 as a key proinflammatory cytokine, we hypothesized that loss of IL-12 prevents the obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • IL-12KO mice had a remarkable neutrophil-rich portal inflammation and epithelial sloughing of extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • CONCLUSION: Loss of IL-12 did not modify the progression of bile duct obstruction in experimental biliary atresia.

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  • (PMID = 16623951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK064403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-064403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-64008
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RNA primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1479354
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10. Michaels A, Levy C: Endoscopic and surgical management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Medscape J Med; 2008;10(10):242
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  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare, chronic cholestatic liver disease of uncertain etiology characterized by the destruction of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts through inflammation and fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / surgery. Endoscopy, Digestive System / methods

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  • (PMID = 19099036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-1997
  • [Journal-full-title] Medscape journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medscape J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2605132
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11. Yu JB, Decker RH, Knisely JP: The role of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in the treatment of extrahepatic bile duct cancer: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) population-based investigation. J Gastrointest Cancer; 2008;39(1-4):11-21
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  • [Title] The role of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in the treatment of extrahepatic bile duct cancer: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) population-based investigation.
  • PURPOSE: Extrahepatic bile duct cancers (EBDC) are aggressive cancers for which the importance of the use of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in potentially curative cases remains the subject of clinical investigation.
  • Patients with distant metastases, with unknown stage or interventions, or benign histologies were excluded.
  • Tumor-related factors, such as regional (vs. local) disease and an increasing number of lymph nodes predicted for the delivery of PORT.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic

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12. Tanaka E, Choi HS, Humblet V, Ohnishi S, Laurence RG, Frangioni JV: Real-time intraoperative assessment of the extrahepatic bile ducts in rats and pigs using invisible near-infrared fluorescent light. Surgery; 2008 Jul;144(1):39-48
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  • [Title] Real-time intraoperative assessment of the extrahepatic bile ducts in rats and pigs using invisible near-infrared fluorescent light.
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, only x-ray fluoroscopy is available for visualization of the extrahepatic bile ducts intraoperatively.
  • We hypothesized that with an appropriate fluorophore and imaging system, invisible near-infrared (NIR) light could be used for image-guided procedures on the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • METHODS: We quantified the performance of three 800 nm NIR fluorophores, differing primarily in their degree of hydrophilicity, for real-time imaging of the extrahepatic bile ducts in rats and pigs: IR-786, indocyanine green (ICG), and the carboxylic form of IRDyetrade mark 800CW (CW800-CA).
  • The signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the common bile duct relative to liver and pancreas was measured as a function of the dose of contrast agent, injection site, and kinetics using an intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging system described previously.
  • Bile samples were examined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) to determine the chemical form of fluorophores in bile.
  • RESULTS: Non-sulfonated (IR-786) and di-sulfonated (ICG) NIR fluorophores had poor efficiency and kinetics of excretion into bile.
  • Tetra-sulfonated CW800-CA, however, provided sensitive, specific, and real-time visualization of the extrahepatic bile ducts after a single low-dose given either intraportally or intravenously via systemic vein.
  • A SBR >/=2 provided sensitive assessment of extrahepatic bile duct anatomy and function for over 30 min post-injection, including the detection of millimeter-sized, radiolucent inclusions in pigs.
  • CW800-CA remained intact chemically after secretion into bile.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of invisible NIR light and an IV injection of CW800-CA provides prolonged, real-time visualization of the extrahepatic bile duct, without ionizing radiation and without changing the look of the operative field.

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  • (PMID = 18571583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115296-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB005805; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115296-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115296-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115296; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115296-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-115296; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB005805-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB005805-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB005805-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01-EB-005805; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB005805-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / IRDye800; 0 / Indoles; IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS56395; NLM/ PMC2453786
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13. Bogomaz LV, Shcherbakov PL, Tsar'kova ON, Alekseeva IuE, Ermolenko NA, Kochetova EA, Shakorian KA: [Diagnostic algorithm of biliary tract diseases in children]. Eksp Klin Gastroenterol; 2010;(1):8-14
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  • The term "biliary tract" includes the gallbladder and intra-and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • In this article, based on their own experience was described the features and significance of laboratory and instrumental methods in the diagnosis of biliary tract disease in children.
  • It was shown that the diagnostic significance of intrascope research methods in the identification of bile-excreting system diseases in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Algorithms. Child. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20408261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1682-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Ėksperimental'nai︠a︡ i klinicheskai︠a︡ gastroėnterologii︠a︡ = Experimental & clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eksp Klin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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14. Henson DE, Schwartz AM, Nsouli H, Albores-Saavedra J: Carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of vater share a field for carcinogenesis: a population-based study. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Jan;133(1):67-71
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  • [Title] Carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of vater share a field for carcinogenesis: a population-based study.
  • CONTEXT: Carcinomas co-occur in the pancreas, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a field effect for carcinogenesis exists in the ampulla of Vater, extrahepatic bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas.
  • Cases were compared by age frequency density plots, age-specific incidence rates, and logarithmic plots of the age-specific incidence rates and age of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Incidence rates were 11.71, 1.43, 0.88, and 0.49 per 100,000 persons at risk for pancreatic, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampullary carcinomas, respectively.
  • Logarithmic plots of the age-specific incidence rates with age of diagnosis produced parallel linear rate patterns for the 4 sites indicative of similar populations for tumor development.
  • However, density and logarithmic plots of pancreatic endocrine carcinomas, a tumor of different cellular differentiation and carcinogenic pathway, served as a comparison.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla have a common embryonic cellular ancestry, differentiation pathways, mucosal histologic patterns, and population-related tumor development indicating a field effect in carcinogenesis.
  • Pancreatic cancers are most common because the surface area of the pancreas' ductal system is greater than that of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Population Surveillance. United States / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009 Jun;133(6):850 [19492873.001]
  • (PMID = 19123739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ni XG, Bai XF, Mao YL, Shao YF, Wu JX, Shan Y, Wang CF, Wang J, Tian YT, Liu Q, Xu DK, Zhao P: The clinical value of serum CEA, CA19-9, and CA242 in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar;31(2):164-9
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  • [Title] The clinical value of serum CEA, CA19-9, and CA242 in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer.
  • AIM: Serum tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and CA242 were investigated to evaluate the values of single and combined test in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer.
  • METHODS: Pre-operative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 were measured in 105 pancreatic cancers, 70 non-pancreatic malignancies and 30 benign pancreatic diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / blood. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / blood. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ampulla of Vater / metabolism. Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / blood. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Bilirubin / blood. Cholangiocarcinoma / blood. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics as Topic. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15698733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA 242 antigen; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
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16. Jonas E, Näslund E, Freedman J, Befrits R, Blomqvist L, Siösteen AK, Jacobsson H, Hultcrantz R: Measurement of parenchymal function and bile duct flow in primary sclerosing cholangitis using dynamic 99mTc-HIDA SPECT. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Apr;21(4):674-81
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  • [Title] Measurement of parenchymal function and bile duct flow in primary sclerosing cholangitis using dynamic 99mTc-HIDA SPECT.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic disease characterized by obliterative fibrosis of intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • METHODS: In 18 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, segmental parenchymal and bile duct functions were measured using dynamic (99m)Tc-HIDA SPECT.
  • RESULTS: In individual segments, scintigraphic quantitative parameters indicative of bile flow showed a statistically significant correlation with the state of the bile-flow path for the respective segments as assessed by the biliary classification system.
  • The revised Mayo score correlated with the scintigraphic quantitative parameters indicative of parenchymal function and bile flow as calculated for the whole liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile / radionuclide imaging. Bile Ducts / radionuclide imaging. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / radionuclide imaging. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Liver / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 16677152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 6433TZJ6TQ / Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin
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17. Mishra A, Pant N, Chadha R, Choudhury SR: Choledochal cysts in infancy and childhood. Indian J Pediatr; 2007 Oct;74(10):937-43
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  • Ultrasonography (US) diagnosed/suggested CC in all 41 patients, however, contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CECT) scan (n=12), radionuclide DISIDA scan (n=5) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram (MRCP) (n=3) also contributed to the diagnosis.
  • 19 patients, including 4 from the 'infantile' group, had significant dilatation of intrahepatic biliary ducts.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients from the 'infantile' group had cystic type I CC (type Ic), while 2 patients had fusiform dilatation of the common bile duct (type If disease).
  • Unusual operative findings included accessory hepatic ducts (n=2), anteriorly placed common or right hepatic arteries (n=3) and partially or completely blocked proximal extrahepatic bile ducts (n=3).

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  • (PMID = 17978454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7693
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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18. Hirano Y, Tatsuzawa Y, Shimizu J, Kinoshita S, Kawaura Y, Takahashi S: Efficacy of multi-slice computed tomography cholangiography before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Aug;76(8):693-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury is one of the serious surgical complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
  • Clear biliary tract imaging to detect the anomaly of the bile ducts before operation is thought to be useful to prevent this complication.
  • We evaluated the recognition of the junction of the cystic duct and detection of anomalies of the extrahepatic bile ducts using the latter two methods.
  • RESULTS: In 33 patients, DIC-CT showed the junction of the cystic duct in 31 (94%) and MRC in 25 (76%) patients, respectively.
  • Anomalies of the extrahepatic bile ducts or the cystic duct were detected in four (12%) patients by DIC-CT, but MRC could show only one of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts / pathology. Cholangiography / methods. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Diseases / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16916385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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19. Hosonuma K, Sato K, Honma M, Kashiwabara K, Takahashi H, Takagi H, Mori M: Small-cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct: a case report and review of the literature. Hepatol Int; 2008 Mar;2(1):129-32
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  • [Title] Small-cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct: a case report and review of the literature.
  • A small-cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct in a 69-year-old woman is herein reported.
  • A tumor measuring approximately 3 cm in diameter was located at the confluence of the common bile duct, cystic duct, and common hepatic duct.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma without any gland formation or differentiation to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor cells were immunoreactive for epithelial markers such as epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin and for the neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin.
  • According to the review of 16 previously reported cases and our case of small-cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts, there is no significant difference in the clinicopathological findings, namely, age, sex, site of carcinoma, and prognosis between the cases with or without squamous or glandular components.
  • No CD34-positive multipotent adult progenitor cells, which might be the origin of the small-cell carcinoma, were detected in the bile duct epithelium in our case.

