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1. Dietz NK, Rehn M, Thanner F, Dietl J: [Diagnostic and preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma with transvaginal sonography--a review]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2006 Oct;128(5):246-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnostic and preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma with transvaginal sonography--a review].
  • Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract.
  • Endometrial thickness (double layer) is measured by transvaginal sonography.
  • The cut-off value in patients with postmenopausal bleeding is still controversial, although in patients with endometrial thickness below 4 mm (or 5 mm respectively), malignancy can be excluded with high probability.
  • If the endometrium measures more than 4 mm (or more than 5 mm respectively) or the patient presents with continuous bleeding, hysteroscopy and curettage should be performed in order to obtain histologic diagnosis.
  • Sonographic findings like structure and demarcation of the endometrium increase diagnostic specificity only when combined with the measurement of endometrial thickness.
  • Measuring the fluid within the uterine cavity does not seem to be useful in differentiating malignant from benign disorders.
  • The extent of surgery depends on the preoperative estimation of the tumor stage which is particularly important for elder patients with increased morbidity.
  • This article on transvaginal ultrasound reviews current data on the method's capacity to identify endometrial cancer and to diagnose the depth of invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17001559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4197
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Gynakol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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2. Yi N, Liao QP, Li T, Xiong Y: Novel expression profiles and invasiveness-related biology function of DKK1 in endometrial carcinoma. Oncol Rep; 2009 Jun;21(6):1421-7
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  • [Title] Novel expression profiles and invasiveness-related biology function of DKK1 in endometrial carcinoma.
  • In this study, we showed that in benign and malignant endometrium, DKK1 exhibited novel expression profiles and invasiveness-related biology function: DKK1 was expressed in both glandular epithelium and matrix of two kinds of endometrium tissues and mostly distributed in the cytoplasm and epicytes of endometrial carcinoma (EC) Ishikawa cell line.
  • DKK1 expression level in EC was significantly lower than that in benign endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Signal Transduction. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19424619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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3. Logani S, Herdman AV, Little JV, Moller KA: Vascular "pseudo invasion" in laparoscopic hysterectomy specimens: a diagnostic pitfall. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):560-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Total laparoscopic hysterectomy has been shown to be an equally effective and safe technique when compared with conventional abdominal surgery for endometrial carcinoma.
  • The fallopian tubes are cauterized to prevent transtubal spread of the tumor.
  • After observing extensive displacement of tumor into small and large blood vessels in 1 case of grade 1, stage 1b endometrial carcinoma, we reviewed slides from 37 hysterectomy specimens (7 for endometrial carcinoma or atypical hyperplasia and 30 for benign conditions) performed laparoscopically between August 2004 and March 2006 at Emory University and Crawford Long Hospitals.
  • We reviewed all slides for the presence or absence of endometrial tumor/tissue in vascular spaces.
  • Patients with endometrial carcinoma/atypical complex hyperplasia included 6 FIGO grade I endometrioid carcinomas (3 stages 1A; 3 stages 1B) and 1 patient with atypical complex hyperplasia.
  • Tumor within blood vessels was noted in 5 of 7 (71%) cases.
  • In 3 cases, including the case of atypical complex hyperplasia, the number of vessels containing tumor were too numerous to count small and large caliber blood vessels.
  • In the remainder, 1 case had 2 small vessels involved and in the other 7 small vessels showed tumor within vascular lumina.
  • Benign endometrial glands and stromal tissue were noted within vascular spaces in 4 of 30 (13%) hysterectomy specimens removed for benign conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Artifacts. Blood Vessels / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Hysterectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Myometrium / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Catheterization. Female. Georgia. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pressure. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jan;34(1):124-5 [19898230.001]
  • (PMID = 18300797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Gashaw I, Stiller S, Böing C, Kimmig R, Winterhager E: Premenstrual regulation of the pro-angiogenic factor CYR61 in human endometrium. Endocrinology; 2008 May;149(5):2261-9
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  • [Title] Premenstrual regulation of the pro-angiogenic factor CYR61 in human endometrium.
  • In this study we investigated the temporal and spatial expression pattern in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle and its possible regulation mechanisms in the premenstrual phase.
  • Because the menstrual breakdown of the functionalis is triggered by cytokines, prostaglandins (PGs), as well as hypoxia, we used a benign endometrial cell line to investigate if CYR61 is regulated by these factors.
  • The opposite effect of TNFalpha combined with hypoxia on CYR61 up-regulation could contribute to a balanced expression level of this angiogenic factor in the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Menstrual Cycle / physiology. Neovascularization, Physiologic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / metabolism. Cell Hypoxia / genetics. Cell Hypoxia / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Cohort Studies. Cysteine-Rich Protein 61. Cytokines / physiology. Dinoprostone / physiology. Female. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / physiology. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18202125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / CYR61 protein, human; 0 / Cysteine-Rich Protein 61; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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5. Thomassin-Naggara I, Fournier LS, Roussel A, Marsault C, Bazot M: [Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the female pelvis]. J Radiol; 2010 Mar;91(3 Pt 2):431-8; quiz 439-40
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  • Diffusion weighted imaging improves the detection of small uterine tumors and the visualization of small implants of peritoneal carcinomatosis, which could play a significant role for tumor staging.
  • It is helpful for characterization of complex ovarian tumors: the absence of hyperintensity on b=1000 diffusion-weighted images has an excellent positive predictive value for a benign etiology.
  • It could also be helpful to characterize endometrial lesions, to differentiate between endometrial polyp and carcinoma when hysteroscopy is not possible, and to differentiate uterine fibroid from sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Genital Diseases, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20508577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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6. Corben AD, Nehhozina T, Garg K, Vallejo CE, Brogi E: Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes: a possible pitfall in the staging of patients with breast carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1211-6
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  • The occurrence of benign epithelial inclusions in lymph nodes is well documented and can sometimes mimic metastatic carcinoma.
  • Benign müllerian inclusions, such as endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, are common in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, but their presence in supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes is a rare event.
  • The glands contained ciliated and intercalated peg cells, had no periglandular endometrial-type stroma, and showed no atypia or mitotic activity.
  • Endosalpingiosis had been misinterpreted as metastatic carcinoma at another hospital in 1 of the 3 patients, with subsequent dissection of 19 additional benign axillary lymph nodes.
  • Morphologic identification of ciliated cells and "peg" cells is most helpful to recognize this benign inclusion, and positive immunoreactivity for WT1 and/or PAX8 can be used to support the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cilia. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Paired Box Transcription Factors / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Unnecessary Procedures. WT1 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20631604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / WT1 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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7. Krockenberger M, Engel JB, Schmidt M, Kohrenhagen N, Häusler SF, Dombrowski Y, Kapp M, Dietl J, Honig A: Expression of transketolase-like 1 protein (TKTL1) in human endometrial cancer. Anticancer Res; 2010 May;30(5):1653-9
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  • [Title] Expression of transketolase-like 1 protein (TKTL1) in human endometrial cancer.
  • The metabolic switch from oxidative glycolysis to non-oxidative fermentation of glucose and proteins performed by the tumor cells seems to be associated with TKTL1 and pAkt overexpression.
  • Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of TKTL1 and pAkt in human specimens of endometrial cancer as compared to benign endometrium.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Levels of TKTL1, pAkt, and GLUT1 expression were immunhistochemically evaluated on paraffin embedded biopsy material from 10 benign and 41 malignant endometrial tissue samples.
  • TKTL1 mRNA levels in the endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1A were evaluated by RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: Expression of TKTL1, GLUT1 and pAKT was significantly increased in endometrial carcinomas as compared to benign endometrial tissue.
  • In the human endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1A, TKTL1 mRNA was clearly detectable.
  • CONCLUSION: The levels of TKTL1, GLUT1 and pAKT expression point to the glycolytic phenotype of malignant endometrial tissue.
  • Given the pronounced TKTL1 expression across all different subtypes of endometrial cancer, this protein could serve as a target for future cancer treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Transketolase / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. Glycolysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Middle Aged. Oxygen / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20592357.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; EC 2.2.1.1 / TKTL1 protein, human; EC 2.2.1.1 / Transketolase; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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8. Pejić S, Todorović A, Stojiljković V, Cvetković D, Lucić N, Radojicić RM, Saicić ZS, Pajović SB: Superoxide dismutase and lipid hydroperoxides in blood and endometrial tissue of patients with benign, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium. An Acad Bras Cienc; 2008 Sep;80(3):515-22
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  • [Title] Superoxide dismutase and lipid hydroperoxides in blood and endometrial tissue of patients with benign, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium.
  • The objective of the present study was to examine changes in activities and levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) in blood and endometrial tissue of patients diagnosed with uterine myoma, endometrial polypus, hyperplasia simplex, hyperplasia complex and adenocarcinoma endometrii.
  • Decrease of both SOD activity and level was found in endometrium of patients with hyperplasia simplex, hyperplasia complex and adenocarcinoma in comparison to women with polypus or myoma.
  • LOOH level was elevated in both tissues of patients with hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy subjects or patients with benign diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Endometrial Hyperplasia. Endometrial Neoplasms. Leiomyoma. Lipid Peroxides / analysis. Superoxide Dismutase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polyps / blood. Polyps / enzymology. Uterine Neoplasms / blood. Uterine Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 18797802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-3765
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipid Peroxides; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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9. Abike F, Temizkan O, Payasli A, Avsar F, Karahan N, Baspinar S: Postmenopausal complete hydatidiform mole: a case report. Maturitas; 2008 Jan 20;59(1):95-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a disease with a course of trophoblastic proliferation, and histologically classified as partial hydatidiform mole, complete mole, invasive and metastatic mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Ultrasound examination revealed enlargement of the uterus with endometrial thickness containing hypo/hyper echogeneous and cystic areas.
  • The resected uterus contained an endometrial, cystic, grapelike tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, our case is the fourth description in the world literature of a benign complete hydatidiform mole in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Although benign gestational trophoblastic disease generally occurs in women of reproductive age and is extremely rare in postmenopausal women, when evaluating patients who are in postmenopausal period the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole must always be considered.

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  • (PMID = 18162339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5122
  • [Journal-full-title] Maturitas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Maturitas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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10. Kimmich T, Brüning A, Käufl SD, Makovitzky J, Kuhn C, Jeschke U, Friese K, Mylonas I: Inhibin/activin-betaC and -betaE subunits in the Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Aug;282(2):185-91
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  • [Title] Inhibin/activin-betaC and -betaE subunits in the Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line.
  • However, only limited data on the expression of these novel inhibin subunits in normal human endometrial tissue and endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines exist.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of proliferative and secretory human endometrium were obtained from five premenopausal, non-pregnant patients undergoing gynecological surgery for benign diseases.
  • Normal endometrial tissue and Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: Expression of the inhibin betaC and betaE subunits could be demonstrated at the protein level by means of immunohistochemical evaluation and at the transcriptional level by establishing a betaC- and betaE-specific RT-PCR analysis in normal human endometrial tissue and the parental Ishikawa cell line.
  • DISCUSSION: Here, we show for the first time that the novel inhibin/activin-betaC and -betaE subunits are expressed in normal human endometrium and the estrogen receptor positive human endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection methods.
  • Interestingly, the Ishikawa minus cell line (lacking estrogen receptor expression) demonstrated no to minimal expression of the betaC subunit as observed with immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, suggesting a possible hormone- dependency of this subunit in human endometrial cancer cells.
  • Moreover, because the Ishikawa cell line minus is thought to be a more malignant endometrial cell line than its estrogen receptor positive counterpart, inhibin-betaC subunit might be substantially involved in the pathogenesis and malignant transformation in human endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Inhibin-beta Subunits / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Dedifferentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20012305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / INHBC protein, human; 0 / INHBE protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 93443-12-0 / Inhibin-beta Subunits
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11. Hachisuga T, Emoto M, Kawarabayashi T, Kamihara Y, Nabeshima K: Endometrial cytologic findings in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients. Acta Cytol; 2009 Jan-Feb;53(1):24-8
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  • [Title] Endometrial cytologic findings in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the endometrial cytologic findings in tamoxifen (TAM)-treated patients and evaluate the clinical significance of these findings.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1,739 endometrial cytologic samples were obtained from 203 breast cancer patients with TAM treatment using an endocyte device.
  • Histologic examinations were recommended for the 23 endometrial cytologic samples (18 initial and 5 follow-up endometrial cytologic samples).
  • RESULTS: A large nuclear dimension and anisokaryosis of the endometrial glandular cells were found in the 23 endometrial cytologic samples.
  • All patients were amenorrheic and postmenopausal except for 3 premenopausal women with endometrial cancer.
  • The subsequent histologic examinations showed 3 atrophic endometria, 3 cystic atrophies, 11 endometrial polyps and 6 endometrial cancers.
  • The tumor diathesis and atypical features of cell aggregates, such as a loss of polarity and severe piling up of nuclei, were seen in the cytologic samples of the endometrial cancers but were not found in those with benign conditions.
  • CONCLUSION: A large nuclear dimension and anisokaryosis of the glandular cells were sometimes found in endometrial cytologic samples from the TAM-treated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrium / pathology. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis


12. Maeda D, Ota S, Takazawa Y, Aburatani H, Nakagawa S, Yano T, Taketani Y, Kodama T, Fukayama M: Glypican-3 expression in clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Mod Pathol; 2009 Jun;22(6):824-32
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  • Glypican-3 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is overexpressed in various neoplasms such as hepatocellular carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and testicular yolk sac tumor.
  • Glypican-3 is currently regarded as a tumor marker and potential target for immunotherapy.
  • To clarify the significance of glypican-3 expression in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma, we evaluated glypican-3 expression by immunohistochemistry in nonneoplastic and neoplastic ovaries, and other Müllerian duct derivatives including endometrium in different menstrual phases.
  • Among the benign lesions examined, glypican-3 expression was identified exclusively in the endometrial epithelium in the gestational period.
  • In cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma, no correlations were found between glypican-3 expression and clinicopathological factors, such as tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and death rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Glypicans / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19329941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glypicans
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13. Li J, Dowdy S, Tipton T, Podratz K, Lu WG, Xie X, Jiang SW: HE4 as a biomarker for ovarian and endometrial cancer management. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2009 Sep;9(6):555-66
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  • [Title] HE4 as a biomarker for ovarian and endometrial cancer management.
  • Ovarian and endometrial cancer will be diagnosed in over 63,000 women in 2009, resulting in 22,000 deaths in the USA.
  • Thus, a serum- screening test using a biomarker or panel of biomarkers would be useful to aid in cancer diagnosis, detection of recurrence and as a means to monitor response to therapy.
  • Preliminary data show that HE4 may have more potential than cancer antigen 125 in discriminating benign from cancerous ovarian masses, and has the strongest correlation with endometrial cancer of all markers tested to date.
  • Utilizing risk stratification, a panel of biomarkers including HE4 may ultimately be useful for detecting ovarian and endometrial cancer at an early stage in patients at high risk.

