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1. Hodges LC, Hunter DS, Bergerson JS, Fuchs-Young R, Walker CL: An in vivo/in vitro model to assess endocrine disrupting activity of xenoestrogens in uterine leiomyoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2001 Dec;948:100-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Xenoestrogens with endocrine disrupting activity have been associated with the dysregulation of reproductive function and promotion of malignancies in experimental animals and human populations.
  • The high incidence of uterine leiomyomas, a benign estrogen-responsive neoplasm of the uterine myometrium, calls into question the potential influence of xenoestrogens in the pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • Using this model, several in vitro assays are developed that demonstrate that compounds from three major classes of xenoestrogens can mimic the effect of estrogen on leiomyoma cells and act as estrogen receptor (ER) agonists: phytoestrogens, organochlorine pesticides and pharmacologic agents.
  • The use of these in vitro assays has also advanced our ability to predict the agonist activity of potential therapeutic agents in the uterine myometrium.
  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), while able to act as agonists in some tissues such as the bone and uterine endometrium, act as antagonists in vivo in the uterine myometrium and in our in vitro assays.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Glands / drug effects. Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / toxicity. Leiomyoma / chemically induced. Uterine Neoplasms / chemically induced. Xenobiotics / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogens / toxicity. Diethylstilbestrol / toxicity. Female. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / chemically induced. Receptors, Estrogen / agonists

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  • (PMID = 11795388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ LY117018/ LY317783
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES07784; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES08263
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Xenobiotics; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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2. Mandic A, Vujkov T, Novakovic P, Nincic D, Mihajlovic O, Ivkovic-Kapic T: Clinical-sonographic scoring system in noninvasive diagnosis of endometrial cancer. J BUON; 2006 Apr-Jun;11(2):197-204
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical-sonographic scoring system in noninvasive diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: In 90% of all endometrial cancers vaginal bleeding is the leading clinical symptom.
  • Nowadays, scoring systems have become acceptable in medicine as less invasive, adequate, diagnostic methods.
  • The main goal of this study was to examine the clinical-sonographic scoring system as a noninvasive diagnostic method for endometrial cancer.
  • In group A included were patients without endometrial malignancy and in group B were patients with endometrial cancer.
  • Evaluations of the clinical-sonographic scoring system were performed by using the test for diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
  • RESULTS: Patients with endometrial cancer were older (median age in group B 64.49 years vs. 58.81 in group A), the length of corpus uteri was longer (6.41 cm in group B vs. 5.25 cm in group A), and the postmenopausal period was longer (13.67 years median in group B vs. 9.11 in group A).
  • CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal bleeding caused by endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed in older patients.
  • It was possible to distinguish high-risk patients with neoplasia from those with benign changes of the endometrium using the clinical-sonographic systems ONCO 1.
  • Nevertheless, histopathological examination is still unavoidable for the final diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Ultrasonography / methods. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17318971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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3. Senkus-Konefka E, Konefka T, Jassem J: The effects of tamoxifen on the female genital tract. Cancer Treat Rev; 2004 May;30(3):291-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, tamoxifen use is related to some increase in the risk of endometrial cancer and to a significant rise in the incidence of benign endometrial pathologies.
  • Despite numerous studies no effective methods of tamoxifen-user surveillance have been developed and currently no active screening for endometrial cancer, apart from yearly gynaecological examination, is recommended in these patients.
  • In other parts of the genital tract, tamoxifen increases the risk of some benign conditions and may cause difficulties in the interpretation of cervical smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Genitalia, Female / drug effects. Receptors, Estrogen / drug effects. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Endometrium / drug effects. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15059652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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