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20. Shivakumar P, Sabla GE, Whitington P, Chougnet CA, Bezerra JA: Neonatal NK cells target the mouse duct epithelium via Nkg2d and drive tissue-specific injury in experimental biliary atresia. J Clin Invest; 2009 Aug;119(8):2281-90
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  • [Title] Neonatal NK cells target the mouse duct epithelium via Nkg2d and drive tissue-specific injury in experimental biliary atresia.
  • Although the etiology is unknown, a neonatal adaptive immune signature has been mechanistically linked to obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Analysis of livers of infants at diagnosis revealed that NK cells populate the vicinity of intrahepatic bile ducts and overexpress several genes involved in cytotoxicity.
  • Using a model of rotavirus-induced biliary atresia in newborn mice, we found that activated NK cells also populated murine livers and were the most abundant cells in extrahepatic bile ducts at the time of obstruction.
  • Depletion of NK cells and blockade of Nkg2d each prevented injury of the duct epithelium after rotavirus infection, maintained continuity of duct lumen between the liver and duodenum, and enabled bile flow, despite the presence of virus in the tissue and the overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines.
  • These findings identify NK cells as key initiators of cholangiocyte injury via Nkg2d and demonstrate that injury to the duct epithelium drives the phenotype of experimental biliary atresia.

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  • (PMID = 19662681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-8238
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK078392; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-064008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-078392
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Klrk1 protein, mouse; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2719928
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21. Lim JH, Mairiang E, Ahn GH: Biliary parasitic diseases including clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis. Abdom Imaging; 2008 Mar-Apr;33(2):157-65
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  • These flukes reside in the peripheral small bile ducts of the liver and produce chronic inflammation of the bile duct, bile duct dilatation, mechanical obstruction, and bile duct wall thickening.
  • On imaging, peripheral small intrahepatic bile ducts are dilated, but the large bile ducts and extrahepatic bile ducts are not dilated or slightly dilated.
  • Chronic infection may result in cholangiocarcinoma of the liver parenchyma or along the bile ducts.
  • Human infection of Fasciola hepatica, a cattle flukes, may occur inadvertently, and the flukes migrate in the liver (hepatic phase) and reside the bile ducts (biliary phase).
  • In the biliary phase, the flukes are demonstrated in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts and the gallbladder as small intraluminal flat objects, sometimes moving spontaneously.
  • Bile ducts are dilated.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract / parasitology. Biliary Tract Diseases / diagnosis. Biliary Tract Diseases / parasitology. Clonorchiasis / diagnosis. Fascioliasis / diagnosis. Opisthorchiasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17934771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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22. Dhumeaux D: [Congenital cystic diseases of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2005 Aug-Sep;29(8-9):878-82
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  • [Title] [Congenital cystic diseases of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts].
  • Congenital cystic lesions of bile ducts may affect intra or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Congenital hepatic fibrosis and von Meyenburg complexes are secondary to ductal plate malformation affecting the smallest intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Caroli's syndrome is secondary to ductal plate malformation affecting the largest intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Congenital cystic lesions of extrahepatic bile ducts consist of choledochal cyst, which is secondary to malformation of the pancreato-biliary ductal junction.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Diseases / congenital. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cysts / congenital. Liver Diseases / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / etiology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16294162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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23. Parlak E, Ciçek B, Dişibeyaz S, Köksal AS, Sahin B: An endoscopic finding in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: retraction of the main duodenal papilla into the duodenum wall. Gastrointest Endosc; 2007 Mar;65(3):532-6
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  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is reached by typical cholangiographic findings and liver biopsy.
  • The characteristic cholangiographic abnormalities consist of multifocal strictures and dilatations in the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • In patients with retraction of the papilla, both of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts were involved; however, only the intrahepatic bile ducts were involved in patients with no retraction of papilla.
  • Extrahepatic involvement seems to be necessary for the occurrence of this finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater / abnormalities. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde / methods. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Duodenoscopy / methods. Duodenum / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17321263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Itatsu K, Zen Y, Yamaguchi J, Ohira S, Ishikawa A, Ikeda H, Sato Y, Harada K, Sasaki M, Sasaki M, Sakamoto H, Nagino M, Nimura Y, Ohta T, Nakanuma Y: Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 is an unfavorable postoperative prognostic factor in cholangiocarcinoma of the perihilar, hilar, and extrahepatic bile ducts. Hum Pathol; 2008 May;39(5):710-9
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 is an unfavorable postoperative prognostic factor in cholangiocarcinoma of the perihilar, hilar, and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma of the perihilar, hilar, and extrahepatic bile ducts (collectively referred to as the large bile ducts) is an intractable disease, and a papillary phenotype and well-differentiated histologic grade have been proposed as indicators of a favorable prognosis after surgical resection.
  • We subjected 66 surgically resected specimens of cholangiocarcinoma of the large bile ducts to clinicopathologic examination, including postoperative survival, papillary phenotype, and immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2,-7, -9, and membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MP).
  • Expression of MMP-7 in cholangiocarcinoma is an unfavorable postoperative prognostic factor of cholangiocarcinoma arising from the large bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 / biosynthesis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18329694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.80 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 14
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25. Young RH: From Krukenberg to today: the ever present problems posed by metastatic tumors in the ovary. Part II. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 May;14(3):149-77
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  • The first tumor discussed is gastric carcinoma of intestinal-type whose ovarian manifestations have been the subject of a recent paper which emphasized its differences from the Krukenberg tumor.
  • The limited information on spread of tumors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts is then reviewed before more detailed consideration of hepatic neoplasms, prompted by recent contributions on hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the latter based on significant experience with this problem in Thailand.
  • The section on appendiceal neoplasms highlights ovarian spread of diverse tumors ranging from typical intestinal-type adenocarcinoma to signet-ring cell carcinomas with various patterns which in the ovary may prompt diagnoses such as a goblet cell (mucinous) carcinoid tumor, but whose ovarian features place them in the category of a Krukenberg tumor.
  • The diverse problems in differential diagnosis of carcinoid tumor (provoked by nested, acinar, and other patterns, including folliclelike spaces) are then reviewed.
  • The extremely broad differential diagnosis posed by metastatic malignant melanoma ranging from that of an oxyphilic tumor, to a small cell tumor, to a follicle-forming neoplasm, is then considered.
  • The sections on renal cell carcinoma and other urinary tract neoplasms emphasize the differential diagnosis of metastatic clear cell carcinoma and primary clear cell carcinoma, an issue usually resolvable by an awareness of the various features of the ovarian variant, rarely or never seen in the renal variant.
  • The endometrial stromal tumors are problematic largely because the history of a primary tumor may be remote, in the ovaries the typical growth and vascular pattern of endometrial stromal neoplasms is not always conspicuous, and some endometrial stromal sarcomas in the ovary show sex cordlike patterns of growth.
  • Recent information has indicated that gastrointestinal stromal tumors may rarely have significant ovarian manifestations and if the primary neoplasm is overlooked, the ovarian tumor may be misdiagnosed, usually as an ovarian fibromatous tumor, but potentially as another primary neoplasm.
  • The final neoplasms considered are malignant mesothelioma and the desmoplastic small round cell tumor.
  • The microscopic features of malignant mesothelioma are so different from those of primary ovarian carcinoma in most instances that the diagnosis should be readily established on routine microscopic evaluation.
  • The differential diagnosis of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor is more complex because of the greater overlap with the many other small cell malignant tumors that may involve the ovaries primarily or secondarily.
  • Nonetheless, differences exist in most cases and awareness of the entity should lead to consideration of the desmoplastic neoplasm, particularly in a young female.
  • However, as pointed out in brief concluding remarks, despite the aid of that modality, as in surgical pathology overall, careful consideration of the clinical background, distribution of disease, gross characteristics and spectrum of routine microscopic findings, will lead to the correct diagnosis in the majority of cases and at the very least lead to formulation of a considered differential diagnosis such that use of special techniques may be judicious and those results placed in context of the time-honored clinical and pathologic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 19th Century. History, 20th Century. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17452813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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26. Cvijanović R, Jokić R: [A case of choledochal cyst complicated by biliary peritonitis]. Med Pregl; 2007 Sep-Oct;60(9-10):497-500
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  • INTRODUCTION: Choledochal cyst is a rare congenital malformation of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • DISCUSSION: Cystic dilation of the common bile duct, known as choledochal cyst, is related to a rare malformation of this region.
  • The diagnosis is easily made, especially with the use of ultrasound and computed tomography.