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  • (PMID = 19732003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD041577; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD041577-06; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD 41577
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DEFB126 protein, human; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / beta-Defensins
  • [Number-of-references] 80
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS145815; NLM/ PMC3273415
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14. Cocco E, Bellone S, El-Sahwi K, Cargnelutti M, Buza N, Tavassoli FA, Schwartz PE, Rutherford TJ, Pecorelli S, Santin AD: Serum amyloid A: a novel biomarker for endometrial cancer. Cancer; 2010 Feb 15;116(4):843-51
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  • [Title] Serum amyloid A: a novel biomarker for endometrial cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The authors investigated the expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma and evaluated its potential as a serum biomarker.
  • METHODS: SAA gene and protein expression levels were evaluated in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma and normal endometrial tissues, by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometry.
  • SAA concentration in 194 serum samples from 50 healthy women, 42 women with benign diseases, and 102 patients including 49 grade 1, 38 grade 2, and 15 grade 3 endometrial endometrioid carcinoma was also studied by a sensitive bead-based immunoassay.
  • RESULTS: SAA gene expression levels were significantly higher in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma when compared with normal endometrial tissues (mean copy number by real-time PCR = 182 vs 1.9; P = .001).
  • IHC revealed diffuse cytoplasmic SAA protein staining in poorly differentiated endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tissues.
  • High intracellular levels of SAA were identified in primary endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell lines evaluated by flow cytometry, and SAA was found to be actively secreted in vitro.
  • SAA concentrations (microg/mL) had medians of 6.0 in normal healthy women and 6.0 in patients with benign disease (P = .92).
  • In contrast, SAA values in the serum of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma patients had a median of 23.7, significantly higher than those of the healthy group (P = .001) and benign group (P = .001).
  • Patients harboring G3 endometrial endometrioid carcinoma were found to have SAA concentrations significantly higher than those of G1/G2 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SAA is not only a liver-secreted protein, but is also an endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell product.
  • SAA is expressed and actively secreted by G3 endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, and it is present in high concentration in the serum of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma patients.
  • SAA may represent a novel biomarker for endometrial endometrioid carcinoma to monitor disease recurrence and response to therapy.

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  • (PMID = 20041483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122728-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122728-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16,359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016359
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Serum Amyloid A Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS158487; NLM/ PMC2819580
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15. Nogales FF, Stolnicu S, Harilal KR, Mooney E, García-Galvis OF: Retiform uterine tumours resembling ovarian sex cord tumours. A comparative immunohistochemical study with retiform structures of the female genital tract. Histopathology; 2009 Mar;54(4):471-7
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  • The average age of patients was 65 years, and all tumours behaved in a benign fashion.
  • Two cases were misdiagnosed as malignant in endometrial biopsy specimens and one in the hysterectomy specimen.
  • Histologically they had a tubulopapillary or glomeruloid formation; a sex-cord-like or endometrial stromal component was absent or comprised at most 30% of the tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RUTROSCTs have benign behaviour but may be confused with various uterine adenocarcinomas or metastases.
  • Correct diagnosis should avoid overtreatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2009 Nov;55(5):619-20; author reply 620-1 [19912370.001]
  • (PMID = 19309399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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16. Konishi Y, Sato H, Fujimoto T, Tanaka H, Takahashi O, Tanaka T: Adenofibroma of the endometrium protruding into the vaginal cavity: findings on transvaginal ultrasonography, MRI and CT. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Dec;32(6):623-7
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  • [Title] Adenofibroma of the endometrium protruding into the vaginal cavity: findings on transvaginal ultrasonography, MRI and CT.
  • Adenofibroma is a rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group.
  • We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with adenofibroma of the endometrium protruding into the vagina.
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed the tumor as an intravaginal mass containing multiple cystic components.
  • Although preoperative diagnosis of this rare tumor is very difficult, the combination of MRI, CT, and ultrasonography offers a useful diagnostic tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / ultrasonography. Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Vagina / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17100829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Zalutskiĭ IV, Vishnevskaia EE, Kurian LM: [Methodologic and organizational principles of selective screening for cervical, endometrial and ovarian carcinoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2006;52(1):74-7
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  • [Title] [Methodologic and organizational principles of selective screening for cervical, endometrial and ovarian carcinoma].
  • Data are presented on screening for cervical (CC), endometrial (UC) and ovarian (OC) carcinoma carried out in the Republic of Belarus as well as a discussion of logistic and methodologic aspects of the problem.
  • Local "centers for prevention and early diagnosis of reproductive organ tumors" form the backbone of the national system.
  • Consequently, the share of endometrial hyperplasia cases rose 3.5-fold, uterine myoma--3-fold and adenomyosoma--1.5-fold. identified atypical endometrial hyperplasia, in situ cancer and endometrial stage I in "clinically healthy" women.
  • The rates of detection of such tumor-like ovarian formations as follicular, lutein, endometrioid and para-ovarian cysts increased 2.3-fold, benign tumors--2.2-fold and polycystosis--twofold.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / organization & administration. Endometrial Neoplasms / epidemiology. Mass Screening / methods. Mass Screening / organization & administration. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cysts / diagnosis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Republic of Belarus. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology


18. Melichar B, Solichová D, Freedman RS: Neopterin as an indicator of immune activation and prognosis in patients with gynecological malignancies. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):240-52
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  • In addition to tumors of other primary locations, increased urinary and serum neopterin concentrations have been reported in patients with gynecological cancers, including epithelial ovarian carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma, uterine sarcomas, and vulvar carcinoma, but not in women with benign neoplasms or precancerous disorders.
  • Elevated levels of neopterin have also been observed in the tumor microenvironment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Endometrial Neoplasms / immunology. Endometrial Neoplasms / mortality. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / mortality. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16445639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 670-65-5 / Neopterin
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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19. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • PAX2 encodes a transcription factor necessary in the development of the Wolffian duct system, and the protein is expressed in several tumors of mesonephric origin, including renal cell carcinoma, Wilm tumor, and nephrogenic adenoma.
  • Most (11 of 15) stage II endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas lacked PAX2 expression but 1 of 10 grade 1 tumors and 3 of 5 grade 2 tumors did express PAX2.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis


20. Yasuoka H, Tsujimoto M, Fujita S, Yamasaki T, Kashihara H, Nishio Y, Kodama R, Inagaki M, Oishi H, Sanke T, Nakamura Y: Coexistence of a clear cell adenocarcinoma and an adenosarcoma with a heterologous rhabdomyosarcoma in an endometriotic cyst of the ovary: a case study. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):362-6
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  • The tumor was composed of a cystic area and a solid area arising from the cyst wall.
  • The cyst wall was lined with a single layer of endometrial-type cells, whereas the solid area was composed of a clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • In the detached polypoid mass, an exophytic leaf-like pattern containing benign endometrial-type cells and squamous epithelial and rhabdomyosarcoma components, which were positive for desmin and myoglobin, was observed.

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  • (PMID = 19483627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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21. Ye SR, Yang H, Li K, Dong DD, Lin XM, Yie SM: Human leukocyte antigen G expression: as a significant prognostic indicator for patients with colorectal cancer. Mod Pathol; 2007 Mar;20(3):375-83
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  • Aberrant expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) has been proposed to be involved in tumor escape mechanisms.
  • It has been also proposed that detection of HLA-G might service as a potential biomarker for diagnosis or prediction of the clinical outcomes in ovarian and breast cancers, carcinoma of the lung and endometrial cancer.
  • In this prospectively study, HLA-G protein expression was observed in 64.6% (130/201) of the primary site colorectal carcinomas, but not in the normal colorectal tissues or benign adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. HLA Antigens / biosynthesis. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. HLA-G Antigens. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17277760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HLA-G Antigens; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
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22. McCluggage WG: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the female genital tract. Adv Anat Pathol; 2010 Mar;17(2):122-9
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  • Mullerian adenosarcoma is an uncommon, but not rare, mixed tumor containing a neoplastic but benign or mildly atypical epithelial element and a sarcomatous, usually low-grade, stromal component.
  • Characteristic histologic features include a low power "phyllodes-like" architecture with leaf-like projections lined by a variety of benign Mullerian type epithelia, sometimes with squamous metaplasia.
  • Using the World Health Organization definition, stromal mitotic activity of 2 or more per 10 high-power fields is required for a diagnosis of adenosarcoma but in practice the diagnosis is made with stromal mitotic activity less than this if the characteristic architecture and cambium layer is present.
  • The stromal component is usually morphologically "low-grade" and of endometrial stromal or fibroblastic type (hormone receptor and CD10 positive).
  • Adenosarcoma may be confused with a variety of lesions and one of the main differential diagnoses is adenofibroma in which the stromal component is, by definition, morphologically benign.

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  • (PMID = 20179434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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23. Strissel PL, Ellmann S, Loprich E, Thiel F, Fasching PA, Stiegler E, Hartmann A, Beckmann MW, Strick R: Early aberrant insulin-like growth factor signaling in the progression to endometrial carcinoma is augmented by tamoxifen. Int J Cancer; 2008 Dec 15;123(12):2871-9
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  • [Title] Early aberrant insulin-like growth factor signaling in the progression to endometrial carcinoma is augmented by tamoxifen.
  • In addition to the beneficial effect, tamoxifen is one risk factor for endometrial carcinoma (EnCa) development.
  • We hypothesized that, (1) dysregulation of gene expression and protein phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and steroid hormone receptor-signaling occur early in benign endometrial tissues and (2) signaling differences would be detected between patients with or without tamoxifen treatment.
  • Seventy-eight tissues, including 2 benign cohorts from patients treated with (n = 24) or without tamoxifen (n = 28) (hyperproliferative endometrium, hyperplasia, polyps), EnCa (n = 12) with endometrium controls (n = 14) were analyzed for expression of 15 genes from the IGF and steroid hormone receptor-signaling, including the target genes Syncytin-1, PAX2 and c-myc.
  • Compared to controls similar significant deregulation of IGF and steroid hormone receptor-signaling, Syncytin-1 and PAX2 occurred in both benign cohorts, irrelevant of tamoxifen treatment.
  • Comparing both benign cohorts with and without tamoxifen significant expression differences were noted.
  • Increased total protein and phosphorylation of pERalpha-Ser118, pPTEN-Thr380, pAKT-Thr308, pAKT-Ser473, pmTOR-Ser2448 and Syncytin-1 were noted in early benign tissue stages associating with tamoxifen, especially polyps.
  • This study supports that dysregulated IGF and steroid hormone receptor signaling is prominent in endometrial benign stages and these alterations could represent clinical indicators for the risk of EnCa and also help in development of new therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / etiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / adverse effects. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Tamoxifen / adverse effects

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TAMOXIFEN .
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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18814240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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24. Takahashi N, Yamamoto E, Ino K, Miyoshi E, Nagasaka T, Kajiyama H, Shibata K, Nawa A, Kikkawa F: High expression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V in mucinous tumors of the ovary. Oncol Rep; 2009 Nov;22(5):1027-32
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  • In 36 mucinous tumors, the GnT-V immunostaining score was significantly higher in cancer than in benign and borderline tumors (P<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / enzymology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / enzymology. Endometrial Neoplasms / enzymology. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Phytohemagglutinins / metabolism. Prognosis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19787216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phytohemagglutinins; EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.155 / alpha-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein beta 1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
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25. Gratzinger D, Zhao S, West R, Rouse RV, Vogel H, Gil EC, Levy R, Lossos IS, Natkunam Y: The transcription factor LMO2 is a robust marker of vascular endothelium and vascular neoplasms and selected other entities. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Feb;131(2):264-78
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  • The transcription factor LMO2 is involved in vascular and hematopoietic development and hematolymphoid neoplasia.
  • LMO2 reactivity is otherwise virtually absent in nonhematolymphoid tissues except in breast myoepithelium, prostatic basal cells, and secretory phase endometrial glands.
  • LMO2 is uniformly expressed in benign vascular and lymphatic neoplasms and in most malignant vascular neoplasms with the exception of epithelioid vascular neoplasms of pleura and bone.
  • Among nonvascular neoplasms, LMO2 reactivity is present in giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, juvenile xanthogranuloma, a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, small round blue cell tumors, and myoepithelial-derived neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19141387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA034233; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA34233; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA033399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109335; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109335; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA124435
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / LIM Domain Proteins; 0 / LMO2 protein, human; 0 / Metalloproteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS636776; NLM/ PMC4305438
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26. Abiko K, Baba T, Ogawa M, Mikami Y, Koyama T, Mandai M, Konishi I: Minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') of the uterine corpus. Pathol Int; 2010 Jan;60(1):42-7
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  • Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus are typically low grade and frequently associated with endometrial hyperplasia and/or ordinary endometrioid adenocarcinoma, but may appear as a heterogeneous group of neoplasms.
  • In some areas endometrial glands of adenomyosis were replaced by benign-looking mucinous metaplasia.
  • HIK1083 and MUC6 immunohistochemistry indicated a gastric phenotype of the tumor, as seen in cases of prototypical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the cervix.
  • In summary, mucinous endometrial adenocarcinoma rarely shows features similar to MDA of the cervix.
  • This case provokes a discussion on diagnostic and management strategy, and histogenesis of mucinous neoplasm of the endometrium.


