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1. Borg CL, Wolski KM, Gibbs GM, O'Bryan MK: Phenotyping male infertility in the mouse: how to get the most out of a 'non-performer'. Hum Reprod Update; 2010 Mar-Apr;16(2):205-24
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  • BACKGROUND: Functional male gametes are produced through complex processes that take place within the testis, epididymis and female reproductive tract.

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - infertility.
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  • (PMID = 19758979.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2369
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction update
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod. Update
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 243
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816191
  •  go-up   go-down


2. Guo LL, Liu XH, Qin DX, Gao L, Zhang HM, Liu JY, Cui YG: [Effects of nanosized titanium dioxide on the reproductive system of male mice]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2009 Jun;15(6):517-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The high-dose group also showed significantly reduced sperm density and motility, increased sperm abnormality and germ cell apoptosis (P < 0.05), but no obvious pathological changes in the liver, kidney spleen, testis and epididymis.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TITANIUM DIOXIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TITANIUM .
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  • (PMID = 19593991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 15FIX9V2JP / titanium dioxide; D1JT611TNE / Titanium
  •  go-up   go-down


3. Buijtels JJ, de Gier J, van Haeften T, Kooistra HS, Spee B, Veldhuis Kroeze EJ, Zijlstra C, Okkens AC: Minimal external masculinization in a SRY-negative XX male Podenco dog. Reprod Domest Anim; 2009 Oct;44(5):751-6
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  • Two testes, each with its epididymis and ductus deferens, and a complete bicornuate uterus were removed surgically.
  • These findings are consistent with the diagnosis of an XX male.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ESTRADIOL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TESTOSTERONE .
  • SciCrunch. OMIA - Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals: Data: Gene Expression .
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  • (PMID = 18992091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0531
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Domest. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sex-Determining Region Y Protein; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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4. Mehta GU, Shively SB, Duong H, Tran MG, Moncrief TJ, Smith JH, Li J, Edwards NA, Lonser RR, Zhuang Z, Merrill MJ, Raffeld M, Maxwell PH, Oldfield EH, Vortmeyer AO: Progression of epididymal maldevelopment into hamartoma-like neoplasia in VHL disease. Neoplasia; 2008 Oct;10(10):1146-53
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  • [Title] Progression of epididymal maldevelopment into hamartoma-like neoplasia in VHL disease.
  • Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in susceptible cells precedes formation of tumorlets and frank tumor in the epididymis of male VHL patients.
  • We performed detailed histologic and molecular pathologic analysis of tumor-free epididymal tissues from VHL patients to obtain further insight into early epididymal tumorigenesis.
  • Furthermore, we clarify that that there is a pathogenetic continuum between microscopic tumorlets and formation of tumor.
  • In multiple locations, three-dimensional reconstruction revealed papillary growth to extend deeply into ductular lumina, indicative of progression into early hamartoma-like neoplasia.
  • We conclude epididymal tumorigenesis in VHL disease to occur in two distinct sequential steps: maldevelopment of VHL-deficient mesonephric cells, followed by neoplastic papillary proliferation.

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  • (PMID = 18813354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2546591
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5. Sahoo DK, Roy A, Bhanja S, Chainy GB: Hypothyroidism impairs antioxidant defence system and testicular physiology during development and maturation. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2008 Mar 1;156(1):63-70
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  • However, a significant reduction in the number of live sperms in epididymis of both 30 day and 90-day PTU treated rats was noticed on 90 days of age.

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  • (PMID = 18093587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 721M9407IY / Propylthiouracil; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.8.1.7 / Glutathione Reductase
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6. Mewe M, Wulfsen I, Middendorff R, Bauer CK: Differential modulation of bovine epididymal activity by oxytocin and noradrenaline. Reproduction; 2007 Sep;134(3):493-501
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  • [Title] Differential modulation of bovine epididymal activity by oxytocin and noradrenaline.
  • Passage of spermatozoa through the epididymis and emission of sperm during ejaculation are based on spontaneous and induced contractions of epididymal peritubular muscle layers.
  • This study deals with the ejaculation-relevant factors noradrenaline (NA) and oxytocin (OT) and their contractile effects in the course of the bovine epididymal duct.
  • Receptor specificity of the epididymal OT effects was verified using the selective OT receptor (OTR) agonist [Thr(4),Gly(7)]OT and vasopressin.
  • OTR immunoreactivity was detected in the epididymal peritubular muscle wall and epithelial principal cells.
  • In summary, different contractile responses to OT and NA occur in the course of the epididymal duct, possibly preventing excessive sperm transport through the corpus and serving orthograde emission of sperm during ejaculation.
  • [MeSH-major] Ejaculation / drug effects. Epididymis / drug effects. Norepinephrine / pharmacology. Oxytocin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17709567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2; 0 / Receptors, Oxytocin; 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin; 2Y49VWD90Q / Yohimbine; 50-56-6 / Oxytocin; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; XM03YJ541D / Prazosin
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7. Zia-Ur-Rahman, Ahmad N, Bukhari SA, Akhtar N, Haq IU: Serum hormonal, electrolytes and trace element profiles in the rutting and non-rutting one-humped male camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anim Reprod Sci; 2007 Sep;101(1-2):172-8
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  • Moreover, testicular and epididymal tissue contents of electrolytes and trace elements were also studied during these two periods.
  • In the epididymis, the tissue levels of chloride, iron and zinc were higher in the rutting than non-rutting period.

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  • (PMID = 17161564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4320
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 0 / Trace Elements; 789U1901C5 / Copper; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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8. Held T, Paprotta I, Khulan J, Hemmerlein B, Binder L, Wolf S, Schubert S, Meinhardt A, Engel W, Adham IM: Hspa4l-deficient mice display increased incidence of male infertility and hydronephrosis development. Mol Cell Biol; 2006 Nov;26(21):8099-108
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  • Whereas the seminiferous tubules of Hspa4l(-/-) testes contained all stages of germ cells, the number of mature sperm in the epididymis and sperm motility were drastically reduced.


9. Légaré C, Thabet M, Gatti JL, Sullivan R: HE1/NPC2 status in human reproductive tract and ejaculated spermatozoa: consequence of vasectomy. Mol Hum Reprod; 2006 Jul;12(7):461-8
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  • We have previously demonstrated that the amount of HE1/NPC2 mRNA and protein expressed in the human epididymis is decreased under vasectomy.
  • Considering the potential role of HE1/NPC2 in cholesterol transport during sperm maturation, unusual high levels of this protein associated with spermatozoa of vasovasostomized men may reflect epididymal sequelae occurring when the vas deferens is obstructed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Epididymis / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Spermatozoa / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16772431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / NPC2 protein, human; 37758-47-7 / G(M1) Ganglioside; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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10. Fujita E, Kouroku Y, Ozeki S, Tanabe Y, Toyama Y, Maekawa M, Kojima N, Senoo H, Toshimori K, Momoi T: Oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia in mice lacking RA175/TSLC1/SynCAM/IGSF4A, a cell adhesion molecule in the immunoglobulin superfamily. Mol Cell Biol; 2006 Jan;26(2):718-26
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  • Male mice lacking both alleles of Ra175 (Ra175-/-) were infertile and showed oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia; almost no mature motile spermatozoa were found in the epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Immunoglobulins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Oligospermia / pathology. Spermatogenesis / physiology. Spermatozoa / physiology. Testis / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Embryo, Mammalian / metabolism. Epididymis / cytology. Epididymis / metabolism. Female. Intercellular Junctions / metabolism. Male. Mice. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Phagocytosis / genetics. Phagocytosis / physiology. Sertoli Cells / physiology. Sertoli Cells / ultrastructure. Spermatids / physiology. Spermatids / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16382161.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-7306
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / cell adhesion molecule 1, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1346906
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11. Avellar MC, Siu ER, Yasuhara F, Maróstica E, Porto CS: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the male reproductive tract: expression and function in rat efferent ductules and epididymis. J Mol Neurosci; 2010 Jan;40(1-2):127-34
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  • [Title] Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the male reproductive tract: expression and function in rat efferent ductules and epididymis.
  • The rat efferent ductules and epididymis are androgen-dependent tissues of the male reproductive tract, with important roles in the process to form a viable and fertile sperm.
  • In the present study, aspects of the expression, localization, and potential function of mAChR subtypes in rat efferent ductules and epididymis are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylcholine / metabolism. Epididymis / metabolism. Receptors, Muscarinic / metabolism. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19693708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Receptors, Muscarinic; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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12. Arimi MM, Nyachieo A, Langat DK, Abdi AM, Mwenda JM: Evidence for expression of endogenous retroviral sequences on primate reproductive tissues and detection of cross-reactive ERVS antigens in the baboon ovary: a review. East Afr Med J; 2006 Feb;83(2):106-12
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  • DATA SYNTHESIS: Retroviruses have been implicated in the induction of tumour and immunological disorders.
  • The evidence for the presence of retroviruses in the primate tissues such as the placenta, ovary, breast, testis and epididymis has been documented using electron microscopic studies.
  • Retrovirus-like particles were found budding from the basal membrane of syncytiotrophoblasts, as well as in tumour cell lines in embryonic carcinoma or teratocarcinomas.
  • RESULTS: Recent studies indicate the expression of endogenous retroviruses in the testis, epididymis, placenta and breast.
  • In the testis and epididymis, speculative functions may include among others spermatogenesis and/or sperm maturation (differentiation) whereas in placenta they are possibly associated with trophoblast fusion and locally induced immunosuppression to protect the foetus from immunological attack.

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  • (PMID = 16708883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Kenya
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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13. Chen DY, Zhu MY, Cui YD, Huang TH: Relationship between contents of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase on the surface of infertility sperm and in seminal plasma. Biochemistry (Mosc); 2007 Feb;72(2):215-8
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  • Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is localized in Leydig cells, sperm, and epithelial cells of the epididymis.

