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Items 1 to 49 of about 49
1. Opolskiene G, Sladkevicius P, Jokubkiene L, Valentin L: Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness of at least 4.5 mm. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Jan;35(1):94-102
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness of at least 4.5 mm.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether endometrial volume or power Doppler indices as measured by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging can discriminate between benign and malignant endometrium, to compare their diagnostic performance with that of endometrial thickness measurement using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound examination, and to determine whether power Doppler indices add any diagnostic information to endometrial thickness or volume.
  • METHODS: Sixty-two patients with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness > or = 4.5 mm underwent transvaginal 2D gray-scale and 3D power Doppler ultrasound examination of the corpus uteri.
  • The endometrial volume was calculated, along with the vascularization index (VI), flow index and vascularization flow index (VFI) in the endometrium and in a 2-mm 'shell' surrounding the endometrium.
  • The 'gold standard' was the histological diagnosis of the endometrium obtained by hysteroscopic resection of focal lesions, dilatation and curettage or hysterectomy.
  • Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were drawn for all measurements to evaluate their ability to distinguish between benign and malignant endometrium.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to create mathematical models to estimate the risk of endometrial malignancy.
  • RESULTS: There were 49 benign and 13 malignant endometria.
  • Endometrial thickness and volume were significantly larger in malignant than in benign endometria, and flow indices in the endometrium and endometrial shell were significantly higher.
  • The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of endometrial thickness was 0.82, that of endometrial volume 0.78, and that of the two best power Doppler variables (VI and VFI in the endometrium) 0.82 and 0.82.
  • The best logistic regression model for predicting malignancy contained the variables endometrial thickness (odds ratio 1.2; 95% CI, 1.04-1.30; P = 0.004) and VI in the endometrial 'shell' (odds ratio 1.1; 95% CI, 1.02-1.23; P = 0.01).
  • Using its mathematically optimal risk cut-off value (0.22), the model correctly classified seven more benign cases but two fewer malignant cases than the best endometrial thickness cut-off (11.8 mm).
  • Models containing endometrial volume and flow indices performed less well than did endometrial thickness alone (AUC, 0.79 vs. 0.82).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium of 3D ultrasound imaging was not superior to that of endometrial thickness as measured by 2D ultrasound examination, and 3D power Doppler imaging added little to endometrial thickness or volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endometrium / ultrasonography. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19902471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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2. Busmanis I, Ho TH, Tan SB, Khoo KS: p53 and bcl-2 expression in invasive and pre-invasive uterine papillary serous carcinoma and atrophic endometrium. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Aug;34(7):421-5
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  • [Title] p53 and bcl-2 expression in invasive and pre-invasive uterine papillary serous carcinoma and atrophic endometrium.
  • INTRODUCTION: Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), a high-grade tumour, is known to be associated in some cases with an identifiable intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) component.
  • One aim of the present study was to compare levels of immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p53 tumour suppressor gene and bcl-2 oncoprotein between UPSC and IEN, as well as normal endometrium to determine its biologic significance.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: An immunoreactivity score was assigned for examination of p53 and bcl-2 expression in a total of 21 cases of UPSC, 9 with an evaluable IEN component and 11 with associated non-neoplastic endometrium.
  • RESULTS: p53 was identified in 16/21 cases of UPSC (76%) and 8/9 cases of IEN (89%), and no cases of normal endometrium.
  • Differences in immunoreactive scores for both p53 and bcl-2 between UPSC and benign glands, as well as between IEN and benign glands reached statistical significance with P values of 0.006 and 0.014 for p53, and 0.003 and 0.027 for bcl-2 respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Atrophy / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Case-Control Studies. Female. Genes, p53 / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Probability. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Reference Values. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16123814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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3. Opolskiene G, Sladkevicius P, Valentin L: Ultrasound assessment of endometrial morphology and vascularity to predict endometrial malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Sep;30(3):332-40
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  • [Title] Ultrasound assessment of endometrial morphology and vascularity to predict endometrial malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine which endometrial morphology characteristics as assessed by gray-scale ultrasound and which endometrial vessel characteristics as assessed by power Doppler ultrasound are useful for discriminating between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm and to develop logistic regression models to calculate the individual risk of endometrial malignancy in women with PMB, endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm, good visibility of the endometrium and detectable Doppler signals in the endometrium.
  • METHODS: Of 223 consecutive patients with PMB and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm, 120 fulfilled our inclusion criteria.
  • They independently assessed endometrial morphology and vascularity using predetermined criteria.
  • Their agreed-upon description was compared with the histological diagnosis.
  • Inter-observer agreement for the description of endometrial morphology and vascularity was moderate to good (Kappa 0.49-0.78).
  • The best ultrasound variables to predict malignancy were heterogeneous endometrial echogenicity (AUC 0.83), endometrial thickness (AUC 0.80), and irregular branching of endometrial blood vessels (AUC 0.77).
  • A logistic regression model including endometrial thickness and heterogeneous endometrial echogenicity had an AUC of 0.91.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In selected high-risk women with PMB and an endometrial thickness of >or= 4.5 mm, calculation of the individual risk of endometrial malignancy using regression models including gray-scale and Doppler characteristics can be used to tailor management.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endometrium / ultrasonography. Postmenopause. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Vessels / pathology. Blood Vessels / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17688304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Tanabe K, Matsumoto M, Ikematsu S, Nagase S, Hatakeyama A, Takano T, Niikura H, Ito K, Kadomatsu K, Hayashi S, Yaegashi N: Midkine and its clinical significance in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Sci; 2008 Jun;99(6):1125-30
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  • [Title] Midkine and its clinical significance in endometrial carcinoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether MK was expressed in endometrial carcinoma and to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of serum MK in patients with endometrial carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical expression of MK was evaluated in 85 endometrial carcinoma samples and 33 controls.
  • MK expression was significantly higher in the carcinomas than in normal endometrium (P < 0.001).
  • Interestingly, MK expression was highest at the margins of invasion and low in the superficial areas of the tumor samples.
  • Using ELISA, we compared serum MK concentration in 120 endometrial carcinoma patients with the concentration in 46 patients with benign gynecologic tumors.
  • Serum MK value in patients with cancer was significantly higher than that in the patients with benign diseases (P = 0.01).
  • In conclusion, MK immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinoma is significantly higher than in normal endometrium.
  • Thus, MK may be a useful serum biomarker for identifying high risk patients of endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18422745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MDK protein, human; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors
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5. Balasenthil S, Broaddus RR, Kumar R: Expression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in benign endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jun;37(6):656-61
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  • [Title] Expression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in benign endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies of the female genital tract.
  • MTA1 expression has been demonstrated in various cancers but has never been explored in endometrial carcinoma.
  • We investigated the expression profile of MTA1 in different stages of benign endometrium as well as in endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.
  • Western blot analysis of 6 tumor specimens showed increased expression of MTA1 in all the tumors analyzed.
  • Immunohistochemical staining performed on tumor microarray containing 70 endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas of various grades showed increased expression of MTA1 in 53 (75.7%) tumors.
