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1. Mandinova A, Kolev V, Neel V, Hu B, Stonely W, Lieb J, Wu X, Colli C, Han R, Pazin MJ, Ostano P, Dummer R, Brissette JL, Dotto GP: A positive FGFR3/FOXN1 feedback loop underlies benign skin keratosis versus squamous cell carcinoma formation in humans. J Clin Invest; 2009 Oct;119(10):3127-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A positive FGFR3/FOXN1 feedback loop underlies benign skin keratosis versus squamous cell carcinoma formation in humans.
  • Seborrheic keratoses (SKs) are common, benign epithelial tumors of the skin that do not, or very rarely, progress into malignancy, for reasons that are not understood.
  • We investigated this by gene expression profiling of human SKs and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and found that several genes previously connected with keratinocyte tumor development were similarly modulated in SKs and SCCs, whereas the expression of others differed by only a few fold.
  • Knockdown of FOXN1 expression in primary human keratinocytes cooperated with oncogenic RAS in the induction of SCC-like tumors, whereas increased FOXN1 expression triggered the SCC cells to shift to a benign SK-like tumor phenotype, which included increased FGFR3 expression.
  • Thus,we have uncovered a positive regulatory loop between FGFR3 and FOXN1 that underlies a benign versus malignant skin tumor phenotype.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Invest. 2010 Feb;120(2):6455. Pazin, Mike [corrected to Pazin, Michael J]
  • (PMID = 19729838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-8238
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR39190; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16038; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR045284; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR054856; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA073796; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA AG000378-03; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR045284-11A1; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR045284-11A1; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR039190; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR055218-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA016038; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA73796; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR055218-02; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR045284; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR055218; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR054856
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Whn protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
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2. Lederle W, Stark HJ, Skobe M, Fusenig NE, Mueller MM: Platelet-derived growth factor-BB controls epithelial tumor phenotype by differential growth factor regulation in stromal cells. Am J Pathol; 2006 Nov;169(5):1767-83

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Platelet-derived growth factor-BB controls epithelial tumor phenotype by differential growth factor regulation in stromal cells.
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates tumor growth and progression by affecting tumor and stromal cells.
  • In the HaCaT skin carcinogenesis model, transfection of immortal nontumorigenic and PDGF-receptor-negative HaCaT keratinocytes with PDGF-B induced formation of benign tumors.
  • In vivo, persistent PDGF-B expression induced enhanced tumor cell proliferation but only transiently stimulated stromal cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
  • In vitro and in vivo studies identified fibroblasts as PDGF target cells essential for mediating transient angiogenesis and persistent epithelial hyperproliferation.
  • The PDGF-induced, persistently increased expression of the hepatocyte growth factor by fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo was most probably responsible for enhanced epithelial cell proliferation and benign tumor formation.
  • Thus, by paracrine stimulation of the stroma, PDGF-BB induced epithelial hyperproliferation, thereby promoting tumorigenicity, whereas the time-limited activation of the stroma followed by stromal maturation provides a possible explanation for the benign tumor phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Growth Substances / pharmacology. Neoplasms / pathology. Phenotype. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / pharmacology. Stromal Cells / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17071599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Endostatins; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / platelet-derived growth factor BB; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1780216
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3. Haider AS, Peters SB, Kaporis H, Cardinale I, Fei J, Ott J, Blumenberg M, Bowcock AM, Krueger JG, Carucci JA: Genomic analysis defines a cancer-specific gene expression signature for human squamous cell carcinoma and distinguishes malignant hyperproliferation from benign hyperplasia. J Invest Dermatol; 2006 Apr;126(4):869-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genomic analysis defines a cancer-specific gene expression signature for human squamous cell carcinoma and distinguishes malignant hyperproliferation from benign hyperplasia.
  • Using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, we measured expression of >12,000 genes in surgical excisions of invasive human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) versus site-matched control skin.
  • As SCCs are composed of epithelial cells, which are both hyperplastic and invasive, we sought to define gene sets associated with these biologic processes by comparing gene expression to psoriasis vulgaris, which is a condition of benign keratinocyte hyperplasia without invasiveness or pre-malignant potential.
  • We found that benign hyperplasia is associated with upregulation of genes including DEFB4 (defensin B4), SERPINB3 (serine proteinase inhibitor, member 3), STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1), K16 (keratin 16), CEACAMs (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules), and WNT 5A (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A).
  • Growth factor pleiotrophin (PTN) was expressed at higher levels in non-tumor-bearing skin adjacent to excised SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16470182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / A149832; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00102; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-A149572
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Zhong Y, Wang L, Li T, Chen XM: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour showing malignant transformation: a case report and review of the literature. Chin J Dent Res; 2010;13(2):157-62

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour showing malignant transformation: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) is a rare and benign odontogenic neoplasm that affects the jaws.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Keratin-19 / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Odontogenic Tumors / pathology. Odontogenic Tumors / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21264368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-6446
  • [Journal-full-title] The Chinese journal of dental research : the official journal of the Scientific Section of the Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin J Dent Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor
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5. Hafezi-Bakhtiari S, Al-Habeeb A, Ghazarian D: Benign mixed tumor of the skin, hypercellular variant: a case report. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Sep;37(9):e46-9
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  • [Title] Benign mixed tumor of the skin, hypercellular variant: a case report.
  • Microscopic examination showed a well-circumscribed dermally located tumor composed of ductal elements lined by double to multiple cell layers of bland cuboidal inner cells and elongated spindled outer cells with areas showing cribriform and solid growth patterns.
  • Immunohistochemical studies revealed positive immunoreactivity for EMA, CEA, CD117, HWMK, LWMK, CK7, Androgen receptor and S100 in the ductal (epithelial) cells and positive immunereactivity for calponin, SMA, CK 5/6 and p63 in the myoepithelial component.
  • The overall morphology and immunohistochemical profile are that of a benign cutanoues mixed tumor (chondroid syringoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Scalp

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  • (PMID = 19614993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Acevedo-Henao CM, Talagas M, Marianowski R, Pradier O: Recurrent inverted papilloma with intracranial and temporal fossa involvement: A case report and review of the literature. Cancer Radiother; 2010 Jun;14(3):202-5
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  • Inverted papilloma (IP) is a rare nasosinusal benign tumour, with epithelium surface inversion to inside the stroma.
  • As a conclusion, inverted papilloma is a benign tumour with an aggressive course, tendency to recurrence and progression to malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Ear, Middle / pathology. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Hearing Loss, Conductive / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Obstruction / etiology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Petrous Bone / pathology. Petrous Bone / surgery. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Reoperation. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Temporal Lobe / surgery

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20418144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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7. Räsänen K, Vaheri A: TGF-beta1 causes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HaCaT derivatives, but induces expression of COX-2 and migration only in benign, not in malignant keratinocytes. J Dermatol Sci; 2010 May;58(2):97-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] TGF-beta1 causes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HaCaT derivatives, but induces expression of COX-2 and migration only in benign, not in malignant keratinocytes.
  • BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) acts as a tumor promoter by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to a motile phenotype, enabling invasion and metastasis of cancer cells.
  • Cancer-related inflammation, mediated by prostaglandins, has been proposed as a critical mechanism in conversion of benign cells to malignant.
  • OBJECTIVE: Induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), producer of prostaglandins, is thought to be a prerequisite for TGF-beta-induced EMT in benign cells.
  • We used HaCaT derivatives, representative of skin cancer progression, to investigate TGF-beta1 mediated EMT response, and the role of COX-2 in it.
  • RESULTS: TGF-beta1 caused proliferation arrest of benign and malignant HaCaT cells, and changed the epithelial morphology of benign and low-grade malignant cells, but not metastatic cells, to mesenchymal spindle-shape.
  • Epithelial junction proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin were downregulated in all cell lines in response to TGF-beta1, but mesenchymal markers were not induced, suggesting a partial EMT response.
  • COX-2 and migration were induced only in benign HaCaT derivatives.
  • Malignant derivatives did not induce COX-2 in response to TGF-beta 1 treatment, thus emphasizing the role of inflammation in EMT response of benign cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TGF-beta1 operates via distinct mechanisms in inducing EMT and metastasis, and supporting this we show that TGF-beta1 induces COX-2 and promotes the migration of benign cells, but does not further augment the migration of malignant cells, indicating their resistance to TGF-beta1 in the context of motility.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelium / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Mesoderm / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Chemotaxis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Metastasis. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Wound Healing

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20399617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-569X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dermatological science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1
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8. Samaila MO: Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med; 2008 Mar;7(1):6-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Adnexal skin tumors share many features in common and differentiate along one line.
  • METHOD: A 16-year retrospective analysis of all adnexal skin tumors seen in a large University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria from January 1991- December 2006.
  • Only two cases had a clinical diagnosis of adnexal tumor.
  • Tumours of hair follicle were 4 (7.7%) and included trichoepithelioma, characterized microscopically by multiple horn cysts and epithelial tracts connecting abortive pilar structures and a trichofolliculoma.
  • Forty-six lesions (88.5%) were benign and six (11.5%) malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Adnexal skin tumors have distinct histological patterns which differentiates them from other cutaneous tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / classification. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / classification

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  • (PMID = 18702242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1596-3519
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of African medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Afr Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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9. Seili-Bekafigo I, Jonjić N, Stemberger C, Rajković-Molek K: Additional cytomorphological criteria in diagnosis of pilomatricoma--benign tumor with bad reputation. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):117-22
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  • [Title] Additional cytomorphological criteria in diagnosis of pilomatricoma--benign tumor with bad reputation.
  • Pilomatricomas (PM) are benign skin appendageal tumors, with differentiation towards hair-forming cells, usually found in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Sarcoma, Ewing / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Methylene Blue. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20432739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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10. Amat Villegas I, Gómez Dorronsoro ML, López Caballero MC, del Llano Varela P, Pascual Piérola JI, Begoña Larrinaga M: [Metanephric stromal tumor: report of two cases and bibliographic review]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Jan-Feb;59(1):88-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Metanephric stromal tumor: report of two cases and bibliographic review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor del estroma metanéfrico: presentación de dos casos en adultos y revisión de la literatura.
  • RESULTS: Characteristic histologic features include a proliferation of fusocellular cells with alternating cellularity that imparts a nodular appearance and onion-skin cuffing around entrapped renal tubules or vascular structures.
  • According to the 2002 ONS classification of tumours of the urinary system, they have been revised and re-classified as MST CONCLUSION: MST are pediatric benign tumors exceptionally diagnosed in adults.
  • Metanephric stromal tumors are divided into 3 categories based on the presence of epithelial cells, stroma and epithelial cells plus stromal.