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  • (PMID = 18265600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pregl.
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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27. Miyazawa M, Torii T, Toshimitsu Y, Kamizasa N, Suzuki T, Shinozuka N, Ishizawa K, Koyama I: Alpha-fetoprotein-producing clear cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2006 Jul;40(6):555-7
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  • [Title] Alpha-fetoprotein-producing clear cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Her abdominal computed tomography scan revealed dilation of the intrahepatic bile duct and a tumorlike lesion protruding into the cystic duct and gallbladder from the junction between the middle portion of the bile duct and the right and left hepatic ducts.
  • Surgery revealed a tumor extending from the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) to the cystic duct, with no intrahepatic tumor components.
  • The tumor was histologically diagnosed as an AFP-producing cholangiocarcinoma of the clear cell type, originating from the EHBD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / metabolism. Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16825940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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28. Wang WB, Li YH, Liu B, Wang HS, Cui AR, Zhnag XH: [Correlation between PPARgamma and VEGF-C expression in extrahepatic cholangioadenocarcinoma (EHCAC) and their prognostic significance]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Oct;31(10):773-7
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  • [Title] [Correlation between PPARgamma and VEGF-C expression in extrahepatic cholangioadenocarcinoma (EHCAC) and their prognostic significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARgamma) in extrahepatic cholangioadenocarcinoma (EHCAC) and to elucidate its correlation with clinicopathological factors and their significance in prognosis.
  • METHODS: The expressions of PPARgamma and VEGF-C were detected by immunohistochemistry in 69 cases of EHCAC, 12 cases of non-tumor bile duct epithelium, and their relationship to clinicopathological parameters and follow-up were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The positive rate of PPARgamma expression in 69 cases of EHCAC was 59.4%, significantly higher than that in 12 cases of non-tumor bile duct epithelium (0%), (P < 0.01).
  • The positive rate of VEGF-C in 69 cases of EHCAC was 84.1%, also significantly higher than 16.7% in 12 cases of benign bile duct epithelium (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: PPARgamma expression may play an important role during tumorigenesis of extrahepatic cholangioadenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20021832.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / VEGFC protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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29. Jain M, Agarwal A: MRCP findings in recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Apr;66(1):79-83
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  • OBJECTIVE: In this essay, we present the spectrum of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct abnormalities seen on MRCP in patients with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis.
  • CONCLUSION: MRCP is a promising, noninvasive alternative to more invasive direct cholangiography for evaluating the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts in patients with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance / methods. Cholangitis / diagnosis. Cholangitis / parasitology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 17590555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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30. Atadzhanov ShK: [The ways for reduction of complication rate after laparoscopic cholecystectomy at acute cholecystitis]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2007;(12):26-9
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  • All these patients underwent endoscopic papillosphincterotomy before LCE for removal of bile hypertension.
  • Intraoperative injuries of extrahepatic bile ducts occurred at 5 (0.27%), bleeding--at 10 (0.6%) patients.
  • Postoperative complications were seen at 36 (2.0%) patients including intraabdominal bleeding (4), drainage bile less (8), subhepatic abscess (4), epigastric wound infection (16).
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / injuries. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / methods. Cholecystitis, Acute / surgery. Jaundice, Obstructive / prevention & control. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic / methods

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  • (PMID = 18163110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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31. Zherlov GK, Karpovich AV, Zykov DV, Krasnoperov AV, Demakov MV: [Antireflux hepaticojejunostomy in treatment of cancer of the head of pancreas or extrahepatic bile-ducts]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2009;(3):17-22
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  • [Title] [Antireflux hepaticojejunostomy in treatment of cancer of the head of pancreas or extrahepatic bile-ducts].
  • Valve hepaticojejunoanastomosis was performed when hepatic duct length was 12-15 mm; weather hepatic duct was shorter then 12 mm, the valve was performed in efferent jejunal loop.
  • Preoperative bile ducts decompression allowed decrease risk of hepatic failure and shorten the hospital-stay time after the major operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Cholangitis / prevention & control. Common Bile Duct. Hepatic Duct, Common / surgery. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Jejunum / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19365376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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32. Zen Y, Adsay NV, Bardadin K, Colombari R, Ferrell L, Haga H, Hong SM, Hytiroglou P, Klöppel G, Lauwers GY, van Leeuwen DJ, Notohara K, Oshima K, Quaglia A, Sasaki M, Sessa F, Suriawinata A, Tsui W, Atomi Y, Nakanuma Y: Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia: an international interobserver agreement study and proposal for diagnostic criteria. Mod Pathol; 2007 Jun;20(6):701-9
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  • [Title] Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia: an international interobserver agreement study and proposal for diagnostic criteria.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts develops through a multistep histopathologic sequence.
  • Premalignant or non-invasive neoplastic lesions of bile ducts have been historically called biliary dysplasia or atypical biliary epithelium.
  • In 2005, a conceptual framework and diagnostic criteria for biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) were proposed using the livers of patients with hepatolithiasis.
  • We report herein an international interobserver agreement study on the diagnosis of biliary non-invasive neoplastic lesions with the goal to obtain a consensus on the terminology and grading.
  • Interobserver agreement on the diagnosis was moderate (kappa-value=0.45).
  • We now propose a new consensus classification of BilIN that may assist in allowing a more uniform terminology for the diagnosis of biliary non-invasive neoplastic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / pathology. Choledochal Cyst / pathology. Humans. International Cooperation. Lithiasis / pathology. Liver Diseases / pathology. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17431410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Bittmann S: Surgical experience in children with biliary atresia treated with portoenterostomy. Curr Surg; 2005 Jul-Aug;62(4):439-43
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  • OBJECTIVE: Biliary atresia is the result of a fibrosing destructive inflammatory process affecting intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, which lead to cirrhosis and portal hypertension.
  • The 5-year survival rate after portoenterostomy ranges from 13% to 60%, with approximately 60% of patients requiring liver transplantation at a later stage because of insufficient bile flow.
  • Liver cirrhosis with extrahepatic biliary atresia alone was present in 5 of 17 patients (29%) as compared with 8 of 12 patients (66%) with intrahepatic biliary hypoplasia in addition to extrahepatic biliary atresia and cirrhosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Portoenterostomy remains the treatment of choice for patients with extrahepatic biliary atresia.

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  • (PMID = 15964472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-7944
  • [Journal-full-title] Current surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Jakab C, Kiss A, Schaff Z, Szabó Z, Rusvai M, Gálfi P, Szabára A, Sterczer A, Kulka J: Claudin-7 protein differentiates canine cholangiocarcinoma from hepatocellular carcinoma. Histol Histopathol; 2010 07;25(7):857-64
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  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Necropsy samples included 15 canine normal liver tissue samples, 10 hepatocellular nodular hyperplasias, 6 hepatocellular adenomas, 15 well-differentiated and 6 poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas, 6 cholangiocellular hyperplasias, 10 cholangiocellular adenomas, 15 well-differentiated and 6 poorly differentiated cholangiocarcinomas, 6 normal extrahepatic bile ducts, 8 normal gall bladder tissue samples, and 5 cystic mucinous hyperplasias of the gall bladder.
  • In all cholangiocellular hyperplasia samples and in all cholangiocellular adenoma samples the benign cholangiocytes showed intense basolateral membrane positivity for claudin-7.
  • The epithelial cells of canine normal extrahepatic bile ducts, gall bladder and cystic mucinous hyperplasias of the gall bladder showed intense basolateral membrane positivity for claudin-7.
  • CONCLUSION: Consequently, we hypothesize that claudin-7 is an excellent immunohistochemical marker of the cholangiocellular differentiation in canines and can be used to detect benign and malignant proliferative lesions of the canine biliary tract.

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  • (PMID = 20503174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Claudins; 0 / Proteins
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35. Kaya M, Kanmaz T, Boleken ME, Yücesan S: Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(5):418-20
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  • Although incidental carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts have been reported, to the best of our knowledge this is the first published case of a choledochal cyst associated with an appendix carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Choledochal Cyst / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15864427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Lee SO: [Physiologic and pathologic experimental models for studying cholangiocytes]. Korean J Hepatol; 2008 Jun;14(2):139-49
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  • Cholangiocytes (epithelial cells lining the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts) and hepatocytes are two major components of liver epithelia.
  • Although cholangiocytes are less numerous than hepatocytes, they are involved in both bile secretion and diverse cellular processes such as cell-cycle phenomena, cell signaling, and interactions with other cells, matrix components, foreign organisms, and xenobiotics.
  • Cholangiocytes are also targets in several human diseases including cholangiocarcinoma, primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune cholangitis, and vanishing bile-duct syndrome.
  • The following aspects are reviewed: isolation of cholangiocytes from the liver and their heterogeneity, various culture systems, establishment of cholangiocyte cell lines, isolation and usage of intrahepatic bile-duct units, three-dimensional modeling of the bile duct, experimental models for inducing cholangiocyte proliferation, and various cholangiopathies such as cholangiocarcinoma, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune cholangitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts / cytology. Bile Ducts / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bile Duct Diseases / etiology. Disease Models, Animal. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / physiology. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Mice. Models, Animal

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  • (PMID = 18617761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hepatol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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37. Wittenburg H, Mössner J, Caca K: Endoscopic treatment of duodenal obstruction due to a gallstone ("Bouveret's syndrome"). Ann Hepatol; 2005 Apr-Jun;4(2):132-4
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  • On abdominal x-ray the extrahepatic bile ducts were positive for gas and on ultrasound a gallstone in the duodenum was suspected whereas the gallbladder was not detectable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy. Female. Humans. Intestinal Fistula / diagnosis. Intestinal Fistula / etiology. Intestinal Fistula / surgery. Lithotripsy. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16010248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1665-2681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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38. Harada K, Sato Y, Itatsu K, Isse K, Ikeda H, Yasoshima M, Zen Y, Matsui A, Nakanuma Y: Innate immune response to double-stranded RNA in biliary epithelial cells is associated with the pathogenesis of biliary atresia. Hepatology; 2007 Oct;46(4):1146-54
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  • Moreover, poly(I:C) up-regulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and both poly(I:C) and TRAIL reduced the viability of cultured human BECs by enhancing apoptosis.
  • Experiments in vivo using tissue sections of extrahepatic bile ducts from patients with BA and controls (choledochal cysts and nonbiliary diseases) showed that the activation of NF-kappaB, interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), and PKR, and the enhancement of TRAIL and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-positive apoptosis were significant in BA, although extrahepatic bile ducts diffusely and constantly expressed TLR3 in all diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts / immunology. Biliary Atresia / virology. Epithelial Cells / immunology. Immunity, Innate / physiology. RNA, Double-Stranded / physiology. Reoviridae / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 17661372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-9139
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factor-3; 0 / MX1 protein, human; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Double-Stranded; 0 / TLR3 protein, human; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 3; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; EC 3.6.1.- / DDX58 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / IFIH1 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.13 / DEAD-box RNA Helicases
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39. Ahrens W, Mambetova C, Bourdon-Raverdy N, Llopis-González A, Guénel P, Hardell L, Merletti F, Morales-Suárez-Varela M, Olsen J, Olsson H, Vyberg M, Zambon P: Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds and biliary tract cancer among men. Scand J Work Environ Health; 2007 Oct;33(5):387-96
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  • OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between cancer of the extrahepatic biliary tract and exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds.
  • METHODS: Altogether 183 men with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract and 1938 matched controls were interviewed between 1995 and 1997 in the frame of an international multicenter case-control study in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Sweden).
  • The elevated risk was restricted to extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla Vateri (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.6).
  • The adjusted OR for cancer of the extrahepatic biliary tract after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls was 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-5.9, only index participants).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data show some associations between exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds in the workplace and the risk for cancer of the extrahepatic biliary tract among men, particularly for the extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater.