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  • (PMID = 17367300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2979
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry Mosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipocalins; EC 5.3.- / Intramolecular Oxidoreductases; EC 5.3.99.2 / prostaglandin R2 D-isomerase
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14. Scarano WR, Messias AG, Oliva SU, Klinefelter GR, Kempinas WG: Sexual behaviour, sperm quantity and quality after short-term streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia in rats. Int J Androl; 2006 Aug;29(4):482-8
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  • Our investigation was performed to better define the effects of short-term hyperglycaemia on rat epididymal sperm quantity, quality and transit time, using both natural mating and artificial in utero insemination protocols.
  • Diabetes resulted in decreased body and reproductive organ weights, as well as diminished sperm counts in the testis and epididymis, that were associated with diminution of plasmatic testosterone levels.
  • However, distal cauda epididymal sperm from diabetic rats displayed normal fertilization ability (91.5%) using in utero insemination.
  • There were no effects of hyperglycaemia on sperm transit time in the epididymis and on spermatogenesis.
  • Our results indicate that diabetes mellitus produces reproductive dysfunction, but does not compromise sperm fertilizing ability in the cauda epididymis in this experimental model.

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  • (PMID = 16524366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin
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15. Czykier E, Zabel M, Surdyk-Zasada J, Lebelt A, Klim B: Assessment of S100 protein expression in the epididymis of juvenile and adult European bison. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2010 Sep 30;48(3):333-8
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  • [Title] Assessment of S100 protein expression in the epididymis of juvenile and adult European bison.
  • Our observations seem to indicate that S100 expression in endothelial cells of European bison epididymis is not correlated with age or maturity of the organ tested.

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  • (PMID = 21071335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / S100 Proteins
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16. Ramm SA, Stockley P: Adaptive plasticity of mammalian sperm production in response to social experience. Proc Biol Sci; 2009 Feb 22;276(1657):745-51
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  • We found that daily sperm production and numbers of sperm in the caput epididymis were significantly higher in subjects that had experienced a high encounter rate of social cues from three other males compared to those that had experienced a low encounter rate of social cues from just one other male.
  • Epididymal sperm counts were negatively correlated with the frequency of scent-marking behaviour across all males in our study, suggesting that investment in ejaculate production may be traded off against traits that function in gaining copulations, although there was no difference in overall levels of scent marking between treatment groups.

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  • (PMID = 18986975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0962-8452
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings. Biological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2660940
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17. Lee SS, Tang SH, Sun GH, Yu CP, Jin JS, Chang SY: Limited Wegener's granulomatosis of the epididymis and testis. Asian J Androl; 2006 Nov;8(6):737-9
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  • [Title] Limited Wegener's granulomatosis of the epididymis and testis.
  • A case is presented of Wegener's granulomatosis limited to the testis and epididymis, simultaneously, in a 69-year-old man.
  • Orchiectomy was carried out through an inguinal incision under the presumptive diagnosis of a right testicular tumor.
  • A hard, irregular mass occupied the upper testicle and a portion of the epididymal head was visualized.
  • Histopathologic examination of the specimen showed granulomatous inflammation of the testis and epididymis with prominent angiocentric granulomata in the walls of arteries, veins and foci of fibrinoid necrosis, surrounded by palisading inflammatory cells with a few giant cells.
  • The diagnosis of limited Wegener's granulomatosis was considered, although antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) test was negative 2 weeks after orchiectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic / analysis. Epididymis. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy


18. Popken G, Schwarzer JU: [Current aspects of surgical restoration of fertility]. Urologe A; 2008 Dec;47(12):1568-72
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  • [Transliterated title] Aktuelle Aspekte der Refertilisierungsoperationen.
  • The introduction of microsurgical techniques has revolutionized the treatment of male infertility.A tubulovasostomy is carried out if the obstruction lies in the region of the epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Azoospermia / surgery. Epididymis / surgery. Genital Diseases, Male / surgery. Infertility, Male / surgery. Microsurgery / methods. Vas Deferens / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18989653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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19. Ramos L, Chávez B, Vilchis F: Cloning and differential expression of steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 1 (Srd5a1) and type 2 (Srd5a2) from the Harderian glands of hamsters. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2010 Apr 1;166(2):388-95
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  • Isozyme 1, cloned from liver mRNA, encodes a protein of 255 amino acids (aa); isozyme 2 cDNA, isolated from the epididymis encodes a 254-aa protein.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Cricetinae. Epididymis / enzymology. Estrous Cycle. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects. Liver / enzymology. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Orchiectomy / veterinary. Ovariectomy / veterinary. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Sequence Homology. Sex Characteristics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20018190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6840
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.3.99.5 / 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase
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20. Tollner TL, Yudin AI, Treece CA, Overstreet JW, Cherr GN: Macaque sperm coating protein DEFB126 facilitates sperm penetration of cervical mucus. Hum Reprod; 2008 Nov;23(11):2523-34
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  • BACKGROUND: Sperm coating protein beta-defensin 126 (DEFB126) is adsorbed onto the entire surface of macaque sperm in the caudal epididymis and is retained on viable sperm collected from the cervix and the uterine lumen of mated female macaques.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Mucus / metabolism. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / metabolism. Spermatozoa / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bucladesine / metabolism. Caffeine / pharmacology. Epididymis / metabolism. Female. Glycocalyx / metabolism. Macaca. Male. Neuraminidase / metabolism. Ovulation. Polylysine / metabolism. Uterus / metabolism. beta-Defensins

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  • (PMID = 18658160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2350
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DEFB126 protein, human; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / beta-Defensins; 25104-18-1 / Polylysine; 3G6A5W338E / Caffeine; 63X7MBT2LQ / Bucladesine; EC 3.2.1.18 / Neuraminidase
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21. Luconi M, Porazzi I, Ferruzzi P, Marchiani S, Forti G, Baldi E: Tyrosine phosphorylation of the a kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3) and soluble adenylate cyclase are involved in the increase of human sperm motility by bicarbonate. Biol Reprod; 2005 Jan;72(1):22-32
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  • Mammalian testicular spermatozoa are immotile, thus, to reach the oocyte, they need to acquire swimming ability under the control of different factors acting during the sperm transit through the epididymis and the female genital tract.

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  • (PMID = 15342355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / A Kinase Anchor Proteins; 0 / AKAP3 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors; 0 / Bicarbonates; 0 / Chromones; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Morpholines; 154447-36-6 / 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 4.6.1.1 / Adenylyl Cyclases
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22. Iranloye BO, Morakinyo AO, Uwah J, Bello O, Daramola OA: Effect of nifedipine on reproductive functions in male rats. Nig Q J Hosp Med; 2009 Jul-Sep;19(3):165-8
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  • RESULTS: The weight of the testis and epididymis were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with administration of nifedipine.
  • There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in epididymal sperm count and motility.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Epididymis / drug effects. Epididymis / pathology. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Semen Analysis. Sperm Count. Testis / drug effects. Testis / pathology. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 20836324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-2657
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian quarterly journal of hospital medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nig Q J Hosp Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; I9ZF7L6G2L / Nifedipine
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23. Lim Dh, Kim CS, Kim SI: Sparganosis presenting as spermatic cord hydrocele in six-year-old boy. Urology; 2007 Dec;70(6):1223.e1-2
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  • It can also present as a tumor in the epididymis and testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Male / diagnosis. Sparganosis / diagnosis. Spermatic Cord. Testicular Hydrocele / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18158059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Hong Z, Hailing L, Hui M, Guijie Z: Effect of vitamin E supplementation on development of reproductive organs in Boer goat. Anim Reprod Sci; 2009 Jul;113(1-4):93-101
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  • The results showed that supplementing 80 and 320 IU kid(-1)d(-1) Vitamin E increased weights of the epididymis and the numeric density of convoluted seminiferous tubules.
  • Diameters of convoluted seminiferous tubules and epididymis ductules and numeric density of spermatogenic cells tended to be larger in 80 IU kid(-1)d(-1) compared to the control group (P<0.05).
  • Weight of ductus deferens and thickness of epididymis wall were increased significantly with 320 IU kid(-1)d(-1) (P<0.01).

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  • (PMID = 18597956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2232
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E
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25. Marengo SR: Maturing the sperm: unique mechanisms for modifying integral proteins in the sperm plasma membrane. Anim Reprod Sci; 2008 Apr;105(1-2):52-63
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  • The epididymis has been understudied, in part due to its cancer resistance and the development of effective technologies for sperm injection and in vitro fertilization.
  • Epididymal functions can be divided into several general categories (1) concentration of sperm;.
  • (8) maintenance of the blood epididymal barrier.
  • However, the epididymis can also release secretory products in bulk through apical blebs and inject integral membrane proteins with epididymosomes which fuse with the plasma membrane.
  • The epididymis also activates and cleaves enzymes present on the sperm surface (e.g., germ cell angiotensin converting enzyme), thus enabling them to modify proteins on the sperm membrane.
  • Aside from the need to understand epididymal function relative to the sperm, basic science on epididymal physiology is warranted because it may help us understand the functioning of androgens, protection of tissues from oxidative damage, and resistance to cancer and benign hyperplasic growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Membrane / physiology. Epididymis / physiology. Sperm Maturation / physiology. Spermatozoa / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18255240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4320
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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26. Henderson NA, Robaire B: Effects of PNU157706, a dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, on rat epididymal sperm maturation and fertility. Biol Reprod; 2005 Feb;72(2):436-43
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  • [Title] Effects of PNU157706, a dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, on rat epididymal sperm maturation and fertility.
  • Sperm entering the epididymis gain progressive motility and fertilizing ability in a process termed maturation.
  • The functional dependence of the epididymis on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is well established, yet few studies have examined the consequences on the epididymis of inhibiting DHT formation.
  • We have shown that inhibition of both isoforms of 5alpha-reductase (types 1 and 2), the enzyme that converts testosterone to DHT, has pronounced effects on epididymal gene expression.
  • In the present study, we investigate whether inhibiting 5alpha-reductase has consequences on epididymal sperm maturation.
  • The morphology of cauda epididymal spermatozoa was also adversely affected by the treatment; the most prominent effect was a markedly elevated proportion of sperm that retained their cytoplasmic droplet.
  • Our results indicate a role for dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitors in further studies of epididymal physiology and as a potential component of a male contraceptive.
  • [MeSH-major] 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors. Androstenes / pharmacology. Antispermatogenic Agents. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Epididymis / drug effects. Fertility / drug effects. Sperm Maturation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15483222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Androstenes; 0 / Antispermatogenic Agents; 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Male; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / PNU 157706
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27. Zuppa AA, Nanni L, Di Gregorio F, Visintini F, Buonuomo V, Pintus C: Complete epididymal separation presenting as polyorchidism. J Clin Ultrasound; 2006 Jun;34(5):258-60
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  • [Title] Complete epididymal separation presenting as polyorchidism.
  • We describe an unusual case of a 21-month-old boy with complete separation of the testis and epididymis.
  • Surgical exploration revealed the testis and epididymis to be completely separated, with no duplicated testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / abnormalities. Epididymis / ultrasonography. Testis / abnormalities. Testis / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Male. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 16673372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Awodele O, Akintonwa A, Osunkalu VO, Coker HA: Modulatory activity of antioxidants against the toxicity of Rifampicin in vivo. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo; 2010 Jan-Feb;52(1):43-6
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  • Sperm samples were collected from the epididymis to achieve count and motility and morphological analysis.
  • The histopathological findings revealed structural damages by rifampicin in liver, brain and epididymis while some remarkable architectural integrity was observed in the antioxidant-treated groups.