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  • (PMID = 16568701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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11. Logié A, Dunois-Lardé C, Rosty C, Levrel O, Blanche M, Ribeiro A, Gasc JM, Jorcano J, Werner S, Sastre-Garau X, Thiery JP, Radvanyi F: Activating mutations of the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR3 are associated with benign skin tumors in mice and humans. Hum Mol Genet; 2005 May 1;14(9):1153-60
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  • [Title] Activating mutations of the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR3 are associated with benign skin tumors in mice and humans.
  • The identification in multiple myeloma and in two epithelial cancers-bladder and cervical carcinomas-of somatic FGFR3 mutations identical to the germinal activating mutations found in skeletal dysplasias, together with functional studies, have suggested an oncogenic role for this receptor.
  • Although acanthosis nigricans, a benign skin tumor, has been found in some syndromes associated with germinal activating mutations of FGFR3, the role of activated FGFR3 in the epidermis has never been investigated.
  • Mice expressing the transgene developed benign epidermal tumors with no sign of malignancy.
  • These skin lesions had features in common with acanthosis nigricans and other benign human skin tumors, including seborrheic keratosis, one of the most common benign epidermal tumors in humans.
  • Our findings directly implicate FGFR3 activation as a major cause of benign epidermal tumors in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression. Keratosis, Seborrheic / genetics. Point Mutation. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15772091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0964-6906
  • [Journal-full-title] Human molecular genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Fgfr3 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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12. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9

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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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13. Saad AG, Mutema GK, Mutasim DF: Benign cutaneous epithelioid Schwannoma: case report and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):45-7
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  • [Title] Benign cutaneous epithelioid Schwannoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors are relatively common.
  • Although variants with epithelioid foci can be present, the pure epithelioid variant of benign cutaneous schwannoma is extremely rare.
  • It was first reported as cutaneous epithelial schwannoma by Kindblom et al in 1998.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Peripheral Nerves / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15677978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 3
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14. De Giorgi V, Pinzani P, Salvianti F, Grazzini M, Orlando C, Lotti T, Pazzagli M, Massi D: Circulating benign nevus cells detected by ISET technique: warning for melanoma molecular diagnosis. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Oct;146(10):1120-4
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  • [Title] Circulating benign nevus cells detected by ISET technique: warning for melanoma molecular diagnosis.
  • Isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells (ISET) allows the identification of circulating tumor cells by filtration according to size.
  • Binucleated and multinucleated cells that fulfilled the criteria for circulating tumor cells were found.
  • The morphological features were similar to those of the excised skin tissue specimen, and the patient was subsequently diagnosed as having a congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • CONCLUSION: The finding that benign nevus cells may circulate in blood brings into question the value of tyrosinase or other melanocytic markers as a molecular surrogate for circulating melanoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Separation / methods. Melanoma / secondary. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Epithelial Cells. Humans. Male


15. Hamama J, Choumi F, Abir B, Elkhatib K, Abouchadi A, Nassih M, Rzin A: [Pindborg's tumor: a propos of a case]. Rev Belge Med Dent (1984); 2010 Oct-Dec;65(4):159-62

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  • [Title] [Pindborg's tumor: a propos of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur de Pindborg: à propos d'un cas.
  • The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor was first described as an entity by Danish pathologist Jens Pindborg in 1955.
  • It is an uncommon and locally invasive benign odontogenic tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Plates. Chin / pathology. Chin / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Odontogenic Tumors / pathology. Odontogenic Tumors / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21384628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0775-0293
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue belge de médecine dentaire
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Belge Med Dent (1984)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor
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16. Weinreb I, O'Malley F, Ghazarian D: Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jul;38(7):1092-5
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  • [Title] Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry.
  • Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma is a rare tumor of the lower neck occurring in adult men, which follows a benign course.
  • They are triphasic with epithelial, adipocytic, and spindled elements in variable amounts.
  • The origin of this tumor has been debated, but it is now believed to arise from remnants of the cervical sinus of His from early development.
  • We describe a case of ectopic hamartomatous thymoma with typical features, as well as multifocal areas of skin adnexal differentiation.
  • We highlighted these by using immunohistochemistry to epithelial membrane antigen, BRST-2, and androgen receptors (AR).
  • Epithelial membrane antigen stained sebaceous cells and the luminal borders of eccrine and apocrine ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Thymoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17574947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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17. Izikson L, Bhan A, Zembowicz A: Androgen receptor expression helps to differentiate basal cell carcinoma from benign trichoblastic tumors. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):91-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Androgen receptor expression helps to differentiate basal cell carcinoma from benign trichoblastic tumors.
  • Histologic differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and benign trichoblastic neoplasms such as trichoepithelioma and trichoblastoma can be difficult on small biopsies.
  • Recent studies have shown androgen receptor expression in a number of mature epithelial structures in the skin and in epithelial neoplasms including basal cell carcinoma.
  • These findings suggested that androgen receptor expression might be a useful adjunct in the histologic differential diagnosis between basal cell carcinoma and benign trichoblastic neoplasms.
  • Therefore, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of androgen receptor expression in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 10 benign trichoblastic tumors (6 trichoepitheliomas and 4 trichoblastomas).
  • These results confirm the lack of expression of androgen receptor in benign trichoblastic neoplasms and indicate that androgen receptor expression by tumor cells points to basal cell carcinoma as the most likely diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15798431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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18. Haass NK, Wladykowski E, Kief S, Moll I, Brandner JM: Differential induction of connexins 26 and 30 in skin tumors and their adjacent epidermis. J Histochem Cytochem; 2006 Feb;54(2):171-82
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  • [Title] Differential induction of connexins 26 and 30 in skin tumors and their adjacent epidermis.
  • Gap junctions (GJs) have been shown to play a role in tumor progression including a variety of keratinocyte-derived and non-keratinocyte-derived skin tumors.
  • Here we show that the synthesis of the GJ proteins connexin 26 and connexin 30 (Cx26 and Cx30) is induced in keratinocyte-derived epithelial skin tumors whereas there is either no change or a downregulation of Cx43.
  • Cx26, Cx30, and Cx43 are absent in non-epithelial skin tumors.
  • Further, Cx26 and Cx30 are induced in the epidermis adjacent to malignant melanoma but absent in the epidermis adjacent to benign non-epithelial skin lesions (melanocytic nevi and angioma).
  • The keratinocyte-derived skin tumors are very heterogeneous regarding the Cx26/Cx30 pattern in the epidermis at the periphery of the tumors.
  • We further discuss the putative roles of these gap junctional proteins in tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Connexins / biosynthesis. Epidermis / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16046668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / GJB6 protein, human; 127120-53-0 / connexin 26; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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19. Velazquez EF, Werchniack AE, Granter SR: Desmoplastic/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. A diagnostically challenging tumor mimicking a scar: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):333-9
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. A diagnostically challenging tumor mimicking a scar: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases.
  • Desmoplastic cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are rare neoplasms with an increased risk of local recurrence and metastasis usually affecting sun-exposed skin of the elderly.
  • Microscopically, they are characterized by elongated cords of atypical epithelial cells associated with a prominent (usually reactive) desmoplastic stroma.
  • To expand this clinicopathologic spectrum, we report 6 cases of an unusual variant of desmoplastic SCC in which the "desmoplastic" areas are predominantly composed of cytologically bland malignant spindle cells mimicking a reactive/benign scarring process.
  • All tumors affected sun-damaged skin of the head and commonly infiltrated into the subcutaneous fat and deeper structures.
  • Accurate recognition of this entity is essential because of potential misdiagnosis as a benign process including scar and dermatofibroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cicatrix / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20514676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Gerdes MJ, Myakishev M, Frost NA, Rishi V, Moitra J, Acharya A, Levy MR, Park SW, Glick A, Yuspa SH, Vinson C: Activator protein-1 activity regulates epithelial tumor cell identity. Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 1;66(15):7578-88
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  • [Title] Activator protein-1 activity regulates epithelial tumor cell identity.
  • To examine the consequences of inhibiting activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors in skin, transgenic mice were generated, which use the tetracycline system to conditionally express A-FOS, a dominant negative that inhibits AP-1 DNA binding.
  • When A-FOS was expressed during chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis, mice do not develop characteristic benign and malignant squamous lesions but instead develop benign sebaceous adenomas containing a signature mutation in the H-ras proto-oncogene.
  • Inhibiting AP-1 activity after tumor formation caused squamous tumors to transdifferentiate into sebaceous tumors.
  • In both cases of transdifferentiation, individual cells express molecular markers for both cell types, indicating individual tumor cells have the capacity to express multiple lineages.
  • Molecular characterization of cultured keratinocytes and tumor material indicates that AP-1 regulates the balance between the wnt/beta-catenin and hedgehog signaling pathways that determine squamous and sebaceous lineages, respectively.
  • Thus, AP-1 activity regulates tumor cell lineage and is essential to maintain the squamous tumor cell identity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Hyperplasia. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Protein Binding. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Transcriptional Activation. Wnt Proteins / genetics


21. Karaca S, Kulac M, Dilek FH, Polat C, Yilmaz S: Giant proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the gluteal region. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Dec;31(12):1734-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the gluteal region.
  • BACKGROUND: Proliferating trichilemmal tumors are rare cutaneous neoplasms that show features of typical pilar cysts but also show extensive epithelial proliferation, variable cytologic atypia, and mitotic activity.
  • Proliferating trichilemmal tumors are benign lesions; however, there are numerous reports of malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present a case of benign proliferating trichilemmal tumor of an 81-year-old woman that was located on the left superior gluteal region for 30 years.
  • METHODS: A tumor measuring 9 x 7 cm was surgically excised with a 1 cm conservative margin of normal tissue.
  • RESULTS: Based on the histopathologic findings of tumor, this case was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our case is an unusual presentation of proliferating trichilemmal tumor.
  • Physicians should be aware of this entity while differentiating cutaneous tumor located on the gluteal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16336902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Kuivanen TT, Jeskanen L, Kyllönen L, Impola U, Saarialho-Kere UK: Transformation-specific matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-7 and MMP-13, are present in epithelial cells of keratoacanthomas. Mod Pathol; 2006 Sep;19(9):1203-12
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  • [Title] Transformation-specific matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-7 and MMP-13, are present in epithelial cells of keratoacanthomas.
  • Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing hyperproliferative skin tumors that may clinically or histologically be difficult to distinguish from well-differentiated squamous cell cancers (SCCs).
  • MMP-7 was present in the epithelium of 4/31 keratoacanthomas and 9/15 SCCs, MMP-8 in 3/30 keratoacanthomas and 0/15 SCCs, but MMP-13 in 16/31 keratoacanthomas and 10/15 SCCs, and MMP-10 in 28/31 keratoacanthomas and all cancers.
  • MMP-9 was detected in the epithelium in 5/31 keratoacanthomas and 8/15 SCCs, whereas MMP-2 was only present in fibroblasts in both tumors.
  • MMP-19 was upregulated in proliferating epithelium of keratoacanthomas as was p16.
  • We conclude that although some MMPs (MMP-10 and -13) are abundantly expressed in keratoacanthomas, the presence of MMP-7 and -9 in their epithelial pushing border is rare and should raise suspicion of SCC.
  • Frequent expression of the transformation-specific MMP-13 in keratoacanthomas suggests that they are not benign tumors but incomplete SCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / enzymology. Collagenases / metabolism. Keratinocytes / enzymology. Keratoacanthoma / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroblasts / enzymology. Fibroblasts / pathology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 13. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Published online 12 May 2006.
  • (PMID = 16699496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Collagenases; EC 3.4.24.- / MMP13 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinase 13; EC 3.4.24.23 / MMP7 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7
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23. Ahokas K, Skoog T, Suomela S, Jeskanen L, Impola U, Isaka K, Saarialho-Kere U: Matrilysin-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-26) is upregulated in keratinocytes during wound repair and early skin carcinogenesis. J Invest Dermatol; 2005 Apr;124(4):849-56
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  • [Title] Matrilysin-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-26) is upregulated in keratinocytes during wound repair and early skin carcinogenesis.
  • Matrilysin-2 (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-26) is a small protein of the MMP family expressed in some epithelial carcinomas and normal tissues.
  • We studied its role in benign skin disorders characterized by epithelial proliferation, in wound repair, skin cancer, and regulation in keratinocyte (KC) cultures.
  • MMP-26 is expressed by laminin-5-positive KC in the migrating area during wound repair, in benign skin disorders characterized by inflammation and microdisruptions of basement membrane, but in intact skin only in hair follicles.
  • But in tissue samples it either co-localized or was detected in adjacent cells of same regions with the tumor suppressor p16.
  • In KC and HaCaT cell cultures, 12-phorbol-13-myristate-acetate, epidermal growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta1, interleukin-1 (IL-1)beta, IL-6, insulin-like growth factor, gamma-IFN, retinoic acid, dexamethasone, four matrices or ras-transformation were unable to upregulate MMP-26 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology. Keratinocytes / physiology. Matrix Metalloproteinases / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted. Up-Regulation. Wound Healing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15816845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.- / MMP26 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted
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24. Alameda JP, Moreno-Maldonado R, Navarro M, Bravo A, Ramírez A, Page A, Jorcano JL, Fernández-Aceñero MJ, Casanova ML: An inactivating CYLD mutation promotes skin tumor progression by conferring enhanced proliferative, survival and angiogenic properties to epidermal cancer cells. Oncogene; 2010 Dec 16;29(50):6522-32
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  • [Title] An inactivating CYLD mutation promotes skin tumor progression by conferring enhanced proliferative, survival and angiogenic properties to epidermal cancer cells.
  • In contrast with previous studies showing the development of benign tumors by mutations in the CYLD gene, here we provide evidence that the occurrence of mutations in the CYLD gene in tumorigenic epidermal cells (carrying previous mutations) increases the aggressiveness of carcinomas, mainly through enhancement of the expression of angiogenic factors, having therefore a key role in epidermal cancer malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Mutation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / genetics. Cell Survival. Disease Progression. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20838385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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25. Gebhardt C, Breitenbach U, Richter KH, Fürstenberger G, Mauch C, Angel P, Hess J: c-Fos-dependent induction of the small ras-related GTPase Rab11a in skin carcinogenesis. Am J Pathol; 2005 Jul;167(1):243-53
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  • [Title] c-Fos-dependent induction of the small ras-related GTPase Rab11a in skin carcinogenesis.
  • Malignant transformation of mouse skin by tumor promoters and chemical carcinogens, such as the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), is a multistage process leading to the formation of squamous cell carcinomas.
  • It has been shown that mice lacking the AP-1 family member c-Fos exhibit an impaired transition from benign to malignant skin tumors.
  • Here, we demonstrate enhanced expression of the small Ras-related GTPase Rab11a after short-term TPA treatment of mouse back skin.
  • Expression of Rab11a in vivo and in vitro critically depended on c-Fos, because TPA application to the back skin of c-Fos-deficient mice and to mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not induce Rab11a mRNA or protein expression.
  • Moreover, dexamethasone, which is a potent inhibitor of AP-1-mediated transactivation that exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promoting activities, inhibited TPA-induced expression of Rab11a.
  • Enhanced expression was not restricted to chemically induced mouse skin tumors but was also found in tumor specimens derived from patients with epithelial skin tumors.
  • These data identify Rab11a as a novel, tumor-associated c-Fos/AP-1 target and may point to an as yet unrecognized function of Rab11a in the development of skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. rab GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15972968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; EC 3.6.1.- / rab GTP-Binding Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / rab11 protein; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1603444
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26. Mordasky Markell L, Pérez-Lorenzo R, Masiuk KE, Kennett MJ, Glick AB: Use of a TGFbeta type I receptor inhibitor in mouse skin carcinogenesis reveals a dual role for TGFbeta signaling in tumor promotion and progression. Carcinogenesis; 2010 Dec;31(12):2127-35
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  • [Title] Use of a TGFbeta type I receptor inhibitor in mouse skin carcinogenesis reveals a dual role for TGFbeta signaling in tumor promotion and progression.
  • To test this, we treated mouse skin with SB431542 (SB), a well-characterized ALK5 inhibitor, during a two-stage skin carcinogenesis assay.
  • Although there was no difference in tumor cell proliferation in early premalignant lesions, those that formed after SB treatment exhibited reduced squamous differentiation and an altered inflammatory microenvironment similar to SCC.
  • In an inducible epidermal RAS transgenic model, treatment with SB enhanced proliferation and cutaneous inflammation in skin but decreased expression of keratin 1 and increased expression of simple epithelial keratin 18, markers of premalignant progression.
  • In agreement with increased frequency of progression in the multistage model, SB treatment resulted in increased tumor formation with a more malignant phenotype following long-term RAS induction.
  • In contrast to the current paradigm for TGFβ in carcinogenesis, these results demonstrate that cutaneous TGFβ signaling enables promotion of benign tumors but suppresses premalignant progression through context-dependent regulation of epidermal homeostasis and inflammation.