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  • [ErratumIn] Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008 Jun;34(3):234
  • (PMID = 17973065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0355-3140
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Work Environ Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hazardous Substances
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40. Knox JJ, Hedley D, Oza A, Feld R, Siu LL, Chen E, Nematollahi M, Pond GR, Zhang J, Moore MJ: Combining gemcitabine and capecitabine in patients with advanced biliary cancer: a phase II trial. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Apr 1;23(10):2332-8
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had pathologically proven, locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma arising from the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts or gallbladder with no prior chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / drug therapy. Cholestasis, Intrahepatic / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct 20;23(30):7753-4; author reply 7754-5 [16234545.001]
  • (PMID = 15800324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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41. Gunnlaugsson A, Anderson H, Lind P, Glimelius B, Johnsson A: Multicentre phase I-II trial of capecitabine and oxaliplatin in combination with radiotherapy for unresectable pancreatic and biliary tract cancer: The CORGI-U study. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jun;95(3):292-7
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  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with inextirpable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, gallbladder or extrahepatic bile ducts were included.
  • Two-year survival was 28%, and estimated local tumour control rate at 2 years was 72%.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20451275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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42. Németh Z, Szász AM, Somorácz A, Tátrai P, Németh J, Gyorffy H, Szíjártó A, Kupcsulik P, Kiss A, Schaff Z: Zonula occludens-1, occludin, and E-cadherin protein expression in biliary tract cancers. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Sep;15(3):533-9
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  • The incidence of cholangiocarcinomas originating from intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as of gallbladder carcinoma is increasing worldwide.
  • We demonstrated that the tight junction components ZO-1, occludin, and E-cadherin are downregulated in carcinomas arising from various compartments of the biliary tract (normal intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, gallbladder) as compared with their normal sites of origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / metabolism. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Occludin. Tissue Array Analysis. Zonula Occludens-1 Protein

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  • (PMID = 19184677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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43. Zhang XH, Andreotti G, Gao YT, Deng J, Liu E, Rashid A, Wu K, Sun L, Sakoda LC, Cheng JR, Shen MC, Wang BS, Han TQ, Zhang BH, Gridley G, Fraumeni JF Jr, Hsing AW: Tea drinking and the risk of biliary tract cancers and biliary stones: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jun 15;118(12):3089-94
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  • Biliary tract cancers, encompassing tumors of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater, are rare but highly fatal malignancies.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 16395699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CP010158-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tea
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS189657; NLM/ PMC2885773
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44. Albores-Saavedra J, Grider DJ, Wu J, Henson DE, Goodman ZD: Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;30(4):495-500
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • We report four previously undescribed primary giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree and morphologically compare them with 10 anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells of the gallbladder.
  • Two giant cell tumors were located in the distal common bile duct; one in the cystic duct and one in the gallbladder.
  • The 3 patients with bile duct tumors were male, and the only patient with a gallbladder tumor was a female.
  • The patients with bile duct tumors presented with biliary obstruction, and the patient with a gallbladder tumor presented with symptoms of cholelithiasis and a gallbladder mass.
  • The benign osteoclast-like giant cells showed immunoreactivity for CD68 and HAM 56 but were negative for CD163 and cytokeratins.
  • Giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree are benign true histiocytic neoplasms that should be distinguished from the highly lethal anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells by detailed cytologic analysis and immunohistochemical stains for CD163, CD68, HAM 56, and cytokeratins.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Feb;32(2):335-7; author response 337 [18223338.001]
  • (PMID = 16625096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Khunamornpong S, Lerwill MF, Siriaunkgul S, Suprasert P, Pojchamarnwiputh S, Chiangmai WN, Young RH: Carcinoma of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):366-79
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases.
  • Information on ovarian metastasis of carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder is limited.
  • Sixteen examples are reported; 3 primary tumors were hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 5 common bile duct carcinomas, and 8 gallbladder carcinomas.
  • The primary tumor was identified before the detection of the ovarian lesions in 5 cases, was simultaneously detected with the ovarian metastases in 9, and was diagnosed postoperatively in 2.
  • Mucinous epithelial differentiation was seen in 81%, sometimes with foci of benign-like or borderline-like epithelium simulating primary ovarian mucinous neoplasia.
  • Signet ring cells were present in sufficient quantity for a diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor in four tumors.
  • Although the diagnosis of a metastatic tumor to the ovary is possible in most of the cases based on standard diagnostic criteria, problems in the differential diagnosis may be posed by morphologic patterns that overlap strikingly with primary ovarian neoplasms, benign, borderline, and malignant, as discussed herein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18580314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Thomsen MK, Lange A, Frøkiaer J: [The role of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in neonates with persistant jaundice]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2005 Sep 26;167(39):3675-8
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  • Perinatal obliteration of extrahepatic bile ducts requires immediate surgery, whereas other causes of persisting jaundice may be treated medically and/or conservatively.

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  • (PMID = 16219213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Diethyl-iminodiacetic Acid
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47. Hong SM, Presley AE, Stelow EB, Frierson HF Jr, Moskaluk CA: Reconsideration of the histologic definitions used in the pathologic staging of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jun;30(6):744-9
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  • [Title] Reconsideration of the histologic definitions used in the pathologic staging of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.
  • The histologic boundaries of the extrahepatic bile ducts (EBDs) are not well defined, despite the fact that pathologic staging of carcinomas arising in these structures requires the determination of extent of tumor invasion in this area.
  • Perhaps in part, because the smooth muscle band in the EBD wall is not well formed throughout the length of these structures, a previous definition of the outer portion of the bile duct wall included "loose, richly vascularized connective tissue, interlaced with large nerve fibers."
  • Because of these histologic features, we propose that the bile duct wall is more precisely defined as occurring between the mucosa and the outermost boundary of dense fibromuscular tissue, without consideration of the presence or absence of blood vessels and nerve fibers.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16723853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Kim SW, Park DH, Shin HC, Kim IY, Park SH, Jung EJ, Kim CH: Duplication of the extrahepatic bile duct in association with choledocholithiasis as depicted by MDCT. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Nov-Dec;9(6):550-4
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  • [Title] Duplication of the extrahepatic bile duct in association with choledocholithiasis as depicted by MDCT.
  • We report here on an extremely rare case of duplicated extrahepatic bile ducts that was associated with choledocholithiasis, and this malady was visualized by employing the minimum intensity projection images with using multi-detector row CT.
  • The presence of duplicated extrahepatic bile ducts with a proximal communication, and the ducts were joined distally and they subsequently formed a single common bile duct, has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / abnormalities. Choledocholithiasis / complications

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627237
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49. Shivakumar P, Sabla G, Mohanty S, McNeal M, Ward R, Stringer K, Caldwell C, Chougnet C, Bezerra JA: Effector role of neonatal hepatic CD8+ lymphocytes in epithelial injury and autoimmunity in experimental biliary atresia. Gastroenterology; 2007 Jul;133(1):268-77
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  • Here, we investigate this question by examining the role of T lymphocytes in the destruction of extrahepatic bile ducts of neonatal mice using an experimental model of biliary atresia.
  • Among these cells, depletion of CD4(+) cells did not change the course of inflammatory injury and obstruction of neonatal bile ducts.
  • In contrast, loss of CD8(+) cells remarkably suppressed duct injury, prevented luminal obstruction, and restored bile flow.
  • In adoptive transfer experiments, we found that primed CD8(+) cells preferentially homed to extrahepatic bile ducts of neonatal mice and invaded their epithelial lining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primed neonatal CD8(+) cells can activate a pro-inflammatory program, target diseased and healthy duct epithelium, and drive the phenotypic expression of biliary atresia, thus constituting a potential therapeutic target to halt disease progression.