  • Our results suggest a potential role of MTA1 in endometrial carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Gene Expression. Histone Deacetylases / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16733204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 098823
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
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6. Xie R, Loose DS, Shipley GL, Xie S, Bassett RL Jr, Broaddus RR: Hypomethylation-induced expression of S100A4 in endometrial carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1045-54
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  • [Title] Hypomethylation-induced expression of S100A4 in endometrial carcinoma.
  • We hypothesized that S100A4 would be overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma compared to benign endometrium.
  • Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify the mRNA level of S100A4 in benign endometrium (n=19), endometrioid adenocarcinoma (n=87), and non-endometrioid tumors (n=21).
  • S100A4 was overexpressed in the grade 3 endometrioid tumors, uterine papillary serous carcinoma, and uterine malignant mixed müllerian tumor.
  • Expression in grade 1 and grade 2 endometrioid tumors was comparable to that of normal endometrium, which was quite low.
  • By immunohistochemistry, S100A4 was expressed in the tumor cell cytoplasm of poorly differentiated tumors, but was not detected in normal endometrial glandular epithelium.
  • In benign endometrium, S100A4 expression was confined to stromal cells.
  • However, methylation of the S100A4 gene was detected in benign endometrium and grade 1 tumors with low S100A4 expression.
  • These methylation results were verified in endometrial cancer cell lines with differential baseline levels of S100A4 protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. S100 Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / genetics. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17673926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-05127
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S100 Proteins; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human
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7. Opolskiene G, Sladkevicius P, Valentin L: Two- and three-dimensional saline contrast sonohysterography: interobserver agreement, agreement with hysteroscopy and diagnosis of endometrial malignancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2009 May;33(5):574-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Two- and three-dimensional saline contrast sonohysterography: interobserver agreement, agreement with hysteroscopy and diagnosis of endometrial malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to compare the interobserver reproducibility of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) and agreement of these techniques with hysteroscopy, and to determine which SCSH findings best discriminate between benign and malignant endometrium.
  • METHODS: Consecutive women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness > or = 4.5 mm underwent 2D and 3D SCSH; the results were videotaped and stored electronically, respectively, for analysis by two independent experienced examiners who were blinded to each other's results.
  • A histological diagnosis was obtained by dilatation and curettage, hysteroscopic resection or hysterectomy.
  • RESULTS: Of 170 consecutive women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness > or = 4.5 mm, 84 (14 with endometrial malignancy) fulfilled our inclusion criteria.
  • Hysteroscopy findings in 54 women (one with endometrial malignancy) were used to determine agreement with SCSH.
  • The SCSH finding that best discriminated between benign and malignant endometrium was the presence of focal lesion(s) with irregular surface (for 2D SCSH: sensitivity 71%, specificity 97%, positive likelihood ratio 25, negative likelihood ratio 0.3; for 3D SCSH: sensitivity 43%, specificity 97%, positive likelihood ratio 15, negative likelihood ratio 0.6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: 3D SCSH does not seem to be superior to 2D SCSH when performed by experienced ultrasound examiners either with regard to reproducibility, agreement with hysteroscopy findings or diagnosis of endometrial malignancy.
  • The presence of focal lesion(s) with irregular surface is the best SCSH variable for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endometrium / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Endosonography / methods. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Hysteroscopy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Postmenopause. Reproducibility of Results. Uterine Hemorrhage / pathology. Uterine Hemorrhage / surgery. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19360790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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8. Kurman RJ, Shih IeM: The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):433-43
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  • Moreover, the carcinomas exhibit a shared lineage with the corresponding benign cystic neoplasm, often through an intermediate (borderline tumor) step, supporting the morphologic continuum of tumor progression.
  • Thus, it has been proposed that serous tumors arise from the implantation of epithelium (benign or malignant) from the fallopian tube.
  • As it is generally accepted that endometriosis develops from endometrial tissue by retrograde menstruation, it is reasonable to assume that the endometrium is the source of these ovarian neoplasms.


9. Giordano G, D'Adda T, Gnetti L, Merisio C, Raboni S: Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):298-304
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  • [Title] Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium (TCCE) is a subtype of endometrial carcinoma, characterized by a prominent papillary pattern, resembling the papillary carcinoma of the urothelium.
  • This neoplasm is very rare, with only 13 cases reported in the international literature.
  • In this paper, a new case of TCCE associated with benign ovarian Brenner tumor is described.
  • Moreover, immunohistochemical and molecular studies are carried out in the effort to establish the phenotype and etiology of this rare neoplasm.
  • The molecular study, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failing to reveal the presence of HPV DNA, demonstrates that neither the TCCE nor the ovarian Brenner tumor is caused by an HPV infection.
  • The association of TCCE with benign ovarian Brenner tumor could be a coincidental event.
  • In our view, other cases of TCCE associated with ovarian Brenner tumor should be reported to confirm the last 2 hypotheses.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17581415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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10. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • To investigate the potential use of MGB in gynecologic pathology practice, we tested MGB expression by immunohistochemistry on 47 endocervical adenocarcinomas (whole tissue sections of 13 invasive and 35 in situ) and 55 endometrial carcinomas (39 endometrioid and 16 nonendometrioid represented on a single tissue microarray).
  • Nonneoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues were also evaluated for MGB expression.
  • MGB expression was detected in thirty (77%) of 39 of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with 4 (31%) of 13 endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • MGB was mostly negative in nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma (negative in 14 [88%] of 16).
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • These results confirm that MGB is not specific for breast carcinoma, but is also variably expressed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues.
  • Frequent MGB expression in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma is significantly different from nonendometrioid carcinoma.
  • Hormone receptor status is not associated with MGB expression in endometrial carcinomas.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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11. Manolis T, Lee YC, Temkin S, Hellman M, Nacharaju VL, Abulafia O: NAD dependent 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human endometrium and endometrial tumors. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2006;62(2):103-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] NAD dependent 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human endometrium and endometrial tumors.
  • The role of these enzymes in malignancies of human endometrium is unknown.
  • We compare NAD dependent 11beta-HSD (type 2) activity levels among normal human endometrium and endometrial carcinomas of differing grades and histologies.
  • METHODS: NAD dependent 11beta-HSD activity was determined in endometrial tissue obtained from patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign or malignant disease (endometroid, serous and carcinosarcomas).
  • RESULTS: NAD dependent 11beta-HSD activity was present in all endometrial samples.
  • The activities were 0.61+/- 0.27 in normal (n = 9), 0.43 +/- 0.29 in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (n = 14), 0.50 +/- 0.26 in uterine serous carcinoma (n = 6) and 0.25 +/- 0.37 in carcinosarcomas (n = 9).
  • NAD dependent 11beta-HSD activity was lower in the carcinosarcoma group as compared to normal endometrial tissue (p = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: NAD dependent type 2 11beta-HSD activity was demonstrated in all normal and endometrial tumors.
