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1. Milenković B, Stojsić J, Dudvarski A, Bosnjak-Petrović V, Ercegovac M: [Benign solitary fibrous pleural tumour and hypoglycaemia]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2007 May-Jun;135(5-6):326-9
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  • [Title] [Benign solitary fibrous pleural tumour and hypoglycaemia].
  • INTRODUCTION: Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura are uncommon and discovered fortuitously or in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms.
  • Endocrine tests showed an extremely reduced glucose level and blood concentration of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, growth hormone and catecholamines within normal range.
  • After fine-needle aspiration, by histological and immunohistochemical analysis, a benign solitary fibrous pleural tumour was diagnosed.
  • Although surgical resection of such a huge tumour with hypoglycaemia is usually curative, our patient declined surgery and opted for conservative treatment with intravenous glucose.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of this rare, but important cause of hypoglycaemia and exclude a fibrous pleural tumour in the assessment of their patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypoglycemia / etiology. Neoplasms, Fibrous Tissue / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes. Pleural Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17633322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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2. Couvelard A, O'Toole D, Turley H, Leek R, Sauvanet A, Degott C, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J, Harris AL, Gatter K, Pezzella F: Microvascular density and hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in pancreatic endocrine tumours: negative correlation of microvascular density and VEGF expression with tumour progression. Br J Cancer; 2005 Jan 17;92(1):94-101
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  • [Title] Microvascular density and hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in pancreatic endocrine tumours: negative correlation of microvascular density and VEGF expression with tumour progression.
  • Tumour-associated angiogenesis is partly regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway.
  • Endocrine tumours are highly vascularised and the molecular mechanisms of their angiogenesis are not fully delineated.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate angiogenesis and expression of HIF-related molecules in a series of patients with pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs).
  • The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) was examined by immunohistochemistry in 45 patients with PETs and compared to microvascular density (MVD), endothelial proliferation, tumour stage and survival.
  • Microvascular density was significantly higher in benign PETs than in PETs of uncertain prognosis, well-differentiated and poorly differentiated carcinomas (mean values: 535, 436, 252 and 45 vessels mm(-2), respectively, P < 0.0001).
  • The regulation of HIF signalling appears to be specific in pancreatic endocrine tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Islet Cell / blood supply. Adenoma, Islet Cell / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Pancreatic Neoplasms / blood supply. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15558070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361752
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3. Blandamura S, Parenti A, Famengo B, Canesso A, Moschino P, Pasquali C, Pizzi S, Guzzardo V, Ninfo V: Three cases of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;60(3):278-82
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  • [Title] Three cases of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumour.
  • AIMS: To report three cases of serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumour in the same pancreas, to review the literature and to evaluate the clinicopathological features of the tumours.
  • RESULTS: Histological examination of the pancreas showed one serous oligocystic adenoma associated with a benign, well-differentiated endocrine tumour, one serous oligocystic adenoma associated with an endocrine microadenoma, and a von Hippel-Lindau-related cystic neoplasm with a well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serous cystadenoma associated with endocrine tumour shows some clinicopathological differences with respect to the two tumours considered separately, and with respect to von Hippel-Lindau-related cases, although there is no convincing evidence at present to justify considering this association as a separate entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / metabolism. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16644876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 32
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860571
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4. Granberg D, Wilander E, Oberg K: Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors in lung carcinoids. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(3):153-7
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  • OBJECTIVES: Typical lung carcinoids are usually relatively benign tumors, but distant metastases are seen in up to 12% of the patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue from 51 patients with typical lung carcinoids were immunostained with polyclonal antibodies against c-kit, PDGFRalpha, PDGFRbeta and EGFR.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16612146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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5. de la Torre NG, Buley I, Wass JA, Turner HE: Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid proliferative lesions: relationship to type and tumour behaviour. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Sep;13(3):931-44
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid proliferative lesions: relationship to type and tumour behaviour.
  • Patterns for tumour behaviour and metastasic spread vary according to tumour type and whether differences in the angiogenic or lymphangiogenic phenotype influence the route for tumour metastases or determine a more aggressive behaviour has not been fully explored.
