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1. Koga T, Ushijima K, Kage M, Ichiki M, Kitajima T, Narita Y, Mizoguchi Y, Hanada M, Ehara R, Nishimura M, Takamori S, Aizawa H: Pulmonary metastasis of endometrial stromal sarcoma. Kurume Med J; 2006;53(3-4):95-7
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  • [Title] Pulmonary metastasis of endometrial stromal sarcoma.
  • Morphological characteristics of the thracoscopically resected lung tumors suggested low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS), and immunostaining revealed that the tumor cells were positive for progesterone and estrogen receptors, CD10 and vimentin, confirming a diagnosis of ESS.
  • ESS is an uncommon uterine neoplasm, however, may be mistaken as benign tumors such as epithelioid leiomyoma, and occasionally metastasizes to remote organs such as lungs even after long disease-free period, posing diagnostic challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17317938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-5679
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kurume medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kurume Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Xie R, Loose DS, Shipley GL, Xie S, Bassett RL Jr, Broaddus RR: Hypomethylation-induced expression of S100A4 in endometrial carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1045-54
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  • [Title] Hypomethylation-induced expression of S100A4 in endometrial carcinoma.
  • We hypothesized that S100A4 would be overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma compared to benign endometrium.
  • Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify the mRNA level of S100A4 in benign endometrium (n=19), endometrioid adenocarcinoma (n=87), and non-endometrioid tumors (n=21).
  • S100A4 was overexpressed in the grade 3 endometrioid tumors, uterine papillary serous carcinoma, and uterine malignant mixed müllerian tumor.
  • Expression in grade 1 and grade 2 endometrioid tumors was comparable to that of normal endometrium, which was quite low.
  • By immunohistochemistry, S100A4 was expressed in the tumor cell cytoplasm of poorly differentiated tumors, but was not detected in normal endometrial glandular epithelium.
  • In benign endometrium, S100A4 expression was confined to stromal cells.
  • However, methylation of the S100A4 gene was detected in benign endometrium and grade 1 tumors with low S100A4 expression.
  • These methylation results were verified in endometrial cancer cell lines with differential baseline levels of S100A4 protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. S100 Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / genetics. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17673926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-05127
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S100 Proteins; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human
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3. Opolskiene G, Sladkevicius P, Jokubkiene L, Valentin L: Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness of at least 4.5 mm. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Jan;35(1):94-102
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness of at least 4.5 mm.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether endometrial volume or power Doppler indices as measured by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging can discriminate between benign and malignant endometrium, to compare their diagnostic performance with that of endometrial thickness measurement using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound examination, and to determine whether power Doppler indices add any diagnostic information to endometrial thickness or volume.
  • METHODS: Sixty-two patients with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness > or = 4.5 mm underwent transvaginal 2D gray-scale and 3D power Doppler ultrasound examination of the corpus uteri.
  • The endometrial volume was calculated, along with the vascularization index (VI), flow index and vascularization flow index (VFI) in the endometrium and in a 2-mm 'shell' surrounding the endometrium.
  • The 'gold standard' was the histological diagnosis of the endometrium obtained by hysteroscopic resection of focal lesions, dilatation and curettage or hysterectomy.
  • Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were drawn for all measurements to evaluate their ability to distinguish between benign and malignant endometrium.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to create mathematical models to estimate the risk of endometrial malignancy.
  • RESULTS: There were 49 benign and 13 malignant endometria.
  • Endometrial thickness and volume were significantly larger in malignant than in benign endometria, and flow indices in the endometrium and endometrial shell were significantly higher.
  • The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of endometrial thickness was 0.82, that of endometrial volume 0.78, and that of the two best power Doppler variables (VI and VFI in the endometrium) 0.82 and 0.82.
  • The best logistic regression model for predicting malignancy contained the variables endometrial thickness (odds ratio 1.2; 95% CI, 1.04-1.30; P = 0.004) and VI in the endometrial 'shell' (odds ratio 1.1; 95% CI, 1.02-1.23; P = 0.01).
  • Using its mathematically optimal risk cut-off value (0.22), the model correctly classified seven more benign cases but two fewer malignant cases than the best endometrial thickness cut-off (11.8 mm).
  • Models containing endometrial volume and flow indices performed less well than did endometrial thickness alone (AUC, 0.79 vs. 0.82).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium of 3D ultrasound imaging was not superior to that of endometrial thickness as measured by 2D ultrasound examination, and 3D power Doppler imaging added little to endometrial thickness or volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endometrium / ultrasonography. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19902471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Opolskiene G, Sladkevicius P, Valentin L: Ultrasound assessment of endometrial morphology and vascularity to predict endometrial malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Sep;30(3):332-40
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  • [Title] Ultrasound assessment of endometrial morphology and vascularity to predict endometrial malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine which endometrial morphology characteristics as assessed by gray-scale ultrasound and which endometrial vessel characteristics as assessed by power Doppler ultrasound are useful for discriminating between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm and to develop logistic regression models to calculate the individual risk of endometrial malignancy in women with PMB, endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm, good visibility of the endometrium and detectable Doppler signals in the endometrium.
  • METHODS: Of 223 consecutive patients with PMB and sonographic endometrial thickness >or= 4.5 mm, 120 fulfilled our inclusion criteria.
  • They independently assessed endometrial morphology and vascularity using predetermined criteria.
  • Their agreed-upon description was compared with the histological diagnosis.
  • Inter-observer agreement for the description of endometrial morphology and vascularity was moderate to good (Kappa 0.49-0.78).
  • The best ultrasound variables to predict malignancy were heterogeneous endometrial echogenicity (AUC 0.83), endometrial thickness (AUC 0.80), and irregular branching of endometrial blood vessels (AUC 0.77).
  • A logistic regression model including endometrial thickness and heterogeneous endometrial echogenicity had an AUC of 0.91.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In selected high-risk women with PMB and an endometrial thickness of >or= 4.5 mm, calculation of the individual risk of endometrial malignancy using regression models including gray-scale and Doppler characteristics can be used to tailor management.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endometrium / ultrasonography. Postmenopause. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Vessels / pathology. Blood Vessels / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17688304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Tanabe K, Matsumoto M, Ikematsu S, Nagase S, Hatakeyama A, Takano T, Niikura H, Ito K, Kadomatsu K, Hayashi S, Yaegashi N: Midkine and its clinical significance in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Sci; 2008 Jun;99(6):1125-30
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  • [Title] Midkine and its clinical significance in endometrial carcinoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether MK was expressed in endometrial carcinoma and to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of serum MK in patients with endometrial carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical expression of MK was evaluated in 85 endometrial carcinoma samples and 33 controls.
  • MK expression was significantly higher in the carcinomas than in normal endometrium (P < 0.001).
  • Interestingly, MK expression was highest at the margins of invasion and low in the superficial areas of the tumor samples.
  • Using ELISA, we compared serum MK concentration in 120 endometrial carcinoma patients with the concentration in 46 patients with benign gynecologic tumors.
  • Serum MK value in patients with cancer was significantly higher than that in the patients with benign diseases (P = 0.01).
  • In conclusion, MK immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinoma is significantly higher than in normal endometrium.
  • Thus, MK may be a useful serum biomarker for identifying high risk patients of endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18422745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MDK protein, human; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors
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6. Norimatsu Y, Miyamoto T, Kobayashi TK, Oda T, Moriya T, Yanoh K, Miyake Y, Ohno E: Utility of thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology: immunocytochemical expression of PTEN, beta-catenin and p53 for benign endometrial lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Apr;36(4):216-23
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  • [Title] Utility of thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology: immunocytochemical expression of PTEN, beta-catenin and p53 for benign endometrial lesions.
  • This article focuses on the characteristic features of morphology and molecular biology of PTEN, beta-catenin, and p53 immunocytochemistry in normal endometrium (proliferative, secretory, and atrophic) and endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD) using thin-layer specimens.
  • During a 6-month period, 120 endometrial samples were collected directly using the Uterobrush and a thin-layer specimen was prepared.
  • Immunocytochemical expression of PTEN, beta-catenin, and p53 were investigated using 30 cases each of proliferative endometrium (PE), secretory endometrium (SE), atrophic endometrium (AE), and EGBD.PTEN expression of normal endometrial glandular epithelial cells changes with the hormonal status; PE produce very high expression, SE creates attenuation or disappearance of PTEN expression and AE diminished more in comparison with SE.
  • In the current study, the expression manner of PTEN, beta-catenin, and p53 immunocytochemistry was observed in the normal endometrium (PE, SE, and AE) and EGBD.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / cytology. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Neoplasm / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18335551.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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7. Takeuchi M, Matsuzaki K, Nishitani H: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of endometrial cancer: differentiation from benign endometrial lesions and preoperative assessment of myometrial invasion. Acta Radiol; 2009 Oct;50(8):947-53
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  • [Title] Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of endometrial cancer: differentiation from benign endometrial lesions and preoperative assessment of myometrial invasion.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, and benign endometrial hyperplasia or polyps should be differentiated from endometrial cancer.
  • In evaluating endometrial cancer on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the assessment of the depth of myometrial invasion is important because it closely correlates with the patient's prognosis.
  • PURPOSE: To verify the feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) to distinguish benign and malignant endometrial lesions, and to evaluate myometrial invasion of endometrial cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-seven endometrial lesions including 45 cancers and 22 benign lesions (hyperplasia and polyps) were evaluated by DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement.
  • The staging accuracies of DWI and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images in the assessment of myometrial invasion were evaluated in 33 patients with endometrial cancer.
  • RESULTS: The ADC values (x10(-3) mm(2)/s) in cancer and benign lesions were 0.84+/-0.19 and 1.58+/-0.36, respectively (P<0.01).
  • Coexisting adenomyosis and infiltrative myometrial invasion caused staging errors on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images, whereas DWI could demonstrate the tumor extent correctly.
  • CONCLUSION: DWI provides helpful information in evaluating benign and malignant endometrial lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Feasibility Studies. Female. Gadolinium. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19724949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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8. Balasenthil S, Broaddus RR, Kumar R: Expression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in benign endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jun;37(6):656-61
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  • [Title] Expression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in benign endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies of the female genital tract.
  • MTA1 expression has been demonstrated in various cancers but has never been explored in endometrial carcinoma.
  • We investigated the expression profile of MTA1 in different stages of benign endometrium as well as in endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.
  • Western blot analysis of 6 tumor specimens showed increased expression of MTA1 in all the tumors analyzed.
  • Immunohistochemical staining performed on tumor microarray containing 70 endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas of various grades showed increased expression of MTA1 in 53 (75.7%) tumors.
  • Our results suggest a potential role of MTA1 in endometrial carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Gene Expression. Histone Deacetylases / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16733204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 098823
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
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9. Karpf EF, Poetsch B, Langner C, Nogales FF, Regauer S: Endometrial stromal nodule embedded into term placenta. APMIS; 2007 Nov;115(11):1302-5
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  • [Title] Endometrial stromal nodule embedded into term placenta.
  • A 28-year-old patient presented with a 5 cm endometrial stromal tumor situated at the uteroplacental interface, which was diagnosed ultrasonographically at the 28th week of pregnancy.
  • The tumor was asymptomatic and closely attached to the decidua; after a normal term delivery, it was revealed to be embedded within the placenta.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm had a high mitotic rate and characteristic features of endometrial stromal tumor, such as CD10, progesterone receptor positivity, and an expansile linear, non-infiltrative pushing border.
  • In conclusion, the lesion was considered a benign endometrial stromal nodule with an unusual morphology and increased proliferation rate due to the hormonal stimuli of pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / ultrasonography. Placenta / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18092965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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10. Ni Bhriain H, Trovik J, Wik E, Stefansson IM, Akslen LA, Salvesen HB, Staff AC: Plasma calprotectin concentrations in women with endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):491-5
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  • [Title] Plasma calprotectin concentrations in women with endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of circulating markers to predict disease outcome, therapy effect and monitoring for disease recurrence in endometrial cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to explore whether plasma concentration of the inflammatory marker calprotectin is elevated in endometrial cancer and related to clinical parameters.
  • METHODS: Calprotectin in EDTA-plasma samples from women with primary endometrial carcinoma (n=194), from healthy premenopausal (n=20) and postmenopausal (n=20) women was analyzed with ELISA.
  • RESULTS: Median plasma calprotectin concentration was elevated in the patient group of endometrial cancer (3415 microg/L) as compared to the healthy premenopausal (832 microg/L) and postmenopausal groups (868 microg/L), both p<0.001.
  • Also, median calprotectin concentration was elevated in the endometrial cancer group as compared to women with invasive ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and benign ovarian tumors.
  • Calprotectin plasma concentration correlated significantly with poor survival and high FIGO stage in endometrial carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Calprotectin is elevated in plasma of women with endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. ROC Curve. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19577278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
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11. Haj Salah MB, Mekni A, Ines C, Haha Bellil SB, Bellil K, Kchir N, Haouet S, Zaouari F, Zitouna M: [Endometrial adenosarcoma with rhabdomyoblastic differenciation]. Tunis Med; 2007 Oct;85(10):899-901

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  • [Title] [Endometrial adenosarcoma with rhabdomyoblastic differenciation].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenosarcome endometrial avec differenciation rhabdomyoblastique.
  • BACKGROUND: Mixed mullerian tumours are uncommon endometrial neoplasms that are composed by a combination of mesencymal elements and epithelial elements.
  • Adenosarcoma is composed of benign glandular elements and sarcomatous, usually low-grade, stromal elements.
  • AIM: We report a case of an endometrial adenosarcoma in a 59-year-old woman.
  • Clinicopathological caracteristics and the etiopathogeny of this uncommun neoplasm will be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18236817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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12. Czekierdowski A, Czekierdowska S, Czuba B, Cnota W, Sodowski K, Kotarski J, Zwirska-Korczala K: Microvessel density assessment in benign and malignant endometrial changes. J Physiol Pharmacol; 2008 Sep;59 Suppl 4:45-51