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  • (PMID = 17631148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5085
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK64008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064008-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK064403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK064403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064008; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK064008-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / Epitopes; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS27364; NLM/ PMC2013308
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50. Scialpi M, Baraldi R, Campioni P, Mannella P: Obstructive jaundice. Rays; 2005 Jul-Sep;30(3):263-7
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  • On sonography, marked dilatation of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with a hyperechoic round neoformation was visualized.
  • Cholangiopancreatography was therefore necessary to establish a correct diagnosis and the subsequent therapeutic approach.
  • A definitive diagnosis could not be established on exclusive imaging findings.
  • Surgery was performed with the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma with lithiasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / radiography. Cholangiocarcinoma / radiography. Choledocholithiasis / radiography. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16512074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-7740
  • [Journal-full-title] Rays
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rays
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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51. Maurea S, Caleo O, Mollica C, Imbriaco M, Mainenti PP, Palumbo C, Mancini M, Camera L, Salvatore M: Comparative diagnostic evaluation with MR cholangiopancreatography, ultrasonography and CT in patients with pancreatobiliary disease. Radiol Med; 2009 Apr;114(3):390-402
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  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to directly compare the results of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with those of ultrasonography (US) and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in the diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary diseases.
  • A regional evaluation of the main structures of the pancreaticobiliary system was performed: gallbladder and cystic duct, intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts and main pancreatic duct.
  • In particular, patients were classified as showing benign (n=47) or malignant (n=12) lesions or normal biliary anatomy (n=11).
  • RESULTS: In group 1, the results of MRCP and US were concordant in the majority (92%) of cases; however, statistically significant discordance (p<0.01) was found in the evaluation of the extrahepatic ducts, with nine cases (16%) of middle-distal common bile duct stones being detected on MRCP only.
  • However, findings were significantly discordant when the intra- and extrahepatic ducts were analysed, with seven (19%) and six (16%) cases, respectively, of lithiasis being detected on MRCP only (p<0.01 for both).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study confirm the diagnostic potential of MRCP in the study of the pancreaticobiliary duct system.
  • In particular, the comparison between MRCP and US and MSCT indicates the superiority of MRCP in evaluating bile ducts and detecting stones in the common bile duct.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallstones / diagnosis. Gallstones / diagnostic imaging. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Common Bile Duct. Cystic Duct. Female. Gallbladder. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Ducts. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19266258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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52. Nakazawa T, Ohara H, Sano H, Ando T, Aoki S, Kobayashi S, Okamoto T, Nomura T, Joh T, Itoh M: Clinical differences between primary sclerosing cholangitis and sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis. Pancreas; 2005 Jan;30(1):20-5
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  • RESULTS: SC with AIP as a diagnosis occurs abruptly with obstructive jaundice compared with PSC where diagnosis is often based on findings of asymptomatic liver test abnormalities.
  • The most prominent features of cholangiograms for the SC with AIP cases were stenosis of the lower common bile duct.
  • However, sclerosing changes in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts or hilar hepatic region were observed for half of the cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Bilirubin / blood. Biopsy. Cholangiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / blood. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / pathology. Liver / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas / pathology. Prognosis


53. Dutton JR, Chillingworth NL, Eberhard D, Brannon CR, Hornsey MA, Tosh D, Slack JM: Beta cells occur naturally in extrahepatic bile ducts of mice. J Cell Sci; 2007 Jan 15;120(Pt 2):239-45
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  • [Title] Beta cells occur naturally in extrahepatic bile ducts of mice.
  • Here, we show that beta cells are also present in the extra-hepatic bile ducts of mice.
  • They are characterised by insulin and C-peptide content, the presence of secretory granules that are immunoreactive for insulin, and the ducts exhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
  • Genetic lineage labelling shows that these beta cells arise from the liver domain rather than the pancreas and, by histological study, they appear to be formed directly from the bile duct epithelium in late embryogenesis.
  • Other endocrine cell types (producing somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide) are also found in close association with the bile-duct-derived beta cells, but exocrine pancreatic tissue is not present.
  • The finding also has evolutionary significance, because it is known that certain basal vertebrates usually form all of their beta cells from the bile ducts.
  • The mammalian bile-duct-derived beta cells might therefore represent an extant trace of the evolutionary origin of the vertebrate beta cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / cytology. Insulin-Secreting Cells / cytology. Insulin-Secreting Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Bile Ducts / cytology. Bile Ducts / drug effects. Biological Evolution. C-Peptide / analysis. Cell Lineage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Glucose / pharmacology. Immunohistochemistry. Insulin / analysis. Insulin / secretion. Liver / drug effects. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred Strains. Models, Biological. Organ Culture Techniques. Pancreas / drug effects. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17179205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9533
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cell science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0300415; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0500220; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / C-Peptide; 0 / Insulin; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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54. Ungureanu FD, Ioachimescu M, Ungurianu L, Pricop M, Mircea G, Dragoescu D, Moldovan AC: [Choledochal cyst as a complex malformation of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2005 Jan-Feb;100(1):63-8
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  • [Title] [Choledochal cyst as a complex malformation of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts].
  • The authors present the case of a 64 years woman with a choledochal cyst along with a complex malformation of both intra and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The patient was admitted with a diagnosis of acute and underestimated cholecystitis, which was in fact a real acute severe suppurated angiocolitis located at the cystic cavity level along with severe hepato-renal failure.
  • As long as the choledochal cyst evolves as a stand-alone entity, it can frequently be associated with other malformations of the bile ducts--such as choledochal duct stenosis or abnormal connection of the common hepatic duct with pancreatic ducts.
  • The main dilatation was engulfing the whole common bile duct with a fusiform aspect, and the cranial end is opening into a long hepatic duct from which were emerging several biliary segments branches, for both hepatic lobes.
  • This aspect of a multistage convergence with four branches which is opening into a long hepatic bile duct and then in the choledochal cyst, represents an unusual malformation which does not respect the rules described by former published authors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / abnormalities. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / abnormalities. Choledochal Cyst / diagnosis. Choledochal Cyst / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15810708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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55. Ozin Y, Parlak E, Kiliç ZM, Temuçin T, Saşmaz N: Sclerosing cholangitis-like changes in hepatobiliary tuberculosis. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar;21(1):50-3
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  • Atypical presentations of tuberculosis might cause difficulties in diagnosis, especially in developing countries.
  • Primary hepatobiliary tuberculosis is a rare condition and the diagnosis of this condition necessitates a high index of suspicion.
  • In this report, we present a case with obstructive jaundice, dilated intrahepatic bile ducts and lymphadenopathies in the porta hepatis.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography showed irregularities, strictures and dilatations both in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts resembling sclerosing cholangitis.
  • The present case shows that primary hepatobiliary tuberculosis may mimic primary sclerosing cholangitis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with sclerosing cholangitis-like changes on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Diseases / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Hepatic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20533114.001).
  • [ISSN] 2148-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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56. Demoreuil C, Thirot-Bidault A, Dagher C, Bou-Farah R, Benbrahem C, Lazure T, Gayral F, Buffet C: [Poorly differentiated large cell endocrine carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 Mar;33(3):194-8
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  • [Title] [Poorly differentiated large cell endocrine carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts].
  • We report a case of a poorly differentiated endocrine large cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts in a 73-year-old man, revealed by abdominal pain, jaundice and weight loss.
  • Computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography found tumoral stenosis of the main bile duct.
  • Brush cytology detected tumor cells.
  • Pathological examination of the resected bile duct disclosed a high-grade large cell carcinoma with morphological endocrine features and positivity for chromogranin A.
  • This tumor was associated with a minor component of adenocarcinomatous cells.
  • We discuss here the histogenesis of this tumor as well as its nosological position among the endocrine and mixed tumors of bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 19233580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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57. Kashiwazaki M, Nakamori S, Makino T, Omura Y, Yasui M, Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Hirao M, Takami K, Fujitani K, Mishima H, Sugiura T, Tsujinaka T: [An icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma with no detectable tumor in the liver but with an intrabile duct recurrent tumor]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2099-101
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  • [Title] [An icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma with no detectable tumor in the liver but with an intrabile duct recurrent tumor].
  • The intraductal tumor was removed with the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • A histological examination of the tumor showed an icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The recurrent tumor was detected as intrajejunal tumor thrombi by a CT scan.
  • The tumor thrombi in jejunal limb were removed.
  • At 2 months after the operation, an intrahepatic lesion and tumor thrombi were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / secondary. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18219911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Protein Precursors; 53230-14-1 / acarboxyprothrombin; 9001-26-7 / Prothrombin
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58. Smith T, Befeler AS: High-dose ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2007 Mar;9(1):54-9
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  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disease that results in progressive fibrosis of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, is the most promising treatment option because of its benign side effect profile and documented benefit in the treatment of other cholestatic liver diseases, including primary biliary cirrhosis.

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  • (PMID = 17335678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8037
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholagogues and Choleretics; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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59. Sandrasegaran K, Alazmi WM, Tann M, Fogel EL, McHenry L, Lehman GA: Chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Radiol; 2006 Aug;61(8):670-8
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  • RESULTS: CISC showed segmental irregular biliary dilatation with strictures of proximal extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The distal 5cm of common bile duct was not affected in any patient.
  • Unlike PSC, biliary disease primarily involved ducts at the hepatic porta rather than intrahepatic ducts.

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  • (PMID = 16843750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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60. Prudkov MI, Stolin AV, Karmatskikh AIu: [Rapid diagnosis of purulent-destructive forms of acute calculous cholecystitis]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(5):32-4
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  • [Title] [Rapid diagnosis of purulent-destructive forms of acute calculous cholecystitis].
  • Risk of intraabdominal complications depends on the fact of obstruction of gallbladder neck and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Algorithm of a rapid diagnosis was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystitis, Acute / diagnosis. Gallbladder / ultrasonography. Gallstones / diagnosis. Palpation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Suppuration / diagnosis. Suppuration / etiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16007022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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61. Gauthier-Villars M, Franchi S, Gauthier F, Fabre M, Pariente D, Bernard O: Cholestasis in children with portal vein obstruction. J Pediatr; 2005 Apr;146(4):568-73
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  • We describe cholestasis as a result of bile duct abnormalities in 8 children with portal vein obstruction.
  • Each displayed dilation and narrowing of intra- and/or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • We conclude that children with portal vein obstruction may exhibit clinically significant cholestasis as a result of external compression of the bile duct by the cavernoma.