  • The angiogenic and lymphangiogenic phenotypes of a large cohort of thyroid proliferative lesions (n=191) were studied.
  • MVD was decreased in proliferative lesions, benign and malignant, compared with NT (P<0.0001).
  • In contrast, VEGF-A expression was increased in thyroid carcinomas (PC, FC and MC) when compared with PMC, benign lesions and NT (P<0.0001).
  • Despite higher LVD and increased expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C in thyroid cancers, these markers were not related to poor prognosis in terms of tumour size, multifocality and/or presence of lymphatic or distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangiogenesis. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16954441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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6. Luong TV, Salvagni S, Bordi C: Presacral carcinoid tumour. Review of the literature and report of a clinically malignant case. Dig Liver Dis; 2005 Apr;37(4):278-81
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  • [Title] Presacral carcinoid tumour. Review of the literature and report of a clinically malignant case.
  • Carcinoid tumours arising in the presacral region are extremely rare and they are usually benign.
  • We report the case of a 37-year-old black man with a clinically malignant carcinoid tumour (well differentiated endocrine carcinoma) occurring in a sacrococcygeal teratoma and already metastasised to pelvic nodes, liver and bone at the time of the initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pelvic Floor / pathology. Pelvic Floor / radiography. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Sacrococcygeal Region. Synaptophysin / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15788213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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7. Pacak K, Ilias I, Adams KT, Eisenhofer G: Biochemical diagnosis, localization and management of pheochromocytoma: focus on multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 in relation to other hereditary syndromes and sporadic forms of the tumour. J Intern Med; 2005 Jan;257(1):60-8
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  • [Title] Biochemical diagnosis, localization and management of pheochromocytoma: focus on multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 in relation to other hereditary syndromes and sporadic forms of the tumour.
  • Approximately 50% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A or 2B develop pheochromocytoma.
  • These tumours are almost exclusively benign and localized in the adrenal glands.
  • About one-third are bilateral at initial diagnosis.
  • Since pheochromocytomas in patients with MEN 2 often secrete catecholamines episodically (but metabolize them continuously to metanephrines), the first choice for biochemical diagnosis is the measurement of free metanephrines in plasma, with urinary fractionated metanephrines being the second choice.
  • In patients with biochemically proven MEN 2-related pheochromocytoma, anatomical imaging of the adrenals (with either computerized tomography or magnetic resonance) should be obtained next.
  • Functional imaging with specific ligands (e.g. scintigraphy with [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine or, if available, positron emission tomography with [(18)F]-fluorodopamine, [(18)F]-dihydroxyphenylalanine, [(11)C]-adrenaline or [(11)C]-hydroxyephedrine) may then be particularly useful in patients with distorted anatomy from previous surgery, in cases of equivocal biochemical data despite high clinical suspicion for a tumour, to rule out multifocal disease, or where there is suspicion of metastatic disease (e.g. tumours larger than 5 cm).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


8. Johnson MA, Rajendran S, Balachandar TG, Kannan DG, Jeswanth S, Ravichandran P, Surendran R: Central pancreatectomy for benign pancreatic pathology/trauma: is it a reasonable pancreas-preserving conservative surgical strategy alternative to standard major pancreatic resection? ANZ J Surg; 2006 Nov;76(11):987-95
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  • [Title] Central pancreatectomy for benign pancreatic pathology/trauma: is it a reasonable pancreas-preserving conservative surgical strategy alternative to standard major pancreatic resection?
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility, safety and outcome of central pancreatectomy (CP) with pancreaticogastrostomy or pancreaticojejunostomy in appropriately selected patients with benign central pancreatic pathology/trauma.
  • Benign lesions/trauma of the pancreatic neck and proximal body pose an interesting surgical challenge.
  • CP is an operation that allows resection of benign tumours located in the pancreatic isthmus that are not suitable for enucleation.
  • The cephalic pancreatic stump is oversewn and the distal stump is anastomosed end-to-end with a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop in two and with the stomach in six patients.