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  • [Title] Microvessel density assessment in benign and malignant endometrial changes.
  • Tumor angiogenesis is believed to be a prognostic indicator associated with tumor growth and metastasis.
  • Microvessel density (MVD) assessment with common endothelial markers such as CD34 has been found to influence prognosis among endometrial carcinoma patients.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantification of angiogenesis by assessing MVD in endometrial lesions when comparing the performance of anti-CD34 and anti-CD105 in women with benign and malignant endometrial changes.
  • The study included 58 women (37 postmenopausal) with normal, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium in which preoperative transvaginal sonography was performed.
  • Histological results of the removed endometrium were correlated with MVD assessed in "hot areas" where high densities of microvessels were detected within tumoral tissue.
  • Endometrial cancer was confirmed in 37 women (3 premenopausal).
  • Benign hyperplasia (14 cases), secretory or proliferative endometrium (5 cases) or endometrial atrophy (2 cases) was found in the remaining women.
  • Median MVD assessed with CD34 was almost twice higher in women with endometrial cancer than in women with benign endometrium (CD34 MVD = 41.8 vs. 27.6, p=0.004).
  • In cases of CD105 MVD significant differences between women with benign and malignant endometrial changes were also found (CD105 MVD = 11.8, vs. 6.4; p=0.00007).
  • In conclusion, transition from endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial cancer appears to be accompanied by microvessel density changes.
  • MVD assessed with both CD34 and CD105 antibodies could be used as a potential prognostic factor in women with endometrial cancer.
  • Our study showed that endoglin, by staining the proliferating microvessels could be more specific and sensitive marker for tumor neoangiogenesis than the more commonly used marker, CD34.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood supply. Microvessels. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptors, Cell Surface / analysis. Receptors, Cell Surface / biosynthesis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18955753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1899-1505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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13. Sobczuk A, Wrona M, Pertyński T: [New views on hyperplastic endometrial lesions classification--endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 Dec;78(12):986-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [New views on hyperplastic endometrial lesions classification--endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)].
  • The aim of the study was to present a new EIN classification of premalignant endometrial lesions.
  • The diagnosis of precancerous disease of the endometrium remains non-standardized because the most widely used World Health Organisation classification is a poorly reproducible system, which does not specify objective architectural criteria for each category of hyperplasia and does not correspond to an appropriate clinical management (undertreatment, overtreatment of the lesions).
  • The new proposed EIN diagnostic schema, based on integrated morphological, genetic molecular, objective histomorphometric (D-score) and clinical outcome studies, divides endometrial lesions into three categories: benign hyperplasia, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Endometrial Hyperplasia / classification. Endometrial Neoplasms / classification. Precancerous Conditions / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18411925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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14. Magrina JF: Outcomes of laparoscopic treatment for endometrial cancer. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Aug;17(4):343-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of laparoscopic treatment for endometrial cancer.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laparoscopy has become the standard approach for the surgical management of a variety of benign gynecological conditions.
  • Numerous studies have reported their findings on the laparoscopic approach for the treatment of patients with endometrial cancer.
  • SUMMARY: The open abdominal approach is an alternative to laparoscopy for the surgical treatment of patients with early endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Quality of Life. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15976538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-872X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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15. Takeuchi M, Matsuzaki K, Uehara H, Yoshida S, Nishitani H, Shimazu H: Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol; 2005 Nov;15(11):2244-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • The endometrial cavity may demonstrate various imaging manifestations such as normal, reactive, inflammatory, and benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • We evaluated usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the uterine endometrial cavity, and described the diagnostic clues to differential diagnoses.
  • Surgically proven pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity were evaluated retrospectively with pathologic correlation.
  • The pathologies included benign endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial hyperplasia and polyp, malignant endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial carcinoma and carcinosarcoma, endometrial-myometrial neoplasm such as endometrial stromal sarcoma, pregnancy-related lesions in the endometrial cavity such as gestational trophoblastic diseases (hydatidiform mole, invasive mole and choriocarcinoma) and placental polyp, myometrial lesions simulating endometrial lesions such as submucosal leiomyoma and some adenomyosis, endometrial neoplasms simulating myometrial lesions such as adenomyomatous polyp and endometrial lesions arising in the hemicavity of a septate/bicornate uterus, and fluid collections in the uterine cavity (hydro/hemato/pyometra).
  • It is important to recognize various imaging findings in these diseases, in order to make a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 Sep;173(3):767-72 [10470920.001]
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  • (PMID = 16228215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Duan H, Li W, Zhang Y, Zhao X, Xia EL: [Study on the peritoneal dissemination of endometrial cells during hysteroscopy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;42(2):99-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Study on the peritoneal dissemination of endometrial cells during hysteroscopy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study prospectively the likelihood and the affecting factors of endometrial cell dissemination into the peritoneal cavity during hysteroscopic procedures.
  • METHODS: A total of 121 patients with benign endometrial pathology underwent hysteroscopy combined with laparoscopy.
  • We collected the peritoneal washings and analyzed the peritoneal cytology changes in both groups pre- and post-hysteroscopy, as well as the dissemination rate related to the time of hysteroscopy, the intrauterine distention pressure, the volume of distention media, and the feature of endometrial conditions.
  • RESULTS: The ratio of positive endometrial cells in the peritoneal washings of post-hysteroscopy group was 51.2% (62/121), which was significantly higher than pre-hysteroscopy group, 38.0% (46/121) (P < 0.01).
  • However, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the total volume of distention media, the distention pressure, and the endometrial feature (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hysteroscopic procedures may have a risk of disseminating the endometrial cells into peritoneal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / pathology. Hysteroscopy / adverse effects. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / adverse effects. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Seeding. Peritoneal Cavity / cytology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Therapeutic Irrigation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17442183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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17. Monaco E 3rd, Kondziolka D, Mongia S, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Management of brain metastases from ovarian and endometrial carcinoma with stereotactic radiosurgery. Cancer; 2008 Nov 1;113(9):2610-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of brain metastases from ovarian and endometrial carcinoma with stereotactic radiosurgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastases to the brain from ovarian and endometrial carcinoma are uncommon and to the authors' knowledge consensus regarding optimal management is lacking.
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has proven useful for the treatment of many benign and malignant brain tumors.
  • In the current study, the authors evaluated outcomes after SRS in patients with ovarian and endometrial carcinoma.
  • Six patients had endometrial carcinoma, whereas 21 patients had ovarian carcinoma.
  • The median survival was 7 months after the initial diagnosis of brain metastasis and 5 months after SRS.
  • The 1-year survival rate after radiosurgery was 15% and that from the diagnosis of brain metastases was 22%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SRS is an acceptable choice for the treatment of brain metastases resulting from ovarian and endometrial carcinoma, and provides local tumor control with limited morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cranial Irradiation. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18780313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Yang X, Dong Y, Zhao J, Sun H, Deng Y, Fan J, Yan Q: Increased expression of human macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) is associated with the invasion of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(7):499-505

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased expression of human macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) is associated with the invasion of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • To evaluate the association between the expression of human macrophage metalloelastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12, MMP-12) with cancer invasion and differentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma, specimens from endometrial adenocarcinoma (n=61) of diverse stages and histologic types were collected from patients having undergone hysterectomy, and specimens from normal endometrium (n=38) were obtained from patients with benign diseases.
  • The positive rate of MMP-12 was significantly increased in endometrial adenocarcinoma (81.97%) as compared with that in normal endometrium (13.16%).
  • The results showed that expression of MMP-12 correlated with stage (p=0.022) and grade (p=0.018) of endometrial cancer.
  • MMP-12 immunoreactive proteins were found mainly on the glandular epithelial cells of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The macrophage infiltration detected by CD68 immunohistochemical staining in endometrial adenocarcinoma was also higher than that in normal endometrium.
  • In this study, we show that in addition to macrophages, endometrial adenocarcinoma cells are able to express MMP-12.
  • Our results suggest that MMP-12 is an important oncogene in high-stage and high-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 12 / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Macrophages / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17574772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 3.4.24.65 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 12
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19. McKenney JK, Longacre TA: Low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma: a diagnostic algorithm for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia and other benign (and malignant) mimics. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Jan;16(1):1-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma: a diagnostic algorithm for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia and other benign (and malignant) mimics.
  • The distinction between endometrial hyperplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium continues to be a difficult differential diagnosis in surgical pathology.
  • Evidence-based diagnostic criteria for well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma focus on histologic features that predict myoinvasion in the hysterectomy specimen.
  • Application of these 2 criteria in problematic endometrial proliferations allows stratification of patients into 3 risk categories: very low risk (< 0.05% risk of myoinvasion at hysterectomy)=complex atypical hyperplasia; intermediate risk (5.5% risk of myoinvasion at hysterectomy)=complex atypical hyperplasia, cannot exclude well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (borderline); and high risk (20% risk of myoinvasion at hysterectomy)=well-differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, unusual morphologic patterns of low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma should be recognized, as they may cause confusion with other, higher grade (and therefore, more clinically aggressive) endometrial processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Uterine Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cell Division. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Kinetics. Metaplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 19098463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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20. Kefeli M, Gonullu G, Can B, Malatyalioglu E, Kandemir B: Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):343-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature.
  • SUMMARY: Polyps are the most common benign lesions in the endometrium.
  • Metastasis to the endometrial polyp from a distant primary tumor is rare.
  • Breast carcinoma is the most frequent extragenital cancer that metastasizes to the endometrial polyp.
  • We report the case of a 63-year-old with metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma involving endometrial polyps detected by endometrial curetting.
  • After this diagnosis, bone metastases were detected during radiologic screening.
  • Gastrointestinal tumor metastasis to an endometrial polyp is a very rare event, but if a patient with a known primary extragenital tumor has abnormal vaginal bleeding, the possibility of metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19483630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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21. Ahn HJ, Bae J, Lee S, Ko JE, Yoon S, Kim SJ, Sakuragi N: Differential expression of clusterin according to histological type of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Aug;110(2):222-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of clusterin according to histological type of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Endometrial carcinoma is divided into endometrioid and papillary serous type carcinoma according to the histological characteristics and regarding to the unopposed estrogenic stimulation.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of clusterin according to the histological types and the effect of estrogen stimulation on its expression in endometrial carcinoma.
  • METHOD: Clusterin expression in endometrial carcinoma tissues was examined by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry.
  • The mRNA and protein expressions of clusterin in endometrioid carcinoma were higher than in benign endometrium (p=0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that clusterin expression is related to endometrioid carcinoma of endometrium, in which estrogen is involved in the regulatory network of clusterin.
  • [MeSH-major] Clusterin / biosynthesis. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Estradiol / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stimulation, Chemical