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  • (PMID = 15812469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Layfield LJ, Cramer H: Primary sclerosing cholangitis as a cause of false positive bile duct brushing cytology: report of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Feb;32(2):119-24
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  • [Title] Primary sclerosing cholangitis as a cause of false positive bile duct brushing cytology: report of two cases.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology characterized by ongoing inflammation, destruction, and fibrosis of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Irregular narrowing and dilation of the biliary duct system produces the characteristic beaded pattern seen on cholangiogram.
  • Bile duct brushing cytology is the primary screening technique for cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Few false positive bile duct brushings have been reported in the literature, with the majority of these having occurred in a background of PSC.
  • We report two patients with PSC in whom bile duct brush cytologies were falsely positive for carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15637668.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Kim DH, Song MH, Kim DH: Malignant carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(5):485-9
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  • [Title] Malignant carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct: report of a case.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile duct are exceedingly rare and account for between 0.1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, with most reported cases arising from the gallbladder.
  • We herein present what we believe is only the 47th reported case of a primary carcinoid tumor occurring in the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Laboratory and imaging studies gave results that were consistent with a malignant obstruction in the common bile duct.
  • Pathologically, an ill-demarcated mass was noted in the common bile duct measuring 1.6 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm in size.
  • The tumor had invaded the adjacent pancreatic tissues.
  • The final pathologic diagnosis was well-differentiated carcinoid tumor of a malignant nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16633759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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64. Lochan R, Balupuri S, Bennett MK, Manas DM: Granular cell tumor as an unusual cause of obstruction at the hepatic hilum: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(10):934-6
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumor as an unusual cause of obstruction at the hepatic hilum: report of a case.
  • A diagnosis of malignancy is reasonably assumed when a lesion is found at the hilum or bile ducts in a patient with jaundice who has never undergone biliary surgery.
  • Although benign tumors occasionally develop in this location, preoperative recognition is difficult and most are treated as malignant lesions.
  • We illustrate this clinical scenario in this case report of a granular cell tumor (GCT) that developed at the biliary bifurcation, necessitating right hemi-hepatectomy with extrahepatic biliary tree excision.
  • We describe the clinical presentation, imaging findings, treatment, and histological findings of this tumor.
  • However, the possibility of this tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lesion in this location.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / complications. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Granular Cell Tumor / complications. Hepatic Duct, Common
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholangiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16998691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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65. Ohtsuka M, Kimura F, Shimizu H, Yoshidome H, Kato A, Yoshitomi H, Furukawa K, Mitsuhashi N, Takeuchi D, Takayashiki T, Suda K, Miyazaki M: Surgical strategy for mucin-producing bile duct tumor. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci; 2010 May;17(3):236-40
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  • [Title] Surgical strategy for mucin-producing bile duct tumor.
  • Tumors with copious mucin production within the intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts have been reported as mucin-producing bile duct tumors (MPBTs).
  • Because mucin produced by these tumors causes recurrent cholangitis and obstructive jaundice, surgical resection should be indicated even if these tumors are regarded as benign.
  • In order to choose the appropriate surgical procedure, exact preoperative assessment of tumor location and cancer extension is important, especially evaluation of the extent of superficial spreading through cholangioscopic observation and biopsy.
  • In principle, MPBTs should be resected in a manner similar to that employed for other types of bile duct carcinomas.
  • That is, major hepatectomy with or without extrahepatic bile duct resection or pancreaticoduodenectomy should be chosen as the surgical procedure, and intraoperative frozen section at the stumps of the bile duct is essential.
  • On the other hand, when precise diagnosis is completed preoperatively and the lesion is diagnosed as adenoma or carcinoma with invasion confined to the ductal wall and limited superficial spreading, limited resections preserving organ functions as much as possible can be considered as a choice among surgical procedures.
  • All ten patients with MPBT resected at our institution according to these strategies are still alive without tumor recurrence, with a median survival of 48.0 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Mucins / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Hepatectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19649559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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66. Eckel F, Schmid RM: Emerging drugs for biliary cancer. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2007 Nov;12(4):571-89
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Biliary cancer comprise carcinoma of the gallbladder as well as the intrahepatic, hilar and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Recent investigations into the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in biliary carcinogenesis and tumour growth have contributed greatly to our understanding of biliary cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17979600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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67. Fang CH, Chang X, Lu CM, Yang J, Xiang N, Bao SS, Peng FP, Pan JH: [Clinical value of three-dimensional reconstruction of the biliary calculi based on 64-slice spiral CT scanning data]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2008 Mar;28(3):370-2
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  • The calculi in the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts were distinct in terms of the location and number, and dilation and stenosis of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts were also clearly observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The reconstructed model of the liver and its ductal system can be useful for preoperative planning and intraoperative complete removal of the calculi from the bile duct, and for the bile duct dilation and stenosis detected in the model, appropriate measures should be taken to reduce the residual calculi and prevent reoccurrence.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / radiography. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / radiography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18359693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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68. Shin YS, Jang YS, Kang MK, Jang BK, Park KS, Hwang JS, Kwon JH, Kang YN: [A case of sclerosing cholangitis showing response to prednisolone]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2007 Dec;50(6):402-6
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  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by progressive fibrosis and destruction of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts resulting in hepatic failure and death.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Prednisolone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18159180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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69. Guglielmi A, Ruzzenente A, Campagnaro T, Pachera S, Valdegamberi A, Nicoli P, Cappellani A, Malfermoni G, Iacono C: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: prognostic factors after surgical resection. World J Surg; 2009 Jun;33(6):1247-54
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  • BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver tumor.
  • The resectability rate is low because at the time of diagnosis this disease is frequently beyond the limits of surgical therapy.
  • Based on the gross appearance of the tumor the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (LCSGJ) defined three types: mass-forming type (MF), periductal infiltrating type (PI), intraductal growth (IG) type.
  • Tumor gross appearance on the cut surface was categorized into the following types according to the classification proposed by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan: MF, PI, or IG type.
  • Extrahepatic bile duct resection was carried out in 36% (19/52) of cases.
  • At univariate analysis, the macroscopic gross appearance of the tumor, the presence of lymph node metastasis, involvement of extrahepatic bile ducts, the presence of macroscopic vascular invasion, and positive resection margins were significant related to survival.
  • We identified that the MF + PI type tumors were significantly associated with negative prognostic factors, such as the involvement of extrahepatic bile ducts, the presence of lymph nodes metastases, the presence of macroscopic vascular invasion, the presence of perineural invasion, and higher T stage.
  • Important predictive factors related to poor survival are MF + PI macroscopic tumor type, lymph node metastases, and vascular invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / mortality


70. Nahon S, Cadranel JF, Chazouilleres O, Biour M, Jouannaud V, Marteau P: Liver and inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 May;33(5):370-81
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  • The most common manifestation, sclerosing cholangitis, characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the intra- andor extrahepatic bile ducts, is unusual in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Diseases / etiology. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / prevention & control. Humans. Liver / blood supply. Vascular Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19394180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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71. Jafri M, Donnelly B, McNeal M, Ward R, Tiao G: MAPK signaling contributes to rotaviral-induced cholangiocyte injury and viral replication. Surgery; 2007 Aug;142(2):192-201
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  • METHODS: Extrahepatic bile ducts from BALB/c pups or immortalized cholangiocytes subjected to RRV infection or control were analyzed, using Western blots, for phosphorylated members of the MAPK family: p38, ERK 1/2, JNK 1/2, and downstream transcription factors.

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  • (PMID = 17689685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK072858; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK0728858-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Transcription Factors
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72. Ney JT, Zhou H, Sipos B, Büttner R, Chen X, Klöppel G, Gütgemann I: Podocalyxin-like protein 1 expression is useful to differentiate pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas from adenocarcinomas of the biliary and gastrointestinal tracts. Hum Pathol; 2007 Feb;38(2):359-64
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  • There was no expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (0/18, P < .001), rarely in adenocarcinomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts (1/13, P = .009), and none in duodenal adenocarcinomas (0/5, P = .070).
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 17137615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 0 / podocalyxin
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73. Jayaraman S, Quan D, Al-Ghamdi I, El-Deen F, Schlachta CM: Does robotic assistance improve efficiency in performing complex minimally invasive surgical procedures? Surg Endosc; 2010 Mar;24(3):584-8
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  • METHODS: An ex vivo model for choledochojejunostomy was created using porcine livers with extrahepatic bile ducts and contiguous intestines.