  • The indications for CP were: non-functional islet cell tumours in two patients, traumatic pancreatic neck transection in two and one each for insulinoma, solid pseudopapillary tumour, splenic artery pseudoaneurysm and pseudocyst.
  • Endocrine function was evaluated by blood glucose level.
  • At a mean follow up of 26.4 months, no patient had evidence of endocrine or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, all the patients were alive and well without clinical and imaging evidence of disease recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: When technically feasible, CP is a safe, pancreas-preserving pancreatectomy for non-enucleable benign pancreatic pathology/trauma confined to pancreatic isthmus that allows for cure of the disease without loss of substantial amount of normal pancreatic parenchyma with preservation of exocrine/endocrine function and without interruption of enteric continuity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Injuries / complications. Abdominal Injuries / diagnosis. Abdominal Injuries / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas / injuries. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] ANZ J Surg. 2006 Nov;76(11):959-60 [17054540.001]
  • (PMID = 17054548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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9. Cañizares MA, García-Fontán EM, Rivo JE, Gonzalez-Piñeiro A: Local recurrence and metastatic disease in a typical N1 carcinoid bronchial tumour. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Jun;7(5):216-8
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  • [Title] Local recurrence and metastatic disease in a typical N1 carcinoid bronchial tumour.
  • Typical carcinoid bronchial tumour is a well-known disease that, for years, was considered benign.
  • Currently, it is classified within the group of neuro-endocrine lung tumours.
  • It is a low-grade malignancy tumour with a capability of local and distant recurrence.
  • We present, here, a case of a 19-years-old female diagnosed as having N1-bronchial typical carcinoid tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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10. Vezzosi D, Bouisson M, Escourrou G, Laurell H, Selves J, Seguin P, Pradayrol L, Caron P, Buscail L: Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jan;64(1):63-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The distinction between benign and malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours is hard to achieve.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether detection of telomerase or quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein subunit (hTERT) differ between benign and malignant endocrine tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study investigated 31 well-differentiated primary endocrine tumours.
  • Based on clinical and histopathological criteria, tumours were categorized with the most recent WHO classification as 'benign' (n = 14), 'uncertain' (n = 5) or 'malignant' (n = 12) with (n = 7) or without (n = 5) metastasis after a mean follow-up of 40.4 +/- 25.8 months (4-122 months).
  • RESULTS: Telomerase activity was detected in 7 malignant and metastatic tumours, in 1 malignant tumour without metastases, in 1 uncertain tumour and in 1 benign tumour. hTERT mRNA levels were significantly higher in malignant endocrine tumours with or without metastases (P = 0.001) when compared to benign tumours.
  • The negative predictive value of hTERT mRNA quantification for the diagnosis of malignancy was 88.9%, whereas the positive predictive value was 68.7%.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of telomerase activity within the primary endocrine tumour might indicate a malignant tumour and might suggest the need for an attentive search for concomitant metastases.
  • Quantification of hTERT mRNA could be used in clinical practice to exclude malignancy in most endocrine tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clinical Enzyme Tests. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Telomerase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16402930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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11. Rubin MR, Bilezikian JP, Birken S, Silverberg SJ: Human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in parathyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Oct;159(4):469-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Preoperatively, it is difficult to differentiate between parathyroid cancer (PtCa) and severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a benign tumor.
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a tumor marker in trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic cancers and hyperglycosylated hCG is increased in hCG-secreting malignancies.
  • We investigated whether hCG can distinguish PtCa cancer from benign disease and add prognostic information.
  • RESULTS: Total urinary hCG was normal in the benign PHPT control subjects (range: 0-17 fmol/mg Cr; nl<50).
  • Serum malignant hyperglycosylated hCG values in all of the cancer patients exceeded the maximal serum malignant hCG level of the PHPT subjects with benign disease (3.77 pmol/l).
  • Further studies would help to elucidate the role of hCG as a potential tumor marker in this disease.

