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1. Abbott KL, Lim JM, Wells L, Benigno BB, McDonald JF, Pierce M: Identification of candidate biomarkers with cancer-specific glycosylation in the tissue and serum of endometrioid ovarian cancer patients by glycoproteomic analysis. Proteomics; 2010 Feb;10(3):470-81
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  • [Title] Identification of candidate biomarkers with cancer-specific glycosylation in the tissue and serum of endometrioid ovarian cancer patients by glycoproteomic analysis.
  • Our study using glycotranscriptome comparative analysis of endometrioid ovarian cancer tissue and normal ovarian tissue led to the identification of distinct differences in the transcripts of a restricted set of glycosyltransferases involved in N-linked glycosylation.
  • Our results have identified several glycoproteins that display tumor-specific glycosylation changes.
  • The glycoproteins that were verified were then analyzed further using existing microarray data obtained from benign ovarian adenomas, borderline ovarian adenocarcinomas, and malignant ovarian adenocarcinomas.
  • The verified glycoproteins found to be expressed above control levels in the microarray data sets were then screened for tumor-specific glycan modifications in serum from ovarian cancer patients.
  • Results obtained from two of these glycoprotein markers, periostin and thrombospondin, have confirmed that tumor-specific glycan changes can be used to distinguish ovarian cancer patient serum from normal serum.

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  • (PMID = 19953551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9861
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41RR018502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA064462; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR018502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA128454; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA128454; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA064462
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS793820; NLM/ PMC4932840
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2. Park HM, Lee SS, Eom DW, Kang GH, Yi SW, Sohn WS: Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2009 Aug;24(4):767-71
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  • [Title] Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix: a case report.
  • Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix is rare in premenopausal woman.
  • Histological examination revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma directly adjacent to the endometriosis at the uterine cervix, with a transition observed between endometriosis and endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix and underwent postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Gynecologists and pathologists should be aware of the difficulties associated with a delay in diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis when the tumor presents as a benign looking endometrioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometriosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19654969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2719211
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma, Endometrioid / Cervix Uteri / Endometriosis
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3. Healy KA, Carney KJ, Osunkoya AO: Endometrioid adenocarcinoma in the native ureter of a renal transplant patient: case report and review of the literature. ScientificWorldJournal; 2010;10:1714-22
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  • [Title] Endometrioid adenocarcinoma in the native ureter of a renal transplant patient: case report and review of the literature.
  • Although endometriosis is a benign condition, malignant transformation of endometriosis is a well-described phenomenon.
  • A case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma in the native ureter of a postmenopausal renal transplant patient presented with painless gross hematuria and hydroureteronephrosis.
  • Workup revealed a filling defect in the native left mid-ureter secondary to a large 2.5-cm ureteral tumor.
  • Endoscopic biopsies of the native left ureteral mass showed endometrioid adenocarcinoma, grade II-III.
  • Final pathology confirmed endometrioid adenocarcinoma, grade II-III, arising in a background of endometriosis with negative perirectal lymph nodes.
  • This case of ureteral endometrioid adenocarcinoma highlights the importance of obtaining a careful history and maintaining a high index of suspicion for malignant degeneration, especially in the context of hyperestrogenism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Transplantation. Ureter / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20842317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Drapkin R, von Horsten HH, Lin Y, Mok SC, Crum CP, Welch WR, Hecht JL: Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a secreted glycoprotein that is overexpressed by serous and endometrioid ovarian carcinomas. Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 15;65(6):2162-9
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  • [Title] Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a secreted glycoprotein that is overexpressed by serous and endometrioid ovarian carcinomas.
  • To ascertain its clinical utility, we did a comprehensive assessment of HE4 protein expression in benign and malignant ovarian and nonovarian tissues by immunohistochemistry.
  • Its expression in tumors was restricted to certain histologic subtype: 93% of serous and 100% of endometrioid EOCs expressed HE4, whereas only 50% and 0% of clear cell carcinomas and mucinous tumors, respectively, were positive.
  • Therefore, HE4 is a secreted glycoprotein that is overexpressed by serous and endometrioid EOCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Mullerian Ducts / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. beta-Defensins

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  • (PMID = 15781627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DEFB126 protein, human; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / beta-Defensins
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5. Zhang X, Liang SX, Jia L, Chen N, Fadare O, Schwartz PE, Kong B, Zheng W: Molecular identification of "latent precancers" for endometrial serous carcinoma in benign-appearing endometrium. Am J Pathol; 2009 Jun;174(6):2000-6
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  • [Title] Molecular identification of "latent precancers" for endometrial serous carcinoma in benign-appearing endometrium.
  • We have recently identified a group of benign-looking endometria with p53 overexpression, designated "p53 signatures."
  • The p53 signatures were specifically associated with ESC, frequently found in the benign-appearing endometrium adjacent to the ESC and only rarely in either the endometrium adjacent to endometrioid carcinomas or in non-cancerous uteri.

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  • (PMID = 19435786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2684165
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6. Rodríguez G, Bilbao C, Ramírez R, Falcón O, León L, Chirino R, Falcón O Jr, Díaz BP, Rivero JF, Perucho M, Díaz-Chico BN, Díaz-Chico JC: Alleles with short CAG and GGN repeats in the androgen receptor gene are associated with benign endometrial cancer. Int J Cancer; 2006 Mar 15;118(6):1420-5
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  • [Title] Alleles with short CAG and GGN repeats in the androgen receptor gene are associated with benign endometrial cancer.
  • To study that possibility, we have genotyped both CAG and GGN polymorphisms of the AR gene in tumor tissue genomic DNA from a series of 204 consecutive patients with EC, and analyzed the results with regard to the pathological features and clinical outcome of patients.
  • The genotype with SS-GGN alleles was more common in well-differentiated tumors (41.2% SS-GGN vs 25.2% LS- and LL-GGN together, p = 0.017) and in endometrioid histological subtype tumors (35.3% SS-GGN vs 13.0% SL- and LL-GGN together, p = 0.034).
  • When the genotypes of both repeats coexisting in each tumor specimen were taken into consideration, the relationship between the SS-CAG genotype and early stage remained only in the presence of the SS-GGN genotype (43.9% vs 0%, p = 0.01).
  • Our data suggests that short CAG or GGN repeats of the AR gene are associated with a more benign condition of traditional prognostic variables in EC.

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  • (PMID = 16187285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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7. Gursan N, Sipal S, Calik M, Gundogdu C: P53, bcl-2, ki-67 li (labeling index) status in benign, proliferative, and malignant ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms. Eurasian J Med; 2009 Apr;41(1):10-4
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  • [Title] P53, bcl-2, ki-67 li (labeling index) status in benign, proliferative, and malignant ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: Approximately 50% of human malignancies present with mutations in p53, which is the most common tumor suppressor gene involved with human malignancies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 75 epithelial ovarian tumors, 15 serous cystadenomas, 15 mucinous cystadenomas, 5 borderline serous cystadenomas, 5 borderline mucinous cystadenomas, 15 serous cystadenocarcinomas, 15 mucinous cystadenocarcinomas and 5 endometrioid carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: Anti-p53 reactivity was observed in 14 tumors, all of which were malignant tumors, and no reactivity was observed in borderline or benign tumors.
  • Overexpression of bcl-2 was observed in 12 benign neoplasms (40%), 5 of which were borderline (50%), but was not observed in any of the malignant tumors.
  • There was a statistically significantly higher level of Ki-67 LI positivity in the malignant tumors than in the benign and borderline tumors (p<0.005).
  • CONCLUSION: These data show significant differences in the expression of these markers in ovarian tumors and suggest a possible role for these tumor-associated genes as supplemental tools in diagnostic pathology.
  • Furthermore, our findings support the redesignation of low malignant potential tumors (current nomenclature) to benign ovarian carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 25610057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1308-8734
  • [Journal-full-title] The Eurasian journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eurasian J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4261648
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ki-67 / Ovarian cancer / bcl-2 / p53
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8. Xiong Y, Xiong YY, Zhou YF: [Expression of beta-catenin, Glut-1, PTEN proteins in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Sep;38(9):594-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of beta-catenin, Glut-1, PTEN proteins in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression of beta-catenin, Glut-1, PTEN in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma and their roles in tumorigenesis.
  • Expressions of beta-catenin, Glut-1 and PTEN proteins were investigated by immunohistochemistry in 10 proliferative endometrium, 83 endometrial hyperplasia and 24 endometrioid adenocarcinoma. RESULTS:.
  • Abnormal (marked membranous/cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic and/or nuclear or negative) expression rates of beta-catenin in EIN lesions (50%, 12/24) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (66.7%, 16/24) were significantly higher than that of benign hyperplasia (10.2%, 6/59) respectively (P < 0.01).
  • However, the difference was not significant between EIN lesions and endometrioid adenocarcinomas (P > 0.05). (3) Low level expressions of Glut-1 was present in proliferative endometrium and benign hyperplasia.
  • Overexpression of Glut-1 was present in 58.3% (14/24) of EIN and 70.8% (17/24) of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, respectively, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05). (4) Percentages of loss of PTEN expression showed no difference between EIN lesions (37.5%, 9/24) and proliferative endometrium (2/10), benign hyperplasia (28.8%, 17/59), endometrioid adenocarcinoma (62.5%, 15/24; P > 0.05).
  • However, loss of PTEN expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than those in proliferative endometrium and benign hyperplasia (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin and overexpression of Glut-1 may be the early events in tumorigenesis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The expression of both markers may be useful in distinguishing a benign hyperplasia from EIN and endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20079187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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9. Razzouk K, Roman H, Chanavaz-Lacheray I, Scotté M, Verspyck E, Marpeau L: Mixed clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma arising in parietal endometriosis. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2007;63(3):140-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mixed clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma arising in parietal endometriosis.
  • AIM: We report a case of a mixed clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma arising in parietal endometriosis.
  • An extensive surgical resection of the tumor was then carried out.
  • RESULTS: Histological analysis revealed heterogeneous tissues including clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma fields arising from a large benign endometriosis lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clear cell carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma have been rarely found in parietal endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Cesarean Section / adverse effects. Endometriosis / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17057400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-7346
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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10. Salamon C, Tornos C, Chi DS: Borderline endometrioid tumor arising in a paratubal cyst: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):263-5

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  • [Title] Borderline endometrioid tumor arising in a paratubal cyst: a case report.
  • The following represents the first reported case of an endometrioid tumor of low malignant potential arising in a paratubal cyst.
  • All frozen-section diagnoses were benign; however, final pathology revealed a borderline tumor of low malignant potential of endometrioid type in the right paratubal cyst.
  • Final pathologic analysis revealed no evidence of persistent borderline tumor.
  • Laparoscopic surgery is an option in the management of adnexal masses; however, rupture or puncture of masses should be avoided when possible to prevent potential tumor dissemination in the event of a malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / etiology. Cysts / complications. Fallopian Tube Diseases / complications