  • Enzyme activity in endometroid and uterine serious carcinoma tumors was similar to enzyme activity in normal endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 / metabolism. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinosarcoma / enzymology. Endometrial Neoplasms / enzymology. Endometrium / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16645302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-7346
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2
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12. Trahan S, Têtu B, Raymond PE: Serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium arising from endometrial polyps: a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study of 13 cases. Hum Pathol; 2005 Dec;36(12):1316-21
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  • [Title] Serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium arising from endometrial polyps: a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study of 13 cases.
  • Serous papillary carcinoma is an aggressive tumor.
  • Point mutations in the p53 suppressor gene might explain in part the rapid growth of this malignant tumor and its unfavorable outcome.
  • The aims of this study were to evaluate the behavior of serous papillary carcinoma developing in endometrial polyps and to assess the p53 protein overexpression.
  • Thirteen serous papillary carcinomas arising from benign polyps of the endometrium were identified.
  • A serous papillary carcinoma arising from benign polyps of the endometrium remains a malignant neoplasia with an unfavorable outcome even if the primary tumor is limited to the polyp.
  • The high rate of protein p53 overexpression suggests that a p53 gene mutation occurs early in the disease and might explain the rapid growth of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16311126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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13. Konishi Y, Sato H, Fujimoto T, Tanaka H, Takahashi O, Tanaka T: Adenofibroma of the endometrium protruding into the vaginal cavity: findings on transvaginal ultrasonography, MRI and CT. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Dec;32(6):623-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenofibroma of the endometrium protruding into the vaginal cavity: findings on transvaginal ultrasonography, MRI and CT.
  • Adenofibroma is a rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group.
  • We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with adenofibroma of the endometrium protruding into the vagina.
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed the tumor as an intravaginal mass containing multiple cystic components.
  • Although preoperative diagnosis of this rare tumor is very difficult, the combination of MRI, CT, and ultrasonography offers a useful diagnostic tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / ultrasonography. Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Vagina / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17100829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Farrell R, Scurry J, Otton G, Hacker NF: Clinicopathologic review of malignant polyps in stage 1A carcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Aug;98(2):254-62
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic review of malignant polyps in stage 1A carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of malignant polyps in stage 1A endometrial cancer, to define the pathological features of such cancers, and to assess whether clinical outcome differs from similar cancers without a malignant polyp.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective pathological review of 107 cases of stage 1A endometrial cancer treated at two centers in New South Wales between January 1988 and July 2003.
  • The presence of a malignant polyp was determined and a pathological description made of the tumor.
  • Clinical data were collected, including prior tamoxifen usage, tumor recurrence and survival.
  • Precursor lesions of endometrial cancer were identified within malignant polyps.
  • Three out of the four recurrences occurred in high-grade tumor subtypes and all four had a large primary tumor (size > or = 4 cm).
  • When comparing the same subtype of tumor with and without a malignant polyp, there was no significant difference in clinical outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of stage 1A endometrial cancers are associated with a malignant polyp.
  • Serous carcinoma commonly arises within an otherwise benign endometrial polyp.
  • Malignant polyps offer an opportunity to identify precursors of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Clinical outcome of stage 1A endometrial carcinoma was related to the histological subtype and the size of the tumor rather than the presence of a malignant polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15936803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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15. Norimatsu Y, Miyamoto T, Kobayashi TK, Oda T, Moriya T, Yanoh K, Miyake Y, Ohno E: Utility of thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology: immunocytochemical expression of PTEN, beta-catenin and p53 for benign endometrial lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Apr;36(4):216-23
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  • [Title] Utility of thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology: immunocytochemical expression of PTEN, beta-catenin and p53 for benign endometrial lesions.
  • This article focuses on the characteristic features of morphology and molecular biology of PTEN, beta-catenin, and p53 immunocytochemistry in normal endometrium (proliferative, secretory, and atrophic) and endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD) using thin-layer specimens.
  • During a 6-month period, 120 endometrial samples were collected directly using the Uterobrush and a thin-layer specimen was prepared.
  • Immunocytochemical expression of PTEN, beta-catenin, and p53 were investigated using 30 cases each of proliferative endometrium (PE), secretory endometrium (SE), atrophic endometrium (AE), and EGBD.PTEN expression of normal endometrial glandular epithelial cells changes with the hormonal status; PE produce very high expression, SE creates attenuation or disappearance of PTEN expression and AE diminished more in comparison with SE.
  • In the current study, the expression manner of PTEN, beta-catenin, and p53 immunocytochemistry was observed in the normal endometrium (PE, SE, and AE) and EGBD.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / cytology. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Neoplasm / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18335551.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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16. Koviazin VA, Shchelokova EE, Kostanian IA, Dranitsyna SM, Frolova II, Babichenko II: [The proapoptotic factor HLDF in the normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium]. Arkh Patol; 2007 May-Jun;69(3):23-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The proapoptotic factor HLDF in the normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium].
  • Antibodies to the factor HLDF are shown to be specific markers of apoptosis and permit the estimation of the rate of programmed cell death in the course of a normal menstrual cycle and in pathologic endometrial processes.
  • Antibodies to the HLDF factor may be used as a new immunohistochemical marker for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant endometrial processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies / immunology. Apoptosis. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17722590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / cell differentiation factor 8.2-kDa
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17. Czekierdowski A, Czekierdowska S, Czuba B, Cnota W, Sodowski K, Kotarski J, Zwirska-Korczala K: Microvessel density assessment in benign and malignant endometrial changes. J Physiol Pharmacol; 2008 Sep;59 Suppl 4:45-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microvessel density assessment in benign and malignant endometrial changes.
  • Tumor angiogenesis is believed to be a prognostic indicator associated with tumor growth and metastasis.
  • Microvessel density (MVD) assessment with common endothelial markers such as CD34 has been found to influence prognosis among endometrial carcinoma patients.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantification of angiogenesis by assessing MVD in endometrial lesions when comparing the performance of anti-CD34 and anti-CD105 in women with benign and malignant endometrial changes.
  • The study included 58 women (37 postmenopausal) with normal, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium in which preoperative transvaginal sonography was performed.
  • Histological results of the removed endometrium were correlated with MVD assessed in "hot areas" where high densities of microvessels were detected within tumoral tissue.
  • Endometrial cancer was confirmed in 37 women (3 premenopausal).
  • Benign hyperplasia (14 cases), secretory or proliferative endometrium (5 cases) or endometrial atrophy (2 cases) was found in the remaining women.
  • Median MVD assessed with CD34 was almost twice higher in women with endometrial cancer than in women with benign endometrium (CD34 MVD = 41.8 vs. 27.6, p=0.004).
  • In cases of CD105 MVD significant differences between women with benign and malignant endometrial changes were also found (CD105 MVD = 11.8, vs. 6.4; p=0.00007).
  • In conclusion, transition from endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial cancer appears to be accompanied by microvessel density changes.
  • MVD assessed with both CD34 and CD105 antibodies could be used as a potential prognostic factor in women with endometrial cancer.