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  • (PMID = 18625691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK074457-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK32333; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA 98350; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA098350; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK032333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS247354; NLM/ PMC2970867
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12. Tonelli F, Fratini G, Falchetti A, Nesi G, Brandi ML: Surgery for gastroenteropancreatic tumours in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: review and personal experience. J Intern Med; 2005 Jan;257(1):38-49
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery for gastroenteropancreatic tumours in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: review and personal experience.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumours develop from the pancreatic islets and from the endocrine cells of the duodenal and gastric mucosa.
  • Even if GEP tumours have generally a benign course, a subgroup of them shows an aggressive behaviour and is a major cause of death amongst MEN1 patients.
  • Diagnosis of insulinoma should lead promptly to pancreatic surgery.
  • Cure rate for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in MEN1 is low when surgery is limited to tumour enucleation or full thickness duodenal wall resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Gastrinoma / surgery. Humans. Insulinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Prognosis. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Time Factors


13. Niederle MB, Hackl M, Kaserer K, Niederle B: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: the current incidence and staging based on the WHO and European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society classification: an analysis based on prospectively collected parameters. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Dec;17(4):909-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: the current incidence and staging based on the WHO and European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society classification: an analysis based on prospectively collected parameters.
  • Using the current WHO classification, the tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM) staging and Ki67 grading and the standard diagnostic procedure proposed by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS), GEP-NETs from 285 patients (male: 148; female: 137) were recorded.
  • The stomach (23%) was the main site, followed by appendix (21%), small intestine (15%) and rectum (14%).
  • Patients with appendiceal tumours were significantly younger than patients with tumours in any other site.
  • About 46.0% were classified as benign, 15.4% as uncertain, 31.9% as well differentiated malignant and 6.7% as poorly differentiated malignant.
  • Patients with benign or uncertain tumours were significantly younger than patients with malignant tumours.
  • NETs of the digestive tract are more common than previously reported; the majority show benign behaviour, are located in the stomach and are well differentiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Austria / epidemiology. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20702725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Al Harthi B, Riaz MM, Al Khalaf AH, Al Zoum M, Al Shakweer W: Adrenal myelolipoma a rare benign tumour managed laparoscopically: Report of two cases. J Minim Access Surg; 2009 Oct;5(4):118-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma a rare benign tumour managed laparoscopically: Report of two cases.
  • Adrenal Myelolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of haemopoietic elements.

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  • (PMID = 20407573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3921
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimal access surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Access Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2843128
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Angiomyelolipoma / laparoscopic adrenalectomy / myelolipoma
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15. Vanbeckevoort D: Solid pancreatic masses: benign or malignant. JBR-BTR; 2007 Nov-Dec;90(6):487-9
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  • [Title] Solid pancreatic masses: benign or malignant.
  • Solid masses in the pancreas mostly occur in the pancreatic head and may be related to inflammation due to chronic pancreatitis or may be caused by malignancy.
  • Ductal pancreatic carcinoma is the most common malignant pancreatic neoplasm, accounting for more than 90% of malignant solid pancreatic tumours.
  • Endocrine tumours represent only a minority of those tumours.
  • While endocrine tumours tend to exhibit symptoms earlier in the course of the disease (due to tumour-related hormone production), adenocarcinomas present in nearly all cases in advanced stages when curative resection is not feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18376761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-7430
  • [Journal-full-title] JBR-BTR : organe de la Société royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JBR-BTR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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16. Unger N, Serdiuk I, Sheu SY, Walz MK, Schulz S, Saeger W, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Jun;68(6):850-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Somatostatin mediates its action through five receptor subtypes (sst1-5) that are widely distributed in various endocrine tissues and tumours.
  • DESIGN: Seven benign and eight malignant pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), eight aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), nine cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), seven nonfunctioning adrenal tumours (NFAs) and 25 adrenal carcinomas (CAs) as well as eight normal adrenal glands were investigated.
  • All benign PHEOs were positive for sst3.
  • The majority presented with more than 60% of tumour cells stained.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin receptor subtypes are expressed in PHEOs as well as in tumours of the adrenal cortex with tumour-specific distribution patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / classification. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18031328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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17. Delle Fave G, Capurso G, Milione M, Panzuto F: Endocrine tumours of the stomach. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):659-73
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  • [Title] Endocrine tumours of the stomach.