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  • (PMID = 18514801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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22. Walsh C, Holschneider C, Hoang Y, Tieu K, Karlan B, Cass I: Coexisting ovarian malignancy in young women with endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Oct;106(4):693-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Coexisting ovarian malignancy in young women with endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: In premenopausal women with endometrial cancer, ovarian preservation may be a consideration.
  • METHODS: With institutional review board approval, a retrospective chart review was conducted of young women with endometrial cancer identified at 4 affiliated institutions from 1996 to 2004.
  • RESULTS: Among 102 young women (aged 24-45 years) who underwent hysterectomy for endometrial cancer, 26 (25%) were found to have coexisting epithelial ovarian tumors: 23 were classified as synchronous primaries, and 3 as metastases.
  • Among the 26 cases of coexisting ovarian involvement, 12 (46%) had grade 1 endometrial cancer on preoperative biopsy, 4 (15%) had normal preoperative imaging of the adnexa, and 4 (15%) had benign-appearing ovaries at the time of intraoperative assessment.
  • On final pathology, 18 of 26 cases (69%) occurred in patients with grade 1 endometrial cancers, and 15 (58%) occurred with inner myometrial invasion.
  • Our study further highlights the risk of conservative management with 1 case of ovarian cancer diagnosed 9 months after hysterectomy with ovarian conservation for a stage IA, grade 1 endometrial cancer and a case of advanced endometrial cancer metastatic to the ovaries developing 3 years after successful resolution of a grade 1 endometrial cancer treated with megestrol acetate (Megace).
  • CONCLUSION: Careful preoperative and intraoperative assessment of the adnexa is mandatory in young women with endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Oct;106(4):680-1 [16199620.001]
  • (PMID = 16199623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Opolskiene G, Sladkevicius P, Valentin L: Two- and three-dimensional saline contrast sonohysterography: interobserver agreement, agreement with hysteroscopy and diagnosis of endometrial malignancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2009 May;33(5):574-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Two- and three-dimensional saline contrast sonohysterography: interobserver agreement, agreement with hysteroscopy and diagnosis of endometrial malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to compare the interobserver reproducibility of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) and agreement of these techniques with hysteroscopy, and to determine which SCSH findings best discriminate between benign and malignant endometrium.
  • METHODS: Consecutive women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness > or = 4.5 mm underwent 2D and 3D SCSH; the results were videotaped and stored electronically, respectively, for analysis by two independent experienced examiners who were blinded to each other's results.
  • A histological diagnosis was obtained by dilatation and curettage, hysteroscopic resection or hysterectomy.
  • RESULTS: Of 170 consecutive women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness > or = 4.5 mm, 84 (14 with endometrial malignancy) fulfilled our inclusion criteria.
  • Hysteroscopy findings in 54 women (one with endometrial malignancy) were used to determine agreement with SCSH.
  • The SCSH finding that best discriminated between benign and malignant endometrium was the presence of focal lesion(s) with irregular surface (for 2D SCSH: sensitivity 71%, specificity 97%, positive likelihood ratio 25, negative likelihood ratio 0.3; for 3D SCSH: sensitivity 43%, specificity 97%, positive likelihood ratio 15, negative likelihood ratio 0.6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: 3D SCSH does not seem to be superior to 2D SCSH when performed by experienced ultrasound examiners either with regard to reproducibility, agreement with hysteroscopy findings or diagnosis of endometrial malignancy.
  • The presence of focal lesion(s) with irregular surface is the best SCSH variable for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endometrium / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Endosonography / methods. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Hysteroscopy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Postmenopause. Reproducibility of Results. Uterine Hemorrhage / pathology. Uterine Hemorrhage / surgery. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19360790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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24. Zheng W, Yi X, Fadare O, Liang SX, Martel M, Schwartz PE, Jiang Z: The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Feb;32(2):304-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma.
  • Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein highly expressed in fetal tissue and malignant tumors but rarely found in adult benign tissues.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the expression of IMP3 in benign endometrium, endometrial cancer, and its precursor lesions, trying to see whether IMP3 has any diagnostic usage.
  • Two hundred ninety-eight endometrial samples were examined for IMP3 expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • These included benign endometrium (n=68), atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (n=35), endometrial glandular dysplasia (n=21), endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (n=18), endometrioid carcinoma (n=70), mucinous carcinoma (n=8), serous carcinoma (n=51), clear cell carcinoma (n=12), and other malignancies (n=15).
  • Maturational patterns in the 68 benign endometrial samples included atrophic (n=12), proliferative (n=18), secretory (n=14), menstrual (n=8), and gestational (n=16).
  • Most of the carcinomas were histologically pure; where mixed, the second component constituted <10% of the total tumor volume.
  • Among the malignant cases, IMP3 expression was predominantly found in endometrial serous carcinoma and its putative precursor lesions, with 3 (14%) of 21 endometrial glandular dysplasia, 16 (89%) of 18 serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, and 48 (94%) of 51 serous carcinomas (P<0.001).
  • In contrast, the frequency of IMP3 expression was significantly lesser in nonserous malignancies with 0 (0%) of 35, 5 (7%) of 70, 0 (0%) of 8, 3 (25%) of 12, and 5 (33%) of 15 positive expression rates in atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell carcinomas, and other malignancies, respectively.
  • Among the benign endometrial samples, decidualized endometrial stroma showed 100% positivity for IMP3.
  • We conclude that expression of IMP3, a newly identified cytoplasmic marker, is closely associated with type II endometrial cancer.
  • It seems that IMP3 expression is associated with an aggressive histologic phenotype among endometrial neoplastic lesions.
  • Strong and diffuse IMP3 expression is highly sensitive for endometrial serous and clear cell carcinomas including their putative precursor lesions.
  • Therefore, IMP3 may be a useful diagnostic marker in the assessment of endometrial cancers and their precursor lesions, particularly when the amount of available tissue material is limited and a concern of type II cancer arises.
  • High frequency of IMP3 expression is present in decidualized endometrial stroma of gestational endometrium and chorionic villi in early pregnancy.
  • Although the significance of the latter finding remains unclear, the differential diagnosis between decidual changes and endometrial serous carcinoma is rarely problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Cytoplasm / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18223334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA23074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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25. Ma XX, Zhang SL, Gao S, Lu JM, Dong F: [Expressions of aromatase protein and sex hormone receptor in endometrial lesions]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;41(6):395-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expressions of aromatase protein and sex hormone receptor in endometrial lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of aromatase protein, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation Ki67 in endometrial diseases and their clinical significance in diagnosis and endocrine therapy of endometrial diseases.
  • METHOD: Expressions of aromatase, ER, PR and Ki-67 were detected with immunohistochemistry technic (streptavidin-peroxidase-biotin, SP) in 148 cases including 30 of endometrial hyperplasia, 30 of atypical proliferation and 88 of endometrial adenocarcinoma as observational group and 15 cases of proliferative endometrium and 15 cases of secretory endometrium as control group.
  • RESULTS: Expression of aromatase protein and ER, PR, Ki67 in endometrial hyperplasia, atypical proliferation had no significant difference comparing with the proliferative endometrium group (P > 0.05).
  • In endometrial adenocarcinoma, the expression of aromatase protein increased obviously (64%, 56/88), which was higher than in benign diseases [atypical proliferation group was 23% (7/30), endometrial hyperplasia group was 13% (4/30)] and control group significantly (P < 0.01).
  • The positive expression of ER, PR in endometrial adenocarcinoma decreased [22% (19/88), 19% (17/88)], and Ki67 increased (41%, 36/88) and there was a significant difference compared with control group (P < 0.01).
  • Aromatase was not consistent with ER, PR and Ki67 in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Aromatase protein is related to the incidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma, and the expression of proteins (aromatase, ER, PR and Ki67) provides theoretical basis for understanding biological behavior of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16831363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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26. Dietz NK, Rehn M, Thanner F, Dietl J: [Diagnostic and preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma with transvaginal sonography--a review]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2006 Oct;128(5):246-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnostic and preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma with transvaginal sonography--a review].
  • Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract.
  • Endometrial thickness (double layer) is measured by transvaginal sonography.
  • The cut-off value in patients with postmenopausal bleeding is still controversial, although in patients with endometrial thickness below 4 mm (or 5 mm respectively), malignancy can be excluded with high probability.
  • If the endometrium measures more than 4 mm (or more than 5 mm respectively) or the patient presents with continuous bleeding, hysteroscopy and curettage should be performed in order to obtain histologic diagnosis.
  • Sonographic findings like structure and demarcation of the endometrium increase diagnostic specificity only when combined with the measurement of endometrial thickness.
  • Measuring the fluid within the uterine cavity does not seem to be useful in differentiating malignant from benign disorders.
  • The extent of surgery depends on the preoperative estimation of the tumor stage which is particularly important for elder patients with increased morbidity.
  • This article on transvaginal ultrasound reviews current data on the method's capacity to identify endometrial cancer and to diagnose the depth of invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17001559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4197
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Gynakol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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27. Ray K, Rocconi RP, Novak L, Straughn JM Jr: Recurrence of endometrial adenocarcinoma in a prior Bartholin's cyst marsupialization incision. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Nov;103(2):749-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrence of endometrial adenocarcinoma in a prior Bartholin's cyst marsupialization incision.
  • BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer recurrences in surgical incisions are rare and thought to be due to seeding of the area with microscopic disease at the time of original surgery.
  • CASE: A 53-year-old woman underwent a dual procedure of a marsupialization of a benign bartholin's cyst with a hysteroscopic dilation and curettage for postmenopausal bleeding and received the diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Final pathology from subsequent hysterectomy and staging procedure demonstrated a surgical Stage IB Grade 1 endometrial cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: This case represents the only described endometrial cancer recurrence in a Bartholin's gland which was contaminated at the time of the original hysteroscopy and dilation and curettage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Seeding

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  • (PMID = 16842845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Manolis T, Lee YC, Temkin S, Hellman M, Nacharaju VL, Abulafia O: NAD dependent 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human endometrium and endometrial tumors. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2006;62(2):103-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] NAD dependent 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human endometrium and endometrial tumors.
  • The role of these enzymes in malignancies of human endometrium is unknown.
  • We compare NAD dependent 11beta-HSD (type 2) activity levels among normal human endometrium and endometrial carcinomas of differing grades and histologies.
  • METHODS: NAD dependent 11beta-HSD activity was determined in endometrial tissue obtained from patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign or malignant disease (endometroid, serous and carcinosarcomas).
  • RESULTS: NAD dependent 11beta-HSD activity was present in all endometrial samples.
  • The activities were 0.61+/- 0.27 in normal (n = 9), 0.43 +/- 0.29 in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (n = 14), 0.50 +/- 0.26 in uterine serous carcinoma (n = 6) and 0.25 +/- 0.37 in carcinosarcomas (n = 9).
  • NAD dependent 11beta-HSD activity was lower in the carcinosarcoma group as compared to normal endometrial tissue (p = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: NAD dependent type 2 11beta-HSD activity was demonstrated in all normal and endometrial tumors.
  • Enzyme activity in endometroid and uterine serious carcinoma tumors was similar to enzyme activity in normal endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 / metabolism. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinosarcoma / enzymology. Endometrial Neoplasms / enzymology. Endometrium / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16645302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-7346
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2
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29. Folkins AK, Nevadunsky NS, Saleemuddin A, Jarboe EA, Muto MG, Feltmate CM, Crum CP, Hirsch MS: Evaluation of vascular space involvement in endometrial adenocarcinomas: laparoscopic vs abdominal hysterectomies. Mod Pathol; 2010 Aug;23(8):1073-9
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  • [Title] Evaluation of vascular space involvement in endometrial adenocarcinomas: laparoscopic vs abdominal hysterectomies.
  • Recent reports have described 'vascular pseudoinvasion' in total laparoscopic hysterectomies with endometrial carcinoma.
  • Reports from 58 robotically assisted laparoscopic and 39 abdominal hysterectomies with grade 1 or 2 endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas were reviewed for stage, depth of invasion, vascular space involvement, uterine weight, and lymph node metastases.
  • In addition, attention was given to possible procedural artifacts, including vertical endomyometrial clefts, and inflammatory debris, benign endometrial glands, and disaggregated tumor cells in vascular spaces.
  • Disaggregated intravascular tumor cells were significantly associated with reported vascular involvement in both procedures (P-values<0.001 and 0.016), most of which were corroborated on review.
  • [MeSH-major] Artifacts. Blood Vessels / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood supply. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood supply. Hysterectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organ Size

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  • (PMID = 20473276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Dowdy SC, Mariani A, Reinholz MM, Keeney GL, Spelsberg TC, Podratz KC, Janknecht R: Overexpression of the TGF-beta antagonist Smad7 in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Feb;96(2):368-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overexpression of the TGF-beta antagonist Smad7 in endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: We have shown that HER2/Neu may activate the Smad7 promoter in endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer cell lines.
  • Elevated Smad7 levels could then antagonize the TGF-beta pathway, leading to a reduction in tumor surveillance and potential cancer formation.
  • Our aim was to determine if Smad7 was in fact overexpressed in endometrial cancers and whether Smad7 RNA levels correlated with tumor grade or clinical endpoints.
  • METHODS: Snap-frozen endometrial cancer specimens from 16 patients with grade 1 disease and 23 patients with grade 3 disease were obtained.
  • Additionally, the endometrium from 18 patients who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications was collected as a control.
  • CONCLUSION: Smad7 appears to be upregulated in endometrial cancers compared to normal endometrium.
  • Given that many endometrial cancers have been shown to be TGF-beta-unresponsive, Smad7 should be investigated as a potential target to restore TGF-beta responsiveness and limit tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis. Transforming Growth Factor beta / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoskeletal Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Middle Aged. Phosphorylation. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Smad2 Protein. Smad3 Protein. Smad7 Protein. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 15661223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 085257
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / SMAD2 protein, human; 0 / SMAD3 protein, human; 0 / SMAD7 protein, human; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Smad7 Protein; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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31. Yilmaz I, Baloglu H, Haholu A, Berber U, Yildirim S, Ergur AR: Objective risk definition for endometrial lesion spectrum: a diagnostic algorithm. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 May;105(2):451-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Objective risk definition for endometrial lesion spectrum: a diagnostic algorithm.
  • OBJECTIVE: Investigations for risk definition in endometrial lesion spectrum still go on.
  • In this study, molecular, morphometric, immunohistochemical techniques were combined with conventional morphology to realize whether an algorithm is definable for risk assessment to progress an invasive carcinoma in endometrial glandular lesion spectrum is possible.
  • METHODS: The study was carried out on 20 benign endometria, 35 hyperplasias, and 20 adenocarcinoma cases.
  • Clonality of glandular cells, the volume percent of endometrial stroma (VPS), PTEN inactivation, and proliferative index (PI) were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: All benign tissues had polyclonal (PC), whereas all malignant tissues had monoclonal (MC) glandular epithelium.
  • CONCLUSION: Clonality and VPS values were found to be significant in differential of endometrial lesions.
  • With this rationale, a diagnostic algorithm for endometrial risk lesions was set.
  • This algorithm is based on HE morphology, VPS and clonality findings, and has 100% sensitivity and specificity to discriminate neoplastic endometrium from hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / biosynthesis. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Array Analysis