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  • (PMID = 20852150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2180
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0 CA117957; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0 CA122109
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(5-benzo(1,3)dioxol-5-yl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzamide; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Dioxoles; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad2 protein, mouse; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; EC 2.7.1.11 / TGF-beta type I receptor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994279
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27. Torchia EC, Chen Y, Sheng H, Katayama H, Fitzpatrick J, Brinkley WR, Caulin C, Sen S, Roop DR: A genetic variant of Aurora kinase A promotes genomic instability leading to highly malignant skin tumors. Cancer Res; 2009 Sep 15;69(18):7207-15
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  • [Title] A genetic variant of Aurora kinase A promotes genomic instability leading to highly malignant skin tumors.
  • Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) belongs to a highly conserved family of mitotis-regulating serine/threonine kinases implicated in epithelial cancers.
  • Initially we examined Aurora-A expression levels at different stages of human skin cancer.
  • Nuclear Aurora-A was detected in benign lesions and became more diffused but broadly expressed in well and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), indicating that Aurora-A deregulation may contribute to SCC development.
  • To mimic the overexpression of Aurora-A observed in human skin cancers, we established a gene-switch mouse model in which the human variant of Aurora-A (Phe31Ile) was expressed in the epidermis upon topical application of the inducer RU486 (Aurora-AGS).
  • Overexpression of Aurora-A alone or in combination with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), did not result in SCC formation in Aurora-AGS mice.
  • However, Aurora-A overexpression combined with exposure to TPA and the mutagen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene accelerated SCC development with greater metastatic activity than control mice, indicating that Aurora-A cannot initiate skin carcinogenesis but rather promotes the malignant conversion of skin papillomas.
  • Our findings strongly implicate Aurora-A overexpression in the malignant progression of skin tumors and suggest that Aurora-A may be an important therapeutic target.

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  • (PMID = 19738056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089716-05A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105491; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE015344-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105491-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA052607-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA52607; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089716; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE015344; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089716-05A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89716; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE015344-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105491-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA052607-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105491; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA052607; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE15344
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; EC 2.7.11.1 / AURKA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurka protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase A; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS133755; NLM/ PMC2745523
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28. Kizawa K, Toyoda M, Ito M, Morohashi M: Aberrantly differentiated cells in benign pilomatrixoma reflect the normal hair follicle: immunohistochemical analysis of Ca-binding S100A2, S100A3 and S100A6 proteins. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Feb;152(2):314-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrantly differentiated cells in benign pilomatrixoma reflect the normal hair follicle: immunohistochemical analysis of Ca-binding S100A2, S100A3 and S100A6 proteins.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomatrixoma is a common benign cutaneous tumour containing differentiated hair matrix cells.
  • This tumour is mainly composed of basophilic, transitional, shadow and squamoid cells.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize the disordered epithelial elements of pilomatrixoma by localizing S100A2, S100A3 and S100A6 proteins.
  • RESULTS: Tissue-specific distribution of the S100 proteins investigated was preserved in the morphologically disordered tumour tissues.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The epithelial elements of pilomatrixoma can be characterized using S100 proteins as biochemical markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Pilomatrixoma / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Basophils / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Chemotactic Factors / metabolism. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15727645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chemotactic Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100A2 protein, human; 0 / S100A3 protein, human; 105504-00-5 / S100A6 protein, human
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29. Nishihara E, Miyauchi A, Hirokawa M, Kudo T, Ohye H, Ito M, Kubota S, Fukata S, Amino N, Kuma K: Benign thyroid teratomas manifest painful cystic and solid composite nodules: three case reports and a review of the literature. Endocrine; 2006 Oct;30(2):231-6
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  • [Title] Benign thyroid teratomas manifest painful cystic and solid composite nodules: three case reports and a review of the literature.
  • Benign thyroid teratomas are rare in adolescents and adults.
  • We report on three cases of benign thyroid teratomas that presented as painful tumors in the neck after puberty.
  • The tumor adjacent to the thyroid in each case showed rapid enlargement with predominant cystic lesions within several months.
  • Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed few findings suggesting the origin of the tumor.
  • Cytological examination and culture of the aspirate failed to show cells originating from the thyroid or infectious findings, but revealed a small population of columnar epithelial cells or squamous epithelial cells.
  • The patients subsequently underwent resection of the tumor, and microscopic examination revealed various types of tissue including pancreas, adipose, cartilage, muscle, and skin, and the cystic wall was lined by gastric, intestinal, respiratory, and stratified squamous epithelium.
  • Surgical resection was curative, and subsequent histologic examination revealed mature benign teratomas of the thyroid.
  • The main characteristic of our cases presented the painful tumors due to the enlarged cystic formation lined by a variety of different types of epithelium, which agreed with previous cases of benign thyroid teratomas in adolescents and adults.

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  • (PMID = 17322585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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30. Ponnamperuma RM, King KE, Elsir T, Glick AB, Wahl GM, Nister M, Weinberg WC: The transcriptional regulatory function of p53 is essential for suppression of mouse skin carcinogenesis and can be dissociated from effects on TGF-beta-mediated growth regulation. J Pathol; 2009 Oct;219(2):263-74
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  • [Title] The transcriptional regulatory function of p53 is essential for suppression of mouse skin carcinogenesis and can be dissociated from effects on TGF-beta-mediated growth regulation.
  • Transcriptional regulation by p53 is critical for p53-mediated tumour suppression; however, p53-mediated transactivation has been dissociated from p53-mediated biological processes including apoptosis, DNA repair, and differentiation.
  • We applied in vitro endpoints correlated with epithelial tumourigenesis and an in vivo assay of tumour phenotype to assess whether loss of p53-mediated transcriptional regulation underlies the malignant phenotype of p53(-/-)/v-ras(Ha)-overexpressing keratinocytes.
  • The p53(QS - val135) allele did not confer a dominant-negative phenotype, as p53(+/QS - val135) keratinocytes senesced normally in response to v-ras(Ha) expression and formed benign tumours.
  • These findings support an essential role for p53-mediated transcriptional regulation in suppressing malignancies arising from ras-induced skin tumours, consistent with previous findings in spontaneous carcinogenesis in other organs, and highlight the potential importance of senescence for tumour suppression in vivo.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • (PMID = 19718706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100845; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100845-05; United States / FDA HHS / BO / Z01 BO04006-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS146961; NLM/ PMC4208754
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31. Baumhoer D, Pförtner R, Mohr C, Jundt G: Tubulopapillary hidradenoma-like tumor of the mandible. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Aug;38(8):903-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tubulopapillary hidradenoma-like tumor of the mandible.
  • Tubulopapillary hidradenomas are uncommon benign tumors of the dermis, most commonly occurring in the skin of the head or of the extremities.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Curettage. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Jaw Cysts / diagnosis. Male. Mandible / surgery. Mandibular Diseases / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Osteolysis / diagnosis. Osteotomy