  • Our study showed that endoglin, by staining the proliferating microvessels could be more specific and sensitive marker for tumor neoangiogenesis than the more commonly used marker, CD34.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood supply. Microvessels. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptors, Cell Surface / analysis. Receptors, Cell Surface / biosynthesis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18955753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1899-1505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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18. McKenney JK, Longacre TA: Low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma: a diagnostic algorithm for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia and other benign (and malignant) mimics. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Jan;16(1):1-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma: a diagnostic algorithm for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia and other benign (and malignant) mimics.
  • The distinction between endometrial hyperplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium continues to be a difficult differential diagnosis in surgical pathology.
  • Evidence-based diagnostic criteria for well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma focus on histologic features that predict myoinvasion in the hysterectomy specimen.
  • Application of these 2 criteria in problematic endometrial proliferations allows stratification of patients into 3 risk categories: very low risk (< 0.05% risk of myoinvasion at hysterectomy)=complex atypical hyperplasia; intermediate risk (5.5% risk of myoinvasion at hysterectomy)=complex atypical hyperplasia, cannot exclude well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (borderline); and high risk (20% risk of myoinvasion at hysterectomy)=well-differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, unusual morphologic patterns of low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma should be recognized, as they may cause confusion with other, higher grade (and therefore, more clinically aggressive) endometrial processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Uterine Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cell Division. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Kinetics. Metaplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 19098463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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19. Hever A, Roth RB, Hevezi PA, Lee J, Willhite D, White EC, Marin EM, Herrera R, Acosta HM, Acosta AJ, Zlotnik A: Molecular characterization of human adenomyosis. Mol Hum Reprod; 2006 Dec;12(12):737-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adenomyosis is a common gynaecological disorder characterized by the abnormal growth of endometrium into the myometrium and myometrial hypertrophy/hyperplasia.
  • Uterine fibroids are benign neoplasms of the myometrium, and they represent a diagnostic pitfall for adenomyosis.
  • In this study, we have used the genome-wide Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarray platform to compare the gene expression patterns of adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, normal endometrium and myometrium.
  • Supervised cluster analysis based on these probe sets clustered adenomyosis most closely with endometrium and uterine fibroids with myometrium, consistent with the anatomic origin of these two diseases.
  • The Tukey means separation post hoc testing found 2073 probe sets altered between adenomyosis and normal endometrium or myometrium, and 2327 probe sets altered in expression when comparing uterine fibroids with myometrium.
  • Finally, we compared the gene expression profiles of adenomyosis and uterine fibroids and identified 471 differentially expressed probe sets that may represent potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of these diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / genetics. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Myometrium / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Principal Component Analysis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17020905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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20. Zheng W, Yi X, Fadare O, Liang SX, Martel M, Schwartz PE, Jiang Z: The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Feb;32(2):304-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma.
  • Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein highly expressed in fetal tissue and malignant tumors but rarely found in adult benign tissues.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the expression of IMP3 in benign endometrium, endometrial cancer, and its precursor lesions, trying to see whether IMP3 has any diagnostic usage.
  • Two hundred ninety-eight endometrial samples were examined for IMP3 expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • These included benign endometrium (n=68), atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (n=35), endometrial glandular dysplasia (n=21), endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (n=18), endometrioid carcinoma (n=70), mucinous carcinoma (n=8), serous carcinoma (n=51), clear cell carcinoma (n=12), and other malignancies (n=15).
  • Maturational patterns in the 68 benign endometrial samples included atrophic (n=12), proliferative (n=18), secretory (n=14), menstrual (n=8), and gestational (n=16).
  • Most of the carcinomas were histologically pure; where mixed, the second component constituted <10% of the total tumor volume.
  • Among the malignant cases, IMP3 expression was predominantly found in endometrial serous carcinoma and its putative precursor lesions, with 3 (14%) of 21 endometrial glandular dysplasia, 16 (89%) of 18 serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, and 48 (94%) of 51 serous carcinomas (P<0.001).
  • In contrast, the frequency of IMP3 expression was significantly lesser in nonserous malignancies with 0 (0%) of 35, 5 (7%) of 70, 0 (0%) of 8, 3 (25%) of 12, and 5 (33%) of 15 positive expression rates in atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell carcinomas, and other malignancies, respectively.
  • Among the benign endometrial samples, decidualized endometrial stroma showed 100% positivity for IMP3.
  • We conclude that expression of IMP3, a newly identified cytoplasmic marker, is closely associated with type II endometrial cancer.
  • It seems that IMP3 expression is associated with an aggressive histologic phenotype among endometrial neoplastic lesions.
  • Strong and diffuse IMP3 expression is highly sensitive for endometrial serous and clear cell carcinomas including their putative precursor lesions.
  • Therefore, IMP3 may be a useful diagnostic marker in the assessment of endometrial cancers and their precursor lesions, particularly when the amount of available tissue material is limited and a concern of type II cancer arises.
  • High frequency of IMP3 expression is present in decidualized endometrial stroma of gestational endometrium and chorionic villi in early pregnancy.
  • Although the significance of the latter finding remains unclear, the differential diagnosis between decidual changes and endometrial serous carcinoma is rarely problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Cytoplasm / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18223334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA23074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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21. Ma XX, Zhang SL, Gao S, Lu JM, Dong F: [Expressions of aromatase protein and sex hormone receptor in endometrial lesions]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;41(6):395-8

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  • [Title] [Expressions of aromatase protein and sex hormone receptor in endometrial lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of aromatase protein, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation Ki67 in endometrial diseases and their clinical significance in diagnosis and endocrine therapy of endometrial diseases.
  • METHOD: Expressions of aromatase, ER, PR and Ki-67 were detected with immunohistochemistry technic (streptavidin-peroxidase-biotin, SP) in 148 cases including 30 of endometrial hyperplasia, 30 of atypical proliferation and 88 of endometrial adenocarcinoma as observational group and 15 cases of proliferative endometrium and 15 cases of secretory endometrium as control group.
  • RESULTS: Expression of aromatase protein and ER, PR, Ki67 in endometrial hyperplasia, atypical proliferation had no significant difference comparing with the proliferative endometrium group (P > 0.05).
  • In endometrial adenocarcinoma, the expression of aromatase protein increased obviously (64%, 56/88), which was higher than in benign diseases [atypical proliferation group was 23% (7/30), endometrial hyperplasia group was 13% (4/30)] and control group significantly (P < 0.01).
  • The positive expression of ER, PR in endometrial adenocarcinoma decreased [22% (19/88), 19% (17/88)], and Ki67 increased (41%, 36/88) and there was a significant difference compared with control group (P < 0.01).
  • Aromatase was not consistent with ER, PR and Ki67 in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Aromatase protein is related to the incidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma, and the expression of proteins (aromatase, ER, PR and Ki67) provides theoretical basis for understanding biological behavior of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16831363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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25. Ahn HJ, Bae J, Lee S, Ko JE, Yoon S, Kim SJ, Sakuragi N: Differential expression of clusterin according to histological type of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Aug;110(2):222-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of clusterin according to histological type of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Endometrial carcinoma is divided into endometrioid and papillary serous type carcinoma according to the histological characteristics and regarding to the unopposed estrogenic stimulation.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of clusterin according to the histological types and the effect of estrogen stimulation on its expression in endometrial carcinoma.