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  • (PMID = 20305954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antitubercular; 0 / Antioxidants; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; VJT6J7R4TR / Rifampin
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29. Lefebvre J, Fan J, Chevalier S, Sullivan R, Carmona E, Manjunath P: Genomic structure and tissue-specific expression of human and mouse genes encoding homologues of the major bovine seminal plasma proteins. Mol Hum Reprod; 2007 Jan;13(1):45-53
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  • Mouse epididymal expressed sequence tags corresponding to partial sequences of mBSPH1 and mBSPH2 were identified.
  • The entire complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences of mBSPH1 and mBSPH2 from mouse epididymis and hBSPH1 from human epididymis were obtained by 5'-/3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and encode predicted proteins containing two tandemly repeated fibronectin type II domains, which is the signature of the BSP family of proteins.
  • Using RT-PCR, it was revealed that mBSPH1, mBSPH2 and hBSPH1 mRNA are expressed only in the epididymis.

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  • (PMID = 17085770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSP-30-kDa protein, Bos taurus; 0 / BSPH1 protein, human; 0 / Bsph1 protein, mouse; 0 / Bsph2 protein, mouse; 0 / Seminal Plasma Proteins; 0 / Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins
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30. Ostermeier GC, Wiles MV, Farley JS, Taft RA: Conserving, distributing and managing genetically modified mouse lines by sperm cryopreservation. PLoS One; 2008 Jul 30;3(7):e2792
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  • This six-fold increase is achieved by collecting sperm from the vas deferens and epididymis into a cryoprotective medium of 18% raffinose (w/v), 3% skim milk (w/v) and 477 microM monothioglycerol.
  • The sperm suspension is loaded into 0.25 mL French straws and cooled at 37+/-1 degrees C/min before being plunged and then stored in LN(2).

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  • (PMID = 18665210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P40 RR001262; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR01262; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2453316
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31. Oliveira H, Spanò M, Santos C, Pereira Mde L: Lead chloride affects sperm motility and acrosome reaction in mice: lead affects mice sperm motility and acrosome reaction. Cell Biol Toxicol; 2009 Aug;25(4):341-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study, the effects of lead chloride (PbCl2) on mouse epididymal sperm were evaluated.
  • Sperm was collected from the epididymis and several parameters of sperm function, such as sperm density, motility, viability, mitochondrial function, acrosome integrity and morphology, were evaluated.

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  • (PMID = 18594995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-6822
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell biology and toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Biol. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 2P299V784P / Lead; 4IL61GN3YI / lead chloride
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32. Töpfer-Petersen E, Ekhlasi-Hundrieser M, Kirchhoff C, Leeb T, Sieme H: The role of stallion seminal proteins in fertilisation. Anim Reprod Sci; 2005 Oct;89(1-4):159-70
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  • Seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins originating mainly from the epididymis and the accessory sex glands.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cysteine / analysis. Epididymis / metabolism. Fibronectins / analysis. Fibronectins / chemistry. Genitalia, Male / metabolism. Glycoproteins / chemistry. Glycoproteins / physiology. Male. Semen / chemistry. Sperm Capacitation

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  • (PMID = 16125345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4320
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Seminal Plasma Proteins; 0 / spermadhesin; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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33. Tian H, Qiu SD, Zhang QY, Xue X, Ge L, Wang LR: [Effects of experimental left varicocele on SPAG11 mRNA and SPAG11E in the testis and epididymis of adolescent rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2008 Mar;14(3):200-5
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  • [Title] [Effects of experimental left varicocele on SPAG11 mRNA and SPAG11E in the testis and epididymis of adolescent rats].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of experimental left varicocele (ELV) on the expression of sperm associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) mRNA and its protein isomer SPAG11E in the testis and epididymis of adolescent rats, and to explore the mechanism of infertility caused by varicocele.
  • Two and 4 weeks after the operation, the changes of SPAG11 mRNA and SPAG11E expression in the testis and epididymis were detected using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • RESULTS: The expected product of SPAG11 367 bp amplified by RT-PCR was detected only in the epididymis.
  • SPAG11E protein was observed mainly in the acrosomal vesicles and acrosome of round and elongating spermatids of the seminiferous epithelium, in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells, and in the supranuclear region of principle cells and stereocilia of the epididymal epithelium.
  • Imaging and statistical analysis showed that SPAG11 mRNA and SPAG11E protein expressions in the left epididymis of the 2- and 4-week ELV groups presented a remarkable decrease (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) compared with the right side and the corresponding control group, and the same decreased change in the left epididymis (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and an obvious reduction of SPAG11E immunopositive reaction in the right epididymis (P < 0.01) were noted in the 4-week group as compared with the 2-week group.
  • CONCLUSION: SPAG11 is a specific gene expressed in the epididymis.
  • The localization and expression of SPAG11E exhibited a region- and cell-specific pattern in both the testis and epididymis of adolescent rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Surface / metabolism. Epididymis / metabolism. Glycopeptides / metabolism. Testis / metabolism. Varicocele / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18488329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Glycopeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPAG11 protein, rat
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34. Malm J, Nordahl EA, Bjartell A, Sørensen OE, Frohm B, Dentener MA, Egesten A: Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein is produced in the epididymis and associated with spermatozoa and prostasomes. J Reprod Immunol; 2005 Jun;66(1):33-43
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  • [Title] Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein is produced in the epididymis and associated with spermatozoa and prostasomes.
  • The present study demonstrates constitutive expression of the gene encoding lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in the epithelium of the human epididymis by in situ hybridization.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute-Phase Proteins / analysis. Acute-Phase Proteins / biosynthesis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Epididymis / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / analysis. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Prostate / secretion. Spermatozoa / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15949560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-0378
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of reproductive immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Reprod. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acute-Phase Proteins; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / lipopolysaccharide-binding protein
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35. Wang XM, Ruan Y, Xie QD, Huang TH: [Research on gene transfer by spermatozoa]. Yi Chuan; 2005 Mar;27(2):195-200
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  • The results showed that spermatozoa of Golden hamster epididymis can take the foreign DNA voluntarily, and the foreign DNA exist in the head of the spermatozoa can enter into zygotes by IVF.

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  • (PMID = 15843344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-9772
  • [Journal-full-title] Yi chuan = Hereditas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yi Chuan
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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36. Xiang Y, Nie DS, Zhang QJ, Zhu WB, Du J, Li W, Lu GX: Cloning, characterization and identification of Rcet1-v1 and Rcet1-v2, two novel splice variants of mouse Rcet1 related to Cres subgroup of family 2 cystatins. DNA Seq; 2008 Feb;19(1):13-9
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  • RT-PCR analysis showed that Rcet1-v1 and Rcet1-v2 were specifically expressed in adult mouse testis, epididymis and cerebrum, but higher in testis than in epididymis and cerebrum.

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  • (PMID = 18300157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-5179
  • [Journal-full-title] DNA sequence : the journal of DNA sequencing and mapping
  • [ISO-abbreviation] DNA Seq.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY706755/ AY707915
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cystatins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Rcet1 protein, mouse
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37. Esponda P, Carballada R: In-vivo gene transfer induces transgene expression in cells and secretions of the mouse cauda epididymis. Mol Hum Reprod; 2009 Jun;15(6):355-61
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  • [Title] In-vivo gene transfer induces transgene expression in cells and secretions of the mouse cauda epididymis.
  • Mouse cauda epididymis were in-vivo transfected using the lipid FuGENE 6 as gene vector.
  • GFP gene expression appeared in large areas of the cauda epididymis and it was observed exclusively in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells.
  • The use of the pSEAP-control gene showed that cauda epididymis secretions can also be modified by the transfection procedure.
  • A significant increase of alkaline phosphatase activity appeared in the epididymal fluids 7 days after gene injection.
  • These results indicate that transfection procedures could be an important tool in the future to study epididymal physiology or to change the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / metabolism. Transgenes / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19332530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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38. Belleannée C, Da Silva N, Shum WW, Brown D, Breton S: Role of purinergic signaling pathways in V-ATPase recruitment to apical membrane of acidifying epididymal clear cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol; 2010 Apr;298(4):C817-30
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  • [Title] Role of purinergic signaling pathways in V-ATPase recruitment to apical membrane of acidifying epididymal clear cells.
  • Using the epididymis as a model system in which luminal acidification is essential for sperm maturation and storage, we show here that extracellular ATP and its hydrolysis product adenosine trigger the apical accumulation of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in acidifying clear cells.
  • We demonstrate that the epididymis can hydrolyze luminal ATP into other purinergic agonists such as ADP via the activity of nucleotidases located in the epididymal fluid and in the apical membrane of epithelial cells.
  • Altogether, these results suggest that the activation of P1 and P2 purinergic receptors by ATP and adenosine might play a significant role in luminal acidification in the epididymis, a process that is crucial for the establishment of male fertility.