  • Gastric endocrine tumours (gastric carcinoids) usually grow from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells.
  • Three types of tumour may be distinguished on the basis of the background gastric pathology: type I, which develops in atrophic body gastritis (ABG); type II, which is associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; and the sporadic type III, which is not associated with any background pathology.
  • In fact, type I carcinoids can be considered to be benign lesions, with exceptional risk of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Gastrectomy / methods. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Gastroscopy / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / epidemiology. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / pathology. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16253892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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18. Sandgren J, Diaz de Ståhl T, Andersson R, Menzel U, Piotrowski A, Nord H, Bäckdahl M, Kiss NB, Brauckhoff M, Komorowski J, Dralle H, Hessman O, Larsson C, Akerström G, Bruder C, Dumanski JP, Westin G: Recurrent genomic alterations in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas revealed by whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):561-79
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent genomic alterations in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas revealed by whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization analysis.
  • The majority of cases are benign, but malignant tumours are observed.
  • We applied high-resolution whole-genome array CGH on 53 benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas to narrow down candidate regions as well as to identify chromosomal alterations more specific to malignant tumours.
  • Our study revealed novel and narrow recurrent chromosomal regions of loss and gain at several autosomes, a prerequisite for identifying candidate tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes involved in the development of adrenal and extra-adrenal catecholamine-producing tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20410162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Loeffen JL, Wijnen M, Schijf CP, van Wieringen P: [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Mar 25;150(12):677-80
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  • [Title] [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension].
  • [Transliterated title] Ovariumtumor bij een meisje met chronische buikpijn en zwelling van de buik.
  • The cause was a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour originating in the left ovary.
  • Two of the most frequently observed sex cord-stromal tumours are the juvenile granulosa cell tumour and the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour.
  • Even though these tumours may contain histologically malignant characteristics, their behaviour is usually benign.
  • Clinical characteristics are endocrine symptoms, fatigue, chronic abdominal pain and abdominal distension.
  • In addition, pressure from the tumour mass may result in symptoms in adjacent organ systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16613252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • There was no expression of Ki67 or p53 protein above the assumed level in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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21. Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):569-85
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Although a subset of these tumours has metastatic disease at initial presentation, a significant number develops metastases during follow-up after excision of an apparently benign tumour.
  • Clinical, biochemical and histological features cannot reliably distinguish malignant from benign tumours.
  • Several imaging modalities have been utilised for the diagnosis and staging of these tumours.
  • The main therapeutic target is tumour reduction and control of symptoms of excessive catecholamine secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromaffin Cells / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Endocrine Surgical Procedures. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / trends

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  • (PMID = 17914089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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22. Denizot Y, Chianéa T, Labrousse F, Truffinet V, Delage M, Mathonnet M: Platelet-activating factor and human thyroid cancer. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Jul;153(1):31-40
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  • SUBJECTS: Control and diseased tissue of patients with a hyperplastic goitre (n = 14), a benign adenoma (n = 12) and a papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 15) were investigated.
  • PAF, lyso-PAF, PLA2 and AHA were present in control thyroid tissues, their levels being significantly correlated with each other, suggesting tiny regulations of the PAF metabolic pathways inside the thyroid gland.
  • PAF, lyso-PAF, PLA2 and AHA levels remained unchanged in diseased tissues of patients with a hyperplastic goitre, a benign adenoma and a papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • No difference was found between PAF, lyso-PAF, PLA2 and AHA levels with respect to the TNM tumour status and the histological sub-type of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: PAF, PAF receptor transcripts and the enzymatic activities implicated in PAF production and degradation are present in the thyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 15994743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / O-deacetyl platelet activating factor; 0 / Platelet Activating Factor; 0 / Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / platelet activating factor receptor; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; EC 3.1.1.- / Phospholipases A; EC 3.1.1.4 / Phospholipases A2; EC 3.1.1.47 / 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase
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23. Ramuz O, Lelong B, Giovannini M, Delpero JR, Rochaix P, Xerri L, Hassoun J, Flejou JF, Monges G: "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):555-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies.