32. Coosemans A, Moerman P, Verbist G, Maes W, Neven P, Vergote I, Van Gool SW, Amant F: Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Dec;111(3):502-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) in endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Wilms' tumor gene (WT1), located on chromosome 11, encodes a transcription factor that contributes to the carcinogenesis of uterine sarcomas.
  • To expand the knowledge on the biological role of WT1 in other uterine cancers, we focused on its detection in endometrial carcinoma.
  • METHODS: In total, 36 paraffin-embedded tumors were available for WT1 immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis including endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (n=24), serous carcinoma (n=9) and clear cell carcinoma (n=3).
  • Three slides from different sites of the tumor were analysed.
  • To compare, WT1 expression was also evaluated by IHC in benign endometrium (12) and benign endometrial polyps (5).
  • RESULTS: WT1 positivity was noticed in tumor cells and endothelial cells, lining the intratumoral blood vessels.
  • Comparing the staining patterns of the 3 different bioptic sites, tumor heterogeneity was demonstrated in the majority (72%) of samples.
  • CONCLUSION: Although WT1 is expressed in a majority of endometrial carcinomas, a heterogeneous staining pattern is observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Wilms Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Aged. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis. WT1 Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18929401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / WT1 Proteins
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33. Junqueira MG, da Silva ID, Nogueira-de-Souza NC, Carvalho CV, Leite DB, Gomes MT, Baracat EC, Lopes LA, Nicolau SM, Gonçalves WJ: Progesterone receptor (PROGINS) polymorphism and the risk of endometrial cancer development. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Jan-Feb;17(1):229-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Progesterone receptor (PROGINS) polymorphism and the risk of endometrial cancer development.
  • The progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS) has been identified as a risk modifier for benign and malignant gynecological diseases.
  • The present case-control study is to evaluate the role of the PROGINS polymorphisms, as risk factor, for endometrial cancer development and to investigate the association between these genetics variants and clinical/pathologic variables of endometrial cancer.
  • PROGINS polymorphism was examined in a total of 121 patients with endometrial cancer and 282 population-based control subjects, all located at the same area in São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
  • The frequencies of PROGINS polymorphism T1/T1, T1/T2, and T2/T2 were 82.6%, 14.9%, and 2.5% in the endometrial cancer patients and 78.4%, 21.6%, and 0% in the controls, respectively.
  • The chi(2) test showed a higher incidence of the T2/T2 genotype in the endometrial cancer group subjects, these results were statistically different (P= 0.012).
  • Regarding the clinical and pathologic findings observed within the group of patients with endometrial cancer, there was significant correlation between T1/T2 genotype and the presence of myoma (P= 0.048).
  • These data suggest that the PROGINS polymorphism T2/T2 genotype might be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Progesterone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alleles. Case-Control Studies. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17291258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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34. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • To investigate the potential use of MGB in gynecologic pathology practice, we tested MGB expression by immunohistochemistry on 47 endocervical adenocarcinomas (whole tissue sections of 13 invasive and 35 in situ) and 55 endometrial carcinomas (39 endometrioid and 16 nonendometrioid represented on a single tissue microarray).
  • Nonneoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues were also evaluated for MGB expression.
  • MGB expression was detected in thirty (77%) of 39 of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with 4 (31%) of 13 endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • MGB was mostly negative in nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma (negative in 14 [88%] of 16).
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • These results confirm that MGB is not specific for breast carcinoma, but is also variably expressed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues.
  • Frequent MGB expression in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma is significantly different from nonendometrioid carcinoma.
  • Hormone receptor status is not associated with MGB expression in endometrial carcinomas.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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35. Yi N, Liao QP, Li T, Xiong Y: Novel expression profiles and invasiveness-related biology function of DKK1 in endometrial carcinoma. Oncol Rep; 2009 Jun;21(6):1421-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel expression profiles and invasiveness-related biology function of DKK1 in endometrial carcinoma.
  • In this study, we showed that in benign and malignant endometrium, DKK1 exhibited novel expression profiles and invasiveness-related biology function: DKK1 was expressed in both glandular epithelium and matrix of two kinds of endometrium tissues and mostly distributed in the cytoplasm and epicytes of endometrial carcinoma (EC) Ishikawa cell line.
  • DKK1 expression level in EC was significantly lower than that in benign endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Signal Transduction. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19424619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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36. Friel AM, Zhang L, Curley MD, Therrien VA, Sergent PA, Belden SE, Borger DR, Mohapatra G, Zukerberg LR, Foster R, Rueda BR: Epigenetic regulation of CD133 and tumorigenicity of CD133 positive and negative endometrial cancer cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol; 2010;8:147
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epigenetic regulation of CD133 and tumorigenicity of CD133 positive and negative endometrial cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent data provide significant evidence to support the hypothesis that there are sub-populations of cells within solid tumors that have an increased tumor initiating potential relative to the total tumor population.
  • CD133, a cell surface marker expressed on primitive cells of neural, hematopoietic, endothelial and epithelial lineages has been identified as a marker for tumor initiating cells in solid tumors of the brain, colon, pancreas, ovary and endometrium.
  • Our objectives were to assess the relative level of CD133 expressing cells in primary human endometrial tumors, confirm their tumorigenic potential, and determine whether CD133 expression was epigenetically modified.
  • METHODS: We assessed CD133 expression in primary human endometrial tumors by flow cytometry and analyzed the relative tumorigenicity of CD133+ and CD133- cells in an in vivo NOD/SCID mouse model.
  • We further examined CD133 promoter methylation and expression in normal endometrium and malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: As determined by flow cytometric analysis, the percentage of CD133+ cells in primary human endometrial cancer samples ranged from 5.7% to 27.4%.
  • In addition, we confirmed the tumor initiating potential of CD133+ and CD133- cell fractions in NOD/SCID mice.
  • Interestingly, the percentage of CD133+ cells in human endometrial tumor xenografts, as evidenced by immunofluorescence, increased with serial transplantation although this trend was not consistently detected by flow cytometry.
  • We also determined that the relative levels of CD133 increased in endometrial cancer cell lines following treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine suggesting a role for methylation in the regulation of CD133.
  • To support this finding, we demonstrated that regions of the CD133 promoter were hypomethylated in malignant endometrial tissue relative to benign control endometrial tissue.
  • Lastly, we determined that methylation of the CD133 promoter decreases over serial transplantation of an endometrial tumor xenograft.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypotheses that CD133 expression in endometrial cancer may be epigenetically regulated and that cell fractions enriched for CD133+ cells may well contribute to endometrial cancer tumorigenicity, pathology and recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Epigenomics. Glycoproteins / genetics. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Peptides / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 21122138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7827
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027593
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37. Berry E, Lindheim SR, Connor JP, Hartenbach EM, Schink JC, Harter J, Eickhoff JC, Kushner DM: Sonohysterography and endometrial cancer: incidence and functional viability of disseminated malignant cells. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2008 Sep;199(3):240.e1-8
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  • [Title] Sonohysterography and endometrial cancer: incidence and functional viability of disseminated malignant cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sonohysterography in patients with endometrial cancer and to determine whether (1) transtubal fluid spill occurs during routine sonohysterography, (2) a critical infusion volume for spill exists, or (3) disseminated cancer cells demonstrate viability.
  • STUDY DESIGN: At laparotomy, sonohysterography was performed on 16 patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Two patients (12.5%) had viable benign cells that were cultured after routine sonohysterography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiography. Hysterosalpingography / adverse effects. Hysterosalpingography / methods. Neoplasm Seeding

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  • (PMID = 18456240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Tamai K, Koyama T, Saga T, Kido A, Kataoka M, Umeoka S, Fujii S, Togashi K: MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary. Eur Radiol; 2006 Dec;16(12):2700-11
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  • [Title] MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary.
  • Benign ovarian diseases can also simulate malignancies.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can play an important role in establishing accurate diagnosis.
  • Recognition of clinical settings can help establish diagnosis.
  • In endometrial cysts, MRI usually provides specific diagnosis; however, decidual change during pregnancy should not be confused with secondary neoplasm.
  • Many benign tumors, including teratoma, Brenner tumor, and sex-cord stromal tumor, frequently show characteristic MRI features.
  • Knowledge of MRI features of these conditions is essential in establishing accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Ovary / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16736136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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39. Bellone S, Watts K, Cane' S, Palmieri M, Cannon MJ, Burnett A, Roman JJ, Pecorelli S, Santin AD: High serum levels of interleukin-6 in endometrial carcinoma are associated with uterine serous papillary histology, a highly aggressive and chemotherapy-resistant variant of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):92-8
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  • [Title] High serum levels of interleukin-6 in endometrial carcinoma are associated with uterine serous papillary histology, a highly aggressive and chemotherapy-resistant variant of endometrial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare autocrine expression and production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the resistance to cytotoxic agents and inhibition of anti-tumor immune function in endometrial carcinoma in vitro as well as in vivo.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: IL-6 gene expression levels were evaluated in twenty-four primary endometrial tumors including 14 endometrioid carcinomas (EC) and 10 uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC) as well as in normal control endometrial cells (NEC) by real-time PCR.
  • Secretion of IL-6 protein by 6 primary endometrial tumor cultures including USPC and EC was measured using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in vitro.
  • Finally, IL-6 concentration in 71 serum samples including 20 apparently healthy women, 19 women with benign abdominal diseases, 19 women with primary EC, and 13 USPC patients was studied.
  • IL-6 serum concentrations between normal healthy females (range 0.01-21.23 pg/ml; mean 3.1 pg/ml) and benign disease patients (range 0.01-95.77 pg/ml; mean 13.07 pg/ml) were not statistically different.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Interleukin-6 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15904949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6
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40. Chin J, Konje JC, Hickey M: Levonorgestrel intrauterine system for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer on adjuvant tamoxifen. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2009;(4):CD007245
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  • [Title] Levonorgestrel intrauterine system for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer on adjuvant tamoxifen.
  • Tamoxifen also increases the risk of postmenopausal bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, polyps, and endometrial cancer.
  • The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) causes profound endometrial suppression.
  • This systematic review considered the evidence that the LNG-IUS prevents the development of endometrial pathology in women taking tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in preventing the development of endometrial hyperplasia, polyps, and adenocarcinoma in pre and postmenopausal women taking adjuvant tamoxifen following breast cancer.
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: All reports which described randomised controlled trials of effects of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on the endometrium in breast cancer patients taking adjuvant tamoxifen were obtained through searches of the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009), MEDLINE (1996 to August 2009), EMBASE (1980 to August 2009), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) (1982 to August 2009).
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of women with breast cancer on adjuvant tamoxifen that compared endometrial surveillance or placebo alone versus the LNG-IUS.
  • Women with known endometrial pathology or contraindications to LNG-IUS were excluded.
  • The outcome measures were endometrial pathology (including polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, or adenocarcinoma) diagnosed at hysteroscopy or endometrial biopsy; any reported side effects of treatment; and abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • The LNG-IUS in tamoxifen users led to a significant reduction in the incidence of endometrial polyps (Peto odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.61).
  • Neither trial was sufficiently powered to detect whether LNG-IUS leads to significant changes in the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma in tamoxifen users, nor whether LNG-IUS leads to any increased risk of breast cancer recurrence.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The Mirena LNG-IUS appears to prevent the development of benign endometrial polyps in breast cancer patients taking tamoxifen, over a one-year period.
  • There is no clear evidence from the available randomised controlled trials that LNG-IUS prevents endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma in these patients.
  • Larger studies are necessary to assess the effects of LNG-IUS in preventing endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, and to determine whether LNG-IUS might have an impact on the risk of breast cancer recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Contraceptive Agents, Female / administration & dosage. Endometrial Hyperplasia / prevention & control. Endometrial Neoplasms / prevention & control. Intrauterine Devices, Medicated. Levonorgestrel / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Polyps / chemically induced. Polyps / prevention & control. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Tamoxifen / adverse effects


41. Mandic A, Vujkov T, Novakovic P, Nincic D, Mihajlovic O, Ivkovic-Kapic T: Clinical-sonographic scoring system in noninvasive diagnosis of endometrial cancer. J BUON; 2006 Apr-Jun;11(2):197-204
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  • [Title] Clinical-sonographic scoring system in noninvasive diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: In 90% of all endometrial cancers vaginal bleeding is the leading clinical symptom.
  • The main goal of this study was to examine the clinical-sonographic scoring system as a noninvasive diagnostic method for endometrial cancer.
  • In group A included were patients without endometrial malignancy and in group B were patients with endometrial cancer.
  • RESULTS: Patients with endometrial cancer were older (median age in group B 64.49 years vs. 58.81 in group A), the length of corpus uteri was longer (6.41 cm in group B vs. 5.25 cm in group A), and the postmenopausal period was longer (13.67 years median in group B vs. 9.11 in group A).
  • CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal bleeding caused by endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed in older patients.
  • It was possible to distinguish high-risk patients with neoplasia from those with benign changes of the endometrium using the clinical-sonographic systems ONCO 1.
  • Nevertheless, histopathological examination is still unavoidable for the final diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Ultrasonography / methods. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17318971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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42. Fujii H, Jiang W, Matsumoto T, Miyai K, Sashara K, Ohtsuji N, Hino O: Birt-Hogg-Dubé gene mutations in human endometrial carcinomas with microsatellite instability. J Pathol; 2006 Jul;209(3):328-35
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  • [Title] Birt-Hogg-Dubé gene mutations in human endometrial carcinomas with microsatellite instability.
  • Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a rare form of autosomal dominantly inherited genodermatosis characterized by benign hamartomatous skin lesions named fibrofolliculomas, and an increased risk for developing pulmonary cyst/pneumothorax and various forms of renal cell carcinoma.
  • To test the hypothesis that the BHD gene is also a mutational target in sporadic endometrial carcinoma with microsatellite instability, 139 cases of sporadic endometrial carcinoma were screened for MSI status, and mutations of the poly(C)8 tract in exon 11 as well as other coding exons of the BHD gene.
  • Taken together, these findings show that the BHD gene is a target gene in MSI endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Mutation. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. Carrier Proteins / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Microdissection / methods. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • (PMID = 16691634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / FLCN protein, human; 0 / G-T mismatch-binding protein; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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43. Honig A, Weidler C, Häusler S, Krockenberger M, Buchholz S, Köster F, Segerer SE, Dietl J, Engel JB: Overexpression of polycomb protein BMI-1 in human specimens of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer. Anticancer Res; 2010 May;30(5):1559-64
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  • [Title] Overexpression of polycomb protein BMI-1 in human specimens of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer.
  • The current study investigated the expression of BMI-I in human specimens of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer.
  • BMI-I expression in human specimens of breast, endometrial and cervical cancer was evaluated by IHC and then compared with the respective benign tissues.
  • RESULTS: BMI-I was significantly (p<0.05) overexpressed in human breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer specimens as compared to benign controls.
  • CONCLUSION: The current study showed for the first time that the BMI-I protein is significantly overexpressed in ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer and may thus be a potential target for novel antitumor therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Repressor Proteins / biosynthesis. Repressor Proteins / physiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phenotype. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1