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  • (PMID = 20071692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1563
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD-40793; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-38452; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK043351; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-57521; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-42956; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD040793; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-43341
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Affinity Labels; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 35094-46-3 / adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate); 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; EC 3.6.1.- / Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2853219
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39. Klimis T, Vlahos P, Kokotas N: Serous cystadenoma of the epididymis of common epithelial ovarian type: case report with an immunohistochemical study. J BUON; 2006 Apr-Jun;11(2):237-40
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  • [Title] Serous cystadenoma of the epididymis of common epithelial ovarian type: case report with an immunohistochemical study.
  • We report the clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical findings of a case with non-papillary serous cystadenoma of the epididymis.
  • The tumor was a unilocular cyst with a thin fibrous capsule, lined by cuboidal or columnar epithelium containing ciliated cells, mostly arranged in a single layer.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), strongly positive for CK7, progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), vimentin, CA-125 and S-100 protein.
  • This tumor is one of the rare benign lesions which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a swelling in the epididymal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Epididymis / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology


40. Yurkovetsky Z, Skates S, Lomakin A, Nolen B, Pulsipher T, Modugno F, Marks J, Godwin A, Gorelik E, Jacobs I, Menon U, Lu K, Badgwell D, Bast RC Jr, Lokshin AE: Development of a multimarker assay for early detection of ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2010 May 01;28(13):2159-66
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-six serum biomarkers were analyzed in sera from healthy women and from patients with ovarian cancer, benign pelvic tumors, and breast, colorectal, and lung cancers, using multiplex xMAP bead-based immunoassays.
  • This panel was selective for ovarian cancer showing SN of 33% for benign pelvic disease, SN of 6% for breast cancer, SN of 0% for colorectal cancer, and SN of 36% for lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Immunoassay. Mass Screening / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Early Detection of Cancer. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Monte Carlo Method. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood. beta-Defensins

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  • (PMID = 20368574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105009; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9901012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0801228; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA086381; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA086381
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / DEFB126 protein, human; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1; 0 / beta-Defensins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2860434
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41. Cervantes MI, Arenas-Rios E, León-Galván MA, López-Wilchis R, Ambriz D, Rosado A: Spermatozoa epididymal maturation in the Mexican big-eared bat (Corynorhinus mexicanus). Syst Biol Reprod Med; 2008 Jul-Aug;54(4-5):196-204
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  • [Title] Spermatozoa epididymal maturation in the Mexican big-eared bat (Corynorhinus mexicanus).
  • Prolonged epididymal sperm storage in vespertilionid and rhinolophid bats, provides an interesting experimental model for the study of spermatozoa epididymal maturation.
  • We examined the presence of the cytoplasmic droplet, and the sequential induction of capacitation and the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa obtained from different epididymal regions (caput, corpus, cauda) throughout the annual reproductive cycle of Corynorhinus mexicanus (C. mexicanus).
  • This is a vespertilionid bat that stores spermatozoa in the epididymis for several months after testes regression.
  • The number of sperm recovered from the different epididymal regions indicate that epididymal transit in C. mexicanus is rapid.
  • The persistence of a high percentage of sperm cells with cytoplasmic droplet in cauda epididymis was observed in addition to a low index of capacitation and acrosome reaction in sperm cells obtained from the corpus epididymis.
  • There was a significant increase in the percentage of capacitated and acrosome reacted spermatozoa during the storage of sperm cells in the cauda epididymis and the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa was consistently, and significantly, higher (p < 0.05) in cauda compared to the corpus epididymis at all studied dates.
  • The process of epididymal maturation in C. mexicanus is completed in the caudal region of this organ encompassing a significant period.
  • Our results also indicate that in C. mexicanus, and in other vespertilionid and rhinolophid bats that show the same temporal asynchrony in the function of male reproductive organs, the final phases of epididymal maturation and storage are, apparently, independent of testicular function.
  • [MeSH-major] Chiroptera / physiology. Epididymis / physiology. Sperm Maturation / physiology. Spermatozoa / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18942027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-6376
  • [Journal-full-title] Systems biology in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Syst Biol Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Dai X, Zhu BT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase tissue distribution and cellular localization in mice: implications for its biological functions. J Histochem Cytochem; 2010 Jan;58(1):17-28
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  • The highest levels of constitutive IDO expression were found to be selectively present in the caput of epididymis, except for its initial segment.
  • Based on the tissue distribution and cellular localization characteristics of IDO, it is hypothesized that its expression may serve two main functions: one is to deplete tryptophan in an enclosed microenvironment (such as in the epididymal duct lumen) to prevent bacterial or viral infection, and the other is to produce bioactive tryptophan catabolites that would serve to suppress T-cell-mediated immune responses against self-antigens, fetal antigens, or allogeneic antigens, in different situations.

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  • (PMID = 19741271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-5044
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20RR021940
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan; 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2796611
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43. Tripathi DN, Jena GB: Astaxanthin inhibits cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cyclophosphamide in mice germ cells. Toxicology; 2008 Jun 27;248(2-3):96-103
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  • The protective effect of AST against CP induced male germ cell toxicity was evaluated using body weight, testes and epididymis weight, sperm count, sperm head morphology, sperm comet assay, histology of testes and TUNEL assay.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Body Weight / drug effects. Comet Assay. DNA Damage / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Antagonism. Epididymis / drug effects. Epididymis / pathology. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Male. Mice. Organ Size / drug effects. Sperm Count. Sperm Head / drug effects. Sperm Head / pathology. Xanthophylls / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18485558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-483X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimutagenic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Xanthophylls; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 8XPW32PR7I / astaxanthine
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44. Ruhlen RL, Howdeshell KL, Mao J, Taylor JA, Bronson FH, Newbold RR, Welshons WV, vom Saal FS: Low phytoestrogen levels in feed increase fetal serum estradiol resulting in the "fetal estrogenization syndrome" and obesity in CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect; 2008 Mar;116(3):322-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Although estrogenic chemicals can disrupt development of the reproductive system, there is debate about whether phytoestrogens in soy are beneficial, benign, or harmful.
  • In females, this syndrome included early puberty and increased uterine responsiveness to estrogen, and in males, it included reduced testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle size, but an enlarged prostate.

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  • (PMID = 18335098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-6765
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES011283; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM008396; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES11283
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leptin; 0 / Phytoestrogens; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2265041
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; casein / estradiol / fat / glucose tolerance / leptin / metabolic syndrome / obesity / puberty / reproductive organs / soy
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45. Dykes TM, Stone AB, Canby-Hagino ED: Coccidioidomycosis of the epididymis and testis. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Feb;184(2):552-3
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  • [Title] Coccidioidomycosis of the epididymis and testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Coccidioidomycosis / diagnosis. Epididymitis / diagnosis. Testicular Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15671378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Reineks EZ, MacLennan GT: Sarcoidosis of the testis and epididymis. J Urol; 2008 Mar;179(3):1147
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  • [Title] Sarcoidosis of the testis and epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / pathology. Genital Diseases, Male / pathology. Sarcoidosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18206954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 3
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47. de Souza Predes F, Diamante MA, Dolder H: Testis response to low doses of cadmium in Wistar rats. Int J Exp Pathol; 2010 Apr;91(2):125-31
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  • The higher dose caused significant reduction in testis and epididymis weight, gonadossomatic index and length of seminiferous tubule (ST) after 7 and 56 days.

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  • (PMID = 20015210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 00BH33GNGH / Cadmium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2965898
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48. Serrano H, Perez-Rivero JJ, Martinez-Maya JJ, Aguilar-Setien A, Perez-Martinez M, Garcia-Suarez MD: Fluorescence and inmunohistological detection of estrogen receptors in dog testis and epidydimis after oral coumestrol administration. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2008 Dec;29(6):977-80
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of Coumestrol-Estrogen Receptor complexes by fluorescence in testis and epididymis, its effect in the ER expression by immunostain in the same tissues and the effect of this binding in the testis histological characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Coumestrol / pharmacology. Epididymis / drug effects. Phytoestrogens / pharmacology. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Testis / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19112405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phytoestrogens; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; V7NW98OB34 / Coumestrol
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49. Pellati D, Mylonakis I, Bertoloni G, Fiore C, Andrisani A, Ambrosini G, Armanini D: Genital tract infections and infertility. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Sep;140(1):3-11
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  • Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands.


50. Seethammagari MR, Xie X, Greenberg NM, Spencer DM: EZC-prostate models offer high sensitivity and specificity for noninvasive imaging of prostate cancer progression and androgen receptor action. Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 15;66(12):6199-209
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  • EZC2 and EZC3-prostate display robust expression in the prostate with only minimal detectable expression in other organs, including testes and epididymis.

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  • (PMID = 16778194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA84296
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; EC 1.13.12.7 / Luciferases, Firefly
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51. Wang Z, Widgren EE, Sivashanmugam P, O'Rand MG, Richardson RT: Association of eppin with semenogelin on human spermatozoa. Biol Reprod; 2005 May;72(5):1064-70
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  • Eppin (SPINLW1; GeneID, 57119) is a single-copy gene encoding a cysteine-rich protein found only in the testis and epididymis, which contains both Kunitz-type and WAP-type four disulfide core protease inhibitor consensus sequences.