27. Giordano G, D'Adda T, Gnetti L, Merisio C, Raboni S: Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):298-304
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  • [Title] Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium (TCCE) is a subtype of endometrial carcinoma, characterized by a prominent papillary pattern, resembling the papillary carcinoma of the urothelium.
  • This neoplasm is very rare, with only 13 cases reported in the international literature.
  • In this paper, a new case of TCCE associated with benign ovarian Brenner tumor is described.
  • Moreover, immunohistochemical and molecular studies are carried out in the effort to establish the phenotype and etiology of this rare neoplasm.
  • The molecular study, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failing to reveal the presence of HPV DNA, demonstrates that neither the TCCE nor the ovarian Brenner tumor is caused by an HPV infection.
  • The association of TCCE with benign ovarian Brenner tumor could be a coincidental event.
  • In our view, other cases of TCCE associated with ovarian Brenner tumor should be reported to confirm the last 2 hypotheses.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17581415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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28. Li H, Wang J, Ma X, Sklar J: Gene fusions and RNA trans-splicing in normal and neoplastic human cells. Cell Cycle; 2009 Jan 15;8(2):218-22
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  • Chimeric JAZF1-JJAZ1 mRNA transcribed from DNA spanning the site of recombination in the (7;17)(p15;q21) chromosomal translocation found in half of endometrial stromal sarcomas and most cases of benign stromal nodules is one such example.
  • The recent finding that chimeric JAZF1-JJAZ1 mRNA can also be detected in normal endometrial stromal cells suggests that chimeric gene products are not limited to cancer or pre-cancerous cells.
  • In cultured cells, the chimeric protein has anti-apoptotic properties and is pro-proliferative when unrearranged JJAZ1 alleles are silenced, as they are in endometrial stromal sarcomas but not in the stromal nodules.
  • Furthermore, it may be possible that other means for abnormal production of chimeric gene products, such as hyperactive transsplicing of RNA, may be another mechanism underlying the neoplastic properties of tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Humans. Models, Genetic. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19158498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / JAZF1 protein, human; 0 / JJAZ1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors
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29. Robert Y, Bazot M: [Meno-metrorrhagia imaging]. J Radiol; 2008 Jan;89(1 Pt 2):115-33
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  • It is the first-line technique examination for the identification of an etiology: benign endometrium lesion (polyp, endometrium atrophy or hypertrophy) or malignant tumor, myometrial lesions (adenomyosis, leiomyoma), adnexal tumors, and first trimester pregnancy complication.
  • Ultrasound gives orientation for diagnosis and therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Menorrhagia / diagnosis. Menorrhagia / etiology. Metrorrhagia / diagnosis. Metrorrhagia / etiology. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Adult. Algorithms. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Hysterosalpingography. Hysteroscopy. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / ultrasonography. Menopause. Middle Aged. Polyps / ultrasonography. Pregnancy. Pregnancy, Ectopic / diagnosis. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Diseases / ultrasonography. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18288038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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30. Chen N, Yi X, Abushahin N, Pang S, Zhang D, Kong B, Zheng W: Nrf2 expression in endometrial serous carcinomas and its precancers. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010 Dec 24;4(1):85-96
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  • [Title] Nrf2 expression in endometrial serous carcinomas and its precancers.
  • Endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) is the most aggressive subtype of endometrial cancer.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the Nrf2 expression in benign endometrium (n=28), endometrial cancers (n=122) as well as their precursor lesions (n=81) trying to see whether Nrf2 has any diagnostic usage and is potentially involved in endometrial carcinogenesis.
  • Among the malignant cases, Nrf2 was positive in 28 (68%) of 50 ESCs, which was significantly more than in 3 (6%) of 50 endometrioid carcinomas (p < 0.001) and 2 (13%) of 15 clear cell carcinomas (p = 0.001) and other histologic types of endometrial cancers.
  • Among endometrial precursor lesions, both serous endometrial glandular dysplasia (EmGD, 40%) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC, 44%) showed a significantly higher Nrf2 expression than that in atypical endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (0%), clear cell EmGD (10%), and clear cell EIC (25%), respectively.
  • We conclude that Nrf2 overexpression is closely associated with endometrial neoplasms with serous differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 21228930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES015010; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA23074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NF-E2-Related Factor 2; 0 / NFE2L2 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3016106
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Nrf2 / endometrial cancer / endometrial glandular dysplasia / endometrial serous carcinoma / precancer
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31. Dubé V, Grigull J, DeSouza LV, Ghanny S, Colgan TJ, Romaschin AD, Siu KW: Verification of endometrial tissue biomarkers previously discovered using mass spectrometry-based proteomics by means of immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray format. J Proteome Res; 2007 Jul;6(7):2648-55
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  • [Title] Verification of endometrial tissue biomarkers previously discovered using mass spectrometry-based proteomics by means of immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray format.
  • Here, we report results of a verification exercise involving six candidate endometrial cancer biomarkers previously discovered using mass-tagging and multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (DeSouza L., et al. J.
  • A panel of the three best-performing biomarkers, chaperonin 10, pyruvate kinase M2, and alpha-1-antitrypsin, achieved a sensitivity of 0.85, specificity of 0.93, predictive value of 0.90, and positive predictive value of 0.88 in discriminating malignant from benign endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / standards. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Tissue Array Analysis / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromatography, Liquid. Endometrium / chemistry. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Mass Spectrometry. Proteomics / methods

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  • (PMID = 17552551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • To investigate the potential use of MGB in gynecologic pathology practice, we tested MGB expression by immunohistochemistry on 47 endocervical adenocarcinomas (whole tissue sections of 13 invasive and 35 in situ) and 55 endometrial carcinomas (39 endometrioid and 16 nonendometrioid represented on a single tissue microarray).
  • Nonneoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues were also evaluated for MGB expression.
  • MGB expression was detected in thirty (77%) of 39 of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with 4 (31%) of 13 endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • MGB was mostly negative in nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma (negative in 14 [88%] of 16).
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • These results confirm that MGB is not specific for breast carcinoma, but is also variably expressed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues.
  • Frequent MGB expression in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma is significantly different from nonendometrioid carcinoma.
  • Hormone receptor status is not associated with MGB expression in endometrial carcinomas.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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33. Kurman RJ, Shih IeM: The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):433-43
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  • Moreover, the carcinomas exhibit a shared lineage with the corresponding benign cystic neoplasm, often through an intermediate (borderline tumor) step, supporting the morphologic continuum of tumor progression.
  • Thus, it has been proposed that serous tumors arise from the implantation of epithelium (benign or malignant) from the fallopian tube.
  • As it is generally accepted that endometriosis develops from endometrial tissue by retrograde menstruation, it is reasonable to assume that the endometrium is the source of these ovarian neoplasms.


34. Fleming NA, Hopkins L, de Nanassy J, Senterman M, Black AY: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e45-51
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  • Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually found in postmenopausal women.
  • It usually presents as a polypoid mass within the endometrium.
  • It is a biphasic tumor, composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant stromal component.
  • To date, this neoplasm has been reported in only 16 adolescent girls.
  • An endometrial curettage was performed.
  • Pathology confirmed a diagnosis of müllerian adenosarcoma originating from the endocervix.
  • After a thorough evaluation of the available literature, review with the Regional Tumor Board and extensive discussions with the family, a decision was made to perform a radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, upper vaginectomy and preservation of ovaries.
  • CONCLUSION: Müllerian adenosarcoma of the endocervix is a very rare pediatric tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor in this age group, optimal therapy is uncertain.


35. Lancaster JM, Sayer RA, Blanchette C, Calingaert B, Konidari I, Gray J, Schildkraut J, Schomberg DW, Marks JR, Berchuck A: High expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 messenger RNA in epithelial ovarian cancers produces elevated preoperative serum levels. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):1529-35
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  • Preoperative serum IGFBP-2 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 84 women (42 ovarian cancers, 26 benign gynecological conditions, and 10 healthy female controls).
  • Serum IGFBP-2 levels were elevated in women with early- and advanced-stage ovarian cancer compared to controls and patients with benign gynecological conditions (P = 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively).
  • Epithelial ovarian cancers express high levels of IGFBP-2 relative to normal ovarian epithelium, and this is associated with elevated serum IGFBP-2 levels compared to both normal controls and patients with benign gynecological disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / blood. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. RNA, Messenger / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Cysts / blood. Ovarian Cysts / genetics. Ovary / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / blood. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / surgery. Preoperative Care. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16884361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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36. Junaid I, Paz R, Salihu HM, Sharma PP, Aliyu ZY: Pseudo-Meig's syndrome with multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2006 Feb;273(5):315-8
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  • [Title] Pseudo-Meig's syndrome with multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Meig's and Pseudo-Meig's syndromes have been reported in association with several malignancies but the concomitant existence of multiple synchronous benign and malignant tumors in association with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome has not been reported in the published literature.
  • Histological examination confirmed a right ovarian carcinoid tumor embedded within a mature cystic teratoma while the left ovary, fallopian tube and the uterus contained a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first case report of Pseudo-Meig's syndrome in association with ovarian carcinoid tumor and multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Asthma / complications. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / complications. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Hydrothorax / complications. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16136360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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37. Horn LC, Dallacker M, Bilek K: [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):292-301
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  • The strongest prognostic factor is tumor stage followed by lymph node metastases, deep myometrial infiltration, involvement of the cervix and tumor size.
  • Clinical and pathologic staging should be performed as in endometrial carcinoma.
  • The main differential diagnoses include uterine sarcomas, adenosarcoma and benign metaplastic change within the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Cites] Lancet Oncol. 2005 Dec;6(12):961-71 [16321764.001]
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  • (PMID = 19495763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Zhen H, Yang S, Wu H, Wang S, Lv J, Ma L, Zhang X: LyGDI is a promising biomarker for ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Apr;20(3):316-22
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  • METHODS: The serum levels of LyGDI were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 42 patients with ovarian disease, including 30 ovarian cancers and 12 benign ovarian lesions, and 76 healthy controls.
  • RESULTS: The serum LyGDI level of cancers was significantly greater than those of the benign and healthy groups (P = 0.002 and P < 0.0001, respectively), whereas no difference was observed between the benign and control groups (P = 0.889).
  • Based upon receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, LyGDI levels were able to distinguish ovarian cancer from benign ovarian disease (P = 0.0001) and healthy control (P < 0.0001; areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves, 0.876 and 0.833, respectively).
  • It is of particular importance to note that all cancer patients were identified by use of both markers, and the specificity was 83.3% for the benign group.
  • Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the expression of LyGDI on cancerous epithelial cells other than benign ovarian epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovary / metabolism. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor beta. rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 20375790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ARHGDIB protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor beta; 0 / rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors
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39. Shen SH, Chiou YY, Wang JH, Yen MS, Lee RC, Lai CR, Chang CY: Diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging with parallel technique in assessment of endometrial cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Feb;190(2):481-8
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  • [Title] Diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging with parallel technique in assessment of endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to determine the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with a single-shot echo-planar sequence and parallel technique for depicting endometrial cancer and to examine the role of this technique in preoperative assessment.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients were recruited for MRI evaluation of suspicious endometrial lesions found on transvaginal sonography.
  • Twenty-four of the patients were proved to have endometrial cancer (patient group), and seven to have benign diseases (control group).
  • The apparent diffusion coefficient of endometrial cancer in the patient group and of normal endometrium in the control group were measured on the apparent diffusion coefficient map of each diffusion-weighted image and compared for the two groups.
  • RESULTS: The mean apparent diffusion coefficient of endometrial cancer was 0.864 x 10(-3) mm2/s and that of benign endometrial lesions was 1.277 x 10(-3) mm2/s.
  • In five cases, DWI provided information about tumor extent and depicted the tumor focus, findings that changed preoperative staging.
  • CONCLUSION: DWI performed with parallel imaging technique has potential as a method for differentiating benign from malignant endometrial lesions.
  • It also provides valuable information for preoperative evaluation and should be considered part of routine preoperative MRI evaluation for endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18212236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Kamat AA, Coffey D, Merritt WM, Nugent E, Urbauer D, Lin YG, Edwards C, Broaddus R, Coleman RL, Sood AK: EphA2 overexpression is associated with lack of hormone receptor expression and poor outcome in endometrial cancer. Cancer; 2009 Jun 15;115(12):2684-92
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  • [Title] EphA2 overexpression is associated with lack of hormone receptor expression and poor outcome in endometrial cancer.
  • The objective of the current investigation was to study the role of EphA2 in endometrial cancer and its relation to steroid hormone receptor expression.
  • METHODS: EphA2, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67 expression levels were evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 139 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) samples and in 10 benign endometrial samples.
  • RESULTS: High expression of EphA2 was detected in 48% of EEC samples versus 10% of benign samples.
  • EphA2 overexpression was associated significantly with high disease stage (P = .04), high tumor grade (P = .003), increased depth of myometrial invasion (P = .05), low ER expression (P = .01), low PR expression (P = .006), and high Ki-67 expression (P = .04).
  • Low ER and PR expression levels were associated with high tumor grade, positive lymph nodes, high Ki-67 expression, and high EphA2 expression.
  • Thus, EphA2 may be an important therapeutic target, especially in patients with hormone receptor-negative endometrial carcinoma.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 19396818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA101642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA101642-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA101642-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, EphA2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS241018; NLM/ PMC3139331
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41. Norimatsu Y, Moriya T, Kobayashi TK, Sakurai T, Shimizu K, Tsukayama C, Ohno E: Immunohistochemical expression of PTEN and beta-catenin for endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia in Japanese women. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Apr;11(2):103-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of PTEN and beta-catenin for endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia in Japanese women.
  • Currently, the World Health Organization (WHO) classifies endometrial hyperplasia as a premalignant disease.
  • However, one of the problems in the current WHO endometrial hyperplasia schema is that it is not always a reproducible classification system.
  • Subsequently, the alternative molecular genetics and morphometric-based classification, referred to as the endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) classification system, has been proposed.
  • We reclassified endometrial lesions in Japanese women using the EIN category and compared them with the results of PTEN as well as beta-catenin immunohistochemistry.
  • A total of 117 cases that were initially diagnosed as endometrial hyperplasia according to WHO classification were reevaluated histopathologically by the EIN diagnosis category.
  • They were classified into 38 EIN and 32 benign architectural changes of unopposed estrogen (BAC), and 47 cases were excluded.
  • In addition, for comparison, we examined 20 cases of normal proliferative endometrium (NPE).
  • Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia was significantly less frequently positive for PTEN than NPE (P < .025).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Japan. Middle Aged. Premenopause