  • METHOD: Clusterin expression in endometrial carcinoma tissues was examined by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry.
  • The mRNA and protein expressions of clusterin in endometrioid carcinoma were higher than in benign endometrium (p=0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that clusterin expression is related to endometrioid carcinoma of endometrium, in which estrogen is involved in the regulatory network of clusterin.
  • [MeSH-major] Clusterin / biosynthesis. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Estradiol / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stimulation, Chemical

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  • (PMID = 18514801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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26. Sobczuk A, Wrona M, Pertyński T: [New views on hyperplastic endometrial lesions classification--endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 Dec;78(12):986-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [New views on hyperplastic endometrial lesions classification--endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)].
  • The aim of the study was to present a new EIN classification of premalignant endometrial lesions.
  • The diagnosis of precancerous disease of the endometrium remains non-standardized because the most widely used World Health Organisation classification is a poorly reproducible system, which does not specify objective architectural criteria for each category of hyperplasia and does not correspond to an appropriate clinical management (undertreatment, overtreatment of the lesions).
  • The new proposed EIN diagnostic schema, based on integrated morphological, genetic molecular, objective histomorphometric (D-score) and clinical outcome studies, divides endometrial lesions into three categories: benign hyperplasia, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Endometrial Hyperplasia / classification. Endometrial Neoplasms / classification. Precancerous Conditions / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18411925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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27. Yang X, Dong Y, Zhao J, Sun H, Deng Y, Fan J, Yan Q: Increased expression of human macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) is associated with the invasion of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(7):499-505

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased expression of human macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) is associated with the invasion of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • To evaluate the association between the expression of human macrophage metalloelastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12, MMP-12) with cancer invasion and differentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma, specimens from endometrial adenocarcinoma (n=61) of diverse stages and histologic types were collected from patients having undergone hysterectomy, and specimens from normal endometrium (n=38) were obtained from patients with benign diseases.
  • The positive rate of MMP-12 was significantly increased in endometrial adenocarcinoma (81.97%) as compared with that in normal endometrium (13.16%).
  • The results showed that expression of MMP-12 correlated with stage (p=0.022) and grade (p=0.018) of endometrial cancer.
  • MMP-12 immunoreactive proteins were found mainly on the glandular epithelial cells of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The macrophage infiltration detected by CD68 immunohistochemical staining in endometrial adenocarcinoma was also higher than that in normal endometrium.
  • In this study, we show that in addition to macrophages, endometrial adenocarcinoma cells are able to express MMP-12.
  • Our results suggest that MMP-12 is an important oncogene in high-stage and high-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 12 / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Macrophages / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17574772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 3.4.24.65 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 12
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28. Horn LC, Dallacker M, Bilek K: [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):292-301
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  • The strongest prognostic factor is tumor stage followed by lymph node metastases, deep myometrial infiltration, involvement of the cervix and tumor size.
  • Clinical and pathologic staging should be performed as in endometrial carcinoma.
  • The main differential diagnoses include uterine sarcomas, adenosarcoma and benign metaplastic change within the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19495763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. Dietz NK, Rehn M, Thanner F, Dietl J: [Diagnostic and preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma with transvaginal sonography--a review]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2006 Oct;128(5):246-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnostic and preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma with transvaginal sonography--a review].
  • Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract.
  • Endometrial thickness (double layer) is measured by transvaginal sonography.
  • The cut-off value in patients with postmenopausal bleeding is still controversial, although in patients with endometrial thickness below 4 mm (or 5 mm respectively), malignancy can be excluded with high probability.
  • If the endometrium measures more than 4 mm (or more than 5 mm respectively) or the patient presents with continuous bleeding, hysteroscopy and curettage should be performed in order to obtain histologic diagnosis.
  • Sonographic findings like structure and demarcation of the endometrium increase diagnostic specificity only when combined with the measurement of endometrial thickness.
  • Measuring the fluid within the uterine cavity does not seem to be useful in differentiating malignant from benign disorders.
  • The extent of surgery depends on the preoperative estimation of the tumor stage which is particularly important for elder patients with increased morbidity.
  • This article on transvaginal ultrasound reviews current data on the method's capacity to identify endometrial cancer and to diagnose the depth of invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17001559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4197
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Gynakol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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30. Fleming NA, Hopkins L, de Nanassy J, Senterman M, Black AY: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e45-51
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  • Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually found in postmenopausal women.
  • It usually presents as a polypoid mass within the endometrium.
  • It is a biphasic tumor, composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant stromal component.
  • To date, this neoplasm has been reported in only 16 adolescent girls.
  • An endometrial curettage was performed.
  • Pathology confirmed a diagnosis of müllerian adenosarcoma originating from the endocervix.
  • After a thorough evaluation of the available literature, review with the Regional Tumor Board and extensive discussions with the family, a decision was made to perform a radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, upper vaginectomy and preservation of ovaries.
  • CONCLUSION: Müllerian adenosarcoma of the endocervix is a very rare pediatric tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor in this age group, optimal therapy is uncertain.


31. Takeuchi M, Matsuzaki K, Uehara H, Yoshida S, Nishitani H, Shimazu H: Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol; 2005 Nov;15(11):2244-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • The endometrial cavity may demonstrate various imaging manifestations such as normal, reactive, inflammatory, and benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • We evaluated usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the uterine endometrial cavity, and described the diagnostic clues to differential diagnoses.
  • Surgically proven pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity were evaluated retrospectively with pathologic correlation.
  • The pathologies included benign endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial hyperplasia and polyp, malignant endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial carcinoma and carcinosarcoma, endometrial-myometrial neoplasm such as endometrial stromal sarcoma, pregnancy-related lesions in the endometrial cavity such as gestational trophoblastic diseases (hydatidiform mole, invasive mole and choriocarcinoma) and placental polyp, myometrial lesions simulating endometrial lesions such as submucosal leiomyoma and some adenomyosis, endometrial neoplasms simulating myometrial lesions such as adenomyomatous polyp and endometrial lesions arising in the hemicavity of a septate/bicornate uterus, and fluid collections in the uterine cavity (hydro/hemato/pyometra).
  • It is important to recognize various imaging findings in these diseases, in order to make a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16228215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Brown L: Pathology of uterine malignancies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Aug;20(6):433-47
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  • The distinction of type I and type II endometrial adenocarcinoma with the morphological variants of this tumour is discussed and some molecular aspects are explored.
  • The concept of carcinosarcoma representing a metaplastic adenocarcinoma of the endometrium that behaves more like a carcinoma than a sarcoma is explained.
  • Some types of mixed epithelial and stromal neoplasm are described and contrasted with carcinosarcoma.