44. Nucci MR, Harburger D, Koontz J, Dal Cin P, Sklar J: Molecular analysis of the JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization in endometrial stromal neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jan;31(1):65-70
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  • [Title] Molecular analysis of the JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization in endometrial stromal neoplasms.
  • Nonrandom cytogenetic abnormalities of chromosomes 6, 7, and 17 have been reported within low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LGESSs), and among these abnormalities, the t(7;17)(p15;q21) is the most common aberration described.
  • In addition, we examined 4 cases of highly cellular leiomyoma, a benign morphologic mimic of LGESS.
  • Overall, evidence for the JAZF1-JJAZ1 fusion was found in 60% of endometrial stromal neoplasms analyzed (8/16 ESS and 4/4 stromal nodules).
  • Our data suggest that the JAZF1-JJAZ1 fusion is a frequent, although nonuniform, feature of endometrial stromal neoplasia, irrespective of benign versus malignant classification and smooth muscle differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Stromal Tumors / genetics. Gene Fusion. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17197920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / JAZF1 protein, human; 0 / JJAZ1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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45. Kalyanasundaram K, Ganesan R, Perunovic B, McCluggage WG: Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;18(2):138-43
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  • [Title] Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis.
  • Endometrial carcinomas, particularly of endometrioid type, can invade the myometrium or cervix without eliciting a stromal desmoplastic or inflammatory response and have been referred to as diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas.
  • This study describes a series of 14 endometrial carcinomas infiltrating as single "naked" glands without a stromal response.
  • Several of the cases were seen in consultation and the pattern of infiltration raised a number of differential diagnoses, both benign and malignant, depending on the site of tumor involvement, including adenomyosis, adenomyoma, primary endocervical glandular lesions, cervical mesonephric remnants, endometriosis or tuboendometrioid metaplasia, and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Stromal Cells / pathology


46. Li C, Zota V, Woda BA, Rock KL, Fraire AE, Jiang Z, Lu D, Xu B, Dresser K, Lutman CV, Fischer AH: Expression of a novel oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IMP3 in endometrial carcinomas: diagnostic significance and clinicopathologic correlations. Mod Pathol; 2007 Dec;20(12):1263-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of a novel oncofetal mRNA-binding protein IMP3 in endometrial carcinomas: diagnostic significance and clinicopathologic correlations.
  • To investigate the diagnostic and clinicopathologic significance of this protein in endometrial carcinomas, we evaluated immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in the two most common forms of endometrial malignancies, endometrioid adenocarcinoma and serous carcinoma.
  • We selected 167 endometrial adenocarcinoma cases including 122 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and 45 cases of serous carcinoma.
  • Twenty samples of benign endometrium obtained from 20 patients with nonmalignant uterine lesions were used as controls.
  • Positive immunohistochemical stain for IMP3 was identified in all serous carcinoma cases, among which, 39 (86%) and 3 (7%) cases showed IMP3 immunoreactivity in >50%, and 21-50, or 6-20% of tumor cells, respectively.
  • Thirty (25%), 20 (16%), 10 (8%), and 8 (7%) cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for IMP3 in 1-5, 6-20, 21-50, and >50% of the tumor cells.
  • To compare p53 with IMP3 expressions, we found that 35 (78%) of the serous carcinoma cases showed strong p53 immunohistochemical activity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • In contrast, 11 of 112 (10%) endometrioid adenocarcinoma cases demonstrated strong p53 positivity in >50% of the tumor cell nuclei.
  • Expression of IMP3 and p53 may be helpful biomarkers in the distinction of endometrial serous carcinoma from endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, expression of IMP3 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma correlates with higher nuclear and architecture grades of the tumor (P=0.0000 and P=0.0002, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17885673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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47. Giordano G, D'Adda T, Gnetti L, Merisio C, Raboni S: Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):298-304
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  • [Title] Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium (TCCE) is a subtype of endometrial carcinoma, characterized by a prominent papillary pattern, resembling the papillary carcinoma of the urothelium.
  • This neoplasm is very rare, with only 13 cases reported in the international literature.
  • In this paper, a new case of TCCE associated with benign ovarian Brenner tumor is described.
  • Moreover, immunohistochemical and molecular studies are carried out in the effort to establish the phenotype and etiology of this rare neoplasm.
  • The molecular study, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failing to reveal the presence of HPV DNA, demonstrates that neither the TCCE nor the ovarian Brenner tumor is caused by an HPV infection.
  • The association of TCCE with benign ovarian Brenner tumor could be a coincidental event.
  • In our view, other cases of TCCE associated with ovarian Brenner tumor should be reported to confirm the last 2 hypotheses.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17581415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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48. Granovsky-Grisaru S, Zaidoun S, Grisaru D, Yekel Y, Prus D, Beller U, Bar-Shavit R: The pattern of Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) expression in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Dec;103(3):802-6
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  • [Title] The pattern of Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) expression in endometrial carcinoma.
  • While the role of either soluble or matrix-immobilized protease in tumor invasion is well established, the part of cell surface PARs is beginning to emerge.
  • We sought to investigate the expression pattern of Protease Activated Receptor 1 (hPar1) in endometrial carcinoma, the most common type of gynecological malignancy.
  • METHODS: Tissue biopsy specimens taken from seventy-four formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded endometrial tissue blocks were obtained from archival material.
  • RESULTS: The levels of hPar1 mRNA and protein were high and abundant in high-grade endometrial carcinoma, regardless of the histological subtype.
  • In contrast, no hPar1 was detected in endometrial epithelia with conserved glandular structure represented by normal, hyperplastic or low-grade carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PAR1 over-expression is selectively confined to the highly aggressive, high-grade endometrial carcinoma and absent in tissue obtained from benign endometrium or low-grade endometrial cancer.
  • This finding highlights the significance of hPar1 gene involvement in invasive endometrial carcinoma and appoints it an attractive candidate for anti-cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptor, PAR-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16875721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, PAR-1
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49. Chalas E, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Lewis GC, Bergman C, Runowicz CD: Benign gynecologic conditions among participants in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Apr;192(4):1230-7; discussion 1237-9
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  • [Title] Benign gynecologic conditions among participants in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to report on the benign gynecologic conditions occurring among women with an intact uterus at enrollment in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The incidence rates of several benign gynecologic conditions were determined and risks were compared among women receiving tamoxifen and those receiving placebo, based on risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs.
  • RESULTS: Compared with women taking placebo, premenopausal women taking tamoxifen had a greater incidence of endometrial polyps (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.55-2.41), leiomyomas (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.14-1.55), endometriosis (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.35-2.70), ovarian cysts (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.20-1.78), and gynecologic surgical procedures, including hysterectomy (RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.29-1.88).
  • Postmenopausal women taking tamoxifen also had an increased incidence of endometrial polyps (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.76-3.24), leiomyomas (RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.04-1.80), endometriosis (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.29-5.58), and gynecologic surgical procedures, including hysterectomy (RR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.60-3.13), compared with women taking placebo.
  • All women taking tamoxifen also had an increased incidence of simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (overall RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.64-2.60) compared with those taking placebo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly support the estrogen agonist role of tamoxifen as the causative factor for the increased risk of endometrial polyps, leiomyomas, endometriosis, and endometrial hyperplasia among women taking this agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Genital Diseases, Female / chemically induced. Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Confidence Intervals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Reference Values. Risk Assessment

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;194(4):1204-5; author reply 1205 [16580343.001]
  • (PMID = 15846210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-69974
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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50. Salehin D, Fromberg I, Haugk C, Dohmen B, Georg T, Bohle RM, Bauerschlag D, Maass N, Friedrich M: Immunhistochemical analysis for expression of calpain 1, calpain 2 and calpastatin in endometrial cancer. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jul;30(7):2837-43
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  • [Title] Immunhistochemical analysis for expression of calpain 1, calpain 2 and calpastatin in endometrial cancer.
  • This study focused on the expression of the enzymes calpain 1, calpain 2 and the inhibitor calpastatin in normal and malignant endometrial tissue.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The endometrial carcinoma showed a higher expression of calpastatin than benign endometrial tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Calpain / biosynthesis. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20683020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 79079-11-1 / calpastatin; EC 3.4.22.- / Calpain; EC 3.4.22.53 / calpain 2, human
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51. Powell JL, Cunill ES, Gajewski WH, Novotny DB: Sarcoidosis mimicking recurrent endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):770-3
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  • [Title] Sarcoidosis mimicking recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease and can be confused with benign or malignant tumors.
  • CASE: A 67 year old woman had a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and periaortic lymphadenectomy, and peritoneal cytology in 2001 for Stage I B grade 1 adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16168469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Saxena R, Zhang S, Terracciano L, Sauter G, Chadhuri A, Herrmann FR, Penetrante R: Pax-5 immunoexpression in various types of benign and malignant tumours: a high-throughput tissue microarray analysis. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jun;60(6):709-14

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pax-5 immunoexpression in various types of benign and malignant tumours: a high-throughput tissue microarray analysis.
  • AIMS AND METHODS: To determine Pax-5 expression in other tumour types, immunohistochemistry was performed on 3758 benign and malignant tumours using multiple tumour microarrays, as well as on whole sections.
  • In addition, Pax-5 was seen in 24/34 (70.6%) Merkel cell carcinomas, 42/53 (79.2%) small cell carcinomas, 1/164 (0.6%) breast carcinomas, 2/204 (1%) endometrial adenocarcinomas and 1/452 (0.2%) urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Protein Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 16837628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PAX5 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955074
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53. Kitajima K, Murakami K, Yamasaki E, Hagiwara S, Fukasawa I, Inaba N, Kaji Y, Sugimura K: Performance of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of recurrent endometrial cancer. Ann Nucl Med; 2008 Feb;22(2):103-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Performance of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) using 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), compared with PET alone, in the diagnosis of suspected endometrial cancer recurrence.
  • METHODS: Thirty women who had undergone primary surgery for histopathologically proven endometrial cancer with suspected recurrence because of clinical, cytological, biochemical, and/or radiological findings were enrolled in this study.
  • A final diagnosis of recurrence was confirmed by histopathology, other imaging and clinical follow-up for longer than 1 year.
  • CT from PET/CT resolved the false-positive PET results because of hyper-metabolic activity of benign inflammatory lesions and physiological variants and moreover detected lung metastasis and para-aortic lymph node metastasis that PET missed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Integrated FDG-PET/CT is a useful complementary modality for providing good anatomic and functional localization of sites of recurrence during follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18311534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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54. Trahan S, Têtu B, Raymond PE: Serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium arising from endometrial polyps: a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study of 13 cases. Hum Pathol; 2005 Dec;36(12):1316-21
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  • [Title] Serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium arising from endometrial polyps: a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study of 13 cases.
  • Serous papillary carcinoma is an aggressive tumor.
  • Point mutations in the p53 suppressor gene might explain in part the rapid growth of this malignant tumor and its unfavorable outcome.
  • The aims of this study were to evaluate the behavior of serous papillary carcinoma developing in endometrial polyps and to assess the p53 protein overexpression.
  • Thirteen serous papillary carcinomas arising from benign polyps of the endometrium were identified.
  • A serous papillary carcinoma arising from benign polyps of the endometrium remains a malignant neoplasia with an unfavorable outcome even if the primary tumor is limited to the polyp.
  • The high rate of protein p53 overexpression suggests that a p53 gene mutation occurs early in the disease and might explain the rapid growth of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16311126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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55. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • PAX2 encodes a transcription factor necessary in the development of the Wolffian duct system, and the protein is expressed in several tumors of mesonephric origin, including renal cell carcinoma, Wilm tumor, and nephrogenic adenoma.
  • Most (11 of 15) stage II endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas lacked PAX2 expression but 1 of 10 grade 1 tumors and 3 of 5 grade 2 tumors did express PAX2.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human
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56. Bradley WH, Lima PH, Rodgers L, Blomquist CH, Downs LS: Endometrial carcinoma expresses an increased cathepsin B/D ratio. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jan;108(1):84-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endometrial carcinoma expresses an increased cathepsin B/D ratio.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cathepsins B and D belong to a family of proteases involved in tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • As such they may function as biomarkers for the aggressiveness of a given tumor.
  • 4 groups were established: benign tissue, stage I/grade 1, stage i/grade 3, and stage IIIC/any grade.
  • RESULTS: A significantly increased level of cathepsin B activity was seen in malignant tissue specimens when compared to benign tissue.
  • The cathepsin B/D ratio confirmed and was required to detect the significance of this distinction for each malignant group when compared to benign samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant endometrium displays increased cathepsin B activity when compared benign samples.
  • The cathepsin B/D ratio is increased for each of the malignant groups studied when compared directly to benign endometrium.
  • This ratio may serve to distinguish malignant from benign tumor samples and may be a constitutive change in the malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cathepsin B / biosynthesis. Cathepsin D / biosynthesis. Endometrial Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17980407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B; EC 3.4.23.5 / Cathepsin D
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57. Tsiambas E, Alexopoulou D, Lambropoulou S, Gerontopoulos K, Karakitsos P, Karameris A: Targeting topoisomerase IIa in endometrial adenocarcinoma: a combined chromogenic in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry study based on tissue microarrays. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1424-31