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  • (PMID = 17349568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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42. Chang CH, Tsai LC, Chen ST, Yuan CC, Hung MW, Hsieh BT, Chao PL, Tsai TH, Lee TW: Radioimmunotherapy and apoptotic induction on CK19-overexpressing human cervical carcinoma cells with Re-188-mAbCx-99. Anticancer Res; 2005 Jul-Aug;25(4):2719-28
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  • RESULTS: A relatively high expression of Ck19 was found in all human cervical carcinoma cell lines (4- to 44-fold) and in tissue lysates (26.8- to 79-fold) from patients (31 out of 34) with cervical, endometrial or ovarian carcinomas compared with that of benign or normal control samples.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibody Specificity. Apoptosis / radiation effects. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Growth Processes / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Female. HeLa Cells. Humans. Nucleosomes / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16080517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Nucleosomes; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 7440-15-5 / Rhenium
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43. Soslow RA, Ali A, Oliva E: Mullerian adenosarcomas: an immunophenotypic analysis of 35 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jul;32(7):1013-21
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  • Although the epithelial component is typically benign, the mesenchymal component of most adenosarcomas morphologically resembles that observed in endometrial stromal tumors and is responsible for their clinical behavior.
  • Thus, the differential diagnosis usually includes not only low-grade endometrial stromal tumors, but also adenofibroma, carcinosarcoma, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma especially in small samples.
  • Expression of c-kit and inhibin in greater than 5% of the tumor cells was not encountered.
  • In summary, the immunophenotype of most MAs resembled that of endometrial stromal tumors (positive for ER, PR, WT1, and CD10, with variable expression of muscle markers, AR and cytokeratin).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenofibroma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / diagnosis. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18469708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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44. Van Patten K, Parkash V, Jain D: Cadherin expression in gastrointestinal tract endometriosis: possible role in deep tissue invasion and development of malignancy. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jan;23(1):38-44
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  • Cases of normal proliferative and secretory endometrium and adenomyosis were included in the study for comparison.
  • Compared with normal proliferative endometrium, N-cadherin expression was decreased in intensity and extent in secretory endometrium.
  • Peritoneal and gastrointestinal endometriosis also showed markedly decreased expression of N-cadherin compared with proliferative endometrium.
  • All three cases of carcinoma arising in colonic endometriosis showed a total loss of N-cadherin in the tumor, but preserved E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression.
  • In these cases, areas of benign endometriotic glands near the tumor showed weak and focal N-cadherin expression that was gradually lost.
  • Moderate-to-strong membranous staining for beta-catenin expression and variable intensity of E-cadherin expression was seen diffusely in normal endometrium and all study cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / biosynthesis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometriosis / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Diseases / metabolism


45. Healy KA, Carney KJ, Osunkoya AO: Endometrioid adenocarcinoma in the native ureter of a renal transplant patient: case report and review of the literature. ScientificWorldJournal; 2010;10:1714-22
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  • Endometriosis is characterized by endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus, primarily on the pelvic peritoneum, ovaries, and rectovaginal septum, and, in rare cases, within the urinary tract (1-3%).
  • Although endometriosis is a benign condition, malignant transformation of endometriosis is a well-described phenomenon.
  • Workup revealed a filling defect in the native left mid-ureter secondary to a large 2.5-cm ureteral tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Transplantation. Ureter / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20842317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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46. Ahn HJ, Bae J, Lee S, Ko JE, Yoon S, Kim SJ, Sakuragi N: Differential expression of clusterin according to histological type of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Aug;110(2):222-9
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  • [Title] Differential expression of clusterin according to histological type of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Endometrial carcinoma is divided into endometrioid and papillary serous type carcinoma according to the histological characteristics and regarding to the unopposed estrogenic stimulation.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of clusterin according to the histological types and the effect of estrogen stimulation on its expression in endometrial carcinoma.
  • METHOD: Clusterin expression in endometrial carcinoma tissues was examined by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry.
  • The mRNA and protein expressions of clusterin in endometrioid carcinoma were higher than in benign endometrium (p=0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that clusterin expression is related to endometrioid carcinoma of endometrium, in which estrogen is involved in the regulatory network of clusterin.
  • [MeSH-major] Clusterin / biosynthesis. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Estradiol / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stimulation, Chemical

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  • (PMID = 18514801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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47. Karpf EF, Poetsch B, Langner C, Nogales FF, Regauer S: Endometrial stromal nodule embedded into term placenta. APMIS; 2007 Nov;115(11):1302-5
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  • [Title] Endometrial stromal nodule embedded into term placenta.
  • A 28-year-old patient presented with a 5 cm endometrial stromal tumor situated at the uteroplacental interface, which was diagnosed ultrasonographically at the 28th week of pregnancy.
  • The tumor was asymptomatic and closely attached to the decidua; after a normal term delivery, it was revealed to be embedded within the placenta.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm had a high mitotic rate and characteristic features of endometrial stromal tumor, such as CD10, progesterone receptor positivity, and an expansile linear, non-infiltrative pushing border.
  • In conclusion, the lesion was considered a benign endometrial stromal nodule with an unusual morphology and increased proliferation rate due to the hormonal stimuli of pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / ultrasonography. Placenta / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18092965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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48. Djurdjevic S, Stojanovic S, Kopitovic V, Hadnadjev D, Basta-Nikolic M: Diagnostic value of endosonography scoring systems in the detection of ovarian and endometrial carcinoma. J BUON; 2009 Jan-Mar;14(1):97-102
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of endosonography scoring systems in the detection of ovarian and endometrial carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic significance of sonographic scoring systems in the diagnosis of ovarian and endometrial carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 357 women with different malignant and benign diseases of the ovary and uterus were divided into 4 groups according to histopathological findings: group A: ovarian carcinoma (n=71); group B: benign ovarian tumors (n=106); group C: endometrial carcinoma (n=60); and group D: benign endometrial diseases in menopause (hyperplasia, polyps, submucosal myoma; n=120).
  • Women were examined using 7 MHz endovaginal probe and were evaluated using 2 different sonographic scoring systems, separately for ovarian and for endometrial carcinoma.
  • Particular morphological characteristics of ovarian carcinoma (tumor size, echo-characterization: solid-cystic, presence of septum, characteristics of tumor capsule and presence of ascites) were evaluated with points 0-2 (total score: 0-10).
  • For endometrial carcinoma we used a clinico-sonographic scoring system, which included evaluation of the endometrial thickness, isthmus-fundus diameter of uterus, number of years in menopause and the presence of risk factors, using scores 0-2 (total score: 0-8).
  • Using both scoring systems, a total score of 6 points had the highest diagnostic reliability in both ovarian (sensitivity 87.3%, specificity 97.5%, test accuracy 91.6%) and endometrial carcinoma (sensitivity 80%, specificity 91.5%, test accuracy 90.9%).
  • CONCLUSION: A total score of 6 and more points presents the gold standard according to which it is possible to diagnose with high accuracy the existence of ovarian and endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19373954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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49. Xiong Y, Xiong YY, Zhou YF: Expression and significance of beta-catenin, Glut-1 and PTEN in proliferative endometrium, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(2):160-4
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  • [Title] Expression and significance of beta-catenin, Glut-1 and PTEN in proliferative endometrium, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the potentiality of beta-catenin, Glut-1 and PTEN proteins as markers for a diagnosis of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN).
  • DESIGN: Ten proliferative endometrium, 83 endometrial hyperplasia (59 benign hyperplasia, 24 EIN) and 24 endometrioid adenocarcinoma sections were immunostained for beta-catenin, Glut-1 and PTEN protein expression. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Abnormal expression of beta-catenin was detected in 10% of benign hyperplasia, 50% of EIN and 67% of endometriold adenocarcinoma. (2) Overexpression of Glut-1 was present in 58% of EIN and 71% of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. (3) Complete loss of PTEN immunoreactivity was found in 20% of proliferative endometrium, 29% of benign hyperplasia, 38% of EIN and 63% of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The abnormal expression of beta-catenin and overexpression of Glut-1 may be useful markers in distinguishing benign hyperplasia from EIN, whereas lack of PTEN expression is not an appropriate marker for a diagnosis of EIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 20527231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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50. Li H, Ma X, Wang J, Koontz J, Nucci M, Sklar J: Effects of rearrangement and allelic exclusion of JJAZ1/SUZ12 on cell proliferation and survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Dec 11;104(50):20001-6
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  • Endometrial stromal tumors provide evidence for a direct causal relationship because they contain several chromosomal translocations and resultant gene fusions involving PcGs, the most common of which joins portions of the JAZF1 gene to the PcGJJAZ1/SUZ12.
  • We show here that both benign and malignant forms of this tumor have the JAZF1-JJAZ1 fusion but only the malignant form also exhibits exclusion of the unrearranged JJAZ1 allele.
  • Our findings suggest a genetic pathway for progression of a benign precursor to a sarcoma involving increased cell survival associated with acquisition of a PcG rearrangement, followed by accelerated cellular proliferation upon allelic exclusion of the unrearranged copy of that gene.