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  • (PMID = 15790473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Kauppila S, Altinörs M, Väre P, Liakka A, Knuuti E, Nissi R: Primary sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis. APMIS; 2008 Sep;116(9):842-5
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  • [Title] Primary sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis.
  • Although endometriosis is a benign disease, some malignant tumors have been reported to develop in endometriotic lesions, most commonly in the ovary.
  • The relationship between endometriosis and malignancy is not well known, but the majority of endometriosis-associated ovarian malignancies are usually endometrioid adenocarcinomas and clear cell carcinomas.
  • The sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor that histologically closely resembles the sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Despite its rarity, the correct histological diagnosis of the sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis of a less aggressive tumor.
  • The tumor was diagnosed based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19024607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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12. Xiong Y, Xiong YY, Zhou YF: Expression and significance of beta-catenin, Glut-1 and PTEN in proliferative endometrium, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(2):160-4
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  • [Title] Expression and significance of beta-catenin, Glut-1 and PTEN in proliferative endometrium, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • DESIGN: Ten proliferative endometrium, 83 endometrial hyperplasia (59 benign hyperplasia, 24 EIN) and 24 endometrioid adenocarcinoma sections were immunostained for beta-catenin, Glut-1 and PTEN protein expression. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Abnormal expression of beta-catenin was detected in 10% of benign hyperplasia, 50% of EIN and 67% of endometriold adenocarcinoma. (2) Overexpression of Glut-1 was present in 58% of EIN and 71% of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. (3) Complete loss of PTEN immunoreactivity was found in 20% of proliferative endometrium, 29% of benign hyperplasia, 38% of EIN and 63% of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The abnormal expression of beta-catenin and overexpression of Glut-1 may be useful markers in distinguishing benign hyperplasia from EIN, whereas lack of PTEN expression is not an appropriate marker for a diagnosis of EIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 20527231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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13. Akbulut M, Zekioglu O, Terek MC, Ozdemir N: Lipoadenofibroma of the endometrium: a rare variant of benign mullerian mixed tumor. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Sep;278(3):283-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lipoadenofibroma of the endometrium: a rare variant of benign mullerian mixed tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adenofibroma is a form of mixed mesodermal tumor in which epithelial and stromal components are benign, and usually arises in the endometrium of postmenopausal women.
  • We report a case of lipoadenofibroma of the endometrium that appeared as an intracavitary mass, which is very unusual because endometrioid adenofibroma rarely contains mature adipose tissue, only the second such case described in detail.
  • CONCLUSION: We suggest that uterine adenofibromas with lipomatous areas belong to the family of mixed tumor of Mullerian origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18236054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Vaysse C, Capdet J, Mery E, Querleu D: Paratubal endometrioid cystadenocarcinoma: case report and review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(4):443-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paratubal endometrioid cystadenocarcinoma: case report and review.
  • Final pathology indicated a heterogeneous tumor with benign, borderline, and endometrioid carcinoma areas.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, no case of paratubal invasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma has previously been described.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19761142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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15. Saygan-Karamürsel B, Dikmen G, Dogan P, Aksu T, Guven S, Ayhan A: Quantitative telomerase activity in malignant, benign and normal gynecological tissues. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(1):83-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantitative telomerase activity in malignant, benign and normal gynecological tissues.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitative telomerase activity in malignant, benign and normal gynecological tissue samples by using the Telomerase-PCR ELISA kit, and to determine a cut-off level for malignancy by this quantitative method.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty gynecological tumors, 27 benign gynecological disorders and 29 normal tissues were analyzed by the Telomerase-PCR ELISA kit.
  • A ROC (receiver operator characteristic) curve was drawn to determine a threshold level best discriminating malignant tissues from benign pathologies and normal tissues.
  • Telomerase activity was compared in malignant, benign and normal tissues.
  • RESULTS: The mean level of telomerase activity of the malignant tumor samples (1.03 +/- 0.53 units) was significantly (p < .001) higher than the normal tissues (0.13 +/- 0.07 units) and benign pathologies (0.37 +/- 0.25 units).
  • The cut-off point to differentiate malignant samples from benign samples was set at 0.42 units, where the sensitivity was 93.8% and the specificity was 89.3%.
  • There was a significant difference in telomerase activity between malignant, benign and normal tissues within each histological group.
  • CONCLUSION: In this preliminary study, the telomerase-PCR ELISA method was found to have a high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate malignant gynecological tissues from benign tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Genital Neoplasms, Female / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15755008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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16. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • To investigate the potential use of MGB in gynecologic pathology practice, we tested MGB expression by immunohistochemistry on 47 endocervical adenocarcinomas (whole tissue sections of 13 invasive and 35 in situ) and 55 endometrial carcinomas (39 endometrioid and 16 nonendometrioid represented on a single tissue microarray).
  • MGB expression was detected in thirty (77%) of 39 of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with 4 (31%) of 13 endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • Frequent MGB expression in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma is significantly different from nonendometrioid carcinoma.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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17. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • PAX2 encodes a transcription factor necessary in the development of the Wolffian duct system, and the protein is expressed in several tumors of mesonephric origin, including renal cell carcinoma, Wilm tumor, and nephrogenic adenoma.
  • In contrast, only 2 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma were positive for PAX2 [invasive adenocarcinoma of the minimal deviation type (0 of 5), usual type (1 of 22), and endometrioid type (1 of 1)].
  • Most (11 of 15) stage II endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas lacked PAX2 expression but 1 of 10 grade 1 tumors and 3 of 5 grade 2 tumors did express PAX2.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human
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18. Shibata K, Kajiyama H, Mizokami Y, Ino K, Nomura S, Mizutani S, Terauchi M, Kikkawa F: Placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression in benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian epithelia. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):11-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression in benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian epithelia.
  • The authors evaluated P-LAP and GLUT4 expression in benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian epithelia.
  • METHODS: Histologic sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from 11 patients with benign serous or mucinous cystadenomas, 14 patients with serous or mucinous borderline tumors, and 80 patients with epithelial-ovarian adenocarcinomas (29 serous, 17 endometrioid, 14 mucinous, and 20 clear cell adenocarcinomas) were stained for P-LAP and GLUT4 using each polyclonal antibody.
  • RESULTS: P-LAP immunoreactivity was detected in 2 of 11 benign cystadenomas.
  • None of the 11 benign ovarian tumors showed any immunoreactivity for GLUT4.
  • P-LAP was expressed in 23 of 29 in serous, 15 of 17 endometrioid, 13 of 14 mucinous, and all clear-cell adenocarcinomas.
  • GLUT4 was expressed in 13 of 29 serous, 13 of 17 endometrioid, 13 of 14 mucinous, and 18 of 20 clear-cell adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Epithelium / enzymology. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Glucose Transporter Type 4. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ovarian Diseases / enzymology. Ovarian Diseases / metabolism. Ovarian Diseases / pathology. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15907336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 4; 0 / Monosaccharide Transport Proteins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / SLC2A4 protein, human; EC 3.4.11.3 / Cystinyl Aminopeptidase; EC 3.4.11.3 / leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase
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19. Bar JK, Słomska I, Rabczyńki J, Noga L, Gryboś M: Expression of p53 protein phosphorylated at serine 20 and serine 392 in malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms: correlation with clinicopathological parameters of tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Nov;19(8):1322-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of p53 protein phosphorylated at serine 20 and serine 392 in malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms: correlation with clinicopathological parameters of tumors.
  • METHODS: p53 protein expression was evaluated on tissues from malignant and benign ovarian tumors.
  • In the total group of ovarian carcinomas, significant differences were observed in p53 protein overexpression between well (G1) and poor (G3) tumor grades (P = 0.005) and between serous and endometrioid types of tumor (P = 0.04), whereas p53-Ser20 phosphorylation was associated with advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.004) and high tumor grade (P = 0.02).
  • In p53-positive ovarian carcinomas, p53-Ser392 phosphorylation was associated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.02) and high tumor grade (P = 0.049).
  • p53-Ser20 phosphorylation was associated with low tumor grade of p53-positive ovarian carcinomas (P = 0.02) and with high tumor grade of p53-negative ovarian carcinomas (P = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that p53 phosphorylation at Ser20 and Ser392 is an early event in ovarian tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Serine / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20009884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 452VLY9402 / Serine
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20. Ratner ES, Tuck D, Richter C, Nallur S, Patel RM, Schultz V, Hui P, Schwartz PE, Rutherford TJ, Weidhaas JB: MicroRNA signatures differentiate uterine cancer tumor subtypes. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Sep;118(3):251-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MicroRNA signatures differentiate uterine cancer tumor subtypes.
  • METHODS: Ninety-five fresh/frozen and paraffin-embedded samples of endometrial type I and II cancer, carcinosarcomas and benign endometrial samples were collected.
  • RESULTS: Distinct miRNA signatures in tumor versus normal samples and in endometrioid vs. uterine papillary serous carcinomas exist.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20542546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124484-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA124484; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK072442; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA124484-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA21661
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS208098; NLM/ PMC2918705
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21. Heatley MK: Is female adnexal tumour of probable wolffian origin a benign lesion? A systematic review of the English literature. Pathology; 2009;41(7):645-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is female adnexal tumour of probable wolffian origin a benign lesion? A systematic review of the English literature.
  • AIMS: To establish the prognosis associated with female adnexal tumour of probable wolffian origin (FATWO) and determine the frequency with which it behaves as a truly benign lesion.
  • One patient with a ruptured tumour had recurrent disease and one other had died of disease (p = 0.2278).
  • There was no association between outcome and age (p = 0.6651), size (p = 0.1912), length of survival (p = 0.2351) tumour site, mitotic rate or necrosis (p = 0.5937, 0.4697 and 0.2016, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: On the basis of these findings, FATWO cannot be regarded as a benign lesion.
  • These lesions may be confused with well differentiated gynaecological cancers and careful clinicopathological correlation with the extensive use of immunohistochemistry is encouraged to ensure that lesions such as extragonadal endometrioid adenocarcinoma is not confused with FATWO.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Databases, Bibliographic. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20001344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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22. Coronado Martín PJ, Fasero Laiz M, García Santos J, Ramírez Mena M, Vidart Aragón JA: [Overexpression and prognostic value of p53 and HER2/neu proteins in benign ovarian tissue and in ovarian cancer]. Med Clin (Barc); 2007 Jan 13;128(1):1-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Overexpression and prognostic value of p53 and HER2/neu proteins in benign ovarian tissue and in ovarian cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Grado de expresión y valor pronóstico de las proteínas p53 y HER2/neu en el tejido ovárico benigno y en el cáncer de ovario.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: p53 and HER2/neu immunostaining were performed in 198 tissue samples, 124 EOC, 44 benign ovarian tumors and 30 normal ovaries.
  • RESULTS: Neither p53 nor HER2/neu overexpression was seen in the benign ovarian tumors.
  • P53 overexpression was found in 25% EOC and was related with advanced stage, endometrioid, clear cell and undifferentiated types, grade G3, and sub-optimal surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Mucinous / genetics. Cystadenoma, Serous / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Teratoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Confidence Intervals. Endometriosis / genetics. Endometriosis / pathology. Endometriosis / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Genes, p53. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Diseases / genetics. Ovarian Diseases / pathology. Ovarian Diseases / surgery. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17266884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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23. Balasenthil S, Broaddus RR, Kumar R: Expression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in benign endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jun;37(6):656-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in benign endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • We investigated the expression profile of MTA1 in different stages of benign endometrium as well as in endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.
  • Western blot analysis of 6 tumor specimens showed increased expression of MTA1 in all the tumors analyzed.
  • Immunohistochemical staining performed on tumor microarray containing 70 endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas of various grades showed increased expression of MTA1 in 53 (75.7%) tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16733204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 098823
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
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24. Coosemans A, Moerman P, Verbist G, Maes W, Neven P, Vergote I, Van Gool SW, Amant F: Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Dec;111(3):502-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) in endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Wilms' tumor gene (WT1), located on chromosome 11, encodes a transcription factor that contributes to the carcinogenesis of uterine sarcomas.
  • METHODS: In total, 36 paraffin-embedded tumors were available for WT1 immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis including endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (n=24), serous carcinoma (n=9) and clear cell carcinoma (n=3).
  • Three slides from different sites of the tumor were analysed.
  • Of these tumors, 32 snap frozen tissue samples were available for RT-PCR (endometrioid carcinoma (23), serous carcinoma (7) and clear cell carcinoma (2)).
  • To compare, WT1 expression was also evaluated by IHC in benign endometrium (12) and benign endometrial polyps (5).
  • RESULTS: WT1 positivity was noticed in tumor cells and endothelial cells, lining the intratumoral blood vessels.
  • Comparing the staining patterns of the 3 different bioptic sites, tumor heterogeneity was demonstrated in the majority (72%) of samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Wilms Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Aged. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis. WT1 Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18929401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / WT1 Proteins
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25. Tinelli A, Malvasi A, Pellegrino M: An incidental peritoneal serous borderline tumor during laparoscopy for endometriosis. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(5):579-82
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  • [Title] An incidental peritoneal serous borderline tumor during laparoscopy for endometriosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary peritoneal serous borderline tumor (PPSBT) is an uncommon lesion, histologically indistinguishable from non-invasive peritoneal implants found in association with ovarian tumours of borderline malignancy.
  • CASE: A 37-year-old white woman was admitted for acute pelvic pain due to two 5 cm retrouterine bilateral ovarian cysts with an endometrioid aspect.
  • CONCLUSION: Although PPSBT is a rare entity, it is nonetheless important because of its macroscopic similarity to endometriosis and microscopic similarity to other peritoneal and mullerian proliferations of both benign and malignant biologic potential.
  • It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of endometrioid lesions on the peritoneal surfaces of visceral and parietal peritoneum in patients submitted for gynaecological problems.