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  • (PMID = 19375892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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32. Bhadani PP, Sen R, Bhadani UK, Karki S, Agarwal S: Is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) useful in skin adnexal masses? A study on 5 cases of pilomatixoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Apr;50(2):411-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) useful in skin adnexal masses? A study on 5 cases of pilomatixoma.
  • Superficial cutaneous/subcutaneous nodules, caused by a variety of inflammatory, benign and malignant pathology of diverse origin, are tempting lesion for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
  • Amongst these, adnexal tumor show considerable overlap, both in clinical manifestation as well as in histopathology.
  • PMX was diagnosed on FNAC in 3 cases on finding groups of basaloid cells, ghost epithelial cells, pink fibrillary material and calcium deposits.
  • Other cases were diagnosed as epidermal inclusion cyst with the differential diagnosis of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and skin appendageal tumor of undetermined origin in one case each.
  • In all the cases, FNAC established epithelial nature of the lesion, excluding clinically mimicking inflammatory/neoplastic lesions of other origin.
  • FNAC should be followed by excision biopsy to accurately type the epithelial neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17883095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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33. Kemmerling R, Dietze O, Müller S, Neureiter D: Aspects of the differential diagnosis of clear-cell lesions of the skin in connection with the rare case of a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(5):365-70
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  • [Title] Aspects of the differential diagnosis of clear-cell lesions of the skin in connection with the rare case of a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Clear-cell changes are rare in histological specimens of the dermis and raise complex diagnostic considerations regarding lineage differentiation (e.g., epithelial, mesenchymal, or melanocytic).
  • We present a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFX) and describe the morphological and immunohistochemical aspects of this rare skin lesion.
  • Furthermore, we give an overview of the differential diagnoses of clear-cell lesions of the skin for a practical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nose / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19155147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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34. Tatiana K S C, Somers GR, Pope E, Zuker RM: Predisposing factors and outcomes of malignant skin tumors in children. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Aug;126(2):508-14
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  • [Title] Predisposing factors and outcomes of malignant skin tumors in children.
  • BACKGROUND: Although benign and metastatic tumors occur in children, primary malignant skin tumors are uncommon in the pediatric population.
  • In this study, the authors aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, treatment, reconstruction details, and outcome of malignant skin tumors occurring in pediatric patients at the Hospital for Sick Children.
  • METHODS: The electronic database (CoPath) of the pathology department was searched for all cases of malignant skin tumors treated surgically between January of 2000 and September of 2008.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen patients had been diagnosed and treated surgically for malignant skin tumors.
  • All cases of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma underwent surgical resection and primary closure or skin graft.
  • Of the patients with malignant melanoma, seven underwent surgical excision and primary closure and five had excision and skin graft.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant skin tumors are rare in children.
  • In accordance with previously published data, malignant melanoma was the most frequent tumor in our study.
  • Epithelial tumors were less common and were all associated with an underlying predisposing condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Skin Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Canada / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Causality. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Databases, Factual. Dermatology / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20375763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Cribier B, Worret WI, Braun-Falco M, Peltre B, Langbein L, Schweizer J: Expression patterns of hair and epithelial keratins and transcription factors HOXC13, LEF1, and beta-catenin in a malignant pilomatricoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):1-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

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  • [Title] Expression patterns of hair and epithelial keratins and transcription factors HOXC13, LEF1, and beta-catenin in a malignant pilomatricoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.
  • BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that benign pilomatricomas not only maintain the sequential expression of the hair matrix and precortex keratins hHa5 and hHa1 of normal hair follicles in their transitional cell compartment, but also preserve the association of hHa5 expression with that of its regulatory homeoprotein HOXC13 in the lower transitional cell compartment.
  • METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin sections of the tumor were examined using a panel of mono- and polyclonal hair and epithelial keratin antibodies as well as antibodies against HOXC13, LEF1, and beta-catenin.
  • RESULTS: Morphologically, the malignant pilomatricoma investigated here clearly deviated from the described major tumor type by a large number of differently sized parakeratotic squamoid whorls emerging within the mass of basaloid cells and surrounded by cells remembering transitional cells, but only rarely containing shadow cells and signs of calcification.
  • We show that hHa5/HOXC13 co-expression was maintained in transitional cell areas, in which hHa1 expression was much stronger than in benign pilomatricomas, but again uncoupled from concomitant nuclear LEF1/beta-catenin expression.
  • Surprisingly, however, and in clear contrast to benign pilomatricomas, these transitional cells co-expressed the epithelial keratins K5, K14, and K17, with the latter being as strongly expressed as hHa1, both also staining the entire inner mass of the parakeratotic whorls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although the malignant pilomatricoma investigated here was distinctive in that it contained a multitude of parakeratinizing whorls and no signs of calcification, it shared both hHa5/HOXC13 co-expression and disrupted hHa1/beta-catenin-LEF1 expression in its transitional cell compartment around the whorls with benign pilomatricomas.
  • However, in clear contrast to the latter, transitional cells of the malignant tumor also strongly expressed the epithelial keratins K5, K14, and K17.
  • We speculate that the observed dominance of the epithelial differentiation pathway over the competing conventional shadow cell differentiation pathway may prevent massive calcification of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair / metabolism. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Pilomatrixoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1 / metabolism. Male. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16441405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / HOXC13 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / LEF1 protein, human; 0 / Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / beta Catenin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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36. Weyers W, Hörster S, Diaz-Cascajo C: Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):634-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor of follicular infundibulum (TFI) is currently thought to be a benign epithelial neoplasm with follicular differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19652582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Shih B, McGrouther DA, Bayat A: Identification of novel keloid biomarkers through profiling of tissue biopsies versus cell cultures in keloid margin specimens compared to adjacent normal skin. Eplasty; 2010;10:e24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of novel keloid biomarkers through profiling of tissue biopsies versus cell cultures in keloid margin specimens compared to adjacent normal skin.
  • OBJECTIVE: Keloid disease (KD) is a benign fibroproliferative skin tumor that results from abnormal wound healing and has no single definitive treatment.
  • Keloid margins and unaffected skin were obtained from KD patients (n = 4).
  • The top-5 fold changes range from 10-fold to 175-fold, including aggrecan; asporin; inhibin, beta A; tumor necrosis factor-alpha inducible protein 6; and chromosome 5 open reading frame 13.

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  • (PMID = 20418938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-5719
  • [Journal-full-title] Eplasty
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eplasty
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851107
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38. Rothberg BE, Moeder CB, Kluger H, Halaban R, Elder DE, Murphy GF, Lazar A, Prieto V, Duncan LM, Rimm DL: Nuclear to non-nuclear Pmel17/gp100 expression (HMB45 staining) as a discriminator between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Mod Pathol; 2008 Sep;21(9):1121-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nuclear to non-nuclear Pmel17/gp100 expression (HMB45 staining) as a discriminator between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • The methods validated the expected cytoplasmic HMB45 staining pattern in 70/108 malignant lesions and in the epithelial components of nevus specimens.
  • The odds ratio associated with a sample being a nevus was 2.24 (95% CI: 1.87-2.69, P<0.0001) for each 0.1 unit increase of the ln(nuclear/non-nuclear AQUA score ratio) to yield an ROC curve with 0.93 units of area and a simultaneously maximized sensitivity of 0.92 and specificity of 0.80 for distinguishing benign nevi from malignant melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 18552823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121974-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114277-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114277-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA01142777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50 CA121974
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PMEL protein, human; 0 / Si protein, mouse; 0 / gp100 Melanoma Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS67484; NLM/ PMC2570478
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39. Liegl B, Hornick JL, Fletcher CD: Primary cutaneous PEComa: distinctive clear cell lesions of skin. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):608-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous PEComa: distinctive clear cell lesions of skin.
  • PEComas arising in somatic soft tissue or skin are rare.
  • Tumor size ranged from 0.7 to 2 cm (median size, 1.5 cm).
  • Tumor cells had clear, palely eosinophilic or granular cytoplasm.
  • Multinucleate tumor giant cells were observed in 3 cases.
  • In cases where HMB-45 was positive in fewer than 5% of tumor cells (5/10), microphthalmia transcription factor was positive in the majority of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • The other muscle markers (caldesmon, calponin) and also pan-keratin and epithelial membrane antigen were negative.
  • Primary cutaneous PEComas are rare and thus far apparently benign cutaneous tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / analysis. Dermis / pathology. Desmin / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / analysis. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Mucin-1 / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Subcutaneous Fat / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2016 Feb;38(2):165-6 [26825164.001]
  • (PMID = 18277881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / calponin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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40. Kuczkowski J, Izycka-Swieszewska E, Plichta Ł, Cieszyńska J: [Combined tumor of ceruminous gland origin in the external auditory canal--a histopathological and immunohistochemical study]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2010 Nov-Dec;64(6):385-7

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  • [Title] [Combined tumor of ceruminous gland origin in the external auditory canal--a histopathological and immunohistochemical study].
  • OBJECTIVES: We present a case of a combined tumor consisting of solid tubular gland adenoma (TA) and syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) of the external auditory canal and review of the literature on this subject.
  • METHODS: Tumour of the external auditory canal was removed by retroauricular approach with good clinical outcome.
  • RESULTS: In the histopathological assessment tumour revealed an extraordinary combination of syringocystadenoma papilliferum and ceruminous tubular gland adenoma pattern.
  • It was positive for epithelial markers with presence of basal type cytokeratins.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tubular gland adenoma and syringocystadenoma papilliferum are benign tumors originating from ceruminous glands of the skin, characterized by very rare occurrence especially in the skin of the external auditory canal.
  • Every tumor arising from the external auditory canal should be examined histologically and immunohistochemically in order to choose the best treatment option.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21302507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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41. Laco J, Simáková E, Svobodová J, Ryska A: Recurrent mucinous carcinoma of skin mimicking primary mucinous carcinoma of parotid gland: a diagnostic pitfall. Cesk Patol; 2009 Jul;45(3):79-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent mucinous carcinoma of skin mimicking primary mucinous carcinoma of parotid gland: a diagnostic pitfall.
  • The lateral parotidectomy specimen showed a poorly circumscribed gelatinous tumor measuring 15 mm in diameter within the parotid gland tissue.
  • Microscopically, the lesion featured large pools of mucin containing clusters of tumor cells with little atypia and low mitotic activity.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed expression of epithelial markers and of both estrogen and progesterone receptors.
  • Left lateral neck dissection revealed massive lymphogenous dissemination of the tumor.
  • Retrospective analysis of a skin biopsy from the same anatomic area performed 8 years prior to parotid neoplasm displayed a tumor with identical microscopic appearance and immunohistochemical profile (additionally performed) which was, however, misdiagnosed as a benign lesion.
  • The diagnosis of recurrent primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin infiltrating the parotid gland was established.
  • The differential diagnostics of this rare tumor is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19764163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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42. Kazakov DV, Bisceglia M, Sima R, Michal M: Adenosis tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands: a case report and demonstration of clonality by HUMARA assay. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):43-6
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  • [Title] Adenosis tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands: a case report and demonstration of clonality by HUMARA assay.
  • In mammary pathology, adenosis tumor is defined as a clinically recognizable lesion that histologically primarily consists of adenosis, but also exhibits various combinations of diverse epithelial changes seen in other benign breast diseases.
  • A lesion that occurred in the anogenital area of a 46-year-old woman and apparently arose in anogenital mammary-like glands is described and which, in our opinion, is best classified as adenosis tumor.
  • Several histological patterns within the same tumor mass were recognizable: sclerosing adenosis-like changes, variably sized microcysts and cysts, some with rare short papillary projections having hyalinized cores, rare tubular structures exhibiting epithelial features reminiscent of simple ductal hyperplasia, areas with oxyphilic (apocrine) metaplasia, and clear cell epithelial changes resembling mucinous metaplasia.
  • Antibodies to progesterone and estrogen receptor stained approximately 50 and 20% of the epithelial cell population, respectively.
  • As our case exhibited a number of patterns identical to those seen in diverse benign breast diseases, its classification as adenosis tumor seems justifiable.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Clone Cells / metabolism. Clone Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16441411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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43. De Andrea M, Rittà M, Landini MM, Borgogna C, Mondini M, Kern F, Ehrenreiter K, Baccarini M, Marcuzzi GP, Smola S, Pfister H, Landolfo S, Gariglio M: Keratinocyte-specific stat3 heterozygosity impairs development of skin tumors in human papillomavirus 8 transgenic mice. Cancer Res; 2010 Oct 15;70(20):7938-48
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  • [Title] Keratinocyte-specific stat3 heterozygosity impairs development of skin tumors in human papillomavirus 8 transgenic mice.
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the genus β are thought to play a role in human skin cancers, but this has been difficult to establish using epidemiologic approaches.
  • To gain insight into the transforming activities of β-HPV, transgenic mouse models have been generated that develop skin tumors.
  • Recent evidence suggests a central role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) as a transcriptional node for cancer cell-autonomous initiation of a tumor-promoting gene signature associated with cell proliferation, cell survival, and angiogenesis.
  • In this study, we investigate the in vivo role of Stat3 in HPV8-induced skin carcinogenesis by combining our established experimental model of HPV8-induced skin cancer with epidermis-restricted Stat3 ablation.
  • Three of the 23 (13%) Stat3(+/-):HPV8 animals developed tumors within 12 weeks of life, whereas 54.3% of Stat3(+/+):HPV8 mice already exhibited tumors in the same observation period (median age for tumor appearance, 10 weeks).
  • The few tumors that arose in the Stat3(+/-):HPV8 mice were benign and never progressed to a more malignant phenotype.
  • Collectively, these results offer direct evidence of a critical role for Stat3 in HPV8-driven epithelial carcinogenesis.
  • Our findings imply that targeting Stat3 activity in keratinocytes may be a viable strategy to prevent and treat HPV-induced skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] STAT3 Transcription Factor / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20876801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Birc5 protein, mouse; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Integrin alpha6beta1; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor
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44. Stelkovics E, Korom I, Marczinovits I, Molnar J, Rasky K, Raso E, Ficsor L, Molnar B, Kopper L, Krenacs T: Collagen XVII/BP180 protein expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin detected with novel monoclonal antibodies in archived tissues using tissue microarrays and digital microscopy. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 Oct;16(5):433-41
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  • [Title] Collagen XVII/BP180 protein expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin detected with novel monoclonal antibodies in archived tissues using tissue microarrays and digital microscopy.
  • In this work, highly sensitive monoclonal antibodies 6D1 and 9G2 were produced, characterized, and used for the detection of collagen XVII in a tissue microarray series of archived samples of nonmelanocytic epithelial neoplasias, including 5 verruca vulgaris, 14 seborrheic keratosis, 38 actinic keratosis, 38 basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 15 basosquamous carcinoma, 58 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 9 normal skin.
  • In normal skin and benign epidermal lesions, collagen XVII protein was restricted to basal keratinocytes.
  • However, possibly as a sign of undifferentiated/transformed state, it was widely expressed in SCC showing elevated levels around invasive tumor fronts with some staining in tumor adjacent stroma, endothelium, and histiocytes.
  • Further investigations are under way to analyze the potential of these antibodies for tracing progression and metastatic potential of skin tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18633319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Non-Fibrillar Collagens; 0 / collagen type XVII
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45. Aractingi S, Kanitakis J, Euvrard S, Le Danff C, Peguillet I, Khosrotehrani K, Lantz O, Carosella ED: Skin carcinoma arising from donor cells in a kidney transplant recipient. Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 1;65(5):1755-60
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  • [Title] Skin carcinoma arising from donor cells in a kidney transplant recipient.
  • The incidence of skin cancer is increased in transplant recipients.
  • Herein, we investigated the possible involvement of donor cells in the development of skin tumors in kidney allograft recipients.
  • We analyzed a series of 48 malignant and benign cutaneous tumors developing in 14 females who had been grafted with a male kidney.
  • Male cells were detected in 5/15 squamous cell carcinomas and Bowen disease (range 4-180 copies), 3/5 basal cell carcinomas (91-645), 6/11 actinic keratosis (7-102), 2/4 keratoacanthoma (22-41), and 2/5 benign cutaneous lesions (14-55).
  • In this lesion, immuno-FISH showed the presence of XY cytokeratin-positive cells indicating that the tumor nests contained male keratinocytes.
  • In contrast, in other female transplants, male cells present in the tumors were not epithelial.
  • In conclusion, stem cells originating from a grafted kidney may migrate to the skin, differentiate, or fuse as keratinocytes that could, rarely, undergo cancer transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Skin Diseases / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Stem Cells / pathology. Tissue Donors