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  • (PMID = 18077430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085995; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA85995
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / JAZF1 protein, human; 0 / JJAZ1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SUZ12 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2148412
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51. Ben-Nagi J, Miell J, Mavrelos D, Naftalin J, Lee C, Jurkovic D: Endometrial implantation factors in women with submucous uterine fibroids. Reprod Biomed Online; 2010 Nov;21(5):610-5
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  • [Title] Endometrial implantation factors in women with submucous uterine fibroids.
  • Uterine fibroids are benign tumours, which are associated with subfertility and early pregnancy loss.
  • Premenopausal women with a certain diagnosis of submucous fibroid confirmed on three-dimensional saline infusion sonohysterography were recruited into the study.
  • The control group included women without ultrasonic evidence of any uterine or endometrial pathology.
  • Women with a confirmed diagnosis of submucous fibroids were asked to attend the clinic and have the uterine cavity flushed with a special solution 7days after ovulation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 / metabolism. Interleukin-6 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Osteopontin / metabolism. Pregnancy. Prospective Studies. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20880745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6491
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biomedicine online
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biomed. Online
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / PAEP protein, human; 0 / Pregnancy Proteins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10
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52. D'Angelo E, Spagnoli LG, Prat J: Comparative clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of uterine sarcomas diagnosed using the World Health Organization classification system. Hum Pathol; 2009 Nov;40(11):1571-85
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  • Eighteen benign tumors of smooth muscle or endometrial stromal origin served as a comparison group.
  • The uterine sarcomas were classified as follows: 20 leiomyosarcomas, 9 endometrial stromal sarcomas, and 5 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas.
  • Of the patients with follow-up available, 12 (67%) of 18 with leiomyosarcoma, 4 of 5 with undifferentiated sarcoma, and 4 of 7 with endometrial stromal sarcoma experienced recurrence and 8 patients with high-grade sarcomas died of tumor.
  • A subset of undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas composed of cells with uniform nuclei may be a separate entity from those with nuclear anaplasia and may be related to low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Sarcoma / classification. Sarcoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / classification. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis. World Health Organization


53. Richter C, Baetje M, Bischof A, Makovitzky J, Richter DU, Gerber B, Briese V: Expression of the glycodelin A gene and the detection of its protein in tissues and serum of ovarian carcinoma patients. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4A):2023-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Glycodelin A (GdA), also known as placental protein 14 (PP14), has been detected in endometrial, cervical and ovarian carcinoma cells.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated serum, tissue and cyst fluid samples of patients with an ovarian carcinoma in contrast to patients with benign and malignant diseases such as uterine myoma, endometriosis, cervical, uterine and breast cancer, and metastases of bladder and colon carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Gene Expression. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pregnancy Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17649816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PAEP protein, human; 0 / Pregnancy Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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54. Huszar M, Moldenhauer G, Gschwend V, Ben-Arie A, Altevogt P, Fogel M: Expression profile analysis in multiple human tumors identifies L1 (CD171) as a molecular marker for differential diagnosis and targeted therapy. Hum Pathol; 2006 Aug;37(8):1000-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression profile analysis in multiple human tumors identifies L1 (CD171) as a molecular marker for differential diagnosis and targeted therapy.
  • L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171) represents a strongly unfavorable prognostic biomarker for ovarian and endometrial carcinomas.
  • Here we carried out an immunohistochemical survey of L1 expression in normal adults and in a broad range of benign and malignant tumors using monoclonal antibody L1-11A and the novel monoclonal antibody L1-14.10.
  • In tumors of the female genital tract, L1 was detected in adenocarcinomas of the cervix and fallopian tubes, in addition to ovarian and endometrial carcinomas.
  • Our results suggest that L1 expression in tumors is not ubiquitous but restricted to certain subtypes and may be a helpful molecular marker for differential diagnosis and target for antibody-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Genital Neoplasms, Female / metabolism. Isoantigens / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Cell Line, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. GPI-Linked Proteins. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neutrophils / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16867862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD177 protein, human; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoantigens; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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55. Farrell R, Scurry J, Otton G, Hacker NF: Clinicopathologic review of malignant polyps in stage 1A carcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Aug;98(2):254-62
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic review of malignant polyps in stage 1A carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of malignant polyps in stage 1A endometrial cancer, to define the pathological features of such cancers, and to assess whether clinical outcome differs from similar cancers without a malignant polyp.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective pathological review of 107 cases of stage 1A endometrial cancer treated at two centers in New South Wales between January 1988 and July 2003.
  • The presence of a malignant polyp was determined and a pathological description made of the tumor.
  • Clinical data were collected, including prior tamoxifen usage, tumor recurrence and survival.
  • Precursor lesions of endometrial cancer were identified within malignant polyps.
  • Three out of the four recurrences occurred in high-grade tumor subtypes and all four had a large primary tumor (size > or = 4 cm).
  • When comparing the same subtype of tumor with and without a malignant polyp, there was no significant difference in clinical outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of stage 1A endometrial cancers are associated with a malignant polyp.
  • Serous carcinoma commonly arises within an otherwise benign endometrial polyp.
  • Malignant polyps offer an opportunity to identify precursors of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Clinical outcome of stage 1A endometrial carcinoma was related to the histological subtype and the size of the tumor rather than the presence of a malignant polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15936803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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56. Zhang WY, Pan Y, Zhu LR, Zhang JZ, Zhang M, Feng K, Zhou L, Yu L, Zhang XM, Ng SW: [Expression of topoisomerase III alpha in epithelial ovarian tumors of different types and relation between the expression of topoisomerase III alpha and the clinical pathology of tumor]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Nov 9;85(42):2988-91
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  • [Title] [Expression of topoisomerase III alpha in epithelial ovarian tumors of different types and relation between the expression of topoisomerase III alpha and the clinical pathology of tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression status of topoisomerase IIIa in epithelial ovarian tumor and the relationship between the expression status of topoisomerase IIIa and pathological type and clinical stage of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was carried out in the samples of ovarian tumor obtained during operation from 169 patients, aged 28 approximately 59, 18 cases with serous cystadenoma, 30 cases with serous borderline cystadenoma, 37 serous cystadenocarcinoma, 10 cases with mucous cystadenoma, 20 mucous borderline cystadenoma, 26 mucous cystadenocarcinoma, 19 cases with endometrial carcinoma of ovary, and 9 cases with clear cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The expression rate of topoisomerase IIIa was 17.9% in the benign ovarian tumors, 74.0% in the borderline cystadenoma, and 42.7% in the malignant tumors with statistical significance among them (chi(2) = 24.657, P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Topoisomerase IIIa is highly expressed in epithelial ovarian carcinoma, and its expression level is correlated with the character and type of tumor tissues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / enzymology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenoma, Serous / enzymology. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Isoenzymes / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16324386.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA topoisomerase III
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57. Chen EY, Mehra K, Mehrad M, Ning G, Miron A, Mutter GL, Monte N, Quade BJ, McKeon FD, Yassin Y, Xian W, Crum CP: Secretory cell outgrowth, PAX2 and serous carcinogenesis in the Fallopian tube. J Pathol; 2010 Sep;222(1):110-6
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  • The 'p53 signature' is a benign secretory cell outgrowth in the distal Fallopian tube that shares properties with ovarian serous cancer-including p53 mutations-and is a putative serous cancer precursor.
  • We expanded the precursor definition to all secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) of 30 or more cells and scored normal (N) and altered (A) expression of both p53 and PAX2, a gene down-regulated in ovarian and endometrial cancer.
  • SCOUTs are discretely localized alterations commonly containing altered expression of multiple genes within histologically benign tubal epithelium.

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  • (PMID = 20597068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124688-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105009; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM083348; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21CA124688-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS207936; NLM/ PMC2914810
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58. Wu M, Yuan S, Szporn AH, Gan L, Shtilbans V, Burstein DE: Immunocytochemical detection of XIAP in body cavity effusions and washes. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1618-22
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  • We performed an immunocytochemical survey of XIAP expression in cell blocks from benign and malignant body cavity effusions and washes.
  • The prevalence of staining for specific malignancies varied with the tissue of origin as follows: ovarian (13/13, 100%); lung (9/11, 82%), breast (6/13, 46%); gastric (4/7, 57%), colon (0/4, 0%), pancreas (2/3, 67%), gallbladder (1/1, 100%), fallopian tube (1/3, 33%), endometrial (6/7, 86%), mesothelioma (4/5, 80%), carcinoma of unknown primary (5/5, 100%) and hematopoietic malignancies (3/9, 33%).
  • Benign effusions (n = 35) were virtually XIAP-negative except for two cases (6%) in which histiocytes showed moderate staining.
  • XIAP immunostaining, when strong, allows for ready distinction of malignant from benign and reactive cell populations.
  • The degree of XIAP staining of tumor cells may be a means of identifying the most therapy-resistant cases (ie, those with strong XIAP expression), and allow additional triaging to XIAP-blocking drugs presently being developed and clinically tested.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascitic Fluid / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Peritoneal Lavage. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / chemistry. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16118627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
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59. Friel AM, Growdon WB, McCann CK, Olawaiye AB, Munro EG, Schorge JO, Castrillon DH, Broaddus RR, Rueda BR: Mouse models of uterine corpus tumors: clinical significance and utility. Front Biosci (Elite Ed); 2010 Jun 01;2:882-905
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  • Uterine tumors, whether benign or malignant, are diagnosed in a significant portion of women and are associated with a number of co-morbidities that negatively impact quality of life.
  • Uterine tumors can be derived from the epithelial (endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma) and mesenchymal (leiomyoma, sarcoma) layers of the uterus.
  • The exact etiologies of the various tumor types are yet to be defined.
  • While molecular analyses of human tumors can identify candidate genetic and epigenetic lesions contributing to uterine tumor initiation and progression, in vivo genetic models are needed to establish the functional significance of such lesions and their contribution to tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 20515761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-0508
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Biosci (Elite Ed)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 177
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60. Rabban JT, Zaloudek CJ, Shekitka KM, Tavassoli FA: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases emphasizing distinction from aggressive mesenchymal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Oct;29(10):1348-55
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  • [Title] Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases emphasizing distinction from aggressive mesenchymal tumors.
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an indolent spindle cell proliferation that can histologically resemble various malignant mesenchymal neoplasms; however, it generally behaves as a benign or locally recurrent tumor.
  • The three other tumors grew as bulky myometrial masses with focally irregular borders and infiltrated the endometrium, parametrium, or cervical stroma.
  • Mitotic activity ranged from 0 to 2 mitotic figures per 10 high power fields (HPF) except in one tumor that focally had up to 8 mitotic figures per 10 HPF.
  • No ALK expression was identified in uterine leiomyoma (n = 7), leiomyosarcoma (n = 6), carcinosarcoma (n = 4), endometrial stromal sarcoma (n = 4), or normal uterine tissues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases. Sarcoma / metabolism. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16160478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / anaplastic lymphoma kinase
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61. Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Saxena R, Zhang S, Terracciano L, Sauter G, Chadhuri A, Herrmann FR, Penetrante R: Pax-5 immunoexpression in various types of benign and malignant tumours: a high-throughput tissue microarray analysis. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jun;60(6):709-14
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  • [Title] Pax-5 immunoexpression in various types of benign and malignant tumours: a high-throughput tissue microarray analysis.
  • AIMS AND METHODS: To determine Pax-5 expression in other tumour types, immunohistochemistry was performed on 3758 benign and malignant tumours using multiple tumour microarrays, as well as on whole sections.
  • In addition, Pax-5 was seen in 24/34 (70.6%) Merkel cell carcinomas, 42/53 (79.2%) small cell carcinomas, 1/164 (0.6%) breast carcinomas, 2/204 (1%) endometrial adenocarcinomas and 1/452 (0.2%) urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Protein Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 16837628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PAX5 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955074
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62. Fadare O, Liang SX, Ulukus EC, Chambers SK, Zheng W: Precursors of endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1519-30
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  • [Title] Precursors of endometrial clear cell carcinoma.
  • The recognition of morphologically identifiable lesions which may confer an increased risk for subsequent development of an invasive malignancy offers an opportunity to investigate and better understand the molecular-genetic etiopathogenesis of the well-developed tumor, and potentially, to administer a therapeutic intervention before its development.
  • In contrast to uterine endometrioid and serous carcinomas, very little is known about the potential precursor lesions of endometrial clear cell carcinoma (ECCC).
  • In our routine practice, we have noted the presence of a spectrum of atypical glandular changes in the endometria adjacent to ECCC or endometrial carcinomas with a clear cell component, which on the basis of current criteria, would not qualify for any specific designation.
  • Thirty archived cases of pure ECCC (n=14) or mixed endometrial carcinomas with a >10% clear cell component (n=16) were retrieved and the "normal" endometria adjacent to the malignancies were evaluated in detail.
  • Thirty-eight benign uteri and 30 uteri with classic endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) served as controls.
  • The lesions were typically isolated glands or surface epithelium (within an otherwise normal endometrial region) that displayed cytoplasmic clarity and/or eosinophilia with varying degrees of nuclear atypia.
  • In contrast, PPL were identified neither in the benign uteri nor in endometrioid carcinoma control groups (P<0.001).
  • The immunohistochemical expression of p53, mib-1, estrogen receptor (ERs), and progesterone receptor in the benign endometria, ECCC, and the PPL were evaluated on all 27 cases.
  • The mean p53 scores for the benign endometria, PPL, and ECCC were 0, 4.5, and 6.2, respectively.
  • ER/progesterone receptor indices for benign endometria, PPL, and carcinoma were 90/80, 21.52/4.61, and 11/4, respectively.
  • The PPL described herein have a morphologic and immunophenotypic profile which seems to be distinct from both the benign endometria in which they reside and the adjacent areas of ECCC.
  • The high frequency of association of these lesions with ECCC, their frequent occurrence as isolated lesions within otherwise "benign-appearing" endometria, and their continuous spectrum of nuclear atypia from minimum (grade 1, cytologic atypia falls short of ECCC cells) to maximum (grade 3, cytologically identical to ECCC cells), argues in favor of our hypothesis that these may represent precursor lesions of ECCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrium / chemistry. Endometrium / pathology. Exocrine Glands / chemistry. Exocrine Glands / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Single-Blind Method