  • The concept of stromal sarcoma and high-grade uterine sarcoma is described and an outline of malignant smooth muscle tumours of the uterus includes a description of smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential and worrying benign smooth muscle lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18499412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 233
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33. Grammatikakis I, Ivanov S, Evangelinakis N, Zevoudis S, Tziortzioti V: [Incidence of synchronous primary neoplasms of the female reproductive tract in women with ovarian endometriosis: a retrospective analysis of 811 cases]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2009;48(3):26-30
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  • PURPOSE: Although endometriosis is a benign disorder recent studies suggest endometriosis could be viewed as a neoplastic process.
  • The medical records and pathology were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and stage of tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Women with synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary have distinct clinical characteristics including younger age, premenopausal status, and nulliparity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bulgaria / epidemiology. Female. Greece / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Uterine Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20198760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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34. Powell JL, Cunill ES, Gajewski WH, Novotny DB: Sarcoidosis mimicking recurrent endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):770-3
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  • [Title] Sarcoidosis mimicking recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease and can be confused with benign or malignant tumors.
  • CASE: A 67 year old woman had a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and periaortic lymphadenectomy, and peritoneal cytology in 2001 for Stage I B grade 1 adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16168469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Kefeli M, Gonullu G, Can B, Malatyalioglu E, Kandemir B: Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):343-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature.
  • SUMMARY: Polyps are the most common benign lesions in the endometrium.
  • Metastasis to the endometrial polyp from a distant primary tumor is rare.
  • Breast carcinoma is the most frequent extragenital cancer that metastasizes to the endometrial polyp.
  • We report the case of a 63-year-old with metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma involving endometrial polyps detected by endometrial curetting.
  • After this diagnosis, bone metastases were detected during radiologic screening.
  • Gastrointestinal tumor metastasis to an endometrial polyp is a very rare event, but if a patient with a known primary extragenital tumor has abnormal vaginal bleeding, the possibility of metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19483630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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36. Fadare O, Yi X, Liang SX, Ma Y, Zheng W: Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation. Mod Pathol; 2007 Sep;20(9):1000-8
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  • [Title] Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation.
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is a premalignant (dysplastic) lesion that is characterized by abnormal cellular proliferation, maturation and nuclear atypia.
  • In this study, we evaluated the total mitotic indices of the cervical epithelia in hysterectomy specimens from patients with and without dysplastic lesions and investigated a possible relationship between mitotic index and hormonal status, using the endometrial maturation phase as a surrogate indicator of the latter.
  • Two hundred seventy-four cervices from hysterectomy specimens (135 cases without dysplasia, 33, 35 and 71 cases with grades 1, 2 and 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively) were analyzed.
  • The endometrium in each case was classified into atrophic, early proliferative, late proliferative and secretory.
  • For all three dysplasia grades, cases in the proliferative endometrium group always had a higher average mitotic index than those in the secretory and atrophic endometrium groups; this observation also held true for the benign cases.
  • Furthermore, in all three dysplasia grades, the average mitotic index was always lowest in the atrophic endometrium group.
  • Although the mitotic index showed expected patterns of increases with increasing dysplasia grades for most of the endometrial phases, this was not a universal finding.
  • Notably, the average mitotic index for our cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 cases with late proliferative endometrium was higher than our cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 cases with secretory and atrophic endometrium.
  • It is concluded that hormonal status, as reflected in endometrial maturation, can significantly affect the mitotic index of dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Menstrual Cycle. Mitotic Index. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies


37. Friel AM, Zhang L, Curley MD, Therrien VA, Sergent PA, Belden SE, Borger DR, Mohapatra G, Zukerberg LR, Foster R, Rueda BR: Epigenetic regulation of CD133 and tumorigenicity of CD133 positive and negative endometrial cancer cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol; 2010;8:147
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  • [Title] Epigenetic regulation of CD133 and tumorigenicity of CD133 positive and negative endometrial cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent data provide significant evidence to support the hypothesis that there are sub-populations of cells within solid tumors that have an increased tumor initiating potential relative to the total tumor population.
  • CD133, a cell surface marker expressed on primitive cells of neural, hematopoietic, endothelial and epithelial lineages has been identified as a marker for tumor initiating cells in solid tumors of the brain, colon, pancreas, ovary and endometrium.
  • Our objectives were to assess the relative level of CD133 expressing cells in primary human endometrial tumors, confirm their tumorigenic potential, and determine whether CD133 expression was epigenetically modified.
  • METHODS: We assessed CD133 expression in primary human endometrial tumors by flow cytometry and analyzed the relative tumorigenicity of CD133+ and CD133- cells in an in vivo NOD/SCID mouse model.
  • We further examined CD133 promoter methylation and expression in normal endometrium and malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: As determined by flow cytometric analysis, the percentage of CD133+ cells in primary human endometrial cancer samples ranged from 5.7% to 27.4%.
  • In addition, we confirmed the tumor initiating potential of CD133+ and CD133- cell fractions in NOD/SCID mice.
  • Interestingly, the percentage of CD133+ cells in human endometrial tumor xenografts, as evidenced by immunofluorescence, increased with serial transplantation although this trend was not consistently detected by flow cytometry.
  • We also determined that the relative levels of CD133 increased in endometrial cancer cell lines following treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine suggesting a role for methylation in the regulation of CD133.
  • To support this finding, we demonstrated that regions of the CD133 promoter were hypomethylated in malignant endometrial tissue relative to benign control endometrial tissue.
  • Lastly, we determined that methylation of the CD133 promoter decreases over serial transplantation of an endometrial tumor xenograft.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypotheses that CD133 expression in endometrial cancer may be epigenetically regulated and that cell fractions enriched for CD133+ cells may well contribute to endometrial cancer tumorigenicity, pathology and recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Epigenomics. Glycoproteins / genetics. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Peptides / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 21122138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7827
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027593
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38. Yi N, Liao QP, Li T, Xiong Y: Novel expression profiles and invasiveness-related biology function of DKK1 in endometrial carcinoma. Oncol Rep; 2009 Jun;21(6):1421-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel expression profiles and invasiveness-related biology function of DKK1 in endometrial carcinoma.
  • In this study, we showed that in benign and malignant endometrium, DKK1 exhibited novel expression profiles and invasiveness-related biology function: DKK1 was expressed in both glandular epithelium and matrix of two kinds of endometrium tissues and mostly distributed in the cytoplasm and epicytes of endometrial carcinoma (EC) Ishikawa cell line.
  • DKK1 expression level in EC was significantly lower than that in benign endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Signal Transduction. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19424619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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39. Duan H, Li W, Zhang Y, Zhao X, Xia EL: [Study on the peritoneal dissemination of endometrial cells during hysteroscopy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;42(2):99-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Study on the peritoneal dissemination of endometrial cells during hysteroscopy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study prospectively the likelihood and the affecting factors of endometrial cell dissemination into the peritoneal cavity during hysteroscopic procedures.
  • METHODS: A total of 121 patients with benign endometrial pathology underwent hysteroscopy combined with laparoscopy.