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  • (PMID = 19899422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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26. Brinton LA, Sakoda LC, Sherman ME, Frederiksen K, Kjaer SK, Graubard BI, Olsen JH, Mellemkjaer L: Relationship of benign gynecologic diseases to subsequent risk of ovarian and uterine tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Dec;14(12):2929-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Relationship of benign gynecologic diseases to subsequent risk of ovarian and uterine tumors.
  • Based on a population-based cohort exceeding 99,000 women, including 2,491 ovarian cancers, 860 borderline ovarian tumors, and 1,398 uterine cancers, we derived relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) associated with overall and histology-specific tumor risks after adjustment for calendar time and reproductive characteristics.
  • RESULTS: Endometriosis seemed to predispose to the development of ovarian cancer, with the association restricted to endometrioid or clear cell malignancies.
  • Five or more years after the diagnosis of endometriosis, the RRs (95% CIs) were 2.53 (1.19-5.38) for endometrioid (7 exposed cases) and 3.37 (1.24-9.14) for clear cell (4 exposed cases) malignancies.
  • CONCLUSION: In combination with clinical, pathologic, and molecular data, our results support that some endometriotic lesions may predispose to clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancers.

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  • (PMID = 16365012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Ma L, Liu FR, Zhang SL: [Detection of circulating hypermethylated tumor-specific RASSF1A DNA in ovarian cancer patients]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Dec;34(12):785-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Detection of circulating hypermethylated tumor-specific RASSF1A DNA in ovarian cancer patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect hypermethylated tumor-specific RASSF1A DNA in the circulation and its significance in ovarian cancers patients.
  • RESULTS: The RASSF1A gene was not methylated in peripheral blood samples from 51 normal patients and 51 patients with benign ovarian tumors.
  • Hypermethylation of RASSF1A gene was found in circulating tumor-specific DNA in 43.1% of patients (22 out of 51 cases) with ovarian cancers (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher frequency of RASSF1A hypermethylation in circulating tumor-specific DNA of ovarian cancer patients.
  • RASSF1A has been postulated to play an important role as tumor suppressor gene and can be silenced by promoter hypermethylation.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16545186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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28. Aikhionbare FO, Mehrabi S, Kumaresan K, Zavareh M, Olatinwo M, Odunsi K, Partridge E: Mitochondrial DNA sequence variants in epithelial ovarian tumor subtypes and stages. J Carcinog; 2007 Jan 26;6:1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mitochondrial DNA sequence variants in epithelial ovarian tumor subtypes and stages.
  • Additionally, knowledge of factors involved in the histogenesis of the various subtypes of this tumor as well as those factors that promote progression to advanced stages of ovarian malignancy are largely unknown.
  • There were relatively high frequencies of three mutations in the 12S rRNA gene at np 772, 773, and 780 in stage IIIC endometrioid tumors, two of which are novel (773delT and 780delC), and occurred with a frequency of 100% (7/7).
  • Furthermore, two mutations were observed in serous tumors only at np 1657 in stage IV (10/10), and at np 8221delA in benign cystadenomas (3/3) and borderline tumors (4/4).
  • A high frequency, 81% (13/16) of TC insertion at np 310 was found only in early stages of serous subtype (benign cystadenomas, 3/3; borderline tumors, 4/4; stage I tumors, 2/5 and matched normal tissues 4/4).
  • In addition, these data raise the possibility that certain mtDNA mutations may be useful biomarkers for predicting tumor aggressiveness and may play a potential role in tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17257433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-3163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Carcinog
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P20 MD000272
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1794240
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29. Rossing MA, Cushing-Haugen KL, Wicklund KG, Doherty JA, Weiss NS: Risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in relation to benign ovarian conditions and ovarian surgery. Cancer Causes Control; 2008 Dec;19(10):1357-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in relation to benign ovarian conditions and ovarian surgery.
  • We assessed the risk associated with a prior diagnosis of, and ovarian surgery following, ovarian cysts and endometriosis, with a focus on characterizing risk among tumor subgroups.
  • RESULTS: The risk of a borderline mucinous ovarian tumor associated with a history of an ovarian cyst was increased (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.8), but did not vary notably according to receipt of subsequent ovarian surgery.
  • Women with a history of endometriosis had a threefold increased risk of endometrioid and clear cell invasive tumors, with a lesser risk increase among women who underwent subsequent ovarian surgery.

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  • (PMID = 18704718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7225
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA87538; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087538-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087538-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087538-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS146032; NLM/ PMC2751585
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30. Grisaru-Granovsky S, Salah Z, Maoz M, Pruss D, Beller U, Bar-Shavit R: Differential expression of protease activated receptor 1 (Par1) and pY397FAK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue samples. Int J Cancer; 2005 Jan 20;113(3):372-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of protease activated receptor 1 (Par1) and pY397FAK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue samples.
  • Although proteases in general have been implicated in the remodeling of the extracellular tumor microenvironment, the role of cell surface receptors activated by proteolysis is now emerging.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Focal Adhesion Kinase 1. Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Integrins / genetics. Integrins / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Ovary / metabolism. Ovary / pathology. Phosphorylation. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Vitronectin / genetics. Receptors, Vitronectin / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15455382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, PAR-1; 0 / Receptors, Vitronectin; 0 / integrin alphaVbeta5; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Kinase 1; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / PTK2 protein, human
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31. Esheba GE, Pate LL, Longacre TA: Oncofetal protein glypican-3 distinguishes yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):600-7
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  • [Title] Oncofetal protein glypican-3 distinguishes yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary is the surface epithelial neoplasm most often confused with primitive germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor (YST) and dysgerminoma.
  • Tissue microarrays containing over 400 benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, including 34 CCCs were stained with monoclonal GPC3 (clone 1G12, Biomosaics, Burlington, VT).
  • All but one YST (97%), including those associated with mixed germ cell tumor were positive for GPC3, whereas all teratomas and embryonal carcinomas were negative.
  • Most CCCs (83%) were completely negative for GPC3, as were 99% serous, 94% endometrioid, and 100% mucinous tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / chemistry. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / chemistry. Glypicans / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18277882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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32. Li C, Zota V, Woda BA, Rock KL, Fraire AE, Jiang Z, Lu D, Xu B, Dresser K, Lutman CV, Fischer AH: Expression of a novel oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IMP3 in endometrial carcinomas: diagnostic significance and clinicopathologic correlations. Mod Pathol; 2007 Dec;20(12):1263-8
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  • To investigate the diagnostic and clinicopathologic significance of this protein in endometrial carcinomas, we evaluated immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in the two most common forms of endometrial malignancies, endometrioid adenocarcinoma and serous carcinoma.
  • We selected 167 endometrial adenocarcinoma cases including 122 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and 45 cases of serous carcinoma.
  • Twenty samples of benign endometrium obtained from 20 patients with nonmalignant uterine lesions were used as controls.
  • Positive immunohistochemical stain for IMP3 was identified in all serous carcinoma cases, among which, 39 (86%) and 3 (7%) cases showed IMP3 immunoreactivity in >50%, and 21-50, or 6-20% of tumor cells, respectively.
  • Fifty-four (44%) cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma were negative for IMP3.
  • Thirty (25%), 20 (16%), 10 (8%), and 8 (7%) cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for IMP3 in 1-5, 6-20, 21-50, and >50% of the tumor cells.
  • Strong IMP3-staining intensity was noted in 34 (28%), intermediate in 26 (21%), and weak in 8 (7%) cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • To compare p53 with IMP3 expressions, we found that 35 (78%) of the serous carcinoma cases showed strong p53 immunohistochemical activity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • In contrast, 11 of 112 (10%) endometrioid adenocarcinoma cases demonstrated strong p53 positivity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • In conclusion, our findings demonstrate significant expression of IMP3 in serous carcinoma as compared to endometrioid adenocarcinoma (P<0.0001).
  • Expression of IMP3 and p53 may be helpful biomarkers in the distinction of endometrial serous carcinoma from endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, expression of IMP3 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma correlates with higher nuclear and architecture grades of the tumor (P=0.0000 and P=0.0002, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17885673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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33. Tringler B, Liu W, Corral L, Torkko KC, Enomoto T, Davidson S, Lucia MS, Heinz DE, Papkoff J, Shroyer KR: B7-H4 overexpression in ovarian tumors. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Jan;100(1):44-52
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  • This study was designed to evaluate the expression of B7-H4 protein, recently identified as a potential molecular marker of breast and ovarian cancer by quantitative PCR analysis, in benign tumors, tumors of low malignant potential and malignant tumors of the ovary.
  • METHODS: Archival formalin-fixed tissue blocks from serous, mucinous, endometrioid and clear cell ovarian tumors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the distribution of B7-H4 expression, and staining intensity was measured by automated image analysis.
  • RESULTS: B7-H4 cytoplasmic and membranous expression was detected in all primary serous (n = 32), endometrioid (n = 12), and clear cell carcinomas (n = 15), and in all metastatic serous (n = 23) and endometrioid (n = 7) ovarian carcinomas.
  • The median staining intensity was also significantly greater in endometrioid carcinomas than in endometriosis (P = 0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The consistent overexpression of B7-H4 in serous, endometrioid and clear cell ovarian carcinomas and the relative absence of expression in most normal somatic tissues indicates that B7-H4 should be further investigated as a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD80 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / immunology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / immunology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1