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  • (PMID = 17122507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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63. Zheng W, Yi X, Fadare O, Liang SX, Martel M, Schwartz PE, Jiang Z: The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Feb;32(2):304-15
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  • [Title] The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma.
  • Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein highly expressed in fetal tissue and malignant tumors but rarely found in adult benign tissues.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the expression of IMP3 in benign endometrium, endometrial cancer, and its precursor lesions, trying to see whether IMP3 has any diagnostic usage.
  • Two hundred ninety-eight endometrial samples were examined for IMP3 expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • These included benign endometrium (n=68), atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (n=35), endometrial glandular dysplasia (n=21), endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (n=18), endometrioid carcinoma (n=70), mucinous carcinoma (n=8), serous carcinoma (n=51), clear cell carcinoma (n=12), and other malignancies (n=15).
  • Maturational patterns in the 68 benign endometrial samples included atrophic (n=12), proliferative (n=18), secretory (n=14), menstrual (n=8), and gestational (n=16).
  • Most of the carcinomas were histologically pure; where mixed, the second component constituted <10% of the total tumor volume.
  • Among the malignant cases, IMP3 expression was predominantly found in endometrial serous carcinoma and its putative precursor lesions, with 3 (14%) of 21 endometrial glandular dysplasia, 16 (89%) of 18 serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, and 48 (94%) of 51 serous carcinomas (P<0.001).
  • In contrast, the frequency of IMP3 expression was significantly lesser in nonserous malignancies with 0 (0%) of 35, 5 (7%) of 70, 0 (0%) of 8, 3 (25%) of 12, and 5 (33%) of 15 positive expression rates in atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell carcinomas, and other malignancies, respectively.
  • Among the benign endometrial samples, decidualized endometrial stroma showed 100% positivity for IMP3.
  • We conclude that expression of IMP3, a newly identified cytoplasmic marker, is closely associated with type II endometrial cancer.
  • It seems that IMP3 expression is associated with an aggressive histologic phenotype among endometrial neoplastic lesions.
  • Strong and diffuse IMP3 expression is highly sensitive for endometrial serous and clear cell carcinomas including their putative precursor lesions.
  • Therefore, IMP3 may be a useful diagnostic marker in the assessment of endometrial cancers and their precursor lesions, particularly when the amount of available tissue material is limited and a concern of type II cancer arises.
  • High frequency of IMP3 expression is present in decidualized endometrial stroma of gestational endometrium and chorionic villi in early pregnancy.
  • Although the significance of the latter finding remains unclear, the differential diagnosis between decidual changes and endometrial serous carcinoma is rarely problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Cytoplasm / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18223334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA23074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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64. Ratner ES, Tuck D, Richter C, Nallur S, Patel RM, Schultz V, Hui P, Schwartz PE, Rutherford TJ, Weidhaas JB: MicroRNA signatures differentiate uterine cancer tumor subtypes. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Sep;118(3):251-7
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  • [Title] MicroRNA signatures differentiate uterine cancer tumor subtypes.
  • OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy.
  • METHODS: Ninety-five fresh/frozen and paraffin-embedded samples of endometrial type I and II cancer, carcinosarcomas and benign endometrial samples were collected.
  • RESULTS: Distinct miRNA signatures in tumor versus normal samples and in endometrioid vs. uterine papillary serous carcinomas exist.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20542546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124484-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA124484; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK072442; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA124484-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA21661
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS208098; NLM/ PMC2918705
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65. Mittal K: Distinguishing mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium from benign endocervical epithelium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):479
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  • [Title] Distinguishing mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium from benign endocervical epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2010 Jul;29(4):402-3 [20567157.001]
  • [CommentOn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008 Oct;27(4):547-54 [18753965.001]
  • (PMID = 19696620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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66. Ni Bhriain H, Trovik J, Wik E, Stefansson IM, Akslen LA, Salvesen HB, Staff AC: Plasma calprotectin concentrations in women with endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):491-5
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  • [Title] Plasma calprotectin concentrations in women with endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of circulating markers to predict disease outcome, therapy effect and monitoring for disease recurrence in endometrial cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to explore whether plasma concentration of the inflammatory marker calprotectin is elevated in endometrial cancer and related to clinical parameters.
  • METHODS: Calprotectin in EDTA-plasma samples from women with primary endometrial carcinoma (n=194), from healthy premenopausal (n=20) and postmenopausal (n=20) women was analyzed with ELISA.
  • RESULTS: Median plasma calprotectin concentration was elevated in the patient group of endometrial cancer (3415 microg/L) as compared to the healthy premenopausal (832 microg/L) and postmenopausal groups (868 microg/L), both p<0.001.
  • Also, median calprotectin concentration was elevated in the endometrial cancer group as compared to women with invasive ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and benign ovarian tumors.
  • Calprotectin plasma concentration correlated significantly with poor survival and high FIGO stage in endometrial carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Calprotectin is elevated in plasma of women with endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. ROC Curve. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19577278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
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67. Gustafson S, Zbuk KM, Scacheri C, Eng C: Cowden syndrome. Semin Oncol; 2007 Oct;34(5):428-34
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  • Cowden syndrome (CS), due to germline mutations of the PTEN tumor-suppressor gene, is an often overlooked cancer predisposition syndrome associated with an increased risk of breast, thyroid, and endometrial cancers, as well as benign manifestations.
  • These syndromes can be described under the umbrella of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS).

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  • (PMID = 17920899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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68. Lee JH, Kim SH, Lee ES, Kim YS: CD24 overexpression in cancer development and progression: a meta-analysis. Oncol Rep; 2009 Nov;22(5):1149-56
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  • Overall, CD24 was more frequently overexpressed in their carcinomas than their benign lesions (OR=4.21; 95% CI, 1.826-9.731; P=0.001) and was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (OR=2.41; CI, 1.013-5.720; P=0.047), advanced clinical stages (OR=1.59; 95% CI, 1.244-2.032; P<0.001) and shortened overall survival (HR=2.13; 95% CI, 1.656-2.730; P<0.001).
  • CD24 expression was highly associated with lymph node metastases in breast cancer (OR=3.55; 95% CI, 1.664-7.554; P=0.001), advanced clinical stages (OR=2.22; 95% CI, 1.442-3.418; P<0.001) and lymphovascular invasions (OR=2.78; 95% CI, 1.522-5.068; P=0.001) in urothelial carcinomas and with higher grades in endometrial adenocarcinomas (OR=3.88; 95% CI, 1.548-9.715; P=0.004).
  • CD24 was more frequently and strongly expressed in breast (OR=35.80; 95% CI, 8.907-143.921; P<0.001) and ovarian carcinomas (OR=35.92; CI, 7.156-180.311; P<0.001), than in their benign counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD24 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19787233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD24; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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69. Akbulut M, Zekioglu O, Terek MC, Ozdemir N: Lipoadenofibroma of the endometrium: a rare variant of benign mullerian mixed tumor. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Sep;278(3):283-6
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  • [Title] Lipoadenofibroma of the endometrium: a rare variant of benign mullerian mixed tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adenofibroma is a form of mixed mesodermal tumor in which epithelial and stromal components are benign, and usually arises in the endometrium of postmenopausal women.
  • We report a case of lipoadenofibroma of the endometrium that appeared as an intracavitary mass, which is very unusual because endometrioid adenofibroma rarely contains mature adipose tissue, only the second such case described in detail.
  • CASE: An endometrial polypoid mass measuring 1,5 cm with maximum diameter was found incidentally during total abdominal hysterectomy for keratinizing large cell carcinoma of the cervix in a 60-year-old woman.
  • The endometrial polypoid mass was found to be a lipoadenofibroma composed predominantly of collagenated fibrous stroma populated by cystically dilated and occasionally crowded glands lined with proliferative endometrium, intermingled with abundant mature adipose tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: We suggest that uterine adenofibromas with lipomatous areas belong to the family of mixed tumor of Mullerian origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18236054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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70. Xie R, Loose DS, Shipley GL, Xie S, Bassett RL Jr, Broaddus RR: Hypomethylation-induced expression of S100A4 in endometrial carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1045-54
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  • [Title] Hypomethylation-induced expression of S100A4 in endometrial carcinoma.
  • We hypothesized that S100A4 would be overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma compared to benign endometrium.
  • Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify the mRNA level of S100A4 in benign endometrium (n=19), endometrioid adenocarcinoma (n=87), and non-endometrioid tumors (n=21).
  • S100A4 was overexpressed in the grade 3 endometrioid tumors, uterine papillary serous carcinoma, and uterine malignant mixed müllerian tumor.
  • Expression in grade 1 and grade 2 endometrioid tumors was comparable to that of normal endometrium, which was quite low.
  • By immunohistochemistry, S100A4 was expressed in the tumor cell cytoplasm of poorly differentiated tumors, but was not detected in normal endometrial glandular epithelium.
  • In benign endometrium, S100A4 expression was confined to stromal cells.
  • However, methylation of the S100A4 gene was detected in benign endometrium and grade 1 tumors with low S100A4 expression.
  • These methylation results were verified in endometrial cancer cell lines with differential baseline levels of S100A4 protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. S100 Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / genetics. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17673926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-05127
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S100 Proteins; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human
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71. Abu J, Ireland D, Brown L: Adenosarcoma of an endometrial polyp in a 27-year-old nulligravida: a case report. J Reprod Med; 2007 Apr;52(4):326-8
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  • [Title] Adenosarcoma of an endometrial polyp in a 27-year-old nulligravida: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Endometrial adenosarcoma is a rare tumor first described by Clement and Scully in 1974.
  • It consists of benign or atypical neoplastic glands within a sarcomatous stroma and represents approximately 8% of all uterine sarcomas.
  • CASE: Endometrial polyp adenosarcoma occurred in a 27-year-old, nulligravid woman who presented with intermenstrual and postcoital bleeding.
  • CONCLUSION: A clinical dilemma was encountered in the management of a young woman with endometrial polyp adenosarcoma because of the necessity to preserve her fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Fertility / physiology. Polyps / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17506376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Li X, Qi X, Zhou L, Catera D, Rote NS, Potashkin J, Abdul-Karim FW, Gorodeski GI: Decreased expression of P2X7 in endometrial epithelial pre-cancerous and cancer cells. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jul;106(1):233-43
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  • [Title] Decreased expression of P2X7 in endometrial epithelial pre-cancerous and cancer cells.
  • OBJECTIVES: To understand the potential role of P2X(7) as biomarker of endometrial cancer, and the molecular mechanisms by which cancerous epithelial cells maintain low expression of P2X(7).
  • Normal (28), simple or complex hyperplasia (7), complex hyperplasia with atypia (6) and cancer endometrial discarded tissues (40) were obtained from a total of 81 women, ages 25-75.
  • RESULTS: Levels of P2X(7) protein and mRNA were significantly lower in vivo, in tissues of complex hyperplasia with atypia or endometrial adenocarcinoma, than in tissues of normal endometrium, simple hyperplasia or complex hyperplasia tissues (sensitivity and specificity of 89-100%, p<0.0001-0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tissue levels of P2X(7) protein and mRNA can differentiate effectively and accurately between normal and benign hyperplastic endometrial tissues from pre-cancerous and cancer tissues.

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  • (PMID = 17482244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-03; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-06; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-05; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-09; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-06; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-04; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-05; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-02; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-07; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-07; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-03; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-01A1; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-02; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG15955; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-04; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-08; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-08; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-01A1; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / P2RX7 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2X7
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS47290; NLM/ PMC2398694
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73. McCluggage WG: Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology. Pathology; 2007 Feb;39(1):97-111
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  • As with biopsies from other sites in the female genital tract, immunohistochemistry is now being increasingly used in cervical pathology as an aid to diagnosis.
  • In the broad field of cervical glandular lesions, topics covered include: the value of markers such as MIB1, p16 and bcl-2 in distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ and glandular dysplasia from benign mimics; markers of mesonephric lesions, including CD10; markers of value in the diagnosis of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, such as HIK1083; markers of value in distinguishing metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma in the ovary from primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • A panel of markers, comprising oestrogen receptor, vimentin, monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen and p16, is of value in distinguishing between a cervical adenocarcinoma and an endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type.
  • Markers of use in the diagnosis of cervical neuroendocrine neoplasms, including small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, are discussed.
  • It is stressed that small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas may be negative with most of the commonly used neuroendocrine markers and this does not preclude the diagnosis. p63, a useful marker of squamous neoplasms within the cervix, is of value in distinguishing small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (p63 negative) from small cell squamous carcinoma (p63 positive) and in confirming that a poorly differentiated carcinoma is squamous in type.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17365826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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74. Santin AD, Diamandis EP, Bellone S, Soosaipillai A, Cane S, Palmieri M, Burnett A, Roman JJ, Pecorelli S: Human kallikrein 6: a new potential serum biomarker for uterine serous papillary cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 May 1;11(9):3320-5
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  • PURPOSE: The discovery of novel biomarkers might greatly contribute to improve clinical management and outcomes in uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC), a highly aggressive variant of endometrial cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Human kallikrein 6 (hK6) gene expression levels were evaluated in 29 snap-frozen endometrial biopsies, including 13 USPC, 13 endometrioid carcinomas, and 3 normal endometrial cells by real-time PCR.
  • Secretion of hK6 protein by 14 tumor cultures, including 3 USPC, 3 endometrioid carcinoma, 5 ovarian serous papillary carcinoma, and 3 cervical cancers, was measured using a sensitive ELISA.
  • Finally, hK6 concentration in 79 serum and plasma samples from 22 healthy women, 20 women with benign diseases, 20 women with endometrioid carcinoma, and 17 USPC patients was studied.
  • In contrast, no hK6 secretion was detectable in primary endometrioid carcinoma and cervical cancer cultures. hK6 serum and plasma concentrations (mean +/- SE) among normal healthy females (2.7 +/- 0.2 microg/L), patients with benign diseases (2.4 +/- 0.2 microg/L), and patients with endometrioid carcinoma (2.6 +/- 0.2 microg/L) were not significantly different.
  • In contrast, serum and plasma hK6 values in USPC patients (6.1 +/- 1.1) were significantly higher than those in the noncancer group (P = 0.006), benign group (P = 0.003), and endometrioid carcinoma patients (P = 0.005).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Kallikreins / blood. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15867230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK6 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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75. Moolthiya W, Yuenyao P: The risk of malignancy index (RMI) in diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2009;10(5):865-8
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  • [Title] The risk of malignancy index (RMI) in diagnosis of ovarian malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of two risk of malignancy indices (RMI) based on serum levels of CA 125, ultrasonographic score, and menopausal status to discriminate between benign and borderline or malignant ovarian tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The RMI is able to discriminate between benign and borderline or malignant ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Radioimmunoassay. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20162854.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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76. Chase DM, Crade M, Basu T, Saffari B, Berman ML: Preoperative diagnosis of ovarian malignancy: preliminary results of the use of 3-dimensional vascular ultrasound. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Apr;19(3):354-60
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  • [Title] Preoperative diagnosis of ovarian malignancy: preliminary results of the use of 3-dimensional vascular ultrasound.
  • Each mass was preoperatively judged to be benign or malignant based upon a study of vascularity within an ovarian mass using 3D ultrasound.
  • Masses with orderly vascular architecture were categorized as probably benign, and masses with chaotic vascular patterns were categorized as malignant.
  • Suspicious 3D vascular ultrasound findings predicted malignant neoplasm in 10 patients.
  • There was 1 case of a low-malignant potential tumor without a suspicious ultrasound finding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary and observational study, 3D ultrasound examination of vascular architecture was discriminatory in distinguishing benign ovarian masses from malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / ultrasonography. Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19407559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Michalakis K, Williams CJ, Mitsiades N, Blakeman J, Balafouta-Tselenis S, Giannopoulos A, Mantzoros CS: Serum adiponectin concentrations and tissue expression of adiponectin receptors are reduced in patients with prostate cancer: a case control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Feb;16(2):308-13
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  • PURPOSE: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone with insulin-sensitizing effects, has been inversely associated with several hormonally dependent malignancies, including breast, endometrial, and colorectal cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We collected plasma samples and covariate data in the context of a case-control study of 300 Greek men, including 75 prostate cancer cases, 75 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and 150 healthy controls.
  • Malignant prostate tissue samples have reduced expression of adiponectin receptors as compared with benign prostate tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adiponectin / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism