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  • (PMID = 15590901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / D43TW-HD00627
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / SPINLW1 protein, human; 0 / Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins; 0 / seminal vesicle-specific antigen
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52. Tsili AC, Tsampoulas C, Giannakis D, Papastefanaki M, Tsiriopoulos I, Sofikitis N, Efremidis SC: Case report. Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis: MRI findings. Br J Radiol; 2008 Jun;81(966):e166-9
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  • Sonographic and MRI examination of the scrotum showed bilateral testicular enlargement and the presence of multiple nodules involving both the testis and the epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymitis / diagnosis. Orchitis / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Male Genital / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Epididymis / ultrasonography. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / isolation & purification. Nephrostomy, Percutaneous. Testis / ultrasonography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / radiography. Tuberculosis, Renal / complications. Tuberculosis, Renal / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18487383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Aranha I, Bhagya M, Yajurvedi HN: Ultrastructural study of the epididymis and the vas deferens and electrophoretic profile of their luminal fluid proteins in the lizard Mabuya carinata. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol; 2006 Apr;38(1):37-43
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  • [Title] Ultrastructural study of the epididymis and the vas deferens and electrophoretic profile of their luminal fluid proteins in the lizard Mabuya carinata.
  • The light microscopy, histochemical and TEM studies of the epididymis and the vas deferens revealed the presence of PAS positive secretory granules in the epithelial cells lining the lumen of these organs.
  • One dimensional SDS gel electrophoretic pattern of luminal fluid proteins and the total protein content of the testis, three regions of the epididymis and the vas deferens of the lizard, Mabuya carinata were studied during breeding and nonbreeding season of the reproductive cycle.
  • During breeding season, 25 protein bands in the testicular luminal fluid, 26 in the anterior epididymal luminal fluid and 28 in the middle and posterior epididymal luminal fluid were found.
  • Ten new protein bands appeared in the anterior epididymal region whereas five new protein bands appeared in the middle region of the epididymis indicating regional difference in protein secretions of the epididymis.
  • Vas deferens luminal fluid showed the highest number of protein bands (32) and the highest total protein content (9.07 mg/ml) compared to the testis and the epididymis.
  • Number of protein bands in the luminal fluids of testis, epididymis and the vas deferens were significantly reduced during nonbreeding season compared to those of the breeding season.
  • The results indicate seasonal differences in number of proteins secreted and quantity of proteins in the luminal fluid of male reproductive tract of M. carinata.
  • This is the first study in reptiles revealing appearance of new proteins in epididymis, and vas deferens by conducting simultaneous electrophoretic profile of testicular, epididymal and vas deferens luminal contents.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / ultrastructure. Extracellular Fluid / chemistry. Lizards / physiology. Proteins / analysis. Vas Deferens / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17283965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-9497
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of submicroscopic cytology and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Submicrosc. Cytol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins
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54. Zhang XK, Han KP, Ma L: [Effects of Qiyao Xiaoke capsule on glycolipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle of rats with catch-up growth induced by high-fat diet]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi; 2010 Oct;30(10):1091-5
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  • Levels of blood glucose, serum free fatty acid (FFA), serum insulin (Fins), plasma adiponcetin (AC) and insulin resistance index (IRI) as well as the weights of peri-epididymis and peri-renal fat and their ratio to body weight were observed 8 weeks later.

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  • (PMID = 21066897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-5370
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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55. Vyskocilová M, Prazanová G, Piálek J: Polymorphism in hybrid male sterility in wild-derived Mus musculus musculus strains on proximal chromosome 17. Mamm Genome; 2009 Feb;20(2):83-91
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  • About one-third of resulting hybrid males (33.8%) had a significantly smaller epididymis and testes than parental animals and lacked spermatozoa due to meiotic arrest.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Epididymis / abnormalities. Epididymis / pathology. Female. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Quantitative Trait Loci. Spermatozoa / abnormalities. Testis / abnormalities. Testis / pathology

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56. Hoffhines AJ, Jen CH, Leary JA, Moore KL: Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 expression is required for sulfation of RNase 9 and Mfge8 in vivo. J Biol Chem; 2009 Jan 30;284(5):3096-105
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  • RNase 9, a catalytically inactive RNase A family member of unknown function, is expressed only in the epididymis after onset of sexual maturity.

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  • (PMID = 19047058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD056022-01A1; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD056022; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD 056022; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD056022-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Mfge8 protein, mouse; 0 / Milk Proteins; 0 / Sulfates; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 2.8.2.20 / TPST2 protein, mouse; EC 3.1.- / Ribonucleases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2631965
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57. Figueiredo AA, Lucon AM, Gomes CM, Srougi M: Urogenital tuberculosis: patient classification in seven different groups according to clinical and radiological presentation. Int Braz J Urol; 2008 Jul-Aug;34(4):422-32; discussion 432
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  • 2) Six (7.5%) cases had an early diagnosis, with minimal or no radiographic lesions.
  • 7) Four (5.0%) patients had prostate or epididymis tuberculosis without associated renal lesion.
  • A classification according to similar patterns correlating with disease stage is feasible although early diagnosis is the only prevention of the most severe forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnosis-Related Groups. Tuberculosis, Urogenital / classification

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  • (PMID = 18778493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Braz J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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58. Yamazaki K, Fukata H, Adachi T, Tainaka H, Kohda M, Yamazaki M, Kojima K, Chiba K, Mori C, Komiyama M: Association of increased type I collagen expression and relative stromal overgrowth in mouse epididymis neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol. Mol Reprod Dev; 2005 Nov;72(3):291-8
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  • [Title] Association of increased type I collagen expression and relative stromal overgrowth in mouse epididymis neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that underlie morphological changes in the epididymis following neonatal exposure to potent synthetic estrogen, namely diethylstilbestrol (DES).
  • Characteristic morphological abnormality, such as relative stromal overgrowth, was observed at the age of 2 weeks in the epididymis of DES-treated mice, but not in E2-treated mice.
  • Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of procollagen type I alpha 1 (col1a1) and col1a2 genes were markedly upregulated at the age of 2 weeks in the epididymis of DES-treated mice in comparison with the control.
  • Western blot analysis revealed that type I collagen protein expression level in epididymis of DES-treated mice was elevated at the age of 2 weeks.
  • In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the signals of col1a1 mRNA were detected similarly throughout the stromal tissue of epididymis at the age of 2 weeks in control and DES- and E2-treated mice.
  • The gene expression level of epididymal type III collagen (col3a1), which is found in many stromal connective tissues as well as type I collagen, did not change at the age of 2 weeks in all groups.
  • These results suggest that the increased type I collagen expression is associated with the relative stromal overgrowth in the epididymis of DES-treated mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen Type I / metabolism. Diethylstilbestrol / pharmacology. Epididymis / drug effects. Epididymis / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16086434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-452X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular reproduction and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Reprod. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / DNA Primers; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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59. Demirtola A, Ozen IO, Ozturk GS, Vural IM, Ercan S, Kale N, Sarioglu Y: The effects of varicocele and its surgical correction on vas deferens motility. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Mar;24(3):319-23
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  • Varicocele is established to be the most common cause of infertility in the adulthood period in terms of the testicular and/or epididymal damages it causes.
  • Besides, malfunctioning of testis and/or epididymis cannot be blamed as the one and only reason of infertility.
  • The results of this study suggest that varicocele can be the reason of male infertility by not only causing testicular and/or epididymal damages but also triggering vas deferens motility defects.
  • It seems that varicocele surgery does not only prevent late term testicular and/or epididymal damages but also avoids vas deferens motility defects.

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  • (PMID = 18040696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Naik R, Upadhyaya K, Pai MR, Baliga PB, Nayak SK: Fine needle aspiration of metastatic malignant Leydig cell tumor of testis: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jul;50(3):624-5
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of metastatic malignant Leydig cell tumor of testis: a case report.
  • The fine needle aspiration of the inguinal mass showed a highly cellular tumor composed of sheets and isolated, large round to polygonal cells with moderate pleomorphism.
  • A provisional diagnosis of metastasis probably of testicular tumour was made.
  • The orchidectomy showed a brown tumor replacing the entire testis and infiltrating the epididymis.
  • The histological features showed Leydig cell tumor without Reinke crystalloids.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17883165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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61. Nolan MA, Wu L, Bang HJ, Jelinsky SA, Roberts KP, Turner TT, Kopf GS, Johnston DS: Identification of rat cysteine-rich secretory protein 4 (Crisp4) as the ortholog to human CRISP1 and mouse Crisp4. Biol Reprod; 2006 May;74(5):984-91
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  • The full-length transcript for this gene was cloned from rat epididymal RNA and encodes a protein that shares 69% and 91% similarity with human CRISP1 and mouse CRISP4, respectively.
  • Expression of rat Crisp4 is most abundant in the epididymis, with the highest levels of transcription observed in the caput and corpus epididymis.
  • In contrast, rat CRISP4 protein is most abundant in the corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis.
  • Our data identify rat Crisp4 as the true ortholog to human CRISP1 and mouse Crisp4, and demonstrate its interaction with spermatozoa in the epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Proteins / genetics. Seminal Plasma Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16467491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRISP1 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Seminal Plasma Proteins; 0 / cysteine-rich secretory protein 4, mouse; 0 / cysteine-rich secretory protein 4, rat
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62. Khaki A, Fathiazad F, Nouri M, Khaki A, Maleki NA, Khamnei HJ, Ahmadi P: Beneficial effects of quercetin on sperm parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Phytother Res; 2010 Sep;24(9):1285-91
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  • All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20127875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1573
  • [Journal-full-title] Phytotherapy research : PTR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phytother Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Plant Extracts; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 9IKM0I5T1E / Quercetin
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63. Gläsker S, Lonser RR, Tran MG, Ikejiri B, Butman JA, Zeng W, Maxwell PH, Zhuang Z, Oldfield EH, Vortmeyer AO: Effects of VHL deficiency on endolymphatic duct and sac. Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 1;65(23):10847-53
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  • Inactivation of the wild-type copy of the VHL gene leads to up-regulation of hypoxic response and tumor formation within central nervous system (CNS), kidneys, pancreas, adrenal glands, epididymis, broad ligament, and the endolymphatic sac/petrous bone.
  • In addition, we investigated effects of VHL deficiency on "tumor-free" endolymphatic duct and sac of VHL patients.
  • Furthermore, by analysis of clinically uninvolved "tumor-free" endolymphatic duct and sac tissues of VHL patients, we discovered a variety of VHL-deficient microscopic abnormalities with morphologic similarities to ELSTs.
  • Therefore, inactivation of the VHL wild-type allele seems necessary but not sufficient for the formation of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Endolymphatic Duct / pathology. Endolymphatic Sac / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16322231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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64. Damkier HH, Nielsen S, Praetorius J: An anti-NH2-terminal antibody localizes NBCn1 to heart endothelia and skeletal and vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol; 2006 Jan;290(1):H172-80
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  • In addition, an approximately 180-kDa immunoreactive band appeared using samples from the aorta, heart ventricles and atria, mesenteric arteries, lung, spleen, liver, pancreas, and epididymis.