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  • (PMID = 16256178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1; 0 / VTCN1 protein, human
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34. Santin AD, Diamandis EP, Bellone S, Soosaipillai A, Cane S, Palmieri M, Burnett A, Roman JJ, Pecorelli S: Human kallikrein 6: a new potential serum biomarker for uterine serous papillary cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 May 1;11(9):3320-5
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  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Human kallikrein 6 (hK6) gene expression levels were evaluated in 29 snap-frozen endometrial biopsies, including 13 USPC, 13 endometrioid carcinomas, and 3 normal endometrial cells by real-time PCR.
  • Secretion of hK6 protein by 14 tumor cultures, including 3 USPC, 3 endometrioid carcinoma, 5 ovarian serous papillary carcinoma, and 3 cervical cancers, was measured using a sensitive ELISA.
  • Finally, hK6 concentration in 79 serum and plasma samples from 22 healthy women, 20 women with benign diseases, 20 women with endometrioid carcinoma, and 17 USPC patients was studied.
  • RESULTS: hK6 gene expression levels were significantly higher in USPC when compared with endometrioid carcinoma (mean copy number by real-time PCR, 1,927 versus 239, USPC versus endometrioid carcinoma; P < 0.01).
  • In contrast, no hK6 secretion was detectable in primary endometrioid carcinoma and cervical cancer cultures. hK6 serum and plasma concentrations (mean +/- SE) among normal healthy females (2.7 +/- 0.2 microg/L), patients with benign diseases (2.4 +/- 0.2 microg/L), and patients with endometrioid carcinoma (2.6 +/- 0.2 microg/L) were not significantly different.
  • In contrast, serum and plasma hK6 values in USPC patients (6.1 +/- 1.1) were significantly higher than those in the noncancer group (P = 0.006), benign group (P = 0.003), and endometrioid carcinoma patients (P = 0.005).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Kallikreins / blood. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15867230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK6 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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35. Mukonoweshuro P, Oriowolo A: Stromal osseous metaplasia in a low-grade ovarian adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Oct;99(1):222-4
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  • CASE REPORT: The patient, a 66-year-old P3 G3 white female, had a past history of stage 1c left ovarian, well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma removed in 1981.
  • The tumor recurred 21 years later with prominent stromal osseous metaplasia that had not been present in the primary.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign osseous metaplasia in ovarian tumors is rare and its histogenesis remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16023183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Castellvi J, Garcia A, de la Torre J, Hernandez J, Gil A, Xercavins J, Ramón y Cajal S: Ephrin B expression in epithelial ovarian neoplasms correlates with tumor differentiation and angiogenesis. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jul;37(7):883-9
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  • [Title] Ephrin B expression in epithelial ovarian neoplasms correlates with tumor differentiation and angiogenesis.
  • Specimens from 112 benign, borderline, and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors were examined.
  • Ephrin B was detected in 50% of ovarian tumors: clear cell carcinomas (93%), serous carcinomas (74%), mucinous carcinomas (29%), and endometrioid carcinomas (27%).
  • High-grade carcinomas showed greatest ephrin B expression, whereas benign tumors and low-grade carcinomas were rarely positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Ephrin-B1 / biosynthesis. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood supply. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16784989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ephrin-B1
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37. Cocco E, Bellone S, El-Sahwi K, Cargnelutti M, Buza N, Tavassoli FA, Schwartz PE, Rutherford TJ, Pecorelli S, Santin AD: Serum amyloid A: a novel biomarker for endometrial cancer. Cancer; 2010 Feb 15;116(4):843-51
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  • BACKGROUND: The authors investigated the expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma and evaluated its potential as a serum biomarker.
  • METHODS: SAA gene and protein expression levels were evaluated in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma and normal endometrial tissues, by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometry.
  • SAA concentration in 194 serum samples from 50 healthy women, 42 women with benign diseases, and 102 patients including 49 grade 1, 38 grade 2, and 15 grade 3 endometrial endometrioid carcinoma was also studied by a sensitive bead-based immunoassay.
  • RESULTS: SAA gene expression levels were significantly higher in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma when compared with normal endometrial tissues (mean copy number by real-time PCR = 182 vs 1.9; P = .001).
  • IHC revealed diffuse cytoplasmic SAA protein staining in poorly differentiated endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tissues.
  • High intracellular levels of SAA were identified in primary endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell lines evaluated by flow cytometry, and SAA was found to be actively secreted in vitro.
  • SAA concentrations (microg/mL) had medians of 6.0 in normal healthy women and 6.0 in patients with benign disease (P = .92).
  • In contrast, SAA values in the serum of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma patients had a median of 23.7, significantly higher than those of the healthy group (P = .001) and benign group (P = .001).
  • Patients harboring G3 endometrial endometrioid carcinoma were found to have SAA concentrations significantly higher than those of G1/G2 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SAA is not only a liver-secreted protein, but is also an endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell product.
  • SAA is expressed and actively secreted by G3 endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, and it is present in high concentration in the serum of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma patients.
  • SAA may represent a novel biomarker for endometrial endometrioid carcinoma to monitor disease recurrence and response to therapy.

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  • [Cites] Curr Opin Hematol. 2000 Jan;7(1):64-9 [10608507.001]
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  • (PMID = 20041483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122728-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122728-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16,359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016359
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Serum Amyloid A Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS158487; NLM/ PMC2819580
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38. Lewis MR, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian involvement by metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma: still a diagnostic challenge. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Feb;30(2):177-84
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  • The gross and histologic features of such metastases overlap those of primary ovarian epithelial neoplasms such as endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Many involved ovaries featured smooth capsules without gross evidence of surface involvement by tumor.
  • In 23 cases, foci with a benign or low malignant potential appearance were seen.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16434891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Guo DH, Pang SJ, Shen Y: [Atypical endometriosis: a clinicopathologic study of 163 cases]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov;43(11):831-4
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  • The pathologic changes of AEM including its glandular epithelium, stroma, background and the conditions coexisting with tumor were observed.
  • AEM associated with tumour was found in 26 cases (15.95%) and among 27 of ovarian AEM, 15 were malignant, 9 borderline and 3 benign.
  • The walls of AEM cyst were presented with three layers of epithelium, endometrioid stroma and fibrosis-collagen.
  • The endometrioid stroma were usually thin in contrast to the fibro-collagen tissue, which was often thick with scarred background.
  • The transformation from AEM to tumor was found in most of the malignant tumors (14/15, 93%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AEM lesions hold some features of both EM and tumor, which may have a relatively higher potential for tumorigenesis and canceration.
  • The process of damage and repair in EM foci during a long course may play a role in the development of EM into AEM and finally into tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Epithelium / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19087566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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40. Folkins AK, Nevadunsky NS, Saleemuddin A, Jarboe EA, Muto MG, Feltmate CM, Crum CP, Hirsch MS: Evaluation of vascular space involvement in endometrial adenocarcinomas: laparoscopic vs abdominal hysterectomies. Mod Pathol; 2010 Aug;23(8):1073-9
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  • To better understand this phenomenon, we compared pathologic findings in these laparoscopic and total abdominal hysterectomies performed for uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Reports from 58 robotically assisted laparoscopic and 39 abdominal hysterectomies with grade 1 or 2 endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas were reviewed for stage, depth of invasion, vascular space involvement, uterine weight, and lymph node metastases.
  • In addition, attention was given to possible procedural artifacts, including vertical endomyometrial clefts, and inflammatory debris, benign endometrial glands, and disaggregated tumor cells in vascular spaces.
  • Disaggregated intravascular tumor cells were significantly associated with reported vascular involvement in both procedures (P-values<0.001 and 0.016), most of which were corroborated on review.
  • [MeSH-major] Artifacts. Blood Vessels / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood supply. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood supply. Hysterectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20473276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Zheng W, Yi X, Fadare O, Liang SX, Martel M, Schwartz PE, Jiang Z: The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Feb;32(2):304-15
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  • Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein highly expressed in fetal tissue and malignant tumors but rarely found in adult benign tissues.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the expression of IMP3 in benign endometrium, endometrial cancer, and its precursor lesions, trying to see whether IMP3 has any diagnostic usage.
  • These included benign endometrium (n=68), atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (n=35), endometrial glandular dysplasia (n=21), endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (n=18), endometrioid carcinoma (n=70), mucinous carcinoma (n=8), serous carcinoma (n=51), clear cell carcinoma (n=12), and other malignancies (n=15).
  • Maturational patterns in the 68 benign endometrial samples included atrophic (n=12), proliferative (n=18), secretory (n=14), menstrual (n=8), and gestational (n=16).
  • Most of the carcinomas were histologically pure; where mixed, the second component constituted <10% of the total tumor volume.
  • In contrast, the frequency of IMP3 expression was significantly lesser in nonserous malignancies with 0 (0%) of 35, 5 (7%) of 70, 0 (0%) of 8, 3 (25%) of 12, and 5 (33%) of 15 positive expression rates in atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell carcinomas, and other malignancies, respectively.
  • Among the benign endometrial samples, decidualized endometrial stroma showed 100% positivity for IMP3.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Cytoplasm / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18223334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA23074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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42. Gryshkova V, Goncharuk I, Gurtovyy V, Khozhayenko Y, Nespryadko S, Vorobjova L, Usenko V, Gout I, Filonenko V, Kiyamova R: The study of phosphate transporter NAPI2B expression in different histological types of epithelial ovarian cancer. Exp Oncol; 2009 Mar;31(1):37-42
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  • METHODS: Here, we describe the analysis of NaPi2b expression in serous (n = 17), endometrioid (n = 8), and mucinous ovarian tumors (n = 3) by Western-blotting (WB), immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: The results of immunohistochemical and WB analysis showed that benign and well-differentiated malignant papillary serous tumors as well as well-differentiated malignant endometriod tumors overexpress NaPi2b protein.
  • However, no overexpression of NaPi2b was detected in benign and malignant mucinous tumors as well as in poorly differentiated endometriod tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Phosphate Transport Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19300415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Phosphate Transport Proteins
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43. Horn LC, Dallacker M, Bilek K: [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):292-301
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  • With an overall survival rate of 30%-40% the prognosis is much worse compared to high grade endometrioid or serous/clear cell carcinomas.
  • Clinical, morphologic and molecular data suggest that MMMTs are really metaplastic carcinomas in which the mesenchymal part retains epithelial features.
  • The strongest prognostic factor is tumor stage followed by lymph node metastases, deep myometrial infiltration, involvement of the cervix and tumor size.
  • The main differential diagnoses include uterine sarcomas, adenosarcoma and benign metaplastic change within the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19495763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Bi SN, Dai SZ, Yao Q, Che YC, Wang N: [Expression of mesothelin mRNA and protein in ovarian carcinomas]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;30(4):288-91
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  • METHODS: Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression level of MESO mRNA and protein, respectively, in 124 samples of ovarian tumor and normal tissues, including 84 epithelial ovarian carcinomas, 12 borderline ovarian tumors, 16 benign ovarian tumors and 12 normal ovarian tissues.
  • RESULTS: The expression of MESO mRNA and protein in epithelial ovarian carcinomas (1.4005 +/- 0.4646, 2.7857 +/- 2.2712) and borderline ovarian tumors (1.0650 +/- 0.3100, 2.9167 +/- 2.391) were significantly higher than that in benign ovarian tumors (0.6463 +/- 0.2419, 1.2500 +/- 1.6125) and normal ovarian tissues (0.6439 +/- 0.2729, 0.9167 +/- 1.2401) (P < 0.05), and also significantly higher in serous cystadenocarcinoma (1.5255 +/- 0.4151, 3.3036 +/- 2.6141) and endometrioid carcinoma (1.5250 +/- 0.5419, 3.0000 +/- 2.3094) than that in mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (1.0675 +/- 0.3149, 1.0556 +/- 1.9242) (P < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18788634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / mesothelin
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45. Nolen B, Marrangoni A, Velikokhatnaya L, Prosser D, Winans M, Gorelik E, Lokshin A: A serum based analysis of ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jan;112(1):47-54
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ovarian Cancer.

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  • OBJECTIVES: Ovarian epithelial carcinoma can be subdivided into separate histological subtypes including clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, and serous.
  • This distinction could potentially be reflected in the levels of tumor produced factors that enter into the circulation and serve as biomarkers of malignant growth.
  • METHODS: We utilize multiplexed bead-based immunoassays to measure serum levels of a diverse array of fifty-eight biomarkers from the sera of patients diagnosed with various histological subtypes of ovarian carcinoma and benign lesions.
  • Levels of each biomarker are compared statistically across carcinoma subtypes as well as with benign cases.
  • RESULTS: A total of 21 serum biomarkers differ significantly between patients diagnosed with ovarian carcinomas and benign cases.
  • Nine of these biomarkers are specific for carcinomas identified as clear cell, endometrioid, or mucinous in histology, while two biomarkers are specific for the serous histology.
  • Identified biomarkers include traditional and emerging tumor markers, cytokines and receptors, hormones, and adhesion- and metastasis-related proteins.

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  • (PMID = 19007974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA136019-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA136019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098642-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA136019-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108990-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117452-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS92465; NLM/ PMC2657848
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46. Kamat AA, Coffey D, Merritt WM, Nugent E, Urbauer D, Lin YG, Edwards C, Broaddus R, Coleman RL, Sood AK: EphA2 overexpression is associated with lack of hormone receptor expression and poor outcome in endometrial cancer. Cancer; 2009 Jun 15;115(12):2684-92
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  • METHODS: EphA2, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67 expression levels were evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 139 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) samples and in 10 benign endometrial samples.
  • RESULTS: High expression of EphA2 was detected in 48% of EEC samples versus 10% of benign samples.
  • EphA2 overexpression was associated significantly with high disease stage (P = .04), high tumor grade (P = .003), increased depth of myometrial invasion (P = .05), low ER expression (P = .01), low PR expression (P = .006), and high Ki-67 expression (P = .04).
  • Low ER and PR expression levels were associated with high tumor grade, positive lymph nodes, high Ki-67 expression, and high EphA2 expression.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 19396818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA101642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA101642-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA101642-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, EphA2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS241018; NLM/ PMC3139331
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47. Lee S, Garner EI, Welch WR, Berkowitz RS, Mok SC: Over-expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Aug;106(2):311-7
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  • Since tumor hypoxia has been shown to be strongly associated with poor prognosis, deregulation of the representative factor of tissue hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and related protein; Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) may be associated with poor prognosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Immunolocalization of both HIF-1alpha and VHL was performed on 56 cases of paraffin-embedded tissue sections of four different histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 5 cases of benign ovarian tumors as a control.
  • Among endometrioid, serous, and mucinous carcinoma, there were no differences in HIF-1alpha expression (P=0.643).
  • There was a negative correlation between HIF-1alpha and VHL in serous (r=-0.661, P=0.027) and in endometrioid carcinoma (r=-0.657 P=0.039), but no correlation was found between HIF-1alpha and VHL expression levels in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (P=0.60).