46. Miot HA, Miot LD, da Costa AL, Matsuo CY, Stolf HO, Marques ME: Association between solitary keratoacanthoma and cigarette smoking: a case-control study. Dermatol Online J; 2006;12(2):2
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  • Solitary keratoacanthoma (KA) is a common benign epithelial tumor of the skin characterized by rapid growth and a tendency toward spontaneous regression.

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  • (PMID = 16638395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Nagaraj PB, Ongole R, Bhujanga-Rao BR: Granular cell tumor of the tongue in a 6-year-old girl--a case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2006 Mar;11(2):E162-4

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  • [Title] Granular cell tumor of the tongue in a 6-year-old girl--a case report.
  • Granular cell tumor is a relatively uncommon benign hamartomatous lesion occurring in almost any part of the body.
  • Granular cell lesions may be found in other diverse sites such as the jaw, skin, gastro intestinal tract and respiratory tract.
  • However, histochemical and ultra structural studies propose the origin of the lesion from schwann cells, striated muscle, mesenchymal cells, histiocytes and epithelial cells.
  • The tumor generally occurs in middle or older aged adults.
  • The lesion is typically seen as an uninflammed asymptomatic mass measuring about two cms in diameter with a yellowish surface coloration.
  • As most of the granular cell tumors are benign, surgical excision of the lesion is the treatment of choice.
  • We describe a case of granular cell tumor of the tongue in a 6 year old girl along with a brief review of literature on granular cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor. Tongue Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16505796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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48. Arsenovic N, Sen S, Naik V, Reed M, Moreira R: Trichilemmal cyst with carcinoma in situ within an atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Aug;31(6):587-90
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  • However, the tumor was negative for cytokeratins (AE1/AE3), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S100, Melan A, HMB45, leukocyte common antigen (LCA), desmin, and CD31.
  • Within the AFX, there was also a cyst lined by squamous epithelium showing pilar keratinization.
  • The epithelium showed full-thickness dysplasia with increased mitotic activity and was stained positively with AE1/AE3, thus supporting our view of carcinoma in situ within the wall of the cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19590414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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49. Kumar B: Chondroid syringoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jan;38(1):38-40
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  • Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region.
  • It used to be previously called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components.
  • Overlying skin was normal, and the swelling was fixed to the skin but freely mobile over underlying structure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19693940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Tardío JC: CD34-reactive tumors of the skin. An updated review of an ever-growing list of lesions. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Dec;35(12):1079-92
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  • [Title] CD34-reactive tumors of the skin. An updated review of an ever-growing list of lesions.
  • The list contains benign and malignant neoplasms as well as reactive and hamartomatous lesions of diverse lineages of differentiation, including fibroblastic, myofibroblastic, fibrohistiocytic, vascular, neural, adipocytic, smooth muscle, hematopoietic, melanocytic and epithelial.
  • The CD34 expression plays a key role in the differential diagnosis of some tumors, such as dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, epithelioid sarcoma (ES) or pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts, with important therapeutic consequences.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Lineage. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis / diagnosis. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis / pathology. Humans. Integumentary System / pathology. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin / immunology. Skin / pathology

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  • [RepublishedIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Jan;36(1):89-102 [19125742.001]
  • (PMID = 18976402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 171
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51. Gerber PA, Schulte KW, Ruzicka T, Bruch-Gerharz D: Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient. Dermatology; 2008;216(3):229-33
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  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the sweat gland, characterized by a broad spectrum of clinicopathologic presentations.
  • Surprisingly, unlike its benign counterpart eccrine poroma, eccrine porocarcinoma is seldom found in areas with a high density of eccrine sweat glands, like the palms or soles.
  • Instead, eccrine porocarcinoma frequently occurs on the lower extremities, trunk and abdomen, but also on the head, resembling various other skin tumors, as illustrated in the patients described herein.
  • All patients were initially diagnosed as having epidermal or melanocytic skin tumors.
  • Only after histopathologic examination were they classified as eccrine porocarcinoma, showing features of epithelial tumors with abortive ductal differentiation.
  • Porocarcinomas are commonly overlooked, or misinterpreted as squamous or basal cell carcinomas as well as other common malignant and even benign skin tumors.
  • Knowledge of the clinical pattern and histologic findings, therefore, is crucial for an early therapeutic intervention, which can reduce the risk of tumor recurrence and serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18182815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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52. Skoog T, Elomaa O, Pasonen-Seppänen SM, Forsberg S, Ahokas K, Jeskanen L, Pärssinen J, Tiala I, Rollman O, Lohi J, Saarialho-Kere U: Matrix metalloproteinase-21 expression is associated with keratinocyte differentiation and upregulated by retinoic acid in HaCaT cells. J Invest Dermatol; 2009 Jan;129(1):119-30
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  • In the skin, expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) occurs in response to tissue injury, tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation.
  • The recently cloned MMP-21 has been implicated in skin development and various epithelial cancers.
  • In this study, we found that it is also expressed by differentiated keratinocytes (KCs) in various benign skin disorders, in which it was not associated with KC apoptosis or proliferation, and in organotypic cultures.
  • In stably transfected A431 and HEK293 cell lines, MMP-21 increased invasion of cells but did not associate with increased apoptosis, proliferation, or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
  • Of various agents tested in HaCaT cell cultures, only retinoic acid (10(-6) M) and staurosporine (2.5 x 10(-8) M) upregulated MMP-21 mRNA and protein expression, whereas tumor promoters, hormones, or dexamethasone were without effect.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Collagen / metabolism. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Humans. Rats. Staurosporine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18633436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 3.4.24.- / MMP21 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted; H88EPA0A3N / Staurosporine
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53. Brideau G, Mäkinen MJ, Elamaa H, Tu H, Nilsson G, Alitalo K, Pihlajaniemi T, Heljasvaara R: Endostatin overexpression inhibits lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in mice. Cancer Res; 2007 Dec 15;67(24):11528-35
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  • Endostatin, a proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth.
  • We studied the development of carcinogen-induced skin tumors in transgenic J4 mice overexpressing endostatin in their keratinocytes.
  • Unexpectedly, we did not observe any differences in tumor incidence and multiplicity between these and control mice, nor in the rate of conversion of benign papillomas to malignant squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).
  • We observed an inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by endostatin at an early stage in skin tumor development, but more strikingly, there was a significant reduction in lymphatic vessels in the papillomas and SCCs in association with elevated endostatin levels and also a significant inhibition of lymph node metastasis in the J4 mice.
  • We showed that tumor-infiltrating mast cells strongly expressed vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), and that the accumulation of these cells was markedly decreased in the tumors of the J4 mice.
  • Our data suggest that endostatin can inhibit tumor lymphangiogenesis by decreasing the VEGF-C levels in the tumors, apparently via inhibition of mast cell migration and adhesion, and support the view that the biological effects of endostatin are not restricted to endothelial cells because endostatin also regulates tumor-associated inflammation and differentiation, and the phenotype of epithelial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Endostatins / genetics. Lymphatic Metastasis / prevention & control. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18089781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endostatins; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
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54. Mentzel T, Schärer L, Kazakov DV, Michal M: Myxoid dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of eight cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Oct;29(5):443-8
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  • Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) represents a locally aggressive mesenchymal neoplasm of skin and subcutis with characteristic clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings.
  • Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 12 cm.
  • Histologically, a nodular growth with peripheral diffuse infiltration, as well as a diffusely infiltrating growth of relatively uniform spindled and stellated tumor cells containing slightly enlarged nuclei, was noted.
  • Three cases were entirely myxoid, and in five cases more than 80% of the tumor area showed myxoid stromal changes.
  • Scattered enlarged tumor cells were seen in two cases.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells in all cases stained positively for CD34, and in one case each a focal expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) was noted.
  • In conclusion, myxoid DFSP represents a very rare morphologic variant with characteristic changes that has to be distinguished from benign and malignant myxoid mesenchymal neoplasms as superficial angiomyxoma, superficial acral fibromyxoma, myxoid solitary fibrous tumor, myxoid perineurioma, low-grade myxofibrosarcoma, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, and myxoid synovial sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatofibrosarcoma / immunology. Dermatofibrosarcoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17890911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis; 0 / collagen type I, alpha 1 chain
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55. Kamat G, Yelikar B, Shettar S, Karigoudar MH: Pigmented trichoblastoma with sebaceous hyperplasia. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2009 Sep-Oct;75(5):506-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare benign trichogenic tumour with epithelial and mesenchymal components recapitulating the germinal hair bulb and associated mesenchyme.
  • Microscopy of tumour revealed nodular tumour spanning the entire dermis with collection of mesenchymal cells resembling follicular papilla.
  • There is a need for differentiation of this tumor which is benign, from other pigmented tumors having basaloid arrangement of cells such as basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 19736433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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56. Tardío JC: CD34-reactive tumors of the skin. An updated review of an ever-growing list of lesions. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jan;36(1):89-102
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD34-reactive tumors of the skin. An updated review of an ever-growing list of lesions.
  • The list contains benign and malignant neoplasms as well as reactive and hamartomatous lesions of diverse lineages of differentiation, including fibroblastic, myofibroblastic, fibrohistiocytic, vascular, neural, adipocytic, smooth muscle, hematopoietic, melanocytic and epithelial.
  • The CD34 expression plays a key role in the differential diagnosis of some tumors, such as dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, epithelioid sarcoma or pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts, with important therapeutic consequences.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [RepublishedFrom] J Cutan Pathol. 2008 Dec;35(12):1079-92 [18976402.001]
  • (PMID = 19125742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Corrected and Republished Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
  • [Number-of-references] 171
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57. Freier K, Pungs S, Flechtenmacher C, Hofele C: [Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling in keratocystic odontogenic tumors]. HNO; 2009 Apr;57(4):345-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Keratocystic odontogenic tumors are benign neoplasms of the viscerocranium that occur sporadically as well as in association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.
  • Multiple basal cell carcinomas of the skin are another typical feature of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.
  • RESULTS: High expression of the analyzed proteins-between 67.3% (PTCH1) and 92.9% (SHH)-was found in the epithelial compartment of the keratocystic odontogenic tumors analyzed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19082818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins
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58. Pham TT, Selim MA, Burchette JL Jr, Madden J, Turner J, Herman C: CD10 expression in trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Feb;33(2):123-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoepithelioma (TE) is a benign neoplasm that shares both clinical and histologic features with basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • Cases were analyzed for pattern of CD10 expression by tumor cells and surrounding stroma.
  • No TE demonstrated epithelial expression alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16420307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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59. Sivakumar S: Pilomatrixoma as a diagnostic pitfall in fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):583-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomatrixoma (pilomatrixoma, calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe) is a relatively uncommon, benign neoplasm arising from the skin adnexa.
  • The tumor can cause diagnostic difficulty not only for the clinician but also for the cytologist.
  • Three preliminary differential diagnoses were offered: mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland, squamous cell carcinomatous deposit in a submandibular lymph node and calcifying odontogenic tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The cytologic presentation of pilomatrixoma of the right submandibular region can masquerade as that of a malignant tumor, in this case mucoepidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or odontogenic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17718128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Malhaire C, El Khoury C, Thibault F, Athanasiou A, Petrow P, Ollivier L, Tardivon A: Vacuum-assisted biopsies under MR guidance: results of 72 procedures. Eur Radiol; 2010 Jul;20(7):1554-62
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  • According to histopathology results, 29 lesions were benign, 10 were high-risk (papillary = 2, radial scar = 1, atypical epithelial hyperplasia = 7) and 33 malignant (ductal carcinoma in situ = 8, invasive cancers = 25).
  • Three false negative results and 3 complications occurred (1 malaise, 1 skin defect, 1 infection).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Bleomycin. Breast / surgery. Dactinomycin. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden. Vacuum. Vinblastine