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  • (PMID = 16126812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6135
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Slc4a7 protein, rat; 0 / Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters
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65. Dacheux JL, Belleannée C, Jones R, Labas V, Belghazi M, Guyonnet B, Druart X, Gatti JL, Dacheux F: Mammalian epididymal proteome. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Jul 10;306(1-2):45-50
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  • [Title] Mammalian epididymal proteome.
  • In all mammalian species, the final differentiation of the male germ cell occurs in the epididymal duct where the spermatozoa develop the ability to be motile and fertilize an ovum.
  • This report summarizes our proteomic studies of the epididymis of several mammals, including humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / metabolism. Mammals / metabolism. Proteome / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19464100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteome
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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66. Karpenko NO, Bondarenko VA, Kavok NS, Borikov OIu: [The maturation of the spermatozoa: events, consequences and possible ways of control]. Fiziol Zh; 2007;53(1):91-103
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  • For the purpose of this review the morphological and functional changes of nucleus, plasmatic and nuclear membranes, tail region as well as the change of localisation and activity of enzymes have been described to illustrate the epididymis stage of maturation.

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  • (PMID = 17500206.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Fiziolohichnyĭ zhurnal (Kiev, Ukraine : 1994)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fiziol Zh
  • [Language] ukr
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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67. Feng S, Bogatcheva NV, Truong A, Korchin B, Bishop CE, Klonisch T, Agoulnik IU, Agoulnik AI: Developmental expression and gene regulation of insulin-like 3 receptor RXFP2 in mouse male reproductive organs. Biol Reprod; 2007 Oct;77(4):671-80
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  • Receptor expression was markedly increased after birth and was readily detectable in the epididymis, Leydig cells, and germ cells of the testis.

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  • (PMID = 17615407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD37067; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD037067-10; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD037067; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01 HD043421; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD037067-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Leydig insulin-like protein; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RXFP2 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / SOX9 protein, human; 0 / Sox9 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / relaxin receptor 2, mouse; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases
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68. Martinez-Pastor F, Garcia-Macias V, Alvarez M, Herraez P, Anel L, de Paz P: Sperm subpopulations in Iberian red deer epididymal sperm and their changes through the cryopreservation process. Biol Reprod; 2005 Feb;72(2):316-27
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  • [Title] Sperm subpopulations in Iberian red deer epididymal sperm and their changes through the cryopreservation process.
  • Samples were obtained from the cauda epididymis of 11 Iberian red deer and cryopreserved following a standard protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Deer / genetics. Epididymis / cytology. Semen Preservation. Spermatozoa / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15385419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Nariculam J, Minhas S, Adeniyi A, Ralph DJ, Freeman A: A review of the efficacy of surgical treatment for and pathological changes in patients with chronic scrotal pain. BJU Int; 2007 May;99(5):1091-3
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  • All pathological specimens were examined to identify any changes in the epididymis and testis.
  • All specimens showed pathological changes in the epididymis or testis, with changes suggestive of recurrent episodes of ischaemia or infection.

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  • (PMID = 17244279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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70. Perobelli JE, Martinez MF, da Silva Franchi CA, Fernandez CD, de Camargo JL, Kempinas Wde G: Decreased sperm motility in rats orally exposed to single or mixed pesticides. J Toxicol Environ Health A; 2010;73(13-14):991-1002
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  • Sperm morphology, daily sperm production (DSP), sperm transit time through the epididymis, hormonal levels, and histopathological evaluation of testis and epididymis did not differ significantly among the groups.

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  • (PMID = 20563933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-7394
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; 509F88P9SZ / Permethrin; 7U370BPS14 / Dichlorvos; OKA6A6ZD4K / Endosulfan; W4WMM0WS91 / Dicofol
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71. Ishigami K, Abu-Yousef MM, El-Zein Y: Tubular ectasia of the epididymis: a sign of postvasectomy status. J Clin Ultrasound; 2005 Dec;33(9):447-51
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  • [Title] Tubular ectasia of the epididymis: a sign of postvasectomy status.
  • PURPOSE: To find out if "tubular ectasia of the epididymis" is suggestive of postvasectomy status.
  • METHODS: Tubular ectasia of the epididymis is defined as enlargement of the epididymis with multiple interfaces (i.e., a speckled appearance).
  • We found 24 cases exhibiting tubular ectasia of the epididymis over a period of six years.
  • We reviewed the sonographic findings of tubular ectasia of the epididymis and evaluated the prevalence of associated findings.
  • RESULTS: In 24 patients with tubular ectasia of the epididymis, 16 cases were bilateral, five were right-sided, and three were left-sided.
  • CONCLUSION: Tubular ectasia of the epididymis is suggestive of postvasectomy epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / pathology. Vasectomy / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16281269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Goyal S, Manivannan B, Ansari AS, Jain SC, Lohiya NK: Safety evaluation of long term oral treatment of methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive in albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol; 2010 Feb 3;127(2):286-91
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  • Sperm count and viability in 50mg/kg body weight treated animals and the weight of epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of all the treated animals showed significant reduction compared to control.
  • Cauda epididymal spermatozoa of 50mg/kg body weight treated animals were immotile.
  • Histology of testis revealed adverse effects on the process of spermatogenesis, while the histology of epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate showed no changes compared to control.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHANOL .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19914367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7573
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Male; 0 / Plant Extracts; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol
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73. Prabagaran E, Bandivdekar AH, Dighe V, Raghavan VP: HOXBES2: a novel epididymal HOXB2 homeoprotein and its domain-specific association with spermatozoa. Biol Reprod; 2007 Feb;76(2):314-26
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  • [Title] HOXBES2: a novel epididymal HOXB2 homeoprotein and its domain-specific association with spermatozoa.
  • The sperm from the testis acquires complete fertilizing ability and forward progressive motility following its transit through the epididymis.
  • Acquisition of these characteristics results from the modification of the sperm proteome following interactions with epididymal secretions.
  • In our attempts to identify epididymis-specific sperm plasma membrane proteins, a partial 2.83-kb clone was identified by immunoscreening a monkey epididymal cDNA library with an agglutinating monoclonal antibody raised against washed human spermatozoa.
  • To obtain a full-length clone of the sequence, 5' RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR) was carried out using rat epididymal RNA as the template.
  • A putative 30-kDa protein was detected in the tissue extracts from adult rat epididymis and caudal spermatozoa, and a 37-kDa protein was detected in the rat embryo when probed with a polyclonal antibody against HOXB2 protein.
  • Multiple tissue Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis further indicated its expression in the cytoplasm of the principal and basal epithelial cells, with maximal expression in the distal epididymal segments.
  • Northern blot analysis detected a single approximately 2.5-kb transcript from the adult epididymis.
  • In conclusion, we have identified and characterized a novel epididymal homeoprotein different from HOXB2 protein and hereafter referred to as HOXBES2, (HOXB2 homeodomain containing epididymis-specific sperm protein) with a probable role in fertilization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrosome / metabolism. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Chromosome Mapping. Cloning, Molecular. Conserved Sequence. DNA, Complementary. Epididymis / metabolism. Epididymis / physiology. Fertilization / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Macaca radiata. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Sperm Capacitation / physiology. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17065603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-7268
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ DQ399532
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HOXBES2 protein, rat; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
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74. Acar O, Akinci M, Uluocak N, Akbulut F, Kilicaslan I, Gokce O: Paratesticular metastasis of malignant melanoma: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2008 Jun;24(6):315-8
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  • Our case was unique because the malignant melanoma was widely metastatic and involved primarily paratesticular tissues without any invasion of the testis and epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Scrotum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Back Pain. Biopsy. Epididymis / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Testis / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18635417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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75. Kumar N, Sood S, Arora B, Singh M, Beena: Effect of duration of fluoride exposure on the reproductive system in male rabbits. J Hum Reprod Sci; 2010 Sep;3(3):148-52
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  • Sperm count, motility, progressive motility and weight of testis and epididymis were measured and compared with the control group.

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  • (PMID = 21234178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4766
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of human reproductive sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hum Reprod Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3017333
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Fluoride / sperm count / testis
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76. Reddy KV, Vijayalaxmi G, Rajeev KS, Aranha C: Inhibition of sperm-egg binding and fertilisation in mice by a monoclonal antibody reactive to 57-kDa human sperm surface antigen. Reprod Fertil Dev; 2006;18(8):875-84
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  • The antigen localised specifically in spermatogonial cells and luminal spermatozoa of the testis and epididymis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrosome / physiology. Acrosome Reaction / physiology. Animals. Blotting, Western. Brain / physiology. Cricetinae. Epididymis / physiology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Macaca radiata. Male. Mesocricetus. Mice. Testis / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17147936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1031-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction, fertility, and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / FASA protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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77. Cheng CY, Mruk D, Silvestrini B, Bonanomi M, Wong CH, Siu MK, Lee NP, Lui WY, Mo MY: AF-2364 [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide] is a potential male contraceptive: a review of recent data. Contraception; 2005 Oct;72(4):251-61
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  • These data have clearly illustrated the low bioavailability of AF-2364 in rats and that this compound is not specifically taken up by any organs including the testis or the epididymis.