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  • (PMID = 17532031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA103595; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA103595-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103595-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105009-030002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105009-030002; United States / PHS HHS / / P50105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA133057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33CA103595
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS28316; NLM/ PMC1995602
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48. Granovsky-Grisaru S, Zaidoun S, Grisaru D, Yekel Y, Prus D, Beller U, Bar-Shavit R: The pattern of Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) expression in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Dec;103(3):802-6
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  • While the role of either soluble or matrix-immobilized protease in tumor invasion is well established, the part of cell surface PARs is beginning to emerge.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PAR1 over-expression is selectively confined to the highly aggressive, high-grade endometrial carcinoma and absent in tissue obtained from benign endometrium or low-grade endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptor, PAR-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16875721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, PAR-1
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49. Hu CJ, Zhang F, Chen YJ, Sun XM, Zheng JF: [Correlation of hK6 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;31(7):520-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: To approach the relationship between the expression of hK6 in ovarian neoplasm and clinicopathological variables and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients for finding a new tumor marker of the ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: The expression of hK6 was detected by immunohistochemistry in 19 cases of benign, 11 cases of borderline and 45 cases of malignant ovarian neoplasms and statistically analyzed whether its expression correlate with clinicopathological variables and prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.
  • RESULTS: The expression of hK6 in ovarian cancer tissues (60.0%) was significantly higher than that in the benign (15.8%) and borderline (27.3%) ovarian neoplasm tissues (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of hK6 in ovarian cancer was higher than that in benign and borderline ovarian neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Kallikreins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19950700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK6 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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50. Wang H, Rosen DG, Wang H, Fuller GN, Zhang W, Liu J: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 and 5 are differentially regulated in ovarian cancer of different histologic types. Mod Pathol; 2006 Sep;19(9):1149-56
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  • We examined IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 expression levels using two tissue microarrays, one containing six normal surface epithelium, six benign serous cysts, 10 serous borderline tumors, eight low-grade, and 20 high-grade serous carcinomas.
  • Each tumor was sampled in duplicate with a 1.0-mm punch core needle.
  • IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 were overexpressed in high-grade serous carcinomas compared to normal surface epithelium, benign serous cysts, serous borderline tumors, or low-grade serous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / mortality. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Published online 26 May 2006.
  • (PMID = 16729015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5
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51. Tsuchiya T, Nakahama K, Asakawa Y, Maemura T, Tanaka M, Takeda S, Morita M, Morita I: The reduction in pigment epithelium-derived factor is a sign of malignancy in ovarian cancer expressing low-level of vascular endothelial growth factor. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2009 Feb;25(2):104-9
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  • Microvessel density (MVD) was evaluated by the total microvessel length in high-power field of tumor tissue preparations.
  • RESULTS: MVD correlated with tumor malignancy.
  • The VEGF expression levels in some malignant tumors (VEGF-L) were as low as that in benign tumors.
  • The PEDF expression levels in VEGF-L malignant tumors were significantly lower than those in benign tumors.
  • On the other hand, the PEDF expression levels in VEGF-H malignant tumor tissues were not significantly different from those in benign tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: The reduction in PEDF expression levels may be, in part, responsible for tumor malignancy in VEGF-L ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood supply. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / physiopathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Microcirculation / physiology. Neoplasms / blood supply. Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19253105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0766
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Serpins; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / pigment epithelium-derived factor
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52. Tanabe K, Matsumoto M, Ikematsu S, Nagase S, Hatakeyama A, Takano T, Niikura H, Ito K, Kadomatsu K, Hayashi S, Yaegashi N: Midkine and its clinical significance in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Sci; 2008 Jun;99(6):1125-30
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  • Interestingly, MK expression was highest at the margins of invasion and low in the superficial areas of the tumor samples.
  • Using ELISA, we compared serum MK concentration in 120 endometrial carcinoma patients with the concentration in 46 patients with benign gynecologic tumors.
  • Serum MK value in patients with cancer was significantly higher than that in the patients with benign diseases (P = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18422745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MDK protein, human; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors
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53. Ota T, Gilks CB, Longacre T, Leung PC, Auersperg N: HOXA7 in epithelial ovarian cancer: interrelationships between differentiation and clinical features. Reprod Sci; 2007 Sep;14(6):605-14
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  • Interrelationships between HOXA7 expression and ovarian cancer progression are investigated by cDNA array and by immunohistochemistry of normal ovaries and 538 epithelial ovarian tumor microarrays.
  • HOXA7 mRNA expression was higher in carcinomas than in benign tumors.
  • There were significant associations of strong HOXA7 staining of stroma and tumor nuclei with the clear cell histotype (stroma: P = .0022, nuclei: P = .0003) and of weak/absent staining with serous carcinomas.
  • Tumor E-cadherin expression correlated significantly with HOX7 staining in stroma (P = .0002) but not within tumors.
  • HOXA7 staining of tumor cell nuclei is correlated significantly with improved disease-specific survival (P = .0104), which is suggestive of the biological and potentially clinical importance of subcellular HOXA7 localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemistry. Cell Differentiation. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17959889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-7205
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / HOXA7 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
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54. McIntosh MW, Liu Y, Drescher C, Urban N, Diamandis EP: Validation and characterization of human kallikrein 11 as a serum marker for diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Aug 1;13(15 Pt 1):4422-8
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  • PURPOSE: The serum tumor marker CA 125 is elevated in most clinically advanced ovarian carcinomas, and currently, one of the most promising early detection strategies for ovarian cancer uses CA 125 level in conjunction with imaging.
  • However, CA 125 is elevated in only 50% of early-stage ovarian cancer and is often elevated in women with benign ovarian tumors and other gynecologic diseases.
  • RESULTS: hK11 significantly distinguished ovarian cancer cases from healthy controls and is less sensitive to benign ovarian disease than is CA 125.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Serine Endopeptidases / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Disease Progression. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17671125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA83636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA093568
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / trypsin-like serine protease; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases
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55. Xie R, Loose DS, Shipley GL, Xie S, Bassett RL Jr, Broaddus RR: Hypomethylation-induced expression of S100A4 in endometrial carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1045-54
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  • We hypothesized that S100A4 would be overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma compared to benign endometrium.
  • Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify the mRNA level of S100A4 in benign endometrium (n=19), endometrioid adenocarcinoma (n=87), and non-endometrioid tumors (n=21).
  • S100A4 was overexpressed in the grade 3 endometrioid tumors, uterine papillary serous carcinoma, and uterine malignant mixed müllerian tumor.
  • Expression in grade 1 and grade 2 endometrioid tumors was comparable to that of normal endometrium, which was quite low.
  • By immunohistochemistry, S100A4 was expressed in the tumor cell cytoplasm of poorly differentiated tumors, but was not detected in normal endometrial glandular epithelium.
  • In benign endometrium, S100A4 expression was confined to stromal cells.
  • However, methylation of the S100A4 gene was detected in benign endometrium and grade 1 tumors with low S100A4 expression.
  • In contrast, grade 3 endometrioid tumors with high S100A4 mRNA and protein expression showed no methylation of the gene.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / genetics. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17673926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-05127
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S100 Proteins; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human
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56. Osada R, Horiuchi A, Kikuchi N, Yoshida J, Hayashi A, Ota M, Katsuyama Y, Melillo G, Konishi I: Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha, and von Hippel-Lindau protein in epithelial ovarian neoplasms and allelic loss of von Hippel-Lindau gene: nuclear expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2007 Sep;38(9):1310-20
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  • The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional factor with important roles in tumor biology.
  • The frequency of the cytoplasmic expression of HIF-2alpha in carcinomas was higher than that in benign and borderline tumors (P < .0001).
  • The log-rank test showed that nuclear positive immunostaining for HIF-1alpha (P = .002) and cytoplasmic positive immunostaining for HIF-2alpha (P = .0112) in tumor cells are associated with poor prognosis of patients with ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / analysis. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemistry. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Hum Pathol. 2008 Jan;39(1):147. Mellilo, Giovanni [corrected to Melillo, Giovanni]
  • (PMID = 17555795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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57. Santin AD, Diamandis EP, Bellone S, Marizzoni M, Bandiera E, Palmieri M, Papasakelariou C, Katsaros D, Burnett A, Pecorelli S: Overexpression of kallikrein 10 (hK10) in uterine serous papillary carcinomas. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 May;194(5):1296-302
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  • The goal of this study was to investigate the expression and secretion levels in vitro and in vivo of kallikrein 10 in uterine serous papillary carcinoma, a highly aggressive variant of endometrial tumor.
  • Secretion of kallikrein 10 protein by 10 primary tumor cultures including 3 uterine serous papillary carcinomas, 2 endometrioid carcinomas, and 5 ovarian serous papillary tumors was measured using a sensitive ELISA.
  • Finally, kallikrein 10 concentration in 75 serum and plasma samples from 22 healthy women, 20 women with benign diseases, 21 women with endometrioid carcinomas, and 12 uterine serous papillary carcinoma patients was studied.
  • RESULTS: Kallikrein 10 gene expression levels were significantly higher in uterine serous papillary carcinoma when compared with normal endometrial cell biopsies (mean copy number by real time polymerase chain reaction = 743 versus 1.4; uterine serous papillary carcinoma versus endometrioid carcinoma: P < .02).
  • In vitro kallikrein 10 secretion was detected in all primary uterine serous papillary carcinoma cell lines tested (mean = 2.7 microg/L), and the secretion levels were not significantly different to those found in primary ovarian serous papillary tumor cultures (mean 4.2 microg/L).
  • In contrast, no kallikrein 10 secretion was detectable in primary endometrioid carcinomas.
  • Kallikrein 10 serum and plasma concentrations (microg/L; mean +/- SEM) among normal healthy females (0.6 +/- 0.04), patients with benign diseases (0.6 +/- 0.06), and patients with endometrioid carcinomas (0.7 +/- 0.06) were not significantly different.
  • In contrast, serum and plasma kallikrein 10 values in uterine serous papillary carcinoma patients (1.2 +/- 0.1) were significantly higher than those in the non-cancer group (P = .002), benign group (P = .002), and endometrioid carcinoma patients (P = .005).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16647913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / KLK10 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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58. Pothacharoen P, Siriaunkgul S, Ong-Chai S, Supabandhu J, Kumja P, Wanaphirak C, Sugahara K, Hardingham T, Kongtawelert P: Raised serum chondroitin sulfate epitope level in ovarian epithelial cancer. J Biochem; 2006 Oct;140(4):517-24
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  • Measurement of serum HA provided complementary information, which may be useful as a discriminator between benign ovarian disorders and malignant ovarian diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / immunology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cells, Cultured. Cross-Sectional Studies. Epitopes. Female. Humans. Hybridomas. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16936295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-924X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Epitopes; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates
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59. Farrell R, Scurry J, Otton G, Hacker NF: Clinicopathologic review of malignant polyps in stage 1A carcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Aug;98(2):254-62
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  • The presence of a malignant polyp was determined and a pathological description made of the tumor.
  • Clinical data were collected, including prior tamoxifen usage, tumor recurrence and survival.
  • Three out of the four recurrences occurred in high-grade tumor subtypes and all four had a large primary tumor (size > or = 4 cm).
  • When comparing the same subtype of tumor with and without a malignant polyp, there was no significant difference in clinical outcome.
  • Serous carcinoma commonly arises within an otherwise benign endometrial polyp.
  • Clinical outcome of stage 1A endometrial carcinoma was related to the histological subtype and the size of the tumor rather than the presence of a malignant polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15936803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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60. Little L, Stewart CJ: Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):611-8
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  • We have noted that neoplastic endocervical lesions often show loss of nuclear cyclin D1 expression in contrast to benign glandular cells.
  • Normal endocervical epithelium usually expressed cyclin D1, although staining was typically focal, and there was increased immunoreactivity in reactive and metaplastic glandular cells including tubo-endometrioid metaplasia.
  • In contrast, most cases of adenocarcinoma in situ were completely negative and, therefore, cyclin D1 staining distinguished benign from neoplastic epithelial cells.
  • However, focal staining was observed in 10/19 cases and was mainly restricted to cells at the deep tumor margin, or to small infiltrative glands and detached cell clusters within the stroma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 20062011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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61. Maines-Bandiera S, Woo MM, Borugian M, Molday LL, Hii T, Gilks B, Leung PC, Molday RS, Auersperg N: Oviductal glycoprotein (OVGP1, MUC9): a differentiation-based mucin present in serum of women with ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Jan;20(1):16-22
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  • Using 7E10 and a polyclonal antibody, a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to assay OVGP1 levels in 135 normal sera, and sera from 21 benign tumors, 12 borderline tumors, and 87 ovarian cancers (18, grade 1-2 serous; 44, grade 3 serous; 10, mucinous; 10, clear cell; and 5, endometrioid).
  • RESULTS: Using a 95% confidence interval cutoff from the mean of normal postmenopausal sera, median OVGP1 levels were elevated in the sera from 75% of the women with borderline tumors and 80% of the women with mucinous, 60% with clear cell, 59% with grade 1 and 2 serous, 22% with grade 3 serous, and 0% with endometrioid carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increases in OVGP1 serum levels vary with ovarian tumor histotypes and stages.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Menopause / blood. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20130498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MT 5822
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / OVGP1 protein, human
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62. Maeda D, Ota S, Takazawa Y, Aburatani H, Nakagawa S, Yano T, Taketani Y, Kodama T, Fukayama M: Glypican-3 expression in clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Mod Pathol; 2009 Jun;22(6):824-32
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  • Glypican-3 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is overexpressed in various neoplasms such as hepatocellular carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and testicular yolk sac tumor.
  • Glypican-3 is currently regarded as a tumor marker and potential target for immunotherapy.
  • Among the benign lesions examined, glypican-3 expression was identified exclusively in the endometrial epithelium in the gestational period.
  • Glypican-3 expression was observed in 44% of clear cell adenocarcinomas, whereas it was rarely observed in other histological subtypes: mucinous (4%), endometrioid (5%), and serous (11%; P<0.0001).
  • In cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma, no correlations were found between glypican-3 expression and clinicopathological factors, such as tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and death rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Glypicans / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19329941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glypicans
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63. Deng L, Broaddus RR, McCampbell A, Shipley GL, Loose DS, Stancel GM, Pickar JH, Davies PJ: Identification of a novel estrogen-regulated gene, EIG121, induced by hormone replacement therapy and differentially expressed in type I and type II endometrial cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 1;11(23):8258-64
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  • The expression level of EIG121 was then measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in benign, hyperplastic, and malignant endometrial samples.
  • In endometrial complex, hyperplasia, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma, neoplastic proliferations associated with estrogen excess, the expression of EIG121 was significantly elevated (on average 3.8-fold in hyperplasias and 21-fold in grade 1 tumors).
  • Although the level of EIG121 mRNA in grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma was still 3.5-fold of that in benign endometrium, EIG121 expression tended to decline with increasing tumor grade and disease stage.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed faint staining of normal endometrial epithelium, but intense staining of endometrioid tumors.
  • In sharp contrast, EIG121 expression was significantly suppressed in both uterine papillary serous carcinoma and uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor, two tumors not associated with estrogen exposure, to <5% of the level in benign endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Estrogens / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16322283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 5T32 HD007324-18
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Estrogens, Conjugated (USP); 0 / KIAA1324 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 2DI9HA706A / Estrone; QTL48N278K / estrone sulfate
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64. Poli Neto OB, Candido Dos Reis FJ, Zambelli Ramalho LN, Nogueira AA, de Andrade JM: p63 expression in epithelial ovarian tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):152-5
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  • The p63 is a homologue gene of the tumor suppressor p53. p63 appears to be important for the development and differentiation of reproductive epithelium and interacts with p53 in human tumorigenesis.
  • This study presents the immunoexpression of the p63 in benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • We evaluated the p63 immunoexpression in 91 ovarian benign cystadenomas (29 mucinous and 62 serous) and in 29 ovarian malignant tumors (3 mucinous borderline, 3 serous borderline, 17 serous carcinomas, 2 endometrioid, 2 undifferentiated, 1 mucinous, and 1 clear-cell carcinoma) using a monoclonal antibody clone 4A4 (1:200), which recognizes all p63 variants.
  • We observed 85.7% of positivity in benign tumors, 50% in borderline tumors, and 8.7% in invasive ovarian cancer (P < .0001).
  • The benign serous cystadenomas were positive in 91.9% of cases and benign mucinous cystadenomas in 72.4% (P= .02).
  • The p63 may be involved in the development of benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. DNA-Binding Proteins. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Culture Techniques. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16445626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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65. Missaoui N, Hmissa S, Frappart L, Trabelsi A, Ben Abdelkader A, Traore C, Mokni M, Yaacoubi MT, Korbi S: p16INK4A overexpression and HPV infection in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma. Virchows Arch; 2006 May;448(5):597-603
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  • This study was carried out to assess the correlations between p16INK4A expression as an early biomarker of the endocervical adenocarcinoma and HPV infection. p16INK4A expression and HPV typing were performed on 46 samples including 5 normal endocervix, 9 benign lesions of the endocervix, 25 endocervical adenocarcinomas, and 7 endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus.
  • No p16INK4A was detected in nine benign endocervical lesions and in five normal endocervix.
  • Few endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus that infiltrate the endocervix exhibited a low immunoreactivity (score 0/15 or 1/15).
  • Our results suggest that p16INK4A is a putative molecular biomarker that consistently discriminates uterine cervix adenocarcinomas from benign lesions and from endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16496173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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66. An HJ, Kim DS, Park YK, Kim SK, Choi YP, Kang S, Ding B, Cho NH: Comparative proteomics of ovarian epithelial tumors. J Proteome Res; 2006 May;5(5):1082-90
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  • We analyzed 12 ovarian epithelial tumors using 2D PAGE-based comparative proteomics to construct intra- and inter-tumoral distance map trees and to discover surrogate biomarkers indicative of an ovarian tumor.
  • The analysis was performed after laser microdissection of 12 fresh-frozen tissue samples, including 4 serous, 5 mucinous, and 3 endometrioid tumors, with correlation with their histopathological characteristics.
  • The benign-looking cysts adjacent to the intraepithelial carcinoma (IEC) showed an expression pattern identical to that of the IEC area.
  • The overall gene expression profiles of serous or endometrioid carcinomas appeared to be less affected by grade or stage than by histologic type.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cluster Analysis. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Reference Values. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization / methods


67. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • Metastatic cervical adenocarcinomas in the ovary are usually diffusely p16-positive, and because these may closely mimic a primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma, this may be a valuable diagnostic aid, although p16 expression in primary ovarian adenocarcinomas of these morphologic subtypes has not been widely investigated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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68. Okamoto S, Ito K, Sasano H, Moriya T, Niikura H, Terada Y, Sato S, Okamura K, Yaegashi N: Ber-EP4 and anti-calretinin antibodies: a useful combination for differential diagnosis of various histological types of ovarian cancer cells and mesothelial cells. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2005 May;206(1):31-40
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  • Various types of ovarian carcinoma (serous, n = 22; mucinous, n = 10; endometrioid, n = 7; clear cell, n = 10) and benign mesothelial tissues (n = 15) were studied by immunohistochemistry.
  • In conclusion, the combined immunostaining of cytologic specimens for Ber-EP4 and the anti-calretinin antibody is helpful for the differential diagnosis between mesothelial cells and not only serous type, but also mucinous, endometrioid and clear cell types of ovarian cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Epithelium / immunology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15802873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-8727
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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69. Ye B, Skates S, Mok SC, Horick NK, Rosenberg HF, Vitonis A, Edwards D, Sluss P, Han WK, Berkowitz RS, Cramer DW: Proteomic-based discovery and characterization of glycosylated eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and COOH-terminal osteopontin fragments for ovarian cancer in urine. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 15;12(2):432-41
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  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Urine samples collected preoperatively from postmenopausal women with ovarian cancer and benign conditions and from nonsurgical controls were analyzed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.
  • Quantitative and semiquantitative ELISAs were developed for preliminary validation in patients of 128 ovarian cancer, 52 benign conditions, 44 other cancers, and 188 healthy controls.
  • RESULTS: A protein (m/z approximately 17,400) with higher peak intensities in cancer patients than in benign conditions and controls was identified and subsequently defined as eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin / urine. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / urine. Ovarian Neoplasms / urine. Sialoglycoproteins / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / urine. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / urine. Amino Acid Sequence. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / urine. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / urine. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Glycosylation. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Osteopontin. Prognosis. Proteome. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jan 15;12(2):323-7 [16428467.001]
  • (PMID = 16428483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50 CA 105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA 111949-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 86381
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proteome; 0 / SPP1 protein, human; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin; EC 3.1.- / Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin
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70. Fadare O, Liang SX, Ulukus EC, Chambers SK, Zheng W: Precursors of endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1519-30
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  • The recognition of morphologically identifiable lesions which may confer an increased risk for subsequent development of an invasive malignancy offers an opportunity to investigate and better understand the molecular-genetic etiopathogenesis of the well-developed tumor, and potentially, to administer a therapeutic intervention before its development.
  • In contrast to uterine endometrioid and serous carcinomas, very little is known about the potential precursor lesions of endometrial clear cell carcinoma (ECCC).
  • Thirty-eight benign uteri and 30 uteri with classic endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) served as controls.
  • In contrast, PPL were identified neither in the benign uteri nor in endometrioid carcinoma control groups (P<0.001).
  • The immunohistochemical expression of p53, mib-1, estrogen receptor (ERs), and progesterone receptor in the benign endometria, ECCC, and the PPL were evaluated on all 27 cases.
  • The mean p53 scores for the benign endometria, PPL, and ECCC were 0, 4.5, and 6.2, respectively.
  • ER/progesterone receptor indices for benign endometria, PPL, and carcinoma were 90/80, 21.52/4.61, and 11/4, respectively.
  • The PPL described herein have a morphologic and immunophenotypic profile which seems to be distinct from both the benign endometria in which they reside and the adjacent areas of ECCC.
  • The high frequency of association of these lesions with ECCC, their frequent occurrence as isolated lesions within otherwise "benign-appearing" endometria, and their continuous spectrum of nuclear atypia from minimum (grade 1, cytologic atypia falls short of ECCC cells) to maximum (grade 3, cytologically identical to ECCC cells), argues in favor of our hypothesis that these may represent precursor lesions of ECCC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrium / chemistry. Endometrium / pathology. Exocrine Glands / chemistry. Exocrine Glands / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Single-Blind Method