  • We collected the peritoneal washings and analyzed the peritoneal cytology changes in both groups pre- and post-hysteroscopy, as well as the dissemination rate related to the time of hysteroscopy, the intrauterine distention pressure, the volume of distention media, and the feature of endometrial conditions.
  • RESULTS: The ratio of positive endometrial cells in the peritoneal washings of post-hysteroscopy group was 51.2% (62/121), which was significantly higher than pre-hysteroscopy group, 38.0% (46/121) (P < 0.01).
  • However, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the total volume of distention media, the distention pressure, and the endometrial feature (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hysteroscopic procedures may have a risk of disseminating the endometrial cells into peritoneal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / pathology. Hysteroscopy / adverse effects. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / adverse effects. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Seeding. Peritoneal Cavity / cytology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Therapeutic Irrigation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17442183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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40. Deng L, Broaddus RR, McCampbell A, Shipley GL, Loose DS, Stancel GM, Pickar JH, Davies PJ: Identification of a novel estrogen-regulated gene, EIG121, induced by hormone replacement therapy and differentially expressed in type I and type II endometrial cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 1;11(23):8258-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of a novel estrogen-regulated gene, EIG121, induced by hormone replacement therapy and differentially expressed in type I and type II endometrial cancer.
  • Here, we describe the expression pattern of a novel estrogen-induced gene, EIG121, in distinct types of endometrial cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: EIG121 was identified by cDNA microarray analysis of endometrial RNA from women receiving either placebo or estrogen replacement therapy.
  • The expression level of EIG121 was then measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in benign, hyperplastic, and malignant endometrial samples.
  • RESULTS: In postmenopausal endometrium, estrogen replacement therapy with Premarin and synthetic estrogen sulfate conjugates induced the expression of EIG121 2- and 3-fold, respectively.
  • In premenopausal endometrium, the expression of EIG121 was higher in the estrogen-dominated proliferative phase than the secretory phase.
  • In endometrial complex, hyperplasia, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma, neoplastic proliferations associated with estrogen excess, the expression of EIG121 was significantly elevated (on average 3.8-fold in hyperplasias and 21-fold in grade 1 tumors).
  • Although the level of EIG121 mRNA in grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma was still 3.5-fold of that in benign endometrium, EIG121 expression tended to decline with increasing tumor grade and disease stage.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed faint staining of normal endometrial epithelium, but intense staining of endometrioid tumors.
  • In sharp contrast, EIG121 expression was significantly suppressed in both uterine papillary serous carcinoma and uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor, two tumors not associated with estrogen exposure, to <5% of the level in benign endometrium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EIG121 is a good endometrial biomarker associated with a hyperestrogenic state and estrogen-related type I endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Estrogens / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Endometrial Hyperplasia / genetics. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) / therapeutic use. Estrone / analogs & derivatives. Estrone / therapeutic use. Expressed Sequence Tags. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16322283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 5T32 HD007324-18
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Estrogens, Conjugated (USP); 0 / KIAA1324 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 2DI9HA706A / Estrone; QTL48N278K / estrone sulfate
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41. Chin J, Konje JC, Hickey M: Levonorgestrel intrauterine system for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer on adjuvant tamoxifen. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2009;(4):CD007245
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Levonorgestrel intrauterine system for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer on adjuvant tamoxifen.
  • Tamoxifen also increases the risk of postmenopausal bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, polyps, and endometrial cancer.
  • The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) causes profound endometrial suppression.
  • This systematic review considered the evidence that the LNG-IUS prevents the development of endometrial pathology in women taking tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in preventing the development of endometrial hyperplasia, polyps, and adenocarcinoma in pre and postmenopausal women taking adjuvant tamoxifen following breast cancer.
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: All reports which described randomised controlled trials of effects of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on the endometrium in breast cancer patients taking adjuvant tamoxifen were obtained through searches of the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009), MEDLINE (1996 to August 2009), EMBASE (1980 to August 2009), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) (1982 to August 2009).
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of women with breast cancer on adjuvant tamoxifen that compared endometrial surveillance or placebo alone versus the LNG-IUS.
  • Women with known endometrial pathology or contraindications to LNG-IUS were excluded.
  • The outcome measures were endometrial pathology (including polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, or adenocarcinoma) diagnosed at hysteroscopy or endometrial biopsy; any reported side effects of treatment; and abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • The LNG-IUS in tamoxifen users led to a significant reduction in the incidence of endometrial polyps (Peto odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.61).
  • Neither trial was sufficiently powered to detect whether LNG-IUS leads to significant changes in the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma in tamoxifen users, nor whether LNG-IUS leads to any increased risk of breast cancer recurrence.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The Mirena LNG-IUS appears to prevent the development of benign endometrial polyps in breast cancer patients taking tamoxifen, over a one-year period.
  • There is no clear evidence from the available randomised controlled trials that LNG-IUS prevents endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma in these patients.
  • Larger studies are necessary to assess the effects of LNG-IUS in preventing endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, and to determine whether LNG-IUS might have an impact on the risk of breast cancer recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Contraceptive Agents, Female / administration & dosage. Endometrial Hyperplasia / prevention & control. Endometrial Neoplasms / prevention & control. Intrauterine Devices, Medicated. Levonorgestrel / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Polyps / chemically induced. Polyps / prevention & control. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Tamoxifen / adverse effects


42. Mandic A, Vujkov T, Novakovic P, Nincic D, Mihajlovic O, Ivkovic-Kapic T: Clinical-sonographic scoring system in noninvasive diagnosis of endometrial cancer. J BUON; 2006 Apr-Jun;11(2):197-204
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical-sonographic scoring system in noninvasive diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: In 90% of all endometrial cancers vaginal bleeding is the leading clinical symptom.
  • The main goal of this study was to examine the clinical-sonographic scoring system as a noninvasive diagnostic method for endometrial cancer.
  • In group A included were patients without endometrial malignancy and in group B were patients with endometrial cancer.
  • RESULTS: Patients with endometrial cancer were older (median age in group B 64.49 years vs. 58.81 in group A), the length of corpus uteri was longer (6.41 cm in group B vs. 5.25 cm in group A), and the postmenopausal period was longer (13.67 years median in group B vs. 9.11 in group A).
  • CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal bleeding caused by endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed in older patients.
  • It was possible to distinguish high-risk patients with neoplasia from those with benign changes of the endometrium using the clinical-sonographic systems ONCO 1.
  • Nevertheless, histopathological examination is still unavoidable for the final diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Ultrasonography / methods. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17318971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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43. Granovsky-Grisaru S, Zaidoun S, Grisaru D, Yekel Y, Prus D, Beller U, Bar-Shavit R: The pattern of Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) expression in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Dec;103(3):802-6
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  • [Title] The pattern of Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) expression in endometrial carcinoma.
  • While the role of either soluble or matrix-immobilized protease in tumor invasion is well established, the part of cell surface PARs is beginning to emerge.