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting topoisomerase IIa in endometrial adenocarcinoma: a combined chromogenic in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry study based on tissue microarrays.
  • Using tissue microarrays, 40 cases of sporadic, primary endometrial adenocarcinomas, 5 cases of atypical hyperplasia, and 5 cases of benign hyperplasia were obtained and reembedded into two paraffin blocks with a core diameter of 1 mm.
  • The results indicate that chromosome 17 instability (aneuploidy in 7/40 cases) and Topo IIa gene deregulation (amplification in 3/40 and deletion in 1/40 cases) are significant genetic events correlated with biologic behavior in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / enzymology. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Tissue Array Analysis / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chromogenic Compounds / pharmacology. Chromosomal Instability. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Middle Aged. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods. Protein Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 16803541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Chromogenic Compounds; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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58. Bar JK, Słomska I, Rabczyńki J, Noga L, Gryboś M: Expression of p53 protein phosphorylated at serine 20 and serine 392 in malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms: correlation with clinicopathological parameters of tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Nov;19(8):1322-8
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  • [Title] Expression of p53 protein phosphorylated at serine 20 and serine 392 in malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms: correlation with clinicopathological parameters of tumors.
  • METHODS: p53 protein expression was evaluated on tissues from malignant and benign ovarian tumors.
  • In the total group of ovarian carcinomas, significant differences were observed in p53 protein overexpression between well (G1) and poor (G3) tumor grades (P = 0.005) and between serous and endometrioid types of tumor (P = 0.04), whereas p53-Ser20 phosphorylation was associated with advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.004) and high tumor grade (P = 0.02).
  • In p53-positive ovarian carcinomas, p53-Ser392 phosphorylation was associated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.02) and high tumor grade (P = 0.049).
  • p53-Ser20 phosphorylation was associated with low tumor grade of p53-positive ovarian carcinomas (P = 0.02) and with high tumor grade of p53-negative ovarian carcinomas (P = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that p53 phosphorylation at Ser20 and Ser392 is an early event in ovarian tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Serine / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20009884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 452VLY9402 / Serine
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59. Fadare O, Yi X, Liang SX, Ma Y, Zheng W: Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation. Mod Pathol; 2007 Sep;20(9):1000-8
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  • [Title] Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation.
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is a premalignant (dysplastic) lesion that is characterized by abnormal cellular proliferation, maturation and nuclear atypia.
  • In this study, we evaluated the total mitotic indices of the cervical epithelia in hysterectomy specimens from patients with and without dysplastic lesions and investigated a possible relationship between mitotic index and hormonal status, using the endometrial maturation phase as a surrogate indicator of the latter.
  • Two hundred seventy-four cervices from hysterectomy specimens (135 cases without dysplasia, 33, 35 and 71 cases with grades 1, 2 and 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively) were analyzed.
  • The endometrium in each case was classified into atrophic, early proliferative, late proliferative and secretory.
  • For all three dysplasia grades, cases in the proliferative endometrium group always had a higher average mitotic index than those in the secretory and atrophic endometrium groups; this observation also held true for the benign cases.
  • Furthermore, in all three dysplasia grades, the average mitotic index was always lowest in the atrophic endometrium group.
  • Although the mitotic index showed expected patterns of increases with increasing dysplasia grades for most of the endometrial phases, this was not a universal finding.
  • Notably, the average mitotic index for our cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 cases with late proliferative endometrium was higher than our cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 cases with secretory and atrophic endometrium.
  • It is concluded that hormonal status, as reflected in endometrial maturation, can significantly affect the mitotic index of dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Menstrual Cycle. Mitotic Index. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies


60. Hrzenjak A, Moinfar F, Tavassoli FA, Strohmeier B, Kremser ML, Zatloukal K, Denk H: JAZF1/JJAZ1 gene fusion in endometrial stromal sarcomas: molecular analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction optimized for paraffin-embedded tissue. J Mol Diagn; 2005 Aug;7(3):388-95
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  • [Title] JAZF1/JJAZ1 gene fusion in endometrial stromal sarcomas: molecular analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction optimized for paraffin-embedded tissue.
  • Endometrial stromal tumors are rare uterine neoplasms including benign stromal nodules, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS), and undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UES), the latter representing the most aggressive form.
  • Morphological characteristics and cytogenetic abnormalities are heterogeneous, making diagnosis difficult.
  • In comparison to published data, our results identified the JAZF1/JJAZ1 gene fusion more frequently in endometrial stromal tumors than hitherto presumed.
  • This cytogenetic abnormality was not present in normal endometria, leiomyomas, or leiomyosarcomas or in lung, gastric, or hepatic carcinomas, indicating its specificity for endometrial stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Artificial Gene Fusion. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. Female. Humans. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics

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  • [Cites] Am J Clin Pathol. 2000 Mar;113(3):374-82 [10705818.001]
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  • (PMID = 16049311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1578
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / JAZF1 protein, human; 0 / JJAZ1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 19
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1867540
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61. Deng L, Broaddus RR, McCampbell A, Shipley GL, Loose DS, Stancel GM, Pickar JH, Davies PJ: Identification of a novel estrogen-regulated gene, EIG121, induced by hormone replacement therapy and differentially expressed in type I and type II endometrial cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 1;11(23):8258-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of a novel estrogen-regulated gene, EIG121, induced by hormone replacement therapy and differentially expressed in type I and type II endometrial cancer.
  • Here, we describe the expression pattern of a novel estrogen-induced gene, EIG121, in distinct types of endometrial cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: EIG121 was identified by cDNA microarray analysis of endometrial RNA from women receiving either placebo or estrogen replacement therapy.
  • The expression level of EIG121 was then measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in benign, hyperplastic, and malignant endometrial samples.
  • RESULTS: In postmenopausal endometrium, estrogen replacement therapy with Premarin and synthetic estrogen sulfate conjugates induced the expression of EIG121 2- and 3-fold, respectively.
  • In premenopausal endometrium, the expression of EIG121 was higher in the estrogen-dominated proliferative phase than the secretory phase.
  • In endometrial complex, hyperplasia, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma, neoplastic proliferations associated with estrogen excess, the expression of EIG121 was significantly elevated (on average 3.8-fold in hyperplasias and 21-fold in grade 1 tumors).
  • Although the level of EIG121 mRNA in grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma was still 3.5-fold of that in benign endometrium, EIG121 expression tended to decline with increasing tumor grade and disease stage.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed faint staining of normal endometrial epithelium, but intense staining of endometrioid tumors.
  • In sharp contrast, EIG121 expression was significantly suppressed in both uterine papillary serous carcinoma and uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor, two tumors not associated with estrogen exposure, to <5% of the level in benign endometrium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EIG121 is a good endometrial biomarker associated with a hyperestrogenic state and estrogen-related type I endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Estrogens / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Endometrial Hyperplasia / genetics. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) / therapeutic use. Estrone / analogs & derivatives. Estrone / therapeutic use. Expressed Sequence Tags. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16322283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 5T32 HD007324-18
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Estrogens, Conjugated (USP); 0 / KIAA1324 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 2DI9HA706A / Estrone; QTL48N278K / estrone sulfate
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62. Koviazin VA, Shchelokova EE, Kostanian IA, Dranitsyna SM, Frolova II, Babichenko II: [The proapoptotic factor HLDF in the normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium]. Arkh Patol; 2007 May-Jun;69(3):23-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The proapoptotic factor HLDF in the normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium].
  • Antibodies to the factor HLDF are shown to be specific markers of apoptosis and permit the estimation of the rate of programmed cell death in the course of a normal menstrual cycle and in pathologic endometrial processes.
  • Antibodies to the HLDF factor may be used as a new immunohistochemical marker for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant endometrial processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies / immunology. Apoptosis. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17722590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / cell differentiation factor 8.2-kDa
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63. Whittaker CS, Coady A, Culver L, Rustin G, Padwick M, Padhani AR: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of female pelvic tumors: a pictorial review. Radiographics; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):759-74; discussion 774-8

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  • Diffusion-weighted MR imaging studies of female pelvic tumors have shown reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values within cervical and endometrial tumors.
  • In addition, this unique noninvasive modality has demonstrated the capacity to help discriminate between benign and malignant uterine lesions and to help assess the extent of peritoneal spread from gynecologic malignancies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19448114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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64. Abdel-Azeez HA, Labib HA, Sharaf SM, Refai AN: HE4 and mesothelin: novel biomarkers of ovarian carcinoma in patients with pelvic masses. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(1):111-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of novel serum tumor markers, HE4 and mesothelin either alone or in combination with CA125 in diagnosis and early detection of ovarian carcinoma in patients with pelvic masses.
  • RESULTS: Of 65 patients with pelvic masses; 41 had histologically diagnosed ovarian cancer, and 24 had benign ovarian diseases.
  • The studied tumor markers were significantly increased in malignant compared to benign cases and healthy subjects, and in benign cases compared to healthy subjects (p<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Epididymal Secretory Proteins / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Pelvic Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. beta-Defensins

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  • (PMID = 20593939.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / DEFB126 protein, human; 0 / Epididymal Secretory Proteins; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / beta-Defensins; 0 / mesothelin
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65. Czernobilsky B: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):229-35
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  • Tumors of the uterus resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were reported by Clement and Scully in 1976 and were divided in 2 groups: group 1, endometrial stromal tumors, and group 2, mural uterine tumors-both with elements resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.
  • In the former, the sex cord component constitutes a minor portion of an endometrial stromal neoplasm, whereas in the latter, it is the predominant or exclusive component of a uterine wall lesion composed of a variety of mesenchymal elements.
  • An origin from endometrial stromal cells, adenomyosis, stromal myosis, endometriosis, or multipotential cells within the myometrium was postulated in both groups of tumors.
  • In group 1 tumors, the prognosis depends on the type, grade, and stage of the underlying stromal neoplasm.
  • Group 2 tumors seemed to be benign, although because of the occasional recurrence of these tumors, they should be considered of low-grade malignant potential.
  • Eventually, the abbreviation ESTSCLE, or endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, was given to group 1 tumors, whereas UTROSCT, or uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor, was used for group 2 tumors.
  • Positivity for calretinin and at least for 1 of the other above-mentioned markers may thus confirm the diagnosis of UTROSCT.
  • Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, on the other hand, usually express only 1 sex cord marker, mostly calretinin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18317219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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66. Flavin R, Finn S, McErlean A, Smyth P, Meaney J, O'Connell F, Kellett J, McGovern E, Gaffney E: Cannonball metastases with favourable prognosis. Ir J Med Sci; 2005 Jan-Mar;174(1):61-4
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  • AIM: To report the case of a patient with metastatic pulmonary endometrial stromal sarcoma who had a previous hysterectomy for benign uterine fibroids and no past history of malignancy.
  • Review of the original histology revealed endometrial stromal sarcoma, similar to the lung metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / pathology. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Leiomyoma / pathology. Leiomyoma / surgery. Megestrol Acetate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Sarcoma

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  • (PMID = 15868893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-1265
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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67. Cocco E, Bellone S, El-Sahwi K, Cargnelutti M, Casagrande F, Buza N, Tavassoli FA, Siegel ER, Visintin I, Ratner E, Silasi DA, Azodi M, Schwartz PE, Rutherford TJ, Pecorelli S, Santin AD: Serum amyloid A (SAA): a novel biomarker for uterine serous papillary cancer. Br J Cancer; 2009 Jul 21;101(2):335-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC) is a biologically aggressive variant of endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: SAA gene and protein expression levels were evaluated in USPC and normal endometrial tissues (NEC) by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry and by a sensitive bead-based immunoassay.
  • SAA concentration in 123 serum samples from 51 healthy women, 42 women with benign diseases, and 30 USPC patients were also studied.
  • SAA concentrations (mug ml(-1)) had a median (95% CIs) of 6.0 (4.0-8.9) in normal healthy females and 6.0 (4.2-8.1) in patients with benign disease (P=0.92).
  • In contrast, SAA values in the serum of USPC patients had a median (95% CI) of 15.6 (9.2-56.2), significantly higher than those in the healthy group (P=0.0005) and benign group (P=0.0006).

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  • (PMID = 19536090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122728-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Serum Amyloid A Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2720219
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68. Corben AD, Nehhozina T, Garg K, Vallejo CE, Brogi E: Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes: a possible pitfall in the staging of patients with breast carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1211-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.