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  • (PMID = 20119729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; VAB protocol
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61. Roesch A, Becker B, Meyer S, Wild P, Hafner C, Landthaler M, Vogt T: Retinoblastoma-binding protein 2-homolog 1: a retinoblastoma-binding protein downregulated in malignant melanomas. Mod Pathol; 2005 Sep;18(9):1249-57
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  • Whereas benign melanocytic nevi are RBP2-H1 positive in about 70% of the cases, a lack of RBP2-H1 expression was found in 90% of the primary malignant melanomas and 70% of the melanoma metastases, respectively.
  • Interestingly, a similar deficiency can be found in glioblastomas, but not epithelial cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / deficiency. Melanoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / deficiency
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunoprecipitation. Molecular Sequence Data. Nevus / metabolism. Phylogeny. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 2. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15803180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.14.11.- / KDM5A protein, human; EC 1.14.11.- / Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 2
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62. Izumi M, Ohara K, Hoashi T, Nakayama H, Chiu CS, Nagai T, Matsubayashi J, Iwaya K, Mukai K: Subungual melanoma: histological examination of 50 cases from early stage to bone invasion. J Dermatol; 2008 Nov;35(11):695-703
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  • It is extremely difficult to differentiate it histologically from benign melanonychia striata or melanocytic nevus, especially in the early stage.
  • From these observations, we would like to propose three new pathological clues of early stage subungual melanoma: (i) "skip lesion", proliferation of the tumor cells are more prominent in the hyponychium than in the nail bed or nail matrix;.
  • (ii) histological confirmation of Hutchinson's sign; and (iii) epithelial thickening and/or compact arrangement of the elongated basal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nail Diseases / pathology. Nails / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19120763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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63. Ohsie SJ, Sarantopoulos GP, Cochran AJ, Binder SW: Immunohistochemical characteristics of melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 May;35(5):433-44
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  • Melanoma has a wide spectrum of histologic features which mimic epithelial, hematologic, mesenchymal, and neural tumors.
  • Immunohistochemistry has been the primary tool to distinguish melanomas from these other tumors; it has also been studied for use as an adjunct to distinguish benign and malignant melanocytic tumors and to elucidate prognosis.
  • Ki67 remains the most useful adjunct in distinguishing benign from malignant melanocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Melanoma / chemistry. S100 Proteins / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18399807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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64. McNiff JM, Subtil A, Cowper SE, Lazova R, Glusac EJ: Cellular digital fibromas: distinctive CD34-positive lesions that may mimic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jul;32(6):413-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Digital fibromas are common benign acral tumors typically reported as angiofibromas (AFs) or acquired digital fibrokeratomas (ADFs).
  • METHODS: We collected 14 acral fibrocytic lesions showing a spindle cell morphology from our files, and evaluated CD34, Factor XIIIa, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and S100 protein staining of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Fibroma / pathology. Fingers / pathology. Neoplasms, Connective Tissue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2006 Nov;33(11):762-3; author reply 764 [17083699.001]
  • (PMID = 15953374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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65. Tokyol C, Aktepe F, Yavas BD, Yildiz H, Aycicek A: Chondroid syringoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):973-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Chondroid syringoma is a benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • The reported incidence of chondroid syringoma among primary skin tumors is low and has been reported at 0.01-0.098%.
  • A diagnosis of benign appendageal tumor of the skin was made.
  • Surgical excision of tumor was done.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Lip / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21053580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Zarovnaya E, Black C: Distinguishing pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia from squamous cell carcinoma in mucosal biopsy specimens from the head and neck. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Aug;129(8):1032-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: To distinguish pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia from invasive squamous cell carcinoma, utilizing a panel of antibodies to various epithelial and stromal elements (p53, matrix metalloproteinase 1, E-cadherin, and collagen IV) that has been shown to be useful in differentiating intestinal adenomas with invasive adenocarcinoma from displaced adenomatous epithelium.
  • RESULTS: We found increased nuclear staining of the invasive tumor cells with p53.
  • There was decreased staining within invasive tumor nests with E-cadherin.
  • There was highly significant increased staining within tumor cells and adjacent stroma with matrix metalloproteinase 1 (P < .001).
  • It appeared fragmented in benign inflamed and malignant areas and therefore was not useful.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Skin Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Cadherins / metabolism. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


67. Esquenazi D, Bussoloti Filho I, Carvalho Mda G, Barros FS: The frequency of human papillomavirus findings in normal oral mucosa of healthy people by PCR. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2010 Jan-Feb;76(1):78-84

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  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus, which belongs to papillomaviridae family, being of low and high risk, which infect the skin and mucous membranes and can induce benign and malign tumor formation.
  • In the oral mucosa they have been associated with oral papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, leucoplakia and oral neoplasia.

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  • (PMID = 20339693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8686
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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68. Clarke LE, Seykora JT: Primary cutaneous adenomyoepithelioma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Aug;34(8):654-7
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  • An 83-year-old Caucasian woman presented to her dermatologist with a 5-cm subcutaneous tumor on her right thigh.
  • Incisional biopsy showed a multinodular tumor composed of variably sized glands comprised of a luminal layer of epithelial cells surrounded by one or more layers of myoepithelial cells.
  • The histopathologic features resembled those of adenomyoepithelioma, an uncommon neoplasm usually encountered within the breast.
  • Primary cutaneous adenomyoepithelioma is very rare yet shares histopathologic features with common cutaneous lesions such as spiradenomas and benign mixed tumors (chondroid syringomas).
  • Primary cutaneous adenomyoepithelioma is part of the spectrum of epithelial-myoepithelial tumors that includes benign mixed tumor, myoepithelioma and myoepithelial carcinoma.
  • This rare tumor may mimic malignant lesions including metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Like its breast counterpart, primary cutaneous adenomyoepithelioma should probably be regarded as a neoplasm of borderline malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17640238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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69. Shimanovich I, Krahl D, Rose C: Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Feb;62(2):277-83
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  • [Title] Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski is a distinct neoplasm within the spectrum of follicular tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoadenoma is a rare benign follicular tumor first described by Nikolowski 50 years ago.
  • Both trichoadenoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma are composed of cords of epithelial cells and cornifying cysts embedded in sclerotic stroma.
  • In trichoadenoma the cystic component predominates, while desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a mostly solid neoplasm.
  • Trichoadenoma is a distinct follicular tumor related but not identical to desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Male. Merkel Cells / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20115950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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70. Canelas MM, Cardoso JC, Andrade PF, Reis JP, Tellechea O: Fibrous histiocytomas: histopathologic review of 95 cases. An Bras Dermatol; 2010 Mar-Apr;85(2):211-5
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  • Fibrous histiocytoma (FH) is a heterogeneous tumor composed of fibroblasts, histiocytes, and blood vessels.
  • We conducted a retrospective histopathologic analysis of 95 biopsies, performed over the last 3.5 years, of fibrous histiocytomas to analyze the location, delimitation, epithelial changes, induction of folliculo-sebaceous structures, cellularity, vascularity, collagen pattern, and types of composite cells of the FH.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20520936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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71. Agoston AT, Liang CW, Richkind KE, Fletcher JA, Vargas SO: Trisomy 18 is a consistent cytogenetic feature in pilomatricoma. Mod Pathol; 2010 Aug;23(8):1147-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pilomatricoma, also known as 'calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe', is a common skin adnexal tumor that mimics hair growth.
  • This aberration was corroborated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, using a chromosome 18 pericentromeric probe, in the basaloid epithelial component of 7 of 11 pilomatricomas, including the index case.
  • Trisomy 18 was present in a small subset of cells, suggesting a role in pilomatricoma progression, rather than in tumor initiation.
  • We conclude that trisomy 18 is a consistent feature in pilomatricoma, suggesting that genes carried on this chromosome, such as that for the antiapoptotic oncoprotein BCL2, may have a role in the growth and differentiation of this benign self-limited tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18. Hair Diseases / genetics. Pilomatrixoma / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Trisomy

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  • (PMID = 20495544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Vucić M, Cupić H, Tomić K, Kruslin B: An unusual pattern of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia associated with cutaneous primary melanoma: report of two cases with analysis of p53 and bcl-2 immunoreactivity. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2007;15(2):72-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH) is a benign, reactive epithelial proliferation.
  • PEH is characterized by hyperplasia of the epidermis or adnexal epithelium into irregular squamous strands that extend deep down into the subjacent dermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17631784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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73. Gurumurthy S, Hezel AF, Sahin E, Berger JH, Bosenberg MW, Bardeesy N: LKB1 deficiency sensitizes mice to carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;68(1):55-63
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  • Germ line-inactivating mutation of Lkb1 leads to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, which is characterized by benign hamartomas and a susceptibility to malignant epithelial tumors.
  • The basis for Lkb1-dependent tumor suppression is not defined.
  • Lkb1(+/-) mice are highly prone to DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin and lung.
  • Confirming a cell autonomous tumor suppressor role of Lkb1, mice with epidermal-specific Lkb1 deletion are also susceptible to DMBA-induced SCC and develop spontaneous SCC with long latency.
  • Restoration of wild-type Lkb1 causes senescence in tumor-derived cell lines, a process that can be partially bypassed by inactivation of the Rb pathway, but not by inactivation of p53 or AMPK.
  • Our data indicate that Lkb1 is a potent suppressor of carcinogen-induced skin and lung cancers and that downstream targets beyond the AMPK-mTOR pathway are likely mediators of Lkb1-dependent tumor suppression.