  • We sought to investigate the expression pattern of Protease Activated Receptor 1 (hPar1) in endometrial carcinoma, the most common type of gynecological malignancy.
  • METHODS: Tissue biopsy specimens taken from seventy-four formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded endometrial tissue blocks were obtained from archival material.
  • RESULTS: The levels of hPar1 mRNA and protein were high and abundant in high-grade endometrial carcinoma, regardless of the histological subtype.
  • In contrast, no hPar1 was detected in endometrial epithelia with conserved glandular structure represented by normal, hyperplastic or low-grade carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PAR1 over-expression is selectively confined to the highly aggressive, high-grade endometrial carcinoma and absent in tissue obtained from benign endometrium or low-grade endometrial cancer.
  • This finding highlights the significance of hPar1 gene involvement in invasive endometrial carcinoma and appoints it an attractive candidate for anti-cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptor, PAR-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16875721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, PAR-1
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44. Dowdy SC, Mariani A, Reinholz MM, Keeney GL, Spelsberg TC, Podratz KC, Janknecht R: Overexpression of the TGF-beta antagonist Smad7 in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Feb;96(2):368-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overexpression of the TGF-beta antagonist Smad7 in endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: We have shown that HER2/Neu may activate the Smad7 promoter in endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer cell lines.
  • Elevated Smad7 levels could then antagonize the TGF-beta pathway, leading to a reduction in tumor surveillance and potential cancer formation.
  • Our aim was to determine if Smad7 was in fact overexpressed in endometrial cancers and whether Smad7 RNA levels correlated with tumor grade or clinical endpoints.
  • METHODS: Snap-frozen endometrial cancer specimens from 16 patients with grade 1 disease and 23 patients with grade 3 disease were obtained.
  • Additionally, the endometrium from 18 patients who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications was collected as a control.
  • CONCLUSION: Smad7 appears to be upregulated in endometrial cancers compared to normal endometrium.
  • Given that many endometrial cancers have been shown to be TGF-beta-unresponsive, Smad7 should be investigated as a potential target to restore TGF-beta responsiveness and limit tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis. Transforming Growth Factor beta / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoskeletal Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Middle Aged. Phosphorylation. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Smad2 Protein. Smad3 Protein. Smad7 Protein. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 15661223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 085257
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / SMAD2 protein, human; 0 / SMAD3 protein, human; 0 / SMAD7 protein, human; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Smad7 Protein; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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45. Li C, Zota V, Woda BA, Rock KL, Fraire AE, Jiang Z, Lu D, Xu B, Dresser K, Lutman CV, Fischer AH: Expression of a novel oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IMP3 in endometrial carcinomas: diagnostic significance and clinicopathologic correlations. Mod Pathol; 2007 Dec;20(12):1263-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of a novel oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IMP3 in endometrial carcinomas: diagnostic significance and clinicopathologic correlations.
  • To investigate the diagnostic and clinicopathologic significance of this protein in endometrial carcinomas, we evaluated immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in the two most common forms of endometrial malignancies, endometrioid adenocarcinoma and serous carcinoma.
  • We selected 167 endometrial adenocarcinoma cases including 122 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and 45 cases of serous carcinoma.
  • Twenty samples of benign endometrium obtained from 20 patients with nonmalignant uterine lesions were used as controls.
  • Positive immunohistochemical stain for IMP3 was identified in all serous carcinoma cases, among which, 39 (86%) and 3 (7%) cases showed IMP3 immunoreactivity in >50%, and 21-50, or 6-20% of tumor cells, respectively.
  • Thirty (25%), 20 (16%), 10 (8%), and 8 (7%) cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for IMP3 in 1-5, 6-20, 21-50, and >50% of the tumor cells.
  • To compare p53 with IMP3 expressions, we found that 35 (78%) of the serous carcinoma cases showed strong p53 immunohistochemical activity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • In contrast, 11 of 112 (10%) endometrioid adenocarcinoma cases demonstrated strong p53 positivity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • Expression of IMP3 and p53 may be helpful biomarkers in the distinction of endometrial serous carcinoma from endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, expression of IMP3 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma correlates with higher nuclear and architecture grades of the tumor (P=0.0000 and P=0.0002, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17885673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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46. Abiko K, Baba T, Ogawa M, Mikami Y, Koyama T, Mandai M, Konishi I: Minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') of the uterine corpus. Pathol Int; 2010 Jan;60(1):42-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus are typically low grade and frequently associated with endometrial hyperplasia and/or ordinary endometrioid adenocarcinoma, but may appear as a heterogeneous group of neoplasms.
  • In some areas endometrial glands of adenomyosis were replaced by benign-looking mucinous metaplasia.
  • HIK1083 and MUC6 immunohistochemistry indicated a gastric phenotype of the tumor, as seen in cases of prototypical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the cervix.
  • In summary, mucinous endometrial adenocarcinoma rarely shows features similar to MDA of the cervix.
  • This case provokes a discussion on diagnostic and management strategy, and histogenesis of mucinous neoplasm of the endometrium.

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  • (PMID = 20055951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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47. Lax S: [Mesenchymal uterine tumors. Stromal tumors and other rare mesenchymal neoplasms]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):284-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Uterine stromal neoplasms are classified into endometrial stromal nodules and stromal sarcomas, as well as undifferentiated sarcomas.
  • Undifferentiated sarcomas consist of polymorphic cells and lack any cytological similarity to the stroma of normal proliferative endometrium.
  • Adenosarcomas are mixed neoplasms with a low grade stromal sarcoma component containing benign glands, which are surrounded by condensed neoplastic stroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Arterioles / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sarcoma / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19495764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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48. Haberal A, Cil AP, Gunes M, Cavusoglu D: Papillary adenofibroma of the cervix: a case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Aug;26(2):186-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adenofibroma is an extremely rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group.
  • It typically affects the endometrium, but may occur in the cervix or in an extrauterine location.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is usually difficult.
  • This lesion appears to be clinically and histologically benign but must be differentiated from malignant lesions of the uterus, particularly from adenosarcoma, which can be suggestive of adenofibroma.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these benign tumors permits appropriate counseling of patients.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16041681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Maeda D, Ota S, Takazawa Y, Aburatani H, Nakagawa S, Yano T, Taketani Y, Kodama T, Fukayama M: Glypican-3 expression in clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Mod Pathol; 2009 Jun;22(6):824-32
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  • Glypican-3 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is overexpressed in various neoplasms such as hepatocellular carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and testicular yolk sac tumor.
  • Glypican-3 is currently regarded as a tumor marker and potential target for immunotherapy.
  • To clarify the significance of glypican-3 expression in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma, we evaluated glypican-3 expression by immunohistochemistry in nonneoplastic and neoplastic ovaries, and other Müllerian duct derivatives including endometrium in different menstrual phases.
  • Among the benign lesions examined, glypican-3 expression was identified exclusively in the endometrial epithelium in the gestational period.
  • In cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma, no correlations were found between glypican-3 expression and clinicopathological factors, such as tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and death rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Glypicans / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19329941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glypicans
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