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  • The occurrence of benign epithelial inclusions in lymph nodes is well documented and can sometimes mimic metastatic carcinoma.
  • Benign müllerian inclusions, such as endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, are common in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, but their presence in supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes is a rare event.
  • The glands contained ciliated and intercalated peg cells, had no periglandular endometrial-type stroma, and showed no atypia or mitotic activity.
  • Endosalpingiosis had been misinterpreted as metastatic carcinoma at another hospital in 1 of the 3 patients, with subsequent dissection of 19 additional benign axillary lymph nodes.
  • Morphologic identification of ciliated cells and "peg" cells is most helpful to recognize this benign inclusion, and positive immunoreactivity for WT1 and/or PAX8 can be used to support the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cilia. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Paired Box Transcription Factors / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Unnecessary Procedures. WT1 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20631604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / WT1 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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69. Brown L: Pathology of uterine malignancies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Aug;20(6):433-47
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • The distinction of type I and type II endometrial adenocarcinoma with the morphological variants of this tumour is discussed and some molecular aspects are explored.
  • The concept of carcinosarcoma representing a metaplastic adenocarcinoma of the endometrium that behaves more like a carcinoma than a sarcoma is explained.
  • Some types of mixed epithelial and stromal neoplasm are described and contrasted with carcinosarcoma.
  • The concept of stromal sarcoma and high-grade uterine sarcoma is described and an outline of malignant smooth muscle tumours of the uterus includes a description of smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential and worrying benign smooth muscle lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18499412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 233
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70. Logani S, Herdman AV, Little JV, Moller KA: Vascular "pseudo invasion" in laparoscopic hysterectomy specimens: a diagnostic pitfall. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):560-5
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  • Total laparoscopic hysterectomy has been shown to be an equally effective and safe technique when compared with conventional abdominal surgery for endometrial carcinoma.
  • The fallopian tubes are cauterized to prevent transtubal spread of the tumor.
  • After observing extensive displacement of tumor into small and large blood vessels in 1 case of grade 1, stage 1b endometrial carcinoma, we reviewed slides from 37 hysterectomy specimens (7 for endometrial carcinoma or atypical hyperplasia and 30 for benign conditions) performed laparoscopically between August 2004 and March 2006 at Emory University and Crawford Long Hospitals.
  • We reviewed all slides for the presence or absence of endometrial tumor/tissue in vascular spaces.
  • Patients with endometrial carcinoma/atypical complex hyperplasia included 6 FIGO grade I endometrioid carcinomas (3 stages 1A; 3 stages 1B) and 1 patient with atypical complex hyperplasia.
  • Tumor within blood vessels was noted in 5 of 7 (71%) cases.
  • In 3 cases, including the case of atypical complex hyperplasia, the number of vessels containing tumor were too numerous to count small and large caliber blood vessels.
  • In the remainder, 1 case had 2 small vessels involved and in the other 7 small vessels showed tumor within vascular lumina.
  • Benign endometrial glands and stromal tissue were noted within vascular spaces in 4 of 30 (13%) hysterectomy specimens removed for benign conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Artifacts. Blood Vessels / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Hysterectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Myometrium / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Catheterization. Female. Georgia. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pressure. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jan;34(1):124-5 [19898230.001]
  • (PMID = 18300797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Farrell R, Scurry J, Otton G, Hacker NF: Clinicopathologic review of malignant polyps in stage 1A carcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Aug;98(2):254-62
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic review of malignant polyps in stage 1A carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of malignant polyps in stage 1A endometrial cancer, to define the pathological features of such cancers, and to assess whether clinical outcome differs from similar cancers without a malignant polyp.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective pathological review of 107 cases of stage 1A endometrial cancer treated at two centers in New South Wales between January 1988 and July 2003.
  • The presence of a malignant polyp was determined and a pathological description made of the tumor.
  • Clinical data were collected, including prior tamoxifen usage, tumor recurrence and survival.
  • Precursor lesions of endometrial cancer were identified within malignant polyps.
  • Three out of the four recurrences occurred in high-grade tumor subtypes and all four had a large primary tumor (size > or = 4 cm).
  • When comparing the same subtype of tumor with and without a malignant polyp, there was no significant difference in clinical outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of stage 1A endometrial cancers are associated with a malignant polyp.
  • Serous carcinoma commonly arises within an otherwise benign endometrial polyp.
  • Malignant polyps offer an opportunity to identify precursors of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Clinical outcome of stage 1A endometrial carcinoma was related to the histological subtype and the size of the tumor rather than the presence of a malignant polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15936803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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72. Gallardo A, Prat J: Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;33(2):278-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The tumor of the fallopian tube was stage IC, and the tumors of the vagina and recto-uterine pouch were confined to their site of origin.
  • Six developed metastases and 5 of them died of tumor.
  • The finding of such cases, which raises the controversy of whether or not adenofibroma exists as a tumor entity, prompted us to make a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of 23 typical adenosarcomas, 8 adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth, and 29 benign and malignant related lesions, including 7 clinically benign adenofibromas.
  • Adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth showed strong immunoreaction for Ki-67 and p53 and loss of CD10 and progesterone receptors immunostaining; in contrast, the immunoreaction for these tumor markers in typical adenosarcomas without sarcomatous overgrowth was similar to that of adenofibromas associated with favorable outcome and other benign lesions such as endometrial polyps and endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18941402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Chang YW, Hong SS, Jeen YM, Kim MK, Suh ES: Bilateral sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal girl. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Jul;39(7):731-4
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  • [Title] Bilateral sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal girl.
  • Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare benign ovarian neoplasm classified as a type of sex cord stromal tumor that occurs predominantly in young patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Menarche. Sclerosis / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1999 Jul-Aug;23(4):555-7 [10433285.001]
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  • (PMID = 19283376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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74. Canis M, Farina M, Jardon K, Rabischong B, Rivoire C, Nohuz E, Botchorishvili R, Pouly JL, Mage G: [Laparoscopy and gynecologic cancer in 2005]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2006 Apr;35(2):117-35

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Animal studies suggested that the risk of tumor dissemination in non traumatized peritoneum is higher after a pneumoperitoneum than after a laparotomy.
  • Changing these parameters we may, in the future, be able to create a peritoneal environment adapted to oncologic patients in order to prevent or to decrease the risks of peritoneal dissemination and/or of postoperative tumor growth.
  • In patients with endometrial cancer, the laparoscopic approach should be reserved to clinical stage I disease, if the vaginal extraction is anticipated to be easy accounting for the volume of the uterus and the local conditions.
  • Laparoscopy is the gold standard for the surgical diagnosis of adnexal masses.
  • In contrast restaging of an early ovarian cancer initially managed as a benign mass, is a good indication of the laparoscopic approach.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / etiology. Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16575358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 190
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75. Kamikabeya TS, Etchebehere RM, Nomelini RS, Murta EF: Gynecological malignant neoplasias diagnosed after hysterectomy performed for leiomyoma in a university hospital. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(6):651-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Uterine Fibroids.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the findings of malignant neoplasms after hysterectomy for benign conditions.
  • We analyzed all simple hysterectomies with or without salpingo-oophorectomy for benign conditions (leiomyoma).
  • Of 2,016, 652 (32.3%) had had a previous diagnosis of malignancy and 1,364 (67.7%) had had a clinical diagnosis of benignancy (leiomyoma).
  • From the total of 1,364, three (0.22%) cases of cancer were diagnosed after anatomopathological study of the uterine specimen, two sarcomas and one endometrial cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gynecological malignances in surgical specimens of patients submitted to surgery (hysterectomy and/or salpingo-oophorectomy) for benign conditions are rarely found.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Hysterectomy / statistics & numerical data. Leiomyoma / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brazil / epidemiology. Female. Hospitals, University. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21319509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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76. Kondi-Pafiti A, Grapsa D, Kairi-Vassilatou E, Kontogianni-Katsarou K, Koliopoulos C, Botsis D: Mesenchymal tumors of the uterine corpus with heterologous and hematopoietic components: a study of ten cases and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(1):73-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Uterine Fibroids.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the histopathological features of mesenchymal tumors of the uterine corpus with heterologous and hematopoietic components, and review their histogenesis and differential diagnosis from other neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions.
  • METHODS: Ten cases of mesenchymal tumors of the uterine corpus, massively infiltrated by hematopoioetic cells, or composed of other benign heterologous elements (adipose tissue in the present cases) were retrieved from the archival files of our laboratory and studied histopathologically.
  • RESULTS: Six of our studied cases were diagnosed as leiomyomas, two as lipoleiomyomas, one as a symplastic lipoleiomyoma, and one as an endometrial stromal tumor.
  • The endometrial stromal tumor was severely infiltrated by histiocytes, and was positive for vimentin, CD10, PgR and negative for actin, desmin, ER and caldesmon.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of hematopoietic or heterologous elements within an otherwise bland uterine leiomyoma or endometrial stromal tumor may give rise to diagnostic difficulties.
  • Regularity of the tumor margins, low mitotic activity and absence of nuclear atypia or necrosis should be established for the exclusion of a malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Disease Progression. Female. Hematopoietic System / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 16550975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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77. Shaco-Levy R, Piura B: Uterine adenolipoleiomyoma: a tumor with potential of aggressive behavior. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):252-7
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  • [Title] Uterine adenolipoleiomyoma: a tumor with potential of aggressive behavior.
  • Histology showed the mass to be composed of benign-appearing smooth muscle, mature adipose tissue, and bland endocervical-type glands.
  • The recurrent adenolipoleiomyoma contained, in addition, benign-appearing endometrial-type glands and stroma and showed small foci of atypically proliferating endocervical-type epithelium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18317215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Chase DM, Crade M, Basu T, Saffari B, Berman ML: Preoperative diagnosis of ovarian malignancy: preliminary results of the use of 3-dimensional vascular ultrasound. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Apr;19(3):354-60
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  • [Title] Preoperative diagnosis of ovarian malignancy: preliminary results of the use of 3-dimensional vascular ultrasound.
  • Each mass was preoperatively judged to be benign or malignant based upon a study of vascularity within an ovarian mass using 3D ultrasound.
  • Masses with orderly vascular architecture were categorized as probably benign, and masses with chaotic vascular patterns were categorized as malignant.
  • Suspicious 3D vascular ultrasound findings predicted malignant neoplasm in 10 patients.
  • There was 1 case of a low-malignant potential tumor without a suspicious ultrasound finding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary and observational study, 3D ultrasound examination of vascular architecture was discriminatory in distinguishing benign ovarian masses from malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / ultrasonography. Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19407559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Stübinger SH, van der Horst Ch, Braun PM: [Pelvic tumors in the eyes of urologists]. Ther Umsch; 2007 Jul;64(7):395-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Benign tumors such as endometrial myoma, ovarian cyst and adenoma of the colon might lead to the development of urogenital symptoms.
  • These are the symptoms that lead to the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • It has to be kept in mind that urogenital tumors with such symptoms have to be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • The possibility of eradicating the tumor is then to be discussed after relieving the obstruction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cystectomy. Cystoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prostatectomy. Quality of Life. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17948757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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80. Eloubeidi MA, Cerfolio RJ, Chen VK, Desmond R, Syed S, Ojha B: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph node in patients with suspected lung cancer after positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jan;79(1):263-8
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  • The reference standard included thoracotomy with complete lymphadenectomy in patients with lung cancer or if EUS-FNA was benign, repeat clinical imaging, or long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Esophagoscopy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiography. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Granuloma / diagnosis. Histiocytosis / complications. Histiocytosis / diagnosis. Histoplasmosis / complications. Histoplasmosis / diagnosis. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Diseases / complications. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / radiography. Lymphoma / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sarcoidosis / complications. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis. Silicosis / complications. Silicosis / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15620955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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81. Giordano G, Lombardi M, Brigati F, Mancini C, Silini EM: Clinicopathologic features of 2 new cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Sep;29(5):459-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Generally, this entity is characterized by benign behavior.
  • In these examples, the pathologic diagnosis of UTROSCT was made incidentally after the clinical diagnosis of a leiomyoma and endometrial polyp.
  • On examination of small biopsies, the diagnosis was facilitated by specific immunohistochemical analysis using markers for the sex cord component.
  • In the other case, the neoplasm seemed to be the consequence of tamoxifen treatment for breast carcinoma.
  • After diagnosis, in this second case, the woman underwent hysterectomy that showed a residue of the tumor and cervical metastasis from the earlier breast carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of UTROSCT and the role of immunohistochemistry in confirming a diagnosis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20736772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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82. D'Angelo E, Spagnoli LG, Prat J: Comparative clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of uterine sarcomas diagnosed using the World Health Organization classification system. Hum Pathol; 2009 Nov;40(11):1571-85
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  • Eighteen benign tumors of smooth muscle or endometrial stromal origin served as a comparison group.
  • The uterine sarcomas were classified as follows: 20 leiomyosarcomas, 9 endometrial stromal sarcomas, and 5 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas.
  • Of the patients with follow-up available, 12 (67%) of 18 with leiomyosarcoma, 4 of 5 with undifferentiated sarcoma, and 4 of 7 with endometrial stromal sarcoma experienced recurrence and 8 patients with high-grade sarcomas died of tumor.
  • A subset of undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas composed of cells with uniform nuclei may be a separate entity from those with nuclear anaplasia and may be related to low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Sarcoma / classification. Sarcoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / classification. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 19540555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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83. Huszar M, Moldenhauer G, Gschwend V, Ben-Arie A, Altevogt P, Fogel M: Expression profile analysis in multiple human tumors identifies L1 (CD171) as a molecular marker for differential diagnosis and targeted therapy. Hum Pathol; 2006 Aug;37(8):1000-8
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  • [Title] Expression profile analysis in multiple human tumors identifies L1 (CD171) as a molecular marker for differential diagnosis and targeted therapy.
  • L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171) represents a strongly unfavorable prognostic biomarker for ovarian and endometrial carcinomas.
  • Here we carried out an immunohistochemical survey of L1 expression in normal adults and in a broad range of benign and malignant tumors using monoclonal antibody L1-11A and the novel monoclonal antibody L1-14.10.
  • In tumors of the female genital tract, L1 was detected in adenocarcinomas of the cervix and fallopian tubes, in addition to ovarian and endometrial carcinomas.
  • Our results suggest that L1 expression in tumors is not ubiquitous but restricted to certain subtypes and may be a helpful molecular marker for differential diagnosis and target for antibody-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Genital Neoplasms, Female / metabolism. Isoantigens / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Cell Line, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. GPI-Linked Proteins. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neutrophils / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16867862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD177 protein, human; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoantigens; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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84. Paci M, Cavazza A, Annessi V, Ricchetti T, Rapicetta C, Sgarbi G: Cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor of the lung presenting as a solitary lesion. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(1):e14