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  • (PMID = 19633893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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74. Pitt HA, Nakeeb A: Operative approach to gallbladder cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2006 Apr;8(2):161-7
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  • In most Western countries gallbladder cancer is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • However, the extent of hepatic and lymph node resection, the need for resection of the extrahepatic ducts in nonjaundiced patients, the role of vascular resection, and the advisability of hepatopancreatoduodenectomy remain a matter of debate.
  • Although no data from prospective, randomized studies are available, resection of the gallbladder and adjacent liver with or without the extrahepatic bile ducts and with a regional lymph node dissection is the operative approach recommended for selected patients with gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Cholecystectomy / methods. Female. Hepatectomy / methods. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care / methods. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16533480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8037
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Góra-Gebka M, Liberek A, Sikorska-Wiśniewska G, Gołebiewski J, Kamińska B: [Primary sclerosing cholangitis in children - clinical manifestations and diagnostic difficulties]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2009 Oct-Dec;13(4):227-30
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  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a rare chronic disease of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, which causes cholestasis with inflammation and fibrosis ultimately resulting in biliary cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20081269.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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76. de Oliveira Fdos S, Kieling CO, dos Santos JL, de Leon Lima PP, Vieira S, Meurer L, da Silveira TR, Matte U: Serum and tissue transforming [corrected] growth factor β1 in children with biliary atresia. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Sep;45(9):1784-90
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  • BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia (BA) is an infantile disorder characterized by the obstruction of a portion or the entirety of the extrahepatic bile ducts, leading to hepatic fibrosis and loss of liver function.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, we evaluated serum and tissue transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) in patients with BA at the time of diagnosis and at liver transplantation and correlated these data with tissue collagen density, to verify if they could act as biomarkers for BA.
  • RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis, TGFβ1 levels were highly variable in BA patients.
  • Serum TGFβ1 showed no correlation with APRI at diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that at the time of diagnosis the fibrogenic process is active, with higher levels of TGFβ1, whereas later on, there is scar tissue, with reduced TGFβ1 expression.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [ErratumIn] J Pediatr Surg. 2011 Apr;46(4):791
  • (PMID = 20850621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases
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77. Thelen A, Neuhaus P: Liver transplantation for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2007;14(5):469-75
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  • Owing to disappointing long-term results for this indication, and in parallel, encouraging results in patients with benign disease, hilar cholangiocarcinoma has generally not been accepted as an indication for liver transplantation in recent years.
  • To improve results, more aggressive approaches have been used: "abdominal organ cluster transplantation" and "extended bile duct resection", which lead to increased long-term survival rates.
  • However, with improving results after conventional extrahepatic bile duct resection in combination with partial hepatectomy, extended procedures in combination with liver transplantation never became a real option in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Current results show increased survival figures, in particular in well-selected patients with early tumor stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Liver Transplantation


78. Nazyrov FG, Khadzhibaev AM, Altyev BK, Deviatov AV, Atadzhanov ShK: [Operations in injuries and strictures of bile ducts]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2006;(4):46-51
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  • [Title] [Operations in injuries and strictures of bile ducts].
  • Analysis of surgical treatment of 336 patients with cicatricial strictures and iatrogenic external fistulas of extrahepatic bile ducts is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Injuries / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / injuries. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / methods. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 16710224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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79. Beldi G, Styner M, Schindera S, Inderbitzin D, Candinas D: Intraoperative three-dimensional fluoroscopic cholangiography. Hepatogastroenterology; 2006 Mar-Apr;53(68):157-9
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  • Precise intraoperative assessment of the architecture of the biliary tree could reduce lesions to intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The bile ducts were displayed three-dimensionally by realtime rotational projections or multiplanar reconstructions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / radiography. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / radiography. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Cystadenoma / radiography. Cystadenoma / surgery. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16608014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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80. Le L, Pham AV, Dessanti A: Congenital dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts in children. Experience in the central hospital of Hue, Vietnam. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;16(1):24-7
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  • [Title] Congenital dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts in children. Experience in the central hospital of Hue, Vietnam.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The authors present a study of a series of cases in children with congenital dilatation of the extrahepatic bile ducts (CDEBD).
  • RESULTS: Diagnosis was based only on ultrasonography which was 100% accurate.
  • According to Miyano's classification, 26 cases presented as cystic dilatation of the main bile duct (MBD) associated with dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts, while in the other 12 cases the dilatation of the MBD was of the fusiform type.
  • The surgical treatment of choice was extensive excision of the dilatated extrahepatic bile ducts and biliary drainage according to the Roux-en-Y method in 36/38 patients.
  • During follow-up we observed one case of pancreatitis out of the 36 patients who underwent excision of the dilatated extrahepatic bile ducts, while the two patients who had internal biliary drainage without removal of the cysts suffered from numerous attacks of cholangitis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The reflux of bile in the dilated biliary tree plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of CDEBD.
  • Excision of the extrahepatic bile ducts and internal biliary drainage by Roux-en-Y has proved a satisfactory surgical method.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Choledochal Cyst / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y. Child. Child, Preschool. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Vietnam

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  • (PMID = 16544222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Nakanishi Y, Zen Y, Kondo S, Itoh T, Itatsu K, Nakanuma Y: Expression of cell cycle-related molecules in biliary premalignant lesions: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and biliary intraductal papillary neoplasm. Hum Pathol; 2008 Aug;39(8):1153-61
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  • [Title] Expression of cell cycle-related molecules in biliary premalignant lesions: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and biliary intraductal papillary neoplasm.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts has a multistep carcinogenesis.
  • Two premalignant lesions have been suggested for invasive cholangiocarcinoma: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct.
  • How the carcinogenetic process differs between biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct is not clear.
  • We immunohistochemically examined the expression of p21, p53, cyclin D1, and Dpc4 in a total of 89 cases: nonneoplastic biliary epithelium, biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, and invasive cholangiocarcinoma.
  • The expression of p21, p53, and cyclin D1 was up-regulated with histological progression in both biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, whereas Dpc4 expression was down-regulated in these 2 lineages.
  • In biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, p21 expression was significantly up-regulated early on.
  • In contrast, levels of all molecules changed gradually in intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct.
  • Changes in p53 expression during histological progression differed significantly between biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. p53 expression was dramatically up-regulated at the invasive stage of biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas it was quite low in noninvasive biliary intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • In contrast, p53 expression was already up-regulated in low-grade intraductal papillary neoplasm and reached a plateau in high-grade intraductal papillary neoplasm and invasive cholangiocarcinoma.
  • This study suggested p21, p53, cyclin D1, and Dpc4 to be involved in the carcinogenesis of both biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. p53 expression was regulated differently in biliary intraepithelial neoplasia compared with intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / chemistry. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Precancerous Conditions / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cholangiocarcinoma / chemistry. Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / analysis. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Mucin-2. Mucins / analysis. Mucins / metabolism. Smad4 Protein / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis


82. Choi D, Hong ST: Imaging diagnosis of clonorchiasis. Korean J Parasitol; 2007 Jun;45(2):77-85
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  • [Title] Imaging diagnosis of clonorchiasis.
  • The basic imaging finding of clonorchiasis is diffuse dilatation of the peripheral intrahepatic bile ducts, without dilation of the large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The images of cholangiocarcinoma associated with clonorchiasis show both the tumor with obstruction images and diffuse dilatation of the peripheral intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiography. Clonorchiasis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts / parasitology. Bile Ducts / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17570969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-4001
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 29
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2526300
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83. Chang SC, Rashid A, Gao YT, Andreotti G, Shen MC, Wang BS, Han TQ, Zhang BH, Sakoda LC, Leitzmann MF, Chen BE, Rosenberg PS, Chen J, Chanock SJ, Hsing AW: Polymorphism of genes related to insulin sensitivity and the risk of biliary tract cancer and biliary stone: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Carcinogenesis; 2008 May;29(5):944-8
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  • Biliary tract cancer, encompassing tumors of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater, is a rare but highly fatal malignancy.
  • We included 237 gallbladder, 127 extrahepatic bile duct and 47 ampulla of Vater cancer cases, 895 stone cases and 786 population controls.
  • Relative to individuals with the RXR-beta C51T (rs2076310) CC genotype, those having the TT genotype had a 1.6-fold risk for bile duct cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99-2.84], with a more pronounced association among men (OR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.14-4.65; P interaction = 0.07).
  • Results from this population-based study suggest that certain genetic variants involved in the regulation of obesity-related insulin sensitivity may increase susceptibility to bile duct cancer and gallstones.

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  • (PMID = 18375961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2180
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Insulin; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2443392
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84. Sandmann M, Fähndrich M, Heike M: ["Endoscopy in a stone quarry"--multiple pigment stones 6 weeks after delivery]. Z Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar;48(3):401-5
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  • The endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed the presence of more than 100 small stones in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • An endoscopic papillotomy was performed and multiple small black stones were removed from the bile duct by basket into the duodenum.
  • [MeSH-major] Choledocholithiasis / diagnosis. Choledocholithiasis / surgery. Puerperal Disorders / diagnosis. Puerperal Disorders / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20221994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7803
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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85. Nadler EP, Patterson D, Violette S, Weinreb P, Lewis M, Magid MS, Greco MA: Integrin alphavbeta6 and mediators of extracellular matrix deposition are up-regulated in experimental biliary atresia. J Surg Res; 2009 Jun 1;154(1):21-9
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  • INTRODUCTION: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive obliteration of the extrahepatic bile ducts resulting in hepatic fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biliary Atresia / pathology. Extracellular Matrix / pathology. Integrins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19084240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Integrins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 0 / integrin alphavbeta6; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7
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86. Tang ST, Ruan QL, Cao ZQ, Mao YZ, Wang Y, Li SW: Diagnosis and treatment of biliary atresia: a retrospective study. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2005 Feb;4(1):108-12
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of biliary atresia: a retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia (BA) is the end results of an inflammatory process, which affect the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and obliteration of the biliary tract with the development of biliary cirrhosis.
  • Early diagnosis of BA is difficult, and there is no specific therapy for BA at present.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative outcome of BA and to explore new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Atresia / diagnosis. Biliary Atresia / surgery. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Portoenterostomy, Hepatic / methods

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  • (PMID = 15730932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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87. Holzapfel K, Breitwieser C, Prinz C, Rummeny EJ, Gaa J: [Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography using gadolinium-EOB-DTPA. Preliminary experience and clinical applications]. Radiologe; 2007 Jun;47(6):536-44
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  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) with heavily T2-weighted RARE and HASTE sequences has become an important imaging modality for the morphologic evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • However, for the diagnosis of functional biliary disorders, cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) and endoscopic manometry, two invasive techniques with considerable morbidity and mortality, remain the standard.