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  • (PMID = 18172296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA104647; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA117969; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 K01 CA104647; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P01 CA117969
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; EC 2.7.1.- / Stk11 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS171049; NLM/ PMC3739055
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74. Saadat P, Doostan A, Vadmal MS: Folliculosebaceous smooth muscle hamartoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Jun;56(6):1021-5
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  • Cutaneous hamartomas are a group of heterogenous benign skin conditions demonstrating epithelial and mesenchymal components in varying proportions.
  • Folliculosebaceous (cystic) hamartomas comprise a distinct group of uncommon cutaneous tumor-like malformations.

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  • (PMID = 17504719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Kanitakis J, Chouvet B: Expression of p63 in cutaneous metastases. Am J Clin Pathol; 2007 Nov;128(5):753-8
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  • In normal human skin, p63 is expressed by the least-differentiated keratinocytes of the epidermis and its appendages, by myoepithelial cells of sweat glands, and by a wide variety of primary tumors arising therefrom.
  • The expression of p63 by metastatic skin tumors has been more controversial.
  • In this study, we assessed the usefulness of p63 detection in the differential diagnosis between primary and secondary (metastatic) skin tumors.
  • The expression of p63 was studied in 45 cases of cutaneous metastases, mostly of known primary origin, and 94 benign and malignant epithelial primary skin tumors. p63 was expressed by 85 (89%) of 96 primary skin tumors and 5 (11%) of 45 cutaneous metastases.
  • These results suggest that p63 may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of skin carcinomas; however, contrary to what has been previously claimed, expression of p63 does not rule out the metastatic origin of a cutaneous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17951196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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76. Odashiro M, Lima MG, Miiji LN, Odashiro DN, Carvalho GV, Prates Campos JC, Odashiro AN: Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple. Breast J; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(4):414-6
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  • Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is a rare, benign, locally invasive tumor with recurrence potential, showing sweat duct differentiation.
  • The skin was intact.
  • The lesion was surgically removed and histopathologically, the tumor was composed of ducts and tubules lined with a double-layered epithelial cells.

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  • (PMID = 19470133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Su W, Kheir SM, Berberian B, Cockerell CJ: Merkel cell carcinoma in situ arising in a trichilemmal cyst: a case report and literature review. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Oct;30(5):458-61
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  • The stain for cytokeratin 20 "decorated" the tumor cells with an unequivocal perinuclear dot-like pattern, confirming their Merkel cell origin.
  • Dermal Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) arising in association with benign adnexal tumors or cysts, with or without epithelial involvement, is a rare event.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18806489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-20
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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78. Lee JY, Lin MH: Pigmented malignant hidroacanthoma simplex mimicking irritated seborrheic keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Oct;33(10):705-8
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  • A 71-year-old-woman presented with a well-demarcated pigmented hyperkeratotic tumor on the right knee resembling irritated seborrheic keratosis.
  • Histopathologic examination of the excised tumor revealed intraepidermal proliferation of atypical polygonal poroid cells forming large, sharply demarcated nests with colonization of dendritic melanocytes.
  • In addition, there were focal changes of a benign pigmented HS and syringofibroadenoma.
  • The key diagnostic features of ductal structures and intracytoplasmic lumina were highlighted by carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen immunostaining.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17026524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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79. Mahmoud A, Hill DH, O'Sullivan MJ, Bennett MW: Cylindroma of the breast: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:30
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  • Cylindroma of the breast is a very rare lesion which is morphological and immunophenotypically identical to benign dermal cylindroma.
  • The patient had no significant family or past medical history, and specifically no history of breast or skin diseases.
  • The tumor consisted of well circumscribed islands of epithelial cells surrounded by a dense membrane material, and focally containing hyaline globules.
  • At low power the islands of tumour cells formed a "jig-saw" pattern, which is typical of cylindroma, but was present within normal breast parenchyma and no had direct connection with the overlying skin.
  • Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, and Her2/neu was negative in tumour cells.

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  • (PMID = 19725978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3224926
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80. Wu RC, Hsieh YY, Chang YC, Kuo TT: Cellular neurothekeoma with melanocytosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Feb;35(2):241-5
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  • Cellular neurothekeoma (CNT) is a benign dermal tumor mainly affecting the head and neck and the upper extremities.
  • The histogenesis of CNT has been controversial, although it is generally regarded as an immature counterpart of classic/myxoid neurothekeoma, a tumor with nerve sheath differentiation.
  • Immunohistochemical study with NKI/C3, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle antigen, CD34, factor XIIIa, collagen type IV, S100 protein and HMB-45 was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Neurothekeoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18190453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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81. Gupta R, Singh S, Gupta K, Kudesia M: Clear-cell hidradenoma in a child: a diagnostic dilemma for the cytopathologist. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jul;37(7):531-3
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  • As a result, the cytological reports of skin adnexal tumors like hidradenoma are scarce in the available literature.
  • The smears showed clusters of epithelial cells containing blue cytoplasm, some of which had vacuolated cytoplasm with mild nuclear pleomorphism and occasional larger hyperchromatic nucleus.
  • The cytological features, in conjunction with the clinical examination, suggested a skin appendageal tumor.
  • Though nuclear pleomorphism and occasional larger nucleus posed a cytological diagnostic challenge, a diagnosis of benign appendageal tumor was suggested, considering the young age of the patient.
  • The cytopathologist should consider skin appendageal tumors during evaluation of cutaneous nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19459171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Cartaginese F, Sidoni A: Melanocytic matricoma. Report of a further case with clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings, differential diagnosis and review of the literature. Histol Histopathol; 2010 06;25(6):713-7
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  • It usually presents as a pigmented, dark-papular, crusted lesion on sun-damaged skin of adult patients.
  • Melanocytic matricoma presumably is the representation of an epithelial-melanocytic interaction in the anagen phase of the hair cycle.
  • An extensive search of the medical literature revealed 11 reports of benign melanocytic matricomas and 5 malignant counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20376777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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83. Carvalho J, Fullen D, Lowe L, Su L, Ma L: The expression of CD23 in cutaneous non-lymphoid neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):693-8
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  • Its utility in cutaneous epithelial tumors has never been studied.
  • RESULTS: CD23 expression was detected in all benign apocrine tumors and in half of benign eccrine tumors, particularly those derived from secretory coils.
  • CD23 staining was seen in 42% (8/19) of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), while no staining was observed in tumor cells of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, morpheaform basal cell carcinoma and syringoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptors, IgE / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17696916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, IgE
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84. García-Gutiérrez M, Toussaint-Caire S, González-Sánchez P, Ortiz-Hidalgo C: Multiple desmoplastic cellular neurothekeomas localized to the face of a 16-year-old boy. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):841-5
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  • Cellular neurothekeomas are relative uncommon benign dermal tumors of uncertain histogenesis.
  • Immunohistochemical staining showed that the cells of interest expressed S100A6, vimentin, CD63 (NKI/C3), PGP 9.5, and factor XIIIa and were negative for CD68, glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), S-100, HMB-45, epithelial membrane antigen, actin, and CD57 consistent with a diagnosis of multiple desmoplastic cellular neurothekeomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Neurothekeoma / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 21137111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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85. Orrock JM, Abbott JJ, Gibson LE, Folpe AL: INI1 and GLUT-1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma and its cutaneous neoplastic and nonneoplastic mimics. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):152-6
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  • The morphological features of epithelioid sarcoma may closely mimic those of epithelial neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma, mesenchymal tumors, such as benign fibrous histiocytoma, and nonneoplastic lesions, such as granuloma annulare.
  • Immunohistochemistry, particularly for epithelial markers and CD34, thus plays a valuable role in the differential diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma.
  • Recently, loss of expression of INI1, a tumor suppressor gene/protein, and expression of GLUT-1, a glucose transporter protein, have been described in epithelioid sarcoma.
  • Twenty-four cases of epithelioid sarcoma, 13 cases of granuloma annulare, 10 cases of rheumatoid nodule, 19 cases of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, 7 cases of atypical fibroxanthoma, 9 cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma (dermatofibroma), and 3 cases of nodular fasciitis were immunostained for GLUT-1 and INI1 using commercially available antibodies, heat-induced epitope retrieval, and the Dako Envision detection system.
  • GLUT-1 was positive in 40%-50% of epithelioid sarcomas, all cases of granuloma annulare and rheumatoid nodules, 67% of benign fibrous histiocytomas, and in all squamous cell carcinomas.
  • In this clinical context, loss of INI1 expression seems to be an entirely specific marker of epithelioid sarcoma and this finding may be of great value in distinguishing CD34-negative epithelioid sarcoma from squamous cell carcinoma and in the distinction of rare cytokeratin-negative epithelioid sarcomas from necrobiotic processes, nodular fasciitis, and benign fibrous histiocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. Granuloma Annulare / metabolism. Sarcoma / metabolism. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Fasciitis / metabolism. Fasciitis / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Humans. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Rheumatoid Nodule / metabolism. Rheumatoid Nodule / pathology. Xanthomatosis / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19318800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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86. Daneshbod Y, Daneshbod K, Khademi B: Diagnostic difficulties in the interpretation of fine needle aspirate samples in salivary lesions: diagnostic pitfalls revisited. Acta Cytol; 2009 Jan-Feb;53(1):53-70
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  • RESULTS: Of a total of 1,040 salivary FNA samples, 376 cases had a final histologic diagnosis with interpretations of benign or malignant.
  • The sensitivity and specificity for correct interpretation of benign and malignant were 87% and 96%, respectively.
  • The most common false negative cases were acinic cell carcinoma, epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma.
  • Benign cases with false positive diagnosis were Warthin tumor and pleomorphic adenoma.
  • Several clinically important pitfalls with nonsalivary tumors of jaw and skin are demonstrated in our series.

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  • (PMID = 19248555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Adams PD, Enders GH: Wnt-signaling and senescence: A tug of war in early neoplasia? Cancer Biol Ther; 2008 Nov;7(11):1706-11
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  • [Title] Wnt-signaling and senescence: A tug of war in early neoplasia?
  • Studies of early neoplasia have revealed fundamental molecular pathways that drive tumorigenesis.
  • We envision commonality of pathways important in formation of two early benign neoplasms that are found in different tissues and which are not generally thought to be similar: dysplastic nevi of the skin and intestinal aberrant crypt foci.
  • We propose that these neoplasms result from an ongoing 'tug of war' between the tumor suppression barrier posed by cellular senescence and the tumor-promoting activity of Wnt-signaling.
  • Whether or not such neoplasms progress to malignancy or persist in a benign state for many years might be largely determined by the outcome of this tug of war and its modulation by other genetic and epigenetic alterations, such as inactivation of p16(INK4a).