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  • (PMID = 16181968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0010-7824
  • [Journal-full-title] Contraception
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Contraception
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 5U01 HD045980; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 5U54 HD029990
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)indazole-3-carbohydrazide; 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Male; 0 / Hydrazines; 0 / Indazoles
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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78. Puttemans T, Delvigne A, Murillo D: Normal and variant appearances of the adult epididymis and vas deferens on high-resolution sonography. J Clin Ultrasound; 2006 Oct;34(8):385-92
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  • [Title] Normal and variant appearances of the adult epididymis and vas deferens on high-resolution sonography.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the appearance, anatomic position, and size of the normal adult epididymis and vas deferens using high-resolution sonography.
  • METHODS: The sonographic appearance, anatomic position, and size of the epididymal head (EH), epididymal body (EB), epididymo-deferential loop (EDL), and vas deferens (VD) were evaluated in 112 consecutive infertile men (infertile group), and the data were compared with those from 84 consecutive men without history of infertility (reference group).
  • In 11.6% of cases in the infertile group and 2.4% of cases in the reference group, the epididymis was inverted, with the EH located below the lower pole of the testis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We describe the normal and variant appearance, position, and size of the adult epididymis and VD on high-resolution sonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / ultrasonography. Infertility, Male / ultrasonography. Vas Deferens / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16944482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Moisan V, Bomgardner D, Tremblay JJ: Expression of the Ladybird-like homeobox 2 transcription factor in the developing mouse testis and epididymis. BMC Dev Biol; 2008;8:22
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  • [Title] Expression of the Ladybird-like homeobox 2 transcription factor in the developing mouse testis and epididymis.
  • Indeed, a handful of homeoproteins have so far been identified in the testis and epididymis where a few were shown to play important developmental roles.
  • RESULTS: To better define the expression profile of Lbx2 in the male reproductive system, we have performed in situ hybridization throughout testicular and epididymal development and into adulthood.
  • Lbx2 expression was also confirmed by real time RT-PCR in those tissues and in several testicular and epididymal cell lines.
  • In the epididymis, a highly segmented tissue, Lbx2 shows a regionalized expression profile, being more expressed in proximal segments of the caput epididymis than any other segment.
  • CONCLUSION: Altogether, our data suggest that the homeoprotein Lbx2 might be involved in the regulation of male reproductive system development and cell differentiation as well as in male epididymal segmentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / embryology. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Testis / embryology. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18304314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-213X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Lbx2h protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2277406
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80. Mehta V, Mittal A, Bagga P, Singla M: Two case reports of ultrasonography features in male genital tuberculosis. Indian J Tuberc; 2009 Apr;56(2):95-9
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  • In the male genital tract, the epididymis followed by seminal vesicle, prostate, vas deferens and testis are commonly affected sites.
  • Ultrasonography (USG) is the best imaging modality for the diagnosis of the diseases of male genital tract.
  • We are presenting USG findings in two cases of male genital tuberculosis with involvement of the prostate, seminal vesicle, epididymis and vas deferens.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / ultrasonography. Prostate / ultrasonography. Seminal Vesicles / ultrasonography. Testis / ultrasonography. Tuberculosis, Male Genital / ultrasonography. Vas Deferens / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19810592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5707
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of tuberculosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Tuberc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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81. Duan YG, Xiong ZM, Li JX, Zhu CH, Liu ZL: [Expression patterns of age-related molecule c-kit, HIWI and vimentin in the rat testis and epididymis]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2007 Nov;13(11):992-6
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  • [Title] [Expression patterns of age-related molecule c-kit, HIWI and vimentin in the rat testis and epididymis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences in the expressions of c-kit, HIWI and vimentin in the testis and epididymis of rats aged different months, investigate the regular changes in the expression of characteristic molecules in the ripening and senescent process of the testis and epididymis, and provide experimental evidence for studies on the aging of the male reproductive system.
  • The immunohistochemical SP method was used to examine c-kit, HIWI and vimentin in the testis and epididymis of the rats.
  • RESULTS: The positive immunohistochemical reaction to c-kit was observed mainly in spermatogonia, weakly in other cells and also in the epithelia and lumens of the epididymis.
  • The abundant expression of HIWI was detected in all stages of spermatogenic cells in the testis and epididymis of the 6-month-old and 12-month-old rats.
  • But the positive expression decreased with age in the testis and epididymis of the 24-month-old rats (P > 0.05).
  • vimentin expression was weak in the testis and epididymis of the 6-month-olds but increased significantly in the 24-month-olds (P > 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The expressions of c-kit and HIWI decreased in the testis and epididymis of the 24-month-old rats, while vimentin expression increased markedly with age.
  • The results suggest that the aging of the testis and epididymis is closely related to the abnormal transduction of cell signals.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / metabolism. Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Testis / metabolism. Vimentin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18077910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / hiwi protein, rat; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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82. Moore K, Lovercamp K, Feng D, Antelman J, Sutovsky M, Manandhar G, van Leyen K, Safranski T, Sutovsky P: Altered epididymal sperm maturation and cytoplasmic droplet migration in subfertile male Alox15 mice. Cell Tissue Res; 2010 Jun;340(3):569-81
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  • [Title] Altered epididymal sperm maturation and cytoplasmic droplet migration in subfertile male Alox15 mice.
  • Mammalian spermatozoa complete their morphogenesis and acquire their fertilizing potential in the epididymis.
  • Prominent among the hallmarks of epididymal sperm maturation is the proximal-distal migration of the cytoplasmic droplet (CD), the last remnant of the spermatogenic cell cytoplasm, down the sperm flagellum.
  • Caput and cauda epididymal sperm samples from seven adult Alox15 and seven wild-type (wt) males of equal age were examined by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
  • TEM and DIC analyses revealed intact mitochondria present in the CDs of epididymal Alox15 spermatozoa.
  • Thus, the process of epididymal sperm maturation and CD migration is altered in Alox15 males.
  • Aberrant sperm maturation might contribute to the reduced fertility and smaller litter size of Alox15 mice, a rare example of subfertile mutants displaying normal spermatogenesis but altered epididymal sperm maturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase / metabolism. Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Epididymis / pathology. Infertility, Male / enzymology. Infertility, Male / physiopathology. Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism. Sperm Maturation / physiology. Sperm Motility / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20449608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0878
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell and tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; EC 1.13.11.31 / Alox15 protein, mouse; EC 1.13.11.31 / Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase; EC 1.13.11.33 / Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase
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83. Henkel R, Bastiaan HS, Schüller S, Hoppe I, Starker W, Menkveld R: Leucocytes and intrinsic ROS production may be factors compromising sperm chromatin condensation status. Andrologia; 2010 Apr;42(2):69-75
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  • Considering that the final protection of the DNA against major assaults in terms of chromatin condensation is finalized in the epididymis, it is not known how sperm production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory processes can contribute to protamine deficiency that is predetermined in the testes.

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  • (PMID = 20384795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0272
  • [Journal-full-title] Andrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Andrologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species
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84. Gu L, Laly M, Chang HC, Prior RL, Fang N, Ronis MJ, Badger TM: Isoflavone conjugates are underestimated in tissues using enzymatic hydrolysis. J Agric Food Chem; 2005 Aug 24;53(17):6858-63
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  • Acid hydrolysis or enzymatic hydrolysis (glucuronidases and sulfatases) was used to study isoflavone contents in the heart, brain, epididymis, fat, lung, testis, liver, pituitary gland, prostate gland, mammary glands, uterus, and kidney from rats fed diets made with soy protein isolate.

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  • (PMID = 16104811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoflavones; 6287WC5J2L / daidzein; DH2M523P0H / Genistein; EC 3.1.6.- / Sulfatases; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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85. Kotłowska M, Kowalski R, Glogowski J, Jankowski J, Ciereszko A: Gelatinases and serine proteinase inhibitors of seminal plasma and the reproductive tract of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Theriogenology; 2005 Apr 1;63(6):1667-81
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  • Two inhibitors were found in the testis and epididymis and a third in the ductus deferens and seminal plasma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Epididymis / chemistry. Male. Metalloproteases / analysis. Molecular Weight. Peptide Hydrolases / analysis. Peptide Hydrolases / blood. Reproduction. Serine Endopeptidases / analysis. Testis / chemistry. Tissue Distribution. Trypsin Inhibitors / analysis. Vas Deferens / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15763110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] Theriogenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Theriogenology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Serine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Trypsin Inhibitors; EC 3.4.- / Metalloproteases; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases
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86. Abd-Elmaksoud A: Comparative expression of laminin and smooth muscle actin in the testis and epididymis of poultry and rabbit. J Mol Histol; 2009 Oct;40(5-6):407-16
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  • [Title] Comparative expression of laminin and smooth muscle actin in the testis and epididymis of poultry and rabbit.
  • The present investigation was conducted to demonstrate laminin and alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) in the testis and epididymis of adult chickens, Sudani ducks, pigeons, and rabbits.
  • In the epididymis, the basal lamina of the epididymal epithelium showed a distinctly positive reaction in all birds and rabbit.
  • Laminin positive reaction was also seen in the epididymal vasculatures of all birds and rabbit.
  • In the epididymis of all birds and rabbit, the alphaSMA was particularly seen in the periductal and interductal myoid cells as well as in the epididymal vasculatures.
  • No alphaSMA specific staining was however detected in the epididymal epithelium, fibrous lamina propria, and luminal spermatozoa of all birds and rabbits.
  • In conclusion, the distribution of laminin and alphaSMA in the testis and epididymis might point out to their roles in the male reproduction.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / metabolism. Epididymis / metabolism. Laminin / metabolism. Muscle, Smooth / metabolism. Poultry / metabolism. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20157768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
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87. Hermo L, Schellenberg M, Liu LY, Dayanandan B, Zhang T, Mandato CA, Smith CE: Membrane domain specificity in the spatial distribution of aquaporins 5, 7, 9, and 11 in efferent ducts and epididymis of rats. J Histochem Cytochem; 2008 Dec;56(12):1121-35
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  • [Title] Membrane domain specificity in the spatial distribution of aquaporins 5, 7, 9, and 11 in efferent ducts and epididymis of rats.
  • Water content within the epididymis of the male reproductive system is stringently regulated to promote sperm maturation.
  • Several members of the aquaporin (AQP) family of water channel-forming integral membrane proteins have been identified in epididymal cells, but expression profiling for this epithelium is presently incomplete, and no AQP isoform has yet been identified on basolateral plasma membranes of these cells.
  • The results indicate that several AQPs are coexpressed in the epididymis including AQP 5, 7, 9, and 11.
  • These findings indicate unique associations of AQPs with specific membrane domains in a cell type- and region-specific manner within the epididymis of adult animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Aquaporins / biosynthesis. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Epididymis / metabolism. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18796408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aqp5 protein, rat; 0 / Aqp7 protein, rat; 0 / Aqp9 protein, rat; 0 / Aquaporin 5; 0 / Aquaporins; 0 / aquaporin 11, rat
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2583908
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88. Fernández-Aceñero MJ, Renedo G, Fortes J, Manzarbeitia F: Nonpapillary serous cystadenoma of the epididymis: report of 2 cases of a rare entity. Urology; 2010 Mar;75(3):563-5
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  • [Title] Nonpapillary serous cystadenoma of the epididymis: report of 2 cases of a rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Epididymis. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19942264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. García Torrelles M, Beltrán Armada JR, Santolaya García I, Carrascosa Lloret V, Tarín Planes M, San Juan De Laorden C: [Solitary fibrous tumor of the tunica vaginalis testis]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Mar;59(2):186-9
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  • [Title] [Solitary fibrous tumor of the tunica vaginalis testis].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor fibroso solitario de la túnica vaginal.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report one case of solitary fibrous tumor of the tunica vaginalis, a benign paratesticular lesion.
  • METHODS: Surgical exploration with intraoperative biopsy and excision of the lesion was undertaken, leaving the testicle and epididymis undamaged.
  • Pathological diagnosis on the surgical specimen was solitary fibrous tumor of the tunica vaginalis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Almost all testicular masses are malignant, but in order to avoid a non-indicated orchyectomy, one should be cautious with the finding of a paratesticular lesion of probable benign nature on ultrasound or during surgery.