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  • [Title] Cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor of the lung presenting as a solitary lesion.
  • Cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor of the lung is a rare neoplasm.
  • In many cases it represents a metastasis from a benign or low-grade fibrohistiocytic tumor of the skin, but occasionally it may be primary.
  • Microscopy of the apical segmentectomy showed a cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor, whereas the nodule of the lower lobe was an intraparenchymal lymph node.
  • The patient is alive with no tumor recurrence.
  • The differential diagnosis includes Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pleuropulmonary blastoma, and metastatic endometrial stromal sarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 21139943.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994490
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor / lung neoplasms / mesenchymal cystic hamartoma / mesenchymal tumors / metastases / pneumothorax
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85. Shen R, Pan S, Qi S, Lin X, Cheng S: Epigenetic repression of microRNA-129-2 leads to overexpression of SOX4 in gastric cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2010 Apr 16;394(4):1047-52
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  • The SOX4 expression was detected using immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and our results showed that SOX4 was up-regulated in gastric cancer compared to benign gastric tissues.
  • To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying up-regulation of SOX4 in gastric cancers, we analyzed the expression of microRNA-129-2 (miR-129-2) gene, the epigenetic repression of which leads to overexpression of SOX4 in endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / genetics. DNA Methylation. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20331975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Mirn129 microRNA, human; 0 / SOX4 protein, human; 0 / SOXC Transcription Factors
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86. Seidman JD, Kumar D, Cosin JA, Winter WE 3rd, Cargill C, Boice CR: Carcinomas of the female genital tract occurring after pelvic irradiation: a report of 15 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):293-7

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  • Ten were irradiated for cervical cancer, one for endometrial carcinoma, one for vulvar carcinoma, one for colon cancer and 2 for benign conditions.
  • The "postradiation" malignancies included 2 ovarian carcinomas, 5 vaginal carcinomas (3 invasive, 2 in situ), 4 endometrial carcinomas, one cervical carcinoma, one vulvar carcinoma, one distal urethral carcinoma, and one pelvic carcinoma of unclear primary site.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16810069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Kurman RJ, Shih IeM: The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):433-43
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  • Moreover, the carcinomas exhibit a shared lineage with the corresponding benign cystic neoplasm, often through an intermediate (borderline tumor) step, supporting the morphologic continuum of tumor progression.
  • Thus, it has been proposed that serous tumors arise from the implantation of epithelium (benign or malignant) from the fallopian tube.
  • As it is generally accepted that endometriosis develops from endometrial tissue by retrograde menstruation, it is reasonable to assume that the endometrium is the source of these ovarian neoplasms.


88. Harisinghani MG, Saksena MA, Hahn PF, King B, Kim J, Torabi MT, Weissleder R: Ferumoxtran-10-enhanced MR lymphangiography: does contrast-enhanced imaging alone suffice for accurate lymph node characterization? AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Jan;186(1):144-8
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients (58 men, 19 women) with proven primary cancer (bladder [n = 20], breast [n = 10], endometrial [n = 1], renal [n = 3], penile [n = 4], prostate [n = 31], rectal [n = 1], testicular [n = 5], and ureteral [n = 2]) who were scheduled for surgical lymph node dissection were enrolled in the study.
  • RESULTS: Of the 169 lymph nodes evaluated, 55 were benign and 114 malignant by histopathologic analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Iron. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Oxides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dextrans. Female. Ferrosoferric Oxide. Humans. Magnetite Nanoparticles. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16357394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Magnetite Nanoparticles; 0 / Oxides; 0 / ferumoxtran-10; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
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89. Horn LC, Dallacker M, Bilek K: [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):292-301
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  • The strongest prognostic factor is tumor stage followed by lymph node metastases, deep myometrial infiltration, involvement of the cervix and tumor size.
  • Clinical and pathologic staging should be performed as in endometrial carcinoma.
  • The main differential diagnoses include uterine sarcomas, adenosarcoma and benign metaplastic change within the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Cites] Lancet Oncol. 2005 Dec;6(12):961-71 [16321764.001]
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  • (PMID = 19495763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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90. Barua A, Bradaric MJ, Kebede T, Espionosa S, Edassery SL, Bitterman P, Rotmensch J, Luborsky JL: Anti-tumor and anti-ovarian autoantibodies in women with ovarian cancer. Am J Reprod Immunol; 2007 Apr;57(4):243-9
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  • [Title] Anti-tumor and anti-ovarian autoantibodies in women with ovarian cancer.
  • PROBLEM: There is a lack of validated marker(s) for the diagnosis of early-stage ovarian cancer (OVCA).
  • The secondary objective was to compare the prevalence of antibodies to proteins from normal ovary and ovarian tumors to determine if antibodies primarily recognize tumor antigens, as many antigens are common to tumor and normal ovary.
  • METHOD OF STUDY: Serum samples from patients with OVCA, borderline or benign ovarian tumors, endometrial cancer and healthy women were examined for anti-ovarian and anti-tumor antibodies by immunoassay.
  • RESULTS: Ovarian (81%, P < or = 0.001) and anti-tumor (69%, P < or = 0.001) autoantibodies in OVCA were significantly different from those of control sera.
  • While there were similar reactions in two-dimensional Western blots, there are differences between reactions to normal and tumor antigens and between reactions to autologous and allogeneic tumors.
  • Anti-tumor antibodies may provide a useful marker for the detection of ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neoplasm / blood. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Autoantibodies / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17362385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-7408
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01AI055060
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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91. Alrahwan D, Staerkel G, Gong Y: Fine needle aspiration cytology of a metastatic duct carcinoma of the prostate: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jul-Aug;50(4):469-72
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  • Without proper clinical information, a fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of metastatic PDC can be challenging as this tumor can morphologically mimic adenocarcinomas from other sites.
  • He had undergone a prostatectomy 30 years earlier for "benign prostatic hypertrophy" but had no known history of malignancy.
  • The aspirates were hypercellular and composed of numerous monolayered or folded cohesive sheets of tumor cells with minimal cytologic atypia.
  • The tumor cells had abundant, clear cytoplasm, evenly spaced nuclei, finely granular chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli and occasional mitotic figures.
  • Cell block sections revealed tumor cells forming tubulopapillary architecture lined with tall columnar cells with focal nuclear pseudostratification, reminiscent of uterine endometrial carcinoma.
  • Positive immunoreactivity for prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase confirmed the tumor's prostatic origin.
  • CONCLUSION: Because of the rarity and nonspecific cytomorphologic characteristics of this tumor, clinical history, radiologic findings and a high index of suspicion in conjunction with ancillary studies are important in achieving a correct FNA diagnosis of metastatic PDC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pelvic Bones / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16901017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Xiang H, Ding W, Liu F, Ren GP, Wang ZM, Zhu XZ: [Clinicopathologic analysis of mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney and adult cystic nephroma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;38(7):436-40
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic analysis of mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney and adult cystic nephroma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype and differential diagnosis of mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney (MEST) and adult cystic nephroma (CN).
  • The glandular structures in 2 of the cases were partially lined by endometrial or tubal epithelium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both MEST and CN are uncommon renal neoplasm.
  • Most of them run a benign clinical course.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Desmin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nephroma, Mesoblastic / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19781188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTA2 protein, human; 0 / Actins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Vimentin
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93. Fleming NA, Hopkins L, de Nanassy J, Senterman M, Black AY: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e45-51
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  • Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually found in postmenopausal women.
  • It usually presents as a polypoid mass within the endometrium.
  • It is a biphasic tumor, composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant stromal component.
  • To date, this neoplasm has been reported in only 16 adolescent girls.
  • An endometrial curettage was performed.
  • Pathology confirmed a diagnosis of müllerian adenosarcoma originating from the endocervix.
  • After a thorough evaluation of the available literature, review with the Regional Tumor Board and extensive discussions with the family, a decision was made to perform a radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, upper vaginectomy and preservation of ovaries.
  • CONCLUSION: Müllerian adenosarcoma of the endocervix is a very rare pediatric tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor in this age group, optimal therapy is uncertain.


94. Fishman DA, Cohen L, Blank SV, Shulman L, Singh D, Bozorgi K, Tamura R, Timor-Tritsch I, Schwartz PE: The role of ultrasound evaluation in the detection of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Apr;192(4):1214-21; discussion 1221-2
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  • A total of 98 women with persistent adnexal masses were identified, and 49 invasive surgical procedures were performed that diagnosed 37 benign ovarian tumors and 12 gynecologic malignancies.
  • All cancers were detected in asymptomatic women who had normal ultrasound and physical examinations 12 and 6 months before the cancer diagnosis.
  • The detected malignancies were fallopian tube carcinoma (stage IIIC; n = 4 women), primary peritoneal carcinoma (n = 4 women; stage IIIA, 1 woman; stage IIIB, 2 women; stage IIIC, 1 woman), epithelial ovarian cancer (stages IIIA and IIIB; n = 2 women), and endometrial adenocarcinoma (stage IA; n = 2 women).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 15846205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA83639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA01015; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA82562; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA89503; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA85133
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Majeski J: Endoscopic capsule retention in an intestinal anastomosis. Int Surg; 2009 Jul-Sep;94(3):254-7
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  • Capsule retention has been reported in patients with a strictured or stenotic area of intestine caused by occult neoplasm, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Crohn's disease, radiation enteritis, or previous abdominal surgery.
  • Safe and effective use of CE has been reported in the evaluation of patients who have previously undergone surgical resection of the small intestine for benign or malignant disease.
  • This case report reviews the utilization and subsequent retention of an endoscopic capsule in a symptomatic patient who had a previous small bowel resection caused by the sequelae of radiation therapy to the abdomen and pelvis for endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Capsule Endoscopy / adverse effects. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Foreign Bodies / complications. Foreign Bodies / surgery. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Intestinal Obstruction / surgery. Intestine, Small / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20187521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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96. Lax S: [Mesenchymal uterine tumors. Stromal tumors and other rare mesenchymal neoplasms]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):284-91
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  • Uterine stromal neoplasms are classified into endometrial stromal nodules and stromal sarcomas, as well as undifferentiated sarcomas.
  • Undifferentiated sarcomas consist of polymorphic cells and lack any cytological similarity to the stroma of normal proliferative endometrium.
  • Adenosarcomas are mixed neoplasms with a low grade stromal sarcoma component containing benign glands, which are surrounded by condensed neoplastic stroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Arterioles / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sarcoma / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19495764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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97. Lancaster JM, Sayer RA, Blanchette C, Calingaert B, Konidari I, Gray J, Schildkraut J, Schomberg DW, Marks JR, Berchuck A: High expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 messenger RNA in epithelial ovarian cancers produces elevated preoperative serum levels. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):1529-35
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  • Preoperative serum IGFBP-2 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 84 women (42 ovarian cancers, 26 benign gynecological conditions, and 10 healthy female controls).
  • Serum IGFBP-2 levels were elevated in women with early- and advanced-stage ovarian cancer compared to controls and patients with benign gynecological conditions (P = 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively).
  • Epithelial ovarian cancers express high levels of IGFBP-2 relative to normal ovarian epithelium, and this is associated with elevated serum IGFBP-2 levels compared to both normal controls and patients with benign gynecological disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / blood. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. RNA, Messenger / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Cysts / blood. Ovarian Cysts / genetics. Ovary / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / blood. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / surgery. Preoperative Care. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16884361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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98. Byrne JA, Maleki S, Hardy JR, Gloss BS, Murali R, Scurry JP, Fanayan S, Emmanuel C, Hacker NF, Sutherland RL, Defazio A, O'Brien PM: MAL2 and tumor protein D52 (TPD52) are frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but differentially associated with histological subtype and patient outcome. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:497
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  • [Title] MAL2 and tumor protein D52 (TPD52) are frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but differentially associated with histological subtype and patient outcome.
  • MAL2 binds tumor protein D52 (TPD52), which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but the clinical significance of MAL2 and TPD52 overexpression was unknown.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical analyses of MAL2 and TPD52 expression were performed using tissue microarray sections including benign, borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Proteolipids / metabolism. Vesicular Transport Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual / metabolism. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20846453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MAL2 protein, human; 0 / Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / TPD52 protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2949808
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99. Muzii L, Palaia I, Sansone M, Calcagno M, Plotti F, Angioli R, Panici PB: Laparoscopic fertility-sparing staging in unexpected early stage ovarian malignancies. Fertil Steril; 2009 Jun;91(6):2632-7
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  • PATIENT(S): Twenty-seven patients already operated on elsewhere for a presumably benign ovarian cyst.
  • Fertility-sparing staging consisted of exploration of the peritoneal cavity, peritoneal washing cytology, multiple peritoneal biopsies, omolateral adnexectomy (except in borderline tumors), omentectomy, omolateral or bilateral pelvic and aortic lymph node sampling (except in borderline tumors, well differentiated, mucinous, and granulosa cell (GC) neoplasms), endometrial biopsy, appendectomy in mucinous type.
  • [MeSH-minor] Counseling. Cystectomy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18555237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Moodley M, Bramdev A: Frozen section: Its role in gynaecological oncology. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2005 Oct;25(7):629-34
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  • Frozen section allows intraoperative evaluation to distinguish benign from malignant tumors in order to tailor the extent of surgery necessary.
  • Frozen section diagnosis in gynaecological oncology is sufficiently sensitive and specific for clinical use.
  • Deferred diagnoses or incompatible frozen section diagnosis is usually due to technical limitations especially for the mucinous ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Frozen Sections / methods. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sensitivity and Specificity. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16263532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0144-3615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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