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  • (PMID = 17965849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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88. Van Beers BE: Diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. HPB (Oxford); 2008;10(2):87-93
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma is suspected based on signs of biliary obstruction, abnormal liver function tests, elevated tumor markers (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen), and ultrasonography showing a bile stricture or a mass, especially in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) is performed for the diagnosis and staging of cholangiocarcinomas.
  • Therefore, reasonable exclusion of an extrahepatic primary tumor should be performed.
  • Differentiating between benign and malignant bile duct stricture is also difficult, except when metastases are observed.
  • When the diagnosis of a biliary stenosis remains indeterminate at MRI or CT, endoscopic imaging (endoscopic or intraductal ultrasound, cholangioscopy, or optical coherence tomography) and tissue sampling should be carried out.
  • The diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is particularly challenging in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • These patients should be followed with yearly tumor markers, CT, or MRI.

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  • (PMID = 18773062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504383
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89. Gore RM, Shelhamer RP: Biliary tract neoplasms: diagnosis and staging. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7 Spec No A:S15-23
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  • [Title] Biliary tract neoplasms: diagnosis and staging.
  • Most biliary tract neoplasms are malignant and have been traditionally divided into cancers of the gallbladder, the extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater.
  • Although infrequent, bile duct carcinomas and cancer of the gallbladder are not rare.
  • In the United States, an estimated 6000-7000 new cases of carcinoma of the gallbladder and 3000-4000 new cases of carcinoma of the bile ducts are diagnosed annually.
  • Familiarity with the imaging characteristics of gallbladder and bile duct neoplasms is important to expedite the diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patients who often present with non-specific symptoms of right upper quadrant pain, jaundice, and weight loss.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17921093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2727973
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90. Ragazzi S, Vanzulli A, Del Maschio A, Tomaselli V, Dell' Agnola CA: Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance in paediatric surgery: magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and new sequences. Minerva Pediatr; 2007 Dec;59(6):801-7
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  • They revealed the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts, the gallbladder, the common bile duct and the bilio-pancreatic junction in all cases investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Diseases. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance / methods. Pancreatic Diseases. Pediatrics


91. Cox H, Ma M, Bridges R, Debru E, Bathe O, Sutherland F, Dixon E: Well differentiated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the setting of biliary papillomatosis: a case report and review of the literature. Can J Gastroenterol; 2005 Dec;19(12):731-3
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  • BP is a rare, benign and potentially fatal disease of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Although a benign disease, a review of the literature demonstrated that BP often recurs after surgical resection, carries a poor prognosis and has a moderately high malignant transformation rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Papilloma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde / methods. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparotomy / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16341314.001).
  • [ISSN] 0835-7900
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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92. Schwarz RE, Smith DD: Lymph node dissection impact on staging and survival of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, based on U.S. population data. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Feb;11(2):158-65
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  • [Title] Lymph node dissection impact on staging and survival of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, based on U.S. population data.
  • We investigated lymph node (LN) counts after resection of extrahepatic CC and survival based on the SEER 1973-2004 database.
  • Primary cancer sites included gallbladder (29%), extrahepatic bile ducts (26%), and intrapancreatic/ampullary bile ducts (45%); 42% of patients were LN-positive.
  • Survival prediction of extrahepatic CCs is strongly influenced by total LN counts and numbers of negative LNs obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Lymph Node Excision
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. SEER Program. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. United States

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  • (PMID = 17390167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Erickson N, Mohanty SK, Shivakumar P, Sabla G, Chakraborty R, Bezerra JA: Temporal-spatial activation of apoptosis and epithelial injury in murine experimental biliary atresia. Hepatology; 2008 May;47(5):1567-77
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  • Biliary atresia is a fibro-inflammatory cholangiopathy that obstructs the extrahepatic bile ducts in young infants.
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that apoptosis is a significant mechanism of injury to duct epithelium.
  • To test this hypothesis, we quantified apoptosis using terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling and active caspase-3 staining in livers and extrahepatic bile ducts from Balb/c mice infected with Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) within 24 hours of birth.
  • RRV induced a significant increase in labeled cells in the portal tracts and in epithelial and subepithelial compartments of extrahepatic bile ducts, with onset within 3 days and peaks at 5-10 days.
  • Exploring mechanisms of injury, we found increased biliary expression of caspases 1 and 4 and of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma)-related and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-related genes.
  • In vivo, administration of the caspase inhibitor IDN-8050 decreased apoptosis in the duct epithelium and the extent of epithelial injury after RRV challenge.


94. Makino T, Nakamori S, Kashiwazaki M, Masuda N, Ikenaga M, Hirao M, Fujitani K, Mishima H, Sawamura T, Takeda M, Mano M, Tsujinaka T: An icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma with no detectable tumor in the liver: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(7):633-7
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  • [Title] An icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma with no detectable tumor in the liver: report of a case.
  • Computed tomography revealed a tumor in the left intrahepatic bile duct extending to the common bile duct without any significant lesions in the liver.
  • Cholangiography showed a filling defect due to an intraductal tumor.
  • Cytology of the bile juice was negative and tumor markers were carcinoembryonic antigen 5.7 ng/ml, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 49 U/ml, alpha-fetoprotein 9 ng/dl, and PIVKA-II 19 200 AU/ml.
  • With a preoperative diagnosis of hilar bile duct carcinoma, a laparotomy was performed.
  • The common bile duct was filled with a tumor and it extended into the bilateral intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The intraductal tumor was removed together with the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • An intraoperative histological examination of the tumor showed a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16794800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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95. Washington MK, Berlin J, Branton PA, Burgart LJ, Carter DK, Compton CC, Fitzgibbons PL, Frankel WL, Jessup JM, Kakar S, Minsky B, Nakhleh RE, Vauthey JN, Members of the Cancer Committee, College of American Pathologists: Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with carcinoma of the distal extrahepatic bile ducts. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Apr;134(4):e8-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with carcinoma of the distal extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Protocols. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pathology, Clinical / methods. Societies, Medical. United States. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 20367298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Bezerra JA: Biliary atresia--translational research on key molecular processes regulating biliary injury and obstruction. Chang Gung Med J; 2006 May-Jun;29(3):222-30
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  • Biliary atresia is the most common cause of pathologic jaundice in young infants and results from the obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts by an inflammatory and fibro-obliterative process.
  • Although the pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial, recent patient- and animal-based studies began deciphering the molecular pathways involved in biliary injury and duct obstruction.
  • Using large-scale genomics and immunostaining of livers from children with biliary atresia, investigators have discovered unique molecular signatures of dominant proinflammatory cytokines at the time of diagnosis.
  • Then, using these mice in mechanistic studies, interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) has been shown to regulate the biliary tropism of lymphocytes to the biliary system, and to play a critical role in the inflammatory obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts.

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  • (PMID = 16924882.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-64008
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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97. Elfadili H, Majbar A, Zouaidia F, Elamrani N, Sabbah F, Raiss M, Mahassini N, Hrora A, Ahallat M: Spontaneous rupture of a recurrent hepatic cystadenoma. World J Hepatol; 2010 Aug 27;2(8):322-4
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  • Biliary cystadenoma is a rare cystic tumor of the middle aged woman that usually arises in the liver or occasionally in the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The lack of specific clinical and biological features hinders diagnosis before surgery.

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  • (PMID = 21161016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999295
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cystadenoma / Liver / Spontaneous rupture
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98. Garcia-Barceló MM, Yeung MY, Miao XP, Tang CS, Cheng G, So MT, Ngan ES, Lui VC, Chen Y, Liu XL, Hui KJ, Li L, Guo WH, Sun XB, Tou JF, Chan KW, Wu XZ, Song YQ, Chan D, Cheung K, Chung PH, Wong KK, Sham PC, Cherny SS, Tam PK: Genome-wide association study identifies a susceptibility locus for biliary atresia on 10q24.2. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Jul 15;19(14):2917-25
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  • Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by the progressive fibrosclerosing obliteration of the extrahepatic biliary system during the first few weeks of life.
  • Despite early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention, the disease progresses to cirrhosis in many patients.
  • The current theory for the pathogenesis of BA proposes that during the perinatal period, a still unknown exogenous factor meets the innate immune system of a genetically predisposed individual and induces an uncontrollable and potentially self-limiting immune response, which becomes manifest in liver fibrosis and atresia of the extrahepatic bile ducts.

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  • [ErratumIn] Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Mar 1;20(5):1048. Chen, Guo [corrected to Cheng, Guo]
  • (PMID = 20460270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2083
  • [Journal-full-title] Human molecular genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY-12562
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2893814
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99. Chang S, Lim JH, Choi D, Kim SK, Lee WJ: Differentiation of ampullary tumor from benign papillary stricture by thin-section multidetector CT. Abdom Imaging; 2008 Jul-Aug;33(4):457-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differentiation of ampullary tumor from benign papillary stricture by thin-section multidetector CT.
  • The objective of this paper was to determine the criteria for differentiation of ampullary tumor from benign papillary stricture using thin-section multidetector CT images.
  • Multidetector CT images with 2.5 mm slice-thickness in 57 consecutive patients (24 with ampulla of Vater tumor and 33 with benign papillary stricture) with extrahepatic duct dilatation due to ampullary obstruction were reviewed retrospectively.
  • The papilla/papillary mass was evaluated regarding size, homogeneity of enhancement, attenuation value, and the diameters of extrahepatic duct and main pancreatic duct were measured.
  • The measurability, enhancement pattern, the attenuation value of papilla/papillary mass on portal venous phase, and the maximum diameters of extrahepatic duct and main pancreatic duct were different between two groups.
  • Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the papilla/papillary mass size was the only independently differentiating variable of ampullary tumor from benign stricture (P = 0.016) with an odds ratio of 2.424 (95% confidence interval, 1.179-4.903).
  • Ampullary tumor and benign papillary stricture could be effectively differentiated by thin-section multidetector CT based on papilla/papillary mass size.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Common Bile Duct Diseases / radiography. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Constriction, Pathologic / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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