78. Xiong Y, Xiong YY, Zhou YF: [Expression of beta-catenin, Glut-1, PTEN proteins in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Sep;38(9):594-9
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  • METHODS: A total of 83 cases of endometrial hyperplasia were selected and reclassified according to EIN diagnostic criteria.
  • Expressions of beta-catenin, Glut-1 and PTEN proteins were investigated by immunohistochemistry in 10 proliferative endometrium, 83 endometrial hyperplasia and 24 endometrioid adenocarcinoma. RESULTS:.
  • (1) 24 EIN (28.9%) lesions were reclassified among 83 previously diagnosed endometrial hyperplasia, of which, 16 of 24 EIN cases (66.7%) had a prior diagnosis of complex atypical hyperplasia.
  • The relation between EIN diagnosis and grade of atypical hyperplasia was not obvious (P > 0.05). (2) Normal (membranous) expression of beta-catenin was present in 10 cases of proliferative endometrium.
  • Abnormal (marked membranous/cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic and/or nuclear or negative) expression rates of beta-catenin in EIN lesions (50%, 12/24) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (66.7%, 16/24) were significantly higher than that of benign hyperplasia (10.2%, 6/59) respectively (P < 0.01).
  • However, the difference was not significant between EIN lesions and endometrioid adenocarcinomas (P > 0.05). (3) Low level expressions of Glut-1 was present in proliferative endometrium and benign hyperplasia.
  • Overexpression of Glut-1 was present in 58.3% (14/24) of EIN and 70.8% (17/24) of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, respectively, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05). (4) Percentages of loss of PTEN expression showed no difference between EIN lesions (37.5%, 9/24) and proliferative endometrium (2/10), benign hyperplasia (28.8%, 17/59), endometrioid adenocarcinoma (62.5%, 15/24; P > 0.05).
  • However, loss of PTEN expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than those in proliferative endometrium and benign hyperplasia (P < 0.05).
  • The expression of both markers may be useful in distinguishing a benign hyperplasia from EIN and endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Lack of PTEN expression may be the earliest event in endometrial carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20079187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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79. Barua A, Bradaric MJ, Kebede T, Espionosa S, Edassery SL, Bitterman P, Rotmensch J, Luborsky JL: Anti-tumor and anti-ovarian autoantibodies in women with ovarian cancer. Am J Reprod Immunol; 2007 Apr;57(4):243-9
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  • [Title] Anti-tumor and anti-ovarian autoantibodies in women with ovarian cancer.
  • PROBLEM: There is a lack of validated marker(s) for the diagnosis of early-stage ovarian cancer (OVCA).
  • The secondary objective was to compare the prevalence of antibodies to proteins from normal ovary and ovarian tumors to determine if antibodies primarily recognize tumor antigens, as many antigens are common to tumor and normal ovary.
  • METHOD OF STUDY: Serum samples from patients with OVCA, borderline or benign ovarian tumors, endometrial cancer and healthy women were examined for anti-ovarian and anti-tumor antibodies by immunoassay.
  • RESULTS: Ovarian (81%, P < or = 0.001) and anti-tumor (69%, P < or = 0.001) autoantibodies in OVCA were significantly different from those of control sera.
  • While there were similar reactions in two-dimensional Western blots, there are differences between reactions to normal and tumor antigens and between reactions to autologous and allogeneic tumors.
  • Anti-tumor antibodies may provide a useful marker for the detection of ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neoplasm / blood. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Autoantibodies / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17362385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-7408
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01AI055060
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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80. Kondi-Pafiti A, Grapsa D, Kairi-Vassilatou E, Kontogianni-Katsarou K, Koliopoulos C, Botsis D: Mesenchymal tumors of the uterine corpus with heterologous and hematopoietic components: a study of ten cases and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(1):73-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To study the histopathological features of mesenchymal tumors of the uterine corpus with heterologous and hematopoietic components, and review their histogenesis and differential diagnosis from other neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions.
  • METHODS: Ten cases of mesenchymal tumors of the uterine corpus, massively infiltrated by hematopoioetic cells, or composed of other benign heterologous elements (adipose tissue in the present cases) were retrieved from the archival files of our laboratory and studied histopathologically.
  • RESULTS: Six of our studied cases were diagnosed as leiomyomas, two as lipoleiomyomas, one as a symplastic lipoleiomyoma, and one as an endometrial stromal tumor.
  • The endometrial stromal tumor was severely infiltrated by histiocytes, and was positive for vimentin, CD10, PgR and negative for actin, desmin, ER and caldesmon.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of hematopoietic or heterologous elements within an otherwise bland uterine leiomyoma or endometrial stromal tumor may give rise to diagnostic difficulties.
  • Regularity of the tumor margins, low mitotic activity and absence of nuclear atypia or necrosis should be established for the exclusion of a malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Disease Progression. Female. Hematopoietic System / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 16550975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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81. Rodríguez G, Bilbao C, Ramírez R, Falcón O, León L, Chirino R, Falcón O Jr, Díaz BP, Rivero JF, Perucho M, Díaz-Chico BN, Díaz-Chico JC: Alleles with short CAG and GGN repeats in the androgen receptor gene are associated with benign endometrial cancer. Int J Cancer; 2006 Mar 15;118(6):1420-5
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  • [Title] Alleles with short CAG and GGN repeats in the androgen receptor gene are associated with benign endometrial cancer.
  • The endometrium contains ARs and the androgens have antiproliferative properties in cultured endometrial cancer (EC) cells.
  • Larger CAG repeats of the AR gene give rise to a weaker transcriptional activity and have been found to be associated with endometrial carcinogenesis.
  • To study that possibility, we have genotyped both CAG and GGN polymorphisms of the AR gene in tumor tissue genomic DNA from a series of 204 consecutive patients with EC, and analyzed the results with regard to the pathological features and clinical outcome of patients.
  • When the genotypes of both repeats coexisting in each tumor specimen were taken into consideration, the relationship between the SS-CAG genotype and early stage remained only in the presence of the SS-GGN genotype (43.9% vs 0%, p = 0.01).
  • Our data suggests that short CAG or GGN repeats of the AR gene are associated with a more benign condition of traditional prognostic variables in EC.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Polymorphism, Genetic. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion / genetics. Trinucleotide Repeats / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16187285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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82. Chang YW, Hong SS, Jeen YM, Kim MK, Suh ES: Bilateral sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal girl. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Jul;39(7):731-4
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  • [Title] Bilateral sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal girl.
  • Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare benign ovarian neoplasm classified as a type of sex cord stromal tumor that occurs predominantly in young patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Menarche. Sclerosis / diagnosis

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  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
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83. Zohny SF, Fayed ST: Clinical utility of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) and CC chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11) as markers for diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Med Oncol; 2010 Dec;27(4):1246-53
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  • [Title] Clinical utility of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) and CC chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11) as markers for diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) and CC chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11) in comparison with serum cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) for diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
  • This study included 51 patients with EOC, 27 patients with benign ovarian lesions and 29 healthy volunteers.
  • Our data indicate that serum MMP-7, CCL18 and CCL11, in combination with CA 125 could be useful in diagnosis of EOC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Chemokine CCL11 / blood. Chemokines, CC / blood. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Aged. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19937162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CCL11 protein, human; 0 / CCL18 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL11; 0 / Chemokines, CC; EC 3.4.24.23 / MMP7 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7
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84. Barroeta JE, Pasha TL, Acs G, Zhang PJ: Immunoprofile of endocervical and endometrial stromal cells and its potential application in localization of tumor involvement. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jan;26(1):76-82
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  • [Title] Immunoprofile of endocervical and endometrial stromal cells and its potential application in localization of tumor involvement.
  • To evaluate and compare the immunophenotype of endocervical and endometrial stromal cells and to asses its potential application in tumor localization.
  • Paraffin sections of benign endocervix (n = 24), benign endometrium (n = 33), endocervical adenocarcinoma (n = 9), endometrial carcinoma (n = 13), and endometrial hyperplasia (n = 16) were stained with antibodies to CD10, Wilms Tumor-1, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and factor XIIIa by immunohistochemistry.
  • Endocervical stromal cells (ECSC) in either benign or malignant cervical epithelial lesions were predominantly CD34/CD10 (CD34 dominant immunophenotype).
  • Endometrial stromal cells (EMSCs) in either benign or malignant epithelial lesions were primarily CD34/CD10 (CD10 dominant immunophenotype).
  • Expression of Wilms Tumor-1 was decreased in EMSC of the EMCA when compared to their counterpart in endometrial hyperplasia.
  • The functional status of the endometrium had no effect on the immunoprofile.
  • The pattern of CD34 and CD10 immunostaining in stromal cells might be helpful in determining tumor involvement in uterine and cervical sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17197901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Fujii S, Matsusue E, Kigawa J, Sato S, Kanasaki Y, Nakanishi J, Sugihara S, Kaminou T, Terakawa N, Ogawa T: Diagnostic accuracy of the apparent diffusion coefficient in differentiating benign from malignant uterine endometrial cavity lesions: initial results. Eur Radiol; 2008 Feb;18(2):384-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of the apparent diffusion coefficient in differentiating benign from malignant uterine endometrial cavity lesions: initial results.
  • Our purpose is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in differentiating malignant from benign uterine endometrial cavity lesions.
  • We retrospectively evaluated 25 uterine endometrial cavity lesions in 25 female patients: endometrial carcinoma (n = 11), carcinosarcoma (n = 2), submucosal leiomyoma (n = 8), and endometrial polyp (n = 4).
  • The region of interest was defined within the tumor on T2-weighted EPI image and then manually copied to an ADC map.
  • We compared ADC values between malignant and benign lesions using Student's t-test.
  • The mean and standard deviation of ADC values (x10(-3) mm(2)/s) were as follows: endometrial carcinoma, 0.98+/-0.21; carcinosarcoma, 0.97+/-0.02; submucosal leiomyoma, 1.37+/-0.28; and endometrial polyp, 1.58+/-0.45.
  • The ADC values differed significantly between malignant (0.98+/-0.19) and benign lesions (1.44+/-0.34) (P < 0.01).
  • ADC measurement can provide useful information in differentiating malignant from benign uterine endometrial cavity lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Polyps / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17917730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Swamy GG, Satyanarayana N: Clinicopathological analysis of ovarian tumors--a study on five years samples. Nepal Med Coll J; 2010 Dec;12(4):221-3
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  • Among 120 cases, majority 86 (71.6%) were benign, but alarming number 30 (25.0%) were malignant, remaining 4 cases were borderline.
  • The commonest benign tumor was serous cyst adenoma, while; the commonest malignant tumors were granulosa cell tumor and endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Epithelium / surgery. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21744762.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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87. Stübinger SH, van der Horst Ch, Braun PM: [Pelvic tumors in the eyes of urologists]. Ther Umsch; 2007 Jul;64(7):395-8
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  • Benign tumors such as endometrial myoma, ovarian cyst and adenoma of the colon might lead to the development of urogenital symptoms.
  • These are the symptoms that lead to the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • It has to be kept in mind that urogenital tumors with such symptoms have to be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • The possibility of eradicating the tumor is then to be discussed after relieving the obstruction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cystectomy. Cystoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prostatectomy. Quality of Life. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17948757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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88. Norimatsu Y, Miyamoto T, Kobayashi TK, Oda T, Moriya T, Yanoh K, Miyake Y, Ohno E: Utility of thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology: immunocytochemical expression of PTEN, beta-catenin and p53 for benign endometrial lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Apr;36(4):216-23
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  • [Title] Utility of thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology: immunocytochemical expression of PTEN, beta-catenin and p53 for benign endometrial lesions.
  • This article focuses on the characteristic features of morphology and molecular biology of PTEN, beta-catenin, and p53 immunocytochemistry in normal endometrium (proliferative, secretory, and atrophic) and endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD) using thin-layer specimens.
  • During a 6-month period, 120 endometrial samples were collected directly using the Uterobrush and a thin-layer specimen was prepared.
  • Immunocytochemical expression of PTEN, beta-catenin, and p53 were investigated using 30 cases each of proliferative endometrium (PE), secretory endometrium (SE), atrophic endometrium (AE), and EGBD.PTEN expression of normal endometrial glandular epithelial cells changes with the hormonal status; PE produce very high expression, SE creates attenuation or disappearance of PTEN expression and AE diminished more in comparison with SE.
  • In the current study, the expression manner of PTEN, beta-catenin, and p53 immunocytochemistry was observed in the normal endometrium (PE, SE, and AE) and EGBD.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / cytology. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Neoplasm / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18335551.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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89. Soslow RA: Mixed Müllerian Tumors of the Female Genital Tract. Surg Pathol Clin; 2009 Dec;2(4):707-30
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  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) and müllerian/mesodermal adenosarcoma are 2 of the most common mixed müllerian tumors of the female genital tract.
  • MMMT is a biphasic neoplasm, composed of morphologically malignant epithelial and stromal components.
  • Adenosarcoma is also biphasic; it is composed of morphologically benign or low-grade appearing epithelial components and malignant stromal components.
  • The differential diagnosis of adenosarcoma includes MMMT, endometrial stromal tumor containing endometrioid glands, benign endometrial or endocervical polyp, adenofibroma, adenomyoma, including atypical polypoid adenomyoma, botryoid embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides), and endometriosis, including polypoid endometriosis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26838776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenofibroma / Atypical polypoid adenomyoma / Carcinosarcoma / Female genital tract / Low-grade müllerian/mesodermal adenosarcoma / Malignant mixed mesodermal / Malignant mixed müllerian tumor / Polypoid endometriosis
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90. Rizkalla HF, Higgins M, Kelehan P, O'Herlihy C: Pathological findings associated with the presence of a mirena intrauterine system at hysterectomy. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):74-8
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  • Most women (60%) had the expected appearance of atrophy of the endometrial glands and pseudodecidual stromal reaction.
  • Thirty hysterectomy specimens contained benign leiomyomata with associated reduced reactivity in the uterine cavity and incomplete suppression of the endometrium.
  • In addition to leiomyomas, 1 specimen had an atypical polypoid adenomyoma and 1 had a benign adenomatoid tumor.
  • Two specimens had endometrial hyperplasia for which the IUS was unsuccessful in controlling bleeding.
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Hyperplasia / complications. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Leiomyoma / complications. Leiomyoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Uterine Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