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  • (PMID = 17122507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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71. DeBernardo RL, Littell RD, Luo H, Duska LR, Oliva E, Kirley SD, Lynch MP, Zukerberg LR, Rueda BR: Defining the extent of cables loss in endometrial cancer subtypes and its effectiveness as an inhibitor of cell proliferation in malignant endometrial cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biol Ther; 2005 Jan;4(1):103-7
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  • (1) loss of Cables expression occurred in high grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma, uterine serous and clear cell carcinoma as observed in endometrial hyperplasia and low grade endometrial adenocarcinoma;.
  • Hyperplastic endometrium and low and high grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed loss of Cables expression when compared to benign control secretory endometrium.
  • Loss of Cables expression in serous and clear cell tumors was similar to that observed in endometrioid adenocarcinomas with greater than 80% showing loss of protein expression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carrier Proteins. Cyclins. Female. Humans. Mice. Phosphoproteins. Receptors, Progesterone / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15662117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98333
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Conference; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CABLES1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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72. Ahn HJ, Bae J, Lee S, Ko JE, Yoon S, Kim SJ, Sakuragi N: Differential expression of clusterin according to histological type of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Aug;110(2):222-9
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  • Endometrial carcinoma is divided into endometrioid and papillary serous type carcinoma according to the histological characteristics and regarding to the unopposed estrogenic stimulation.
  • 63 endometrioid and 10 papillary serous types of fresh cases and 81 endometrioid and 7 papillary serous types of paraffin-embedded cases were studied.
  • RESULTS: We found higher expression of clusterin in endometrioid compared to papillary serous carcinoma using both immunohistochemistry (p=0.033) and Western blot analysis (p=0.024).
  • The mRNA and protein expressions of clusterin in endometrioid carcinoma were higher than in benign endometrium (p=0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that clusterin expression is related to endometrioid carcinoma of endometrium, in which estrogen is involved in the regulatory network of clusterin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Estradiol / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stimulation, Chemical

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  • (PMID = 18514801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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73. Viganó P, Somigliana E, Chiodo I, Abbiati A, Vercellini P: Molecular mechanisms and biological plausibility underlying the malignant transformation of endometriosis: a critical analysis. Hum Reprod Update; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):77-89
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  • The fundamental features of human neoplasms (monoclonal growth, genetic changes, mutations in tumour suppressor genes and replicative advantage) have been evaluated in endometriotic lesions but results obtained are discordant.
  • According to some allelotyping studies, from one-third to one-half of endometriosis lesions would harbour somatic genetic changes in chromosomal regions supposed to contain genes involved in ovarian tumourigenesis, especially for the endometrioid histotype.
  • These findings would be consistent with the progression model for carcinogenesis from the benign precursor to ovarian cancer but they could not be unequivocally replicated.
  • Moreover, in a model of genetically engineered mice harbouring an oncogenic allele of K-ras resulting in benign lesions reminiscent of endometriosis, a conditional deletion of PTEN caused the progression towards the endometrioid tumour.
  • Based on these data, the causal link between endometriosis and ovarian endometrioid/clear cell carcinomas remains to be defined both in terms of entity of association and of underlying molecular mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromosome Aberrations. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mice. Mutation. Oncogenes / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16172112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-4786
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction update
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod. Update
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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74. Kline RC, Bazzett-Matabele LB: Adnexal masses and malignancies of importance to the colorectal surgeon. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2010 Jun;23(2):63-71

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  • In this article, the authors review both benign and malignant ovarian masses, as the colorectal surgeon who encounters an adnexal mass at the time of surgery should be aware of the steps necessary for surgical staging and optimal tumor resection.Ovarian tumors-most of which are benign-are divided into three major categories, in order of frequency: epithelial, germ cell, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Nonneoplastic conditions of the ovary that may present as adnexal masses include the following, according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification: pregnancy luteoma, hyperplasia of ovarian stroma, hyperthecosis, massive edema, solitary follicle cysts and corpus luteal cysts, multiple follicle cysts, and endometriosis.Epithelial ovarian tumors arise from the surface epithelium and can be benign or malignant.
  • Histologic types are serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, or Brenner.
  • The more common sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa stromal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and gynandroblastomas.Surgical staging and optimal tumor resection are also addressed, with a focus on epithelial malignancies, as they are the most relevant to colorectal surgeons.

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  • [Cites] Gynecol Oncol. 2001 Apr;81(1):77-81 [11277654.001]
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  • (PMID = 21629623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967325
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adnexal masses / ovarian cancer / ovarian cysts
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75. Nezhat F, Datta MS, Hanson V, Pejovic T, Nezhat C, Nezhat C: The relationship of endometriosis and ovarian malignancy: a review. Fertil Steril; 2008 Nov;90(5):1559-70
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  • Studies have confirmed histologic transition from benign endometriosis to ovarian malignancy, including malignant transformation of extraovarian endometriosis.
  • The prevalence of endometriosis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, especially in endometrioid and clear cell types, has been confirmed to be higher than in the general population.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genomic Instability. Humans. Incidence. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Interleukin-1 / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / metabolism. Mutation. Prevalence. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Fertil Steril. 2009 May;91(5):e35; author reply e36 [19338996.001]
  • [CommentIn] Fertil Steril. 2009 May;91(5):e37; author reply e36 [19342031.001]
  • (PMID = 18993168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IL8 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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76. Ueda M, Toji E, Noda S: Germ line and somatic mutations of BRAF V599E in ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Jul-Aug;17(4):794-7
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  • It has been shown that ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma evolves out of a stepwise progression from benign serous cystadenoma to serous borderline tumor (SBT) to micropapillary serous carcinoma (MPSC), and that BRAF activation is a very early somatic event in the tumorigenesis.
  • BRAF V599E mutation in histologic samples was found in 5 (24%) of 21 SBTs, 1 (33%) of 3 MPSCs, 1 (17%) of 6 endometrioid carcinomas, but not detected in 42 conventional serous carcinomas, 12 mucinous borderline tumors, 10 mucinous, and 10 clear-cell carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17309670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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77. Kalyanasundaram K, Ganesan R, Perunovic B, McCluggage WG: Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;18(2):138-43
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

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  • Endometrial carcinomas, particularly of endometrioid type, can invade the myometrium or cervix without eliciting a stromal desmoplastic or inflammatory response and have been referred to as diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas.
  • The neoplasms consisted of 12 endometrioid carcinomas, 1 mixed endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma, and 1 serous carcinoma.
  • Several of the cases were seen in consultation and the pattern of infiltration raised a number of differential diagnoses, both benign and malignant, depending on the site of tumor involvement, including adenomyosis, adenomyoma, primary endocervical glandular lesions, cervical mesonephric remnants, endometriosis or tuboendometrioid metaplasia, and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts.


78. Popadiuk CM, Xiong J, Wells MG, Andrews PG, Dankwa K, Hirasawa K, Lake BB, Kao KR: Antisense suppression of pygopus2 results in growth arrest of epithelial ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Apr 1;12(7 Pt 1):2216-23
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  • In epithelial ovarian cancer, constitutively active Wnt signaling is restricted to one (endometrioid) tumor subtype.
  • RESULTS: All six epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and 82% of the patient samples overexpressed nuclear hPygo2 compared with control cells and benign disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Mice. Neoplasms, Experimental / therapy. Structure-Activity Relationship. Transplantation, Heterologous. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 16609037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / PYGO2 protein, human
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79. Oliva E, Alvarez T, Young RH: Sertoli cell tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 54 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Feb;29(2):143-56
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  • Ovarian Sertoli cell tumors are rare, and their morphologic spectrum, behavior, and factors influencing the latter are not clearly established.
  • Delicate septa were occasionally seen and were conspicuous in areas of one tumor.
  • The cells usually had pale to occasionally densely eosinophilic cytoplasm, but 6 tumors were composed of cells with prominent foamy cytoplasm, falling in the category of "lipid-rich" Sertoli cell tumor, and one had cells with clear non-foamy cytoplasm.
  • Two of the three clinically malignant stage I tumors had moderate to severe cytologic atypia and brisk mitotic activity (>5 or more mitoses/10 high power fields [HPFs]), and one of these had tumor cell necrosis.
  • Among the 10 clinically benign stage I tumors with more than 5 years of follow-up, only 3 had >5 mitoses/10 HPFs, but none had more than mild cytologic atypia and none had tumor cell necrosis.
  • EMA, inhibin, and chromogranin represent the most helpful triad of immunomarkers serving to exclude two common mimics of Sertoli cell tumors (endometrioid carcinoma [inhibin-; EMA+; chromogranin-] and carcinoid tumor [inhibin-; EMA+; chromogranin+]).
  • Most Sertoli cell tumors are stage I, unilateral, cytologically bland, and clinically benign, but occasional examples are high stage, and about 11% of stage I tumors have worrisome histologic features that may portend an adverse outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / metabolism. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15644771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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80. Lee JH, Zhang X, Shin BK, Lee ES, Kim I: Mac-2 binding protein and galectin-3 expression in mucinous tumours of the ovary: an annealing control primer system and immunohistochemical study. Pathology; 2009;41(3):229-33
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  • Mac-2 BP expression was significantly increased in the borderline and malignant tumours compared to the benign tumours.
  • Galectin-3 expression was more frequent in clear cell carcinomas, serous tumours and mucinous tumours than in endometrioid and transitional tumours.
  • However, there were no differences in galectin-3 expression in comparisons among benign, borderline and malignant mucinous and serous tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19291534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / TAA90K protein, human
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81. Abiko K, Baba T, Ogawa M, Mikami Y, Koyama T, Mandai M, Konishi I: Minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') of the uterine corpus. Pathol Int; 2010 Jan;60(1):42-7
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  • Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus are typically low grade and frequently associated with endometrial hyperplasia and/or ordinary endometrioid adenocarcinoma, but may appear as a heterogeneous group of neoplasms.
  • In some areas endometrial glands of adenomyosis were replaced by benign-looking mucinous metaplasia.
  • HIK1083 and MUC6 immunohistochemistry indicated a gastric phenotype of the tumor, as seen in cases of prototypical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the cervix.

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  • (PMID = 20055951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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82. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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83. Kato N, Sasou S, Motoyama T: Expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) in clear cell tumors and endometriosis of the ovary. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):83-9
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  • In the present study, we examined 30 clear cell tumors (26 malignant, three borderline, and one benign) and 40 endometriotic cysts to clarify if differentiation into the clear cell lineage already begins in ovarian endometriosis.
  • All of the 30 clear cell tumors, including borderline and benign ones, showed immunohistochemical expression of HNF-1beta in the nucleus, while other types of ovarian epithelial tumors (endometrioid, serous, mucinous, and Brenner tumors) rarely expressed it.
  • In nine of the 12 cases, distinct nuclear immunostaining for HNF-1beta was detected in the endometriotic epithelium, as well as in the clear cell tumor.
  • Our results indicate that HNF-1beta is an excellent molecular marker for ovarian clear cell tumors, including benign, borderline and malignant lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16258507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 138674-15-4 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta
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84. Norimatsu Y, Moriya T, Kobayashi TK, Sakurai T, Shimizu K, Tsukayama C, Ohno E: Immunohistochemical expression of PTEN and beta-catenin for endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia in Japanese women. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Apr;11(2):103-8
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  • PTEN and beta-catenin are the most common genes for which genetic abnormalities are found in endometrioid adenocarcinoma (type I) and even in their precursors.
  • They were classified into 38 EIN and 32 benign architectural changes of unopposed estrogen (BAC), and 47 cases were excluded.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Japan. Middle Aged. Premenopause

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  • (PMID = 17349568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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85. Sciallis AP, Aubry MC, Bell DA: Ciliated adenocarcinoma of the ovary with evidence of serous differentiation: report of a case. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):447-52
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  • The tumor was confined to the ovaries without evidence of metastatic spread.
  • Although morphologically resembling an endometrioid-type neoplasm, immunohistochemical and molecular studies were more consistent with a serous phenotype, especially in light of its apparent origination from a serous adenofibroma.
  • We agree with previous observations suggesting that although the neoplasm seems morphologically worrisome, it may actually portend a more benign clinical course.