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  • (PMID = 16649526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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90. Kim BK, Jabed MA, Kang SR, Kim DE, Han CH, Huh MK, Kamal T: Effects of spermatozoa during in vitro meiosis progression in the porcine germinal vesicle oocytes. Anim Reprod Sci; 2008 Feb 1;104(1):83-92
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  • The study suggests that (i) membrane of porcine spermatozoa contains a substance(s) that can enhance in vitro maturation of oocytes prior to fertilization, (ii) the putative meiosis-enhancing substance(s) of spermatozoa from adult testes retains the oocyte maturation effect during transportation of spermatozoa through epididymis, and (iii) the putative meiosis-enhancing substance(s) is able to overcome the inhibitory effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP or forskolin by inducing germinal vesicle breakdown of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes maintained in meiotic arrest.

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  • (PMID = 17321081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4320
  • [Journal-full-title] Animal reproduction science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anim. Reprod. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Detergents
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91. Bisceglia M, Dor DB, Carosi I, Vairo M, Pasquinelli G: Paratesticular mesothelioma. Report of a case with comprehensive review of literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2010 Jan;17(1):53-70
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  • When hydrocele is the presenting symptom, these tumors are often clinically overlooked and the diagnosis is delayed.
  • Most paratesticular mesotheliomas arise in the tunica vaginalis, but primary tumors of the spermatic cord and epididymis are also on record.
  • The correct diagnosis is almost always made after histologic examination of the operative specimen.
  • Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy are always helpful and sometimes necessary tools for diagnosis.
  • The differential diagnosis is mainly with serous papillary tumors arising from Mullerian vestiges, but several diverse primary or secondary tumors also need to be considered.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20032640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 169
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92. Singh A, Singh SK: Evaluation of antifertility potential of Brahmi in male mouse. Contraception; 2009 Jan;79(1):71-9
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  • Epididymis in treated males showed slight alterations in histological appearance.

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  • (PMID = 19041444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0518
  • [Journal-full-title] Contraception
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Contraception
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Male; 0 / Plant Extracts; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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93. Mühlbauer M, Cheely AW, Yenugu S, Jobin C: Regulation and functional impact of lipopolysaccharide induced Nod2 gene expression in the murine epididymal epithelial cell line PC1. Immunology; 2008 Jun;124(2):256-64
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  • [Title] Regulation and functional impact of lipopolysaccharide induced Nod2 gene expression in the murine epididymal epithelial cell line PC1.
  • Epididymitis represents a serious threat to male fertility and usually develops following secondary bacterial infection of the epididymis such as urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted diseases.
  • In this study we investigated the regulation and function of Nod2 in epididymal epithelial cells following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation.
  • The immortalized epididymal epithelial cell line PC1 (proximal caput 1) constitutively expressed Toll-like receptor 4, MD-2, CD-14 but not Nod2 messenger RNA.
  • Functionally, Nod2 upregulation enhanced muramyl dipeptide (MDP) -induced tumour necrosis factor messenger RNA accumulation in PC1 cells.
  • We conclude that epididymal epithelial cells mount an innate response following LPS exposure which leads to upregulation of Nod2 and enhanced responsiveness to the microbial product MDP.
  • The rapid Nod2 upregulation in epididymal epithelial cells is probably part of a complex innate host response aimed at protecting the male reproductive tract from the deleterious impact of bacteria.

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  • (PMID = 18284470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2567
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK047700; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561-13; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R56 DK047700; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R0I DK 47700; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK040561-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Card15 protein, mouse; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tlr4 protein, mouse; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 53678-77-6 / Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2566630
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94. Yamaguchi R, Yamagata K, Hasuwa H, Inano E, Ikawa M, Okabe M: Cd52, known as a major maturation-associated sperm membrane antigen secreted from the epididymis, is not required for fertilization in the mouse. Genes Cells; 2008 Aug;13(8):851-61
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  • [Title] Cd52, known as a major maturation-associated sperm membrane antigen secreted from the epididymis, is not required for fertilization in the mouse.
  • CD52 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored antigen expressed on lymphocytes and in epididymal epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Epididymis / metabolism. Fertilization. Glycoproteins / metabolism


95. Liu CH, Jing QH, Ma B, Zhang AH, Ma YN, Peng GJ, Wang JW: [Sonographical features of the epididymis tuberculosis with caseous necrosis]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2005 Dec;11(12):912-4, 917
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  • [Title] [Sonographical features of the epididymis tuberculosis with caseous necrosis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse sonographical features of epididymis tuberculosis with caseous necrosis and improve the accuracy of ultrasonic diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Ultrasonic features of 12 cases with epididymis tuberculosis with caseous necrosis, confirmed by surgical pathology, was retrospectively analysed: size, location, echogenicity, degree of blood flow in the lesion.
  • The epididymal tuberculosis with caseous necrosis could present images of the whole or focal epididymal enlargement and abnormal shape.
  • CONCLUSION: The High Frequency Color Doppler images is helpful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of epididymis tuberculosis with caseous necrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Retrospective Studies. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16398362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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96. Bebas P, Goodall CP, Majewska M, Neumann A, Giebultowicz JM, Chappell PE: Circadian clock and output genes are rhythmically expressed in extratesticular ducts and accessory organs of mice. FASEB J; 2009 Feb;23(2):523-33
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  • To address this question in mice housed in a light-dark environment, we examined temporal patterns of mPer1 and Bmal1 gene expression and protein abundance in epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate.

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  • (PMID = 18945877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-6860
  • [Journal-full-title] FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FASEB J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K01 DK064919; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM073792; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM073792; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075357
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins; EC 2.3.1.48 / Clock protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630781
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97. Tsai MY, Yeh SD, Wang RS, Yeh S, Zhang C, Lin HY, Tzeng CR, Chang C: Differential effects of spermatogenesis and fertility in mice lacking androgen receptor in individual testis cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Dec 12;103(50):18975-80
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  • Sperm count and motility in epididymis from AR(-/y) mice are similar to that of WT (G-AR(+/y)) mice.

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  • (PMID = 17142319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060905; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060912; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 60905; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 60912
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1748162
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98. Yoon SI, Park CJ, Nah WH, Gye MC: Expression of occludin in testis and epididymis of wild rabbits, Lepus sinensis coreanus. Reprod Domest Anim; 2009 Oct;44(5):745-50
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  • [Title] Expression of occludin in testis and epididymis of wild rabbits, Lepus sinensis coreanus.
  • Tight junctions (TJs) in inter-Sertoli junctional areas and epididymal epithelia build up the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the blood-epididymal barrier (BEB), respectively.
  • In this study, the expression of occludin, an integral member of the TJs, was examined in testis and different regions of epididymis of Lepus sinensis coreanus, an Korean wild rabbit species.
  • In proximal and distal caput epididymis, occludin immunoreactivity was found in the lateral as well as apical contacts of epithelial cells.
  • In corpus epididymis, intense occludin immunoreactivity was found in the basolateral as well as apical contacts of epithelial cells together with cytoplasmic signal.
  • In cauda epididymis, occludin immunoreactivity in luminal epithelia was relatively strong but largely found in the cytoplasm.
  • This suggests that intriguing regulatory mechanisms differentially recruit occludin to the TJ in the different regions of epididymal epithelia.
  • The differences in the subcellular localization as well as expression levels of occludin among the epididymal segments may reflect differential paracellular permeability of epithelia along the epididymal tubules and be correlated with sperm maturation in rabbit.
  • In Western blot, a major form of occludin was MW 62 kDa together with small fragments of MW 34-39 kDa in testis and epididymis, suggesting the peptide cleavage of occludin.
  • This is the first report on the molecular nature of TJs in a wild rabbit testis and epididymis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / chemistry. Hares / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Testis / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18992101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0531
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Domest. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Occludin
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99. Michailidis G: Expression of chicken LEAP-2 in the reproductive organs and embryos and in response to Salmonella enterica infection. Vet Res Commun; 2010 Jun;34(5):459-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RNA was extracted from ovary, oviduct, testis and epididymis of sexually mature healthy and Salmonella infected birds, as well as from chicken embryos until day ten of embryonic development.
  • Expression analysis data revealed that cLEAP-2 was expressed in the chicken ovary, testis and epididymis as well as in embryos during early embryonic development.
  • Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that cLEAP-2 expression was constitutive in the chicken epididymis, but was significantly up regulated in the chicken gonads, following Salmonella infection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chick Embryo / metabolism. Chickens / metabolism. Chickens / microbiology. Epididymis / metabolism. Epididymis / microbiology. Female. Genes / genetics. Male. Oviducts / metabolism. Oviducts / microbiology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Sequence Alignment / veterinary. Testis / metabolism. Testis / microbiology

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