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  • (PMID = 18836285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK64758; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM062281; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM062281-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA129334-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129334-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129334-01A1; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG031862-010002; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG031862; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129334; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064758; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK064758-06; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK064758-06; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG031862-010002; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM062281-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Wnt Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS80646; NLM/ PMC2783518
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88. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • RESULTS: Partial mastectomy and segmentectomy were performed in three women 46, 72 and 74 years-old resp. for tumor, which size ranged from 20-35 mm in maximum diameter (mean 28 mm).
  • Using immunohistochemistry, a total absence of myoepithelial layer in epithelial structures was confirmed.
  • There were recognized metastases by one woman in two ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes mimicking benign breast heterotopia in one of them.
  • In two women with aggressive course the original biopsy was falsely interpreted, once as phyllodes tumor and secondly as benign sclerosing pseudotumor.
  • It arises in the deep breast tissue and structurally resembles the microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.
  • The rarity of this neoplasm does not exclude deep knowledge.

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  • (PMID = 16047925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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89. Kazakov DV, Mikyskova I, Kutzner H, Simpson RH, Hes O, Mukensnabl P, Bouda J, Zamecnik M, Kinkor Z, Michal M: Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):102-10
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  • Each presented clinically with a small, solitary tumor in the anogenital region.
  • Microscopically, in addition to classic histopathological features, in every case there was oxyphilic metaplasia of the constituent epithelial cells.
  • Other histopathological findings observed in this series, analogous to benign breast disease, included sclerosing adenosis-like changes, atypical apocrine adenosis-like changes, changes corresponding to usual ductal epithelial hyperplasia, epitheliomatosis with a streaming growth pattern, lamprocyte-like changes, clear cell change of the myoepithelium, foamy histiocyte reaction, and stromal fibrosis.
  • The exact role of the HPV in etiology and pathogenesis of this neoplasm has yet to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15798433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Behren A, Simon C, Schwab RM, Loetzsch E, Brodbeck S, Huber E, Stubenrauch F, Zenner HP, Iftner T: Papillomavirus E2 protein induces expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/activator protein-1 signaling pathway. Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 15;65(24):11613-21
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  • Papillomaviruses are involved in the development of cancers of the female cervix, head and neck, and skin.
  • An excellent model to study papillomavirus-induced tumor induction and progression is the New Zealand White rabbit, where the skin is infected with the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV).
  • This leads to the formation of benign tumors that progress into invasive and metastasizing carcinomas without the need for cofactors.
  • We have shown previously that specific mutations in the transactivation domain of the transcription/replication factor E2 cause a dramatic loss in the tumor induction efficiency of the viral genome and a major deficiency in tumor progression as we show now.
  • By comparing wild-type (WT) and mutant E2-induced skin tumors, we found high levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein and transcripts in WT CRPV-E2-induced tumors in contrast to certain mutant CRPV-E2-induced papillomas and normal uninfected skin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cells, Cultured. Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus / pathogenicity. Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / virology. Humans. Keratinocytes / cytology. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / physiopathology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Rabbits. Skin / cytology. Skin / metabolism. Skin / virology. Transcriptional Activation

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  • (PMID = 16357172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / E2 protein, Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Viral Proteins; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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91. Kazakov DV, Zelger B, Rütten A, Vazmitel M, Spagnolo DV, Kacerovska D, Vanecek T, Grossmann P, Sima R, Grayson W, Calonje E, Koren J, Mukensnabl P, Danis D, Michal M: Morphologic diversity of malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting spiradenoma, cylindroma, and spiradenocylindroma based on the study of 24 cases, sporadic or occurring in the setting of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 May;33(5):705-19
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  • The authors present a series of 24 malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting benign spiradenoma (20), cylindroma (2), and spiradenocylindroma (2).
  • Nineteen patients (12 females, 7 males; age range, 41 to 92 y) had a solitary neoplasm (size range, 2.2 to 17.5 cm; median 4 cm), whereas the remaining 5 (4 females, 1 male; age range, 66 to 72 y) manifested clinical features of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS), an autosomal dominantly inherited disease characterized by widespread, small, benign neoplasms on which background larger malignant lesions appeared.
  • Microscopically, all cases showed the residuum of a preexisting benign neoplasm.
  • Cases harboring a sarcomatoid carcinoma featured a malignant epithelial component composed of varying combinations of BCAC-HG, BCAC-LG, IAC-NOS, or squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the sarcomatoid component appeared as either a pleomorphic or spindle-cell sarcoma.
  • The histologic pattern of the malignant neoplasm correlated to some extent with the clinical course.
  • Given the morphologic diversity and complexity of the neoplasms in question, we propose using a more specific terminology with the precise description of the neoplasm components, rather than generic and less informative terms such as "spiradenocarcinoma" or "carcinoma ex cylindroma. "
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Australia. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16. Europe. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. South Africa. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19194280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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92. Sivamani R, Wadhera A, Craig E: Chondroid syringoma: case report and review of the literature. Dermatol Online J; 2006;12(5):8
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  • 1) a chondroid matrix, 2) tubuloalveolar structures lined by a double epithelium, 3) ductal structures lined by a single epithelium, 4) nests of polygonal cells, and 5) the presence of keratinous cysts.
  • Chondroid syringoma is a rare mixed tumor of the skin that was first described by Hirsch and Helwig.
  • Characteristically, it is composed of a proliferation of epithelial cells set in a myxoid and chondroid matrix.
  • Although chondroid syringomas are predominantly benign, malignant forms have been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16962023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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93. Patton A, Page R, Googe PB, King R: Myxoid atypical fibroxanthoma: a previously undescribed variant. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Nov;36(11):1177-84
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  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) are dermal-based cutaneous tumors typically found in sun-damaged skin of the elderly.
  • Tumor cells were negative for melanocytic and epithelial markers.
  • Myxoid change may be a prominent finding in benign and malignant cutaneous tumors and awareness of this variant of AFX will avoid misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19320792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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94. Montgomery E, Epstein JI: Anastomosing hemangioma of the genitourinary tract: a lesion mimicking angiosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1364-9
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  • BACKGROUND: We describe 6 cases of a poorly recognized vascular neoplasm that can simulate angiosarcoma.
  • DESIGN: Cases of a rare vascular tumor with a proclivity for the genitourinary tract encountered in our consultation material were prospectively collected between the year 1999 and 2008.
  • Immunohistochemistry was available on some cases and the lesions stained with CD34, CD31, and FVIII but not human herpes virus type 8, keratin AE1/3, epithelial membrane antigen, HMB45, placental alkaline phosphatase, or human chorionic gonadotropin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anastomosing hemangioma of the genitourinary tract is a rare neoplasm displaying some overlapping features of both sinusoidal hemangioma and hobnail hemangioma of soft tissue and skin.
  • However, in our opinion, it is a unique neoplasm with a proclivity for the kidney.
  • Its anastomosing appearance can lead to concern for angiosarcoma but, despite small numbers and limited follow-up in our series, evidence to date supports that the lesion is benign.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Factor VIII / analysis. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / chemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Testicular Neoplasms / chemistry. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19606014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / F8 protein, human; 9001-27-8 / Factor VIII
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95. Wilkins-Port CE, Ye Q, Mazurkiewicz JE, Higgins PJ: TGF-beta1 + EGF-initiated invasive potential in transformed human keratinocytes is coupled to a plasmin/MMP-10/MMP-1-dependent collagen remodeling axis: role for PAI-1. Cancer Res; 2009 May 1;69(9):4081-91
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  • The phenotypic switching called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is frequently associated with epithelial tumor cell progression from a comparatively benign to an aggressive, invasive malignancy.
  • TGF-beta in the tumor microenvironment promotes invasive traits largely through reprogramming gene expression, which paradoxically supports matrix-disruptive as well as stabilizing processes. ras-transformed HaCaT II-4 keratinocytes undergo phenotypic changes typical of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, acquire a collagenolytic phenotype, and effectively invade collagen type 1 gels as a consequence of TGF-beta1 + EGF stimulation in a three-dimensional physiologically relevant model system that monitors collagen remodeling.

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  • (PMID = 19383899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32-HL07194; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM57242; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM057242-11; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL007194; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM057242; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM057242-11
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0 / SERPINE1 protein, human; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.4.21.7 / Fibrinolysin; EC 3.4.24.22 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 10; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242077; NLM/ PMC2962982
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96. Pu J, McCaig CD, Cao L, Zhao Z, Segall JE, Zhao M: EGF receptor signalling is essential for electric-field-directed migration of breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci; 2007 Oct 1;120(Pt 19):3395-403
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  • Breast cancers are accompanied by electrical depolarisation of tumour epithelial cells.
  • The electrical changes can be detected on the skin and are used to differentiate malignant from benign breast tumours.
  • Could the electrical signals play a role in metastasis by promoting tumour cell migration?
  • Importantly, these effects were more significant in highly metastatic tumour cells than in low metastatic tumour cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Rats. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-3 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-3 / metabolism. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17881501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9533
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cell science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 058551; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 068012
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-3; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
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97. Singer CF, Hudelist G, Lamm W, Mueller R, Handl C, Kubista E, Czerwenka K: Active (p)CrkL is overexpressed in human malignancies: potential role as a surrogate parameter for therapeutic tyrosine kinase inhibition. Oncol Rep; 2006 Feb;15(2):353-9
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  • We then treated K562 leukemia cells with imatinib to analyze the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibition on CrkL activation. pCrkL expression was predominantly epithelial and detected in the majority of non-malignant prostate (79%), 49% of colon biopsies, 36% of skin biopsies, and 41% of samples obtained from normal brain.
  • In contrast to their corresponding benign tissues, pCrkL expression was significantly more common in breast cancer samples (49%, p<0.0001; Fisher's exact test), lung carcinomas (55%, p=0.0002), lymphatic tissues (80% vs. 10%, p=0.012), skin cancer (67%, p=0.020), ovarian malignomas (50%, p<0.0001) and colon carcinomas (63%, p<0.03).
  • We hypothesize that pCrkL is selectively up-regulated in a number of malignant tumor entities and involved in malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16391854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CRKL protein; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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98. Tallon B, Cerroni L: Where pigmented pilomatricoma and melanocytic matricoma collide. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):769-73
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  • Pilomatricoma and matricoma are 2 benign epithelial tumours derived from the hair matrix.
  • The recently described melanocytic matricoma appears to be a similar tumor with numerous interspersed melanocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Pigmentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20881831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melan-A 51-73 peptide; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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99. Beer TW, Drury P, Heenan PJ: Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Aug;32(6):533-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • No tumors expressed melanocytic or epithelial markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20526171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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100. Perrin C, Baran R, Balaguer T, Chignon-Sicard B, Cannata GE, Petrella T, Michiels JF: Onychomatricoma: new clinical and histological features. A review of 19 tumors. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Feb;32(1):1-8
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  • This reconstitution gives us a better understanding of the apparent diversity of the morphologic aspects observed in linking them to the anatomic site of the tumor.
  • This pattern is different from the classical OM visualized in longitudinal sections, which appears as a single and large fibroepithelial tumor, that is, the multiple distal epithelial digitations arranged along a transversal plane are not seen.
  • We individualize 3 misleading clinical variants: tumor with a verrucous surface that is located in the lateral nail fold, as a band pattern suggesting wart or Bowen disease; a total dystrophy of the nail unit mimicking a squamous cell carcinoma; and pseudofibrokeratoma type.
  • OM is a benign tumor with a broader morphologic spectrum than previously thought.
  • When the nail plate is not available, the immunohistochemistry can aid diagnosis by highlighting the peculiar immunophenotyping of OM, which expresses CD34 but not CD99, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, actin, and desmin.
  • [MeSH-major] Nail Diseases / pathology. Nails, Malformed / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Anatomic. Warts / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20098079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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