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  • (PMID = 19696614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Stewart CJ, Little L: Diagnostic value and implications of vimentin expression in normal, reactive and neoplastic endocervical epithelium. Pathology; 2010 Apr;42(3):217-23
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  • METHODS: Sixty-two cervical biopsy specimens including normal endocervical epithelium, tubo-endometrioid metaplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin producing intraepithelial lesions (SMILE), and invasive adenocarcinomas were stained immunohistochemically for vimentin and for p16 protein, Ki-67 and bcl-2.
  • RESULTS: Normal endocervical epithelium usually showed subtle but distinct sub-nuclear and delicate lateral cell border vimentin expression while tubo-endometrioid metaplasia exhibited more diffuse cytoplasmic immunoreactivity.
  • Usually adenocarcinoma in situ was completely negative and therefore vimentin staining sharply distinguished the benign and neoplastic epithelial elements.
  • Most invasive adenocarcinomas were not stained but focal vimentin immunoreactivity was observed in 7/18 cases, and was restricted to small glands and infiltrating cell clusters at the deep (advancing) tumour margin.
  • The localised re-expression of vimentin at the deep margin of some endocervical adenocarcinomas may be relevant to the process of tumour progression and invasion in these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Vimentin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20350213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Vimentin
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87. Hwang JH, Lee JK, Lee NW, Lee KW: Primary small cell carcinoma of the endometrium: report of a case with immunochemical studies. J Reprod Med; 2010 Jan-Feb;55(1-2):81-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma (SCC) is a well-known tumor that occurs predominantly in the lung.
  • We report a case of an endometrial tumor that was a combination of an SCC and endometrioid adenocarcinoma with squamous components and that penetrated half of the thickness of the uterine wall.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical analyses are helpful in diagnosing and differentiating primary SCC of the endometrium from benign and malignant diseases of the endometrium.

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  • (PMID = 20337215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Synaptophysin
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88. Simon I, Zhuo S, Corral L, Diamandis EP, Sarno MJ, Wolfert RL, Kim NW: B7-h4 is a novel membrane-bound protein and a candidate serum and tissue biomarker for ovarian cancer. Cancer Res; 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1570-5
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  • B7-H4 was present at low levels in all sera but showed an elevated level in serum samples from ovarian cancer patients when compared with healthy controls or women with benign gynecologic diseases.
  • The median B7-H4 concentration in endometrioid and serous histotypes was higher than in mucinous histotypes, consistent with results of immunohistochemical staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD80 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16452214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1; 0 / VTCN1 protein, human
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89. Presneau N, Shen Z, Provencher D, Mes-Masson AM, Tonin PN: Identification of novel variant, 1484delG in the 3'UTR of H3F3B, a member of the histone 3B replacement family, in ovarian tumors. Int J Oncol; 2005 Jun;26(6):1621-7
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  • Previous studies have implicated the chromosomal region at 17q25 as harboring tumor suppressor genes based on the frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) observed in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC).
  • The variant allele was identified in 1 of 65 (2%) healthy women with no prior history of cancer and in 5 participants with ovarian tumors comprising of 4 of 79 (5%) malignant EOC, none of 10 low malignancy potential tumors, and 1 of 8 (13%) benign tumors.
  • All carriers of the variant alleles were heterozygous and tumor samples did not exhibit preferential LOH of the normal allele.
  • The variant allele was identified in EOC samples of clear cell (1 of 20), mucinous (1 of 8), mixed cell (1 of 3) and undifferentiated (1 of 2) histopathological subtypes but none of 34 serous or 12 endometrioid subtype tumors.
  • One of 3 mucinous benign tumors also harbored the variant allele.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15870878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Histones
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90. Park KJ, Soslow RA, Sonoda Y, Barakat RR, Abu-Rustum NR: Frozen-section evaluation of cervical adenocarcinoma at time of radical trachelectomy: pathologic pitfalls and the application of an objective scoring system. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;110(3):316-23
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  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of diagnostic discrepancy between frozen-section and final diagnosis of the endocervical margin at time of radical trachelectomy and to apply an objective scoring system to non-invasive endocervical glandular atypia to determine its utility in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions.
  • One trachelectomy was converted to completion hysterectomy for what was presumed to be adenocarcinoma in situ at the margin, which in retrospect, was a benign lesion and was correctly classified using the Ioffe system.
  • Most of the discrepancies were due to misinterpretation of tubal metaplasia, tubo-endometrioid metaplasia, and atypical tubal metaplasia as adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign mimics of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ can be difficult to distinguish from malignant lesions, especially during frozen-section evaluation of the trachelectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Frozen Sections. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • [Cites] Mod Pathol. 2000 Mar;13(3):261-74 [10757337.001]
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  • (PMID = 18635252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS809092; NLM/ PMC4996344
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91. Kurman RJ, Shih IeM: The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):433-43
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  • Studies have shown that epithelial ovarian cancer is not a single disease but is composed of a diverse group of tumors that can be classified based on distinctive morphologic and molecular genetic features.
  • One group of tumors, designated type I, is composed of low-grade serous, low-grade endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous and transitional (Brenner) carcinomas.
  • Moreover, the carcinomas exhibit a shared lineage with the corresponding benign cystic neoplasm, often through an intermediate (borderline tumor) step, supporting the morphologic continuum of tumor progression.
  • Thus, it has been proposed that serous tumors arise from the implantation of epithelium (benign or malignant) from the fallopian tube.
  • Endometrioid and clear cell tumors have been associated with endometriosis that is regarded as the precursor of these tumors.


92. Francz M: [The premalignant disease of the endometrium: endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia]. Magy Onkol; 2008 Mar;52(1):35-40
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  • The WHO 1994 classification for endometrial hyperplasias is based on the morphologic features of the lesions.
  • Modern molecular data related to endometrial tumorigenesis and precise computerized morphometric analysis have identified the lesion that may be considered as a precursor of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • By definition, this endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) is a clonal proliferation of architecturally and cytologically altered endometrial glands which are prone to malignant transformation to endometrioid (type I) endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Hyperplasia cases that do not fit into the EIN categories are considered as benign or hormonal endometrial hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / therapy. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / analysis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18403295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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93. Quddus MR, Ologun BA, Sung CJ, Steinhoff MM, Lawrence WD: Utility of PTEN expression of endometrial "surface epithelial changes" and underlying atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):471-6
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  • Although morphologically benign, these lesions are considered a marker for underlying malignancy.
  • PTEN has been reported to be altered in endometrial carcinomas and endometrial precancers where no morphologic changes are appreciated.
  • Of these 10 cases, 6 (60%) cases showed FIGO grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma in subsequent hysterectomy specimens.
  • Presence of PTEN NULL phenotype in SECs and associated endometrial hyperplasia does not necessarily predict an increased incidence of endometrioid carcinoma in subsequent follow-up.
  • However, absence of PTEN NULL phenotype in SECs alone may predict a benign follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19696618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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94. McCluggage WG: Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology. Pathology; 2007 Feb;39(1):97-111
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  • In the broad field of cervical glandular lesions, topics covered include: the value of markers such as MIB1, p16 and bcl-2 in distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ and glandular dysplasia from benign mimics; markers of mesonephric lesions, including CD10; markers of value in the diagnosis of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, such as HIK1083; markers of value in distinguishing metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma in the ovary from primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • A panel of markers, comprising oestrogen receptor, vimentin, monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen and p16, is of value in distinguishing between a cervical adenocarcinoma and an endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17365826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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95. Nur S, Chuang L, Ramaswamy G: Immunohistochemical characterization of cancer antigen in uterine cancers. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Sep-Oct;16(5):1903-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ninety cases of primary uterine carcinomas (65 endometrioid [EM] carcinoma, 15 serous papillary [SP] carcinoma, 6 carcinosarcomas [malignant mixed müllerian tumors], and 4 clear cell carcinoma [CC]) and adjacent atrophic and/or hyperplastic endometrium were analyzed by IHC for CA-125 expression.
  • Benign proliferative glands showed moderate apical luminal, basal, and cytoplasmic staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17009990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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96. Zalutskiĭ IV, Vishnevskaia EE, Kurian LM: [Methodologic and organizational principles of selective screening for cervical, endometrial and ovarian carcinoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2006;52(1):74-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • The rates of detection of such tumor-like ovarian formations as follicular, lutein, endometrioid and para-ovarian cysts increased 2.3-fold, benign tumors--2.2-fold and polycystosis--twofold.


97. Tassi RA, Bignotti E, Rossi E, Falchetti M, Donzelli C, Calza S, Ravaggi A, Bandiera E, Pecorelli S, Santin AD: Overexpression of mammaglobin B in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):578-85
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  • METHODS: Mammaglobin B expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemistry in fresh-frozen biopsies and paraffin-embedded tissues derived from a total of 137 patients including 69 primary EOC with different histologies, 28 serous papillary omental metastasis, 8 borderline tumors, 26 benign cystadenomas and 14 normal ovaries.
  • Although Mammaglobin B gene expression levels were higher in endometrioid, mucinous and undifferentiated tumors when compared to serous papillary tumors, clear cell tumors and those with mixed histology, these differences were not statistically significant.
  • In agreement with real-time PCR results, EOC were found to express significantly higher levels of Mammaglobin B protein when compared to normal ovaries and benign cystadenomas (p<0.01).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin B. Middle Aged. Myelin Proteins. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proteolipids. Secretoglobins

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  • (PMID = 17343903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin B; 0 / Myelin Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / SCGB2A1 protein, human; 0 / Secretoglobins; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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98. Khunamornpong S, Lerwill MF, Siriaunkgul S, Suprasert P, Pojchamarnwiputh S, Chiangmai WN, Young RH: Carcinoma of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):366-79
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  • The primary tumor was identified before the detection of the ovarian lesions in 5 cases, was simultaneously detected with the ovarian metastases in 9, and was diagnosed postoperatively in 2.
  • Mucinous epithelial differentiation was seen in 81%, sometimes with foci of benign-like or borderline-like epithelium simulating primary ovarian mucinous neoplasia.
  • Signet ring cells were present in sufficient quantity for a diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor in four tumors.
  • Nonmucinous carcinomatous components included adenocarcinoma with high-grade endometrioid-like morphology in 2 cases, papillary adenocarcinoma simulating mixed müllerian epithelial adenocarcinoma in 1, and undifferentiated carcinoma in 2.
  • Although the diagnosis of a metastatic tumor to the ovary is possible in most of the cases based on standard diagnostic criteria, problems in the differential diagnosis may be posed by morphologic patterns that overlap strikingly with primary ovarian neoplasms, benign, borderline, and malignant, as discussed herein.

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  • (PMID = 18580314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Van Patten K, Parkash V, Jain D: Cadherin expression in gastrointestinal tract endometriosis: possible role in deep tissue invasion and development of malignancy. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jan;23(1):38-44
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  • A total of 38 cases (peritoneal endometriosis (n=14), gastrointestinal endometriosis (n=21: 11 colon, 8 appendix, 2 small bowel), and 3 cases of endometrioid carcinoma arising in colonic endometriosis (n=3)) were included in the study.
  • All three cases of carcinoma arising in colonic endometriosis showed a total loss of N-cadherin in the tumor, but preserved E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression.
  • In these cases, areas of benign endometriotic glands near the tumor showed weak and focal N-cadherin expression that was gradually lost.

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  • (PMID = 19898423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
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100. Van Holsbeke C, Van Calster B, Guerriero S, Savelli L, Leone F, Fischerova D, Czekierdowski A, Fruscio R, Veldman J, Van de Putte G, Testa AC, Bourne T, Valentin L, Timmerman D: Imaging in gynaecology: How good are we in identifying endometriomas? Facts Views Vis Obgyn; 2009;1(1):7-17

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: All patients in the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA ) studies were included for analysis.
  • RESULTS: IOTA phase 1, 1b and 2 included 3511 patients of which 2560 were benign (73%) and 951 malignant (27%).
  • Among the 75 false positive cases, 66 were benign but 9 were malignant (5 borderline tumours, 1 rare primary invasive tumour and 3 endometrioid adenocarcinomas).

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  • (PMID = 25478066.001).
  • [ISSN] 2032-0418
  • [Journal-full-title] Facts, views & vision in ObGyn
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Facts Views Vis Obgyn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4251283
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ultrasonography / adnexal tumours / endometrioma / endometriosis / pattern recognition / subjective evaluation
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