91. Hwang JH, Lee JK, Lee NW, Lee KW: Primary small cell carcinoma of the endometrium: report of a case with immunochemical studies. J Reprod Med; 2010 Jan-Feb;55(1-2):81-6
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  • [Title] Primary small cell carcinoma of the endometrium: report of a case with immunochemical studies.
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma (SCC) is a well-known tumor that occurs predominantly in the lung.
  • Primary SCC of the endometrium is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of an endometrial tumor that was a combination of an SCC and endometrioid adenocarcinoma with squamous components and that penetrated half of the thickness of the uterine wall.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical analyses are helpful in diagnosing and differentiating primary SCC of the endometrium from benign and malignant diseases of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20337215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Synaptophysin
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92. Cancel AM, Smith T, Rehkemper U, Dillberger JE, Sokal D, McClain RM: A one-year neonatal mouse carcinogenesis study of quinacrine dihydrochloride. Int J Toxicol; 2006 Mar-Apr;25(2):109-18
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  • In male mice, tumor incidence was not significantly increased at any site at any dose level.
  • In female mice, the incidence of benign uterine endometrial stromal polyps was slightly greater at the mid and high dose (> or = 50 mg/kg), as was the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia.
  • The authors conclude that quinacrine administered twice to neonatal mice may have enhanced or accelerated the development of endometrial hyperplasia and uterine stromal polyps at higher doses.
  • Because uterine stromal polyps are a commonly observed benign tumor in older mice, the significance of this finding is unclear and will require a weight of evidence evaluation for a conclusion on the carcinogenic potential of quinacrine.

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  • (PMID = 16597549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] H0C805XYDE / Quinacrine
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93. Canis M, Farina M, Jardon K, Rabischong B, Rivoire C, Nohuz E, Botchorishvili R, Pouly JL, Mage G: [Laparoscopy and gynecologic cancer in 2005]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2006 Apr;35(2):117-35
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  • Animal studies suggested that the risk of tumor dissemination in non traumatized peritoneum is higher after a pneumoperitoneum than after a laparotomy.
  • Changing these parameters we may, in the future, be able to create a peritoneal environment adapted to oncologic patients in order to prevent or to decrease the risks of peritoneal dissemination and/or of postoperative tumor growth.
  • In patients with endometrial cancer, the laparoscopic approach should be reserved to clinical stage I disease, if the vaginal extraction is anticipated to be easy accounting for the volume of the uterus and the local conditions.
  • Laparoscopy is the gold standard for the surgical diagnosis of adnexal masses.
  • In contrast restaging of an early ovarian cancer initially managed as a benign mass, is a good indication of the laparoscopic approach.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / etiology. Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16575358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 190
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94. Dal Cin P: Cytogenetics of Mesenchymal Tumors of the Female Genital Tract. Surg Pathol Clin; 2009 Dec;2(4):813-21
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  • Some of these alterations specifically identify a certain tumor type.
  • Cytogenetic studies on benign proliferations have not only demonstrated clonal chromosome changes, but have also pointed out clustering of aberrations to specific chromosome regions.
  • Moreover, such data may give a clue to an understanding of the biologic basis for distinctive behavior of benign versus malignant mesenchymal proliferations.
  • No specific chromosomal abnormalities have been described in malignant mesenchymal tumors, with the exception of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26838780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chromosomal aberrations / Complex karyotype / FISH / Fusion gene / Translocation
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95. Li C, Zota V, Woda BA, Rock KL, Fraire AE, Jiang Z, Lu D, Xu B, Dresser K, Lutman CV, Fischer AH: Expression of a novel oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IMP3 in endometrial carcinomas: diagnostic significance and clinicopathologic correlations. Mod Pathol; 2007 Dec;20(12):1263-8
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  • [Title] Expression of a novel oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IMP3 in endometrial carcinomas: diagnostic significance and clinicopathologic correlations.
  • To investigate the diagnostic and clinicopathologic significance of this protein in endometrial carcinomas, we evaluated immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in the two most common forms of endometrial malignancies, endometrioid adenocarcinoma and serous carcinoma.
  • We selected 167 endometrial adenocarcinoma cases including 122 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and 45 cases of serous carcinoma.
  • Twenty samples of benign endometrium obtained from 20 patients with nonmalignant uterine lesions were used as controls.
  • Positive immunohistochemical stain for IMP3 was identified in all serous carcinoma cases, among which, 39 (86%) and 3 (7%) cases showed IMP3 immunoreactivity in >50%, and 21-50, or 6-20% of tumor cells, respectively.
  • Thirty (25%), 20 (16%), 10 (8%), and 8 (7%) cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for IMP3 in 1-5, 6-20, 21-50, and >50% of the tumor cells.
  • To compare p53 with IMP3 expressions, we found that 35 (78%) of the serous carcinoma cases showed strong p53 immunohistochemical activity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • In contrast, 11 of 112 (10%) endometrioid adenocarcinoma cases demonstrated strong p53 positivity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • Expression of IMP3 and p53 may be helpful biomarkers in the distinction of endometrial serous carcinoma from endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, expression of IMP3 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma correlates with higher nuclear and architecture grades of the tumor (P=0.0000 and P=0.0002, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17885673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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96. Ludlow A, Yee KO, Lipman R, Bronson R, Weinreb P, Huang X, Sheppard D, Lawler J: Characterization of integrin beta6 and thrombospondin-1 double-null mice. J Cell Mol Med; 2005 Apr-Jun;9(2):421-37
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  • They also had abnormalities that were infrequently observed in the wild-type and single-null mice, including heart degeneration (8.35% in wild-type and 28.1% in double-null mice), hyperplasia of the glandular of the stomach (2.8% in wild-type and 21.1% in double-null mice) and endometrial hyperplasia (0% in wild-type and 38.5% in double-null females).
  • Furthermore, the beta6-null and double-null mice displayed a significant elevation in benign and malignant cancers.
  • They also indicate that alphavbeta6 functions as a tumor suppressor gene and that activation of TGFbeta by TSP-1 and alphavbeta6 contributes to normal tissue architecture and function.

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  • (PMID = 15963261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-1838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA86410; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA92644; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL53949; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL68003
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin beta Chains; 0 / Thrombospondin 1; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / integrin beta6
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97. Andikyan V, Taylor HS: WT1 represses HOX gene expression in the regulation of gynaecologic tumour histologic type. J Cell Mol Med; 2009 Nov-Dec;13(11-12):4522-31
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  • We identified a strong inverse correlation between HOXA10 expression and that of the Wilms' Tumour 1 (WT1) gene in multiple benign and malignant gynaecologic tissues, suggesting functionality of the WT1 sites in the repressor.

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  • (PMID = 19017365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-4934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD036887; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R29 HD036887; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD052668-05; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD052668; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD062668; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD036887
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / WT1 Proteins; 140441-81-2 / HOXA10 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS293627; NLM/ PMC3107857
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98. Ashton-Sager A, Paulino AF, Afify AM: GLUT-1 is preferentially expressed in atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Jun;14(2):187-92
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  • [Title] GLUT-1 is preferentially expressed in atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Although the aberrant expression of GLUT-1 has been reported in a wide spectrum of epithelial malignancies, its possible correlation with the malignant transformation of endometrial epithelium has not been clearly established.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which benign, hyperplastic, atypical, and malignant endometrial epithelia express GLUT-1.
  • The authors examined the IHC expression of GLUT-1 in cases of proliferative endometrium (n=12), secretory endometrium (n=10), endometrial polyps (n=10), adenomyosis (n=18), simple hyperplasia (n=14), complex hyperplasia without atypia (n=17), complex hyperplasia with atypia (n=17), and adenocarcinoma (n=31).
  • All cases from proliferative endometrium, secretory endometrium, adenomyosis, and simple hyperplasia and 90% (9/10 cases) of the endometrial polyps were negative for GLUT-1.
  • GLUT-1 positivity increased in intensity as the distance of tumor cells to stroma increased.
  • The authors conclude that GLUT-1 is preferentially expressed in complex hyperplasia with atypia and in adenocarcinoma and that GLUT-1 immunostaining is useful in distinguishing benign hyperplasia from hyperplasia strongly associated with malignancy.
  • GLUT-1-mediated glucose transport may allow hypoxic tumor cells distant from stromal blood vessels to survive through glycolysis.
  • These data suggest that the expression of GLUT-1 transporter may be closely related to the malignant transformation of epithelial endometrial tumors by supporting their increased need for glucose metabolism.

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  • (PMID = 16785788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1
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99. Kauppila S, Altinörs M, Väre P, Liakka A, Knuuti E, Nissi R: Primary sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis. APMIS; 2008 Sep;116(9):842-5
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  • Although endometriosis is a benign disease, some malignant tumors have been reported to develop in endometriotic lesions, most commonly in the ovary.
  • The sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor that histologically closely resembles the sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Despite its rarity, the correct histological diagnosis of the sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis of a less aggressive tumor.
  • The tumor was diagnosed based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19024607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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100. Bershteĭn LM, Poroshina TE, Vasil'ev DA, Orlova AV: [Autoantibodies to steroid-producing ovarian cells in cancer patients]. Vopr Onkol; 2008;54(5):602-5
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  • Our investigation included 158 women, aged 23-73: patients with tumors of the ovary, breast and endometrium--117 and subjects without oncological pathology--41.
  • Autoantibodies to microsomal fraction of follicular ovarian cells (> 500 Unit/ml) in healthy subjects were revealed 8.3% while in patients with ovarian, breast and endometrial malignancies (without significant differences between benign and malignant tumors) in 33.30%, 45.60% and 25.0%, respectively.
  • Higher level of anti-ovarian autoantibodies involved an inverse correlation between blood levels of FSH and estradiol in ovarian and endometrial carcinoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Endometrial Neoplasms / immunology. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology. Ovary / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19069474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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