  • This study is the second to report a pancreatic "sugar" tumor (ST) case.
  • This ST was incidentally discovered in a 31-year-old woman using computed tomography scan (CT scan) for work-up of a hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia.
  • Both CT scan and endoluminal ultrasonography (EUS) features evoked a 15-mm large benign endocrine tumor.
  • Pathological examination of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies could not confirm this diagnosis.
  • The tumor was intrapancreatic, well circumscribed, and organized in sheets of epithelioid cells.
  • The tumor cells expressed HMB-45 but did not express epithelial or endocrine immunohistochemical markers.
  • This observation highlights that STs should be considered in preoperative differential diagnosis of pancreas tumors, since they may be treated by limited surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiomyolipoma / chemistry. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Antigens, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / complications. Humans. Laparoscopy. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Pancreatectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15821930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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24. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P: New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Dec;14(4):957-77
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  • Whereas the prevalence of nodular thyroid disease worldwide is high, malignant conversion from benign thyroid nodules is rare.
  • The most common type of thyroid cancer--papillary thyroid carcinoma--stands out among solid tumours because many of the tumour-initiating events have been identified.
  • All of them function in a single pathway--the RTK/RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway--and obey an 'exclusivity principle': one and only one component of the pathway is mutated in a single tumour.
  • This highlights the requirement of this signal transduction pathway for the transformation to thyroid cancer and paves the way to targeted therapies against a tumour with a mutation in a known gene or any gene upstream of the target.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Multigene Family. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


25. Delbridge L: Solitary thyroid nodule: current management. ANZ J Surg; 2006 May;76(5):381-6
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  • The majority are benign with thyroid cancer representing an uncommon clinical problem.
  • Non-palpable nodules greater than 1.0 to 1.5 cm represent an absolute indication to perform an ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy.
  • Because it is not possible to distinguish a follicular carcinoma from a follicular adenoma on cytological grounds alone, this category must simply be interpreted as indicating a follicular tumour and up to 20% will be malignant.

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  • (PMID = 16768700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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26. Bradley KJ, Cavaco BM, Bowl MR, Harding B, Cranston T, Fratter C, Besser GM, Conceição Pereira M, Davie MW, Dudley N, Leite V, Sadler GP, Seller A, Thakker RV: Parafibromin mutations in hereditary hyperparathyroidism syndromes and parathyroid tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Mar;64(3):299-306
Genetics Home Reference. consumer health - CDC73 gene.

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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate two patients with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome and three patients with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), together with 31 parathyroid tumours (2 HPT-JT, 2 FIHP and 27 sporadic) for HRPT2 mutations.
  • DESIGN: Leukocyte and tumor DNA was used with HRPT2-specific primers for polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 17 exons and their splice junctions, and the DNA sequences of the polymerase chain reaction products determined.
  • One parathyroid tumour from an FIHP patient was demonstrated to harbour a germline deletion of 1 bp together with a somatic missense (Leu95Pro) mutation, consistent with a 'two-hit' model for hereditary cancer.
  • The 27 sporadic benign parathyroid tumours did not harbour any HRPT2 somatic mutations.
  • The Asp379Asn mutation is likely to disrupt interaction with the human homologue of the yeast Paf1 complex, and the demonstration of combined germline and somatic HRPT2 mutations in a parathyroid tumour provide further evidence for the tumour suppressor role of the HRPT2 gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Jaw Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Family Health. Female. Gene Frequency. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Pedigree. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16487440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9825289
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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27. Righi L, Volante M, Rapa I, Scagliotti GV, Papotti M: Neuro-endocrine tumours of the lung. A review of relevant pathological and molecular data. Virchows Arch; 2007 Aug;451 Suppl 1:S51-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Neuro-endocrine tumours of the lung. A review of relevant pathological and molecular data.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) tumours of the lung include pure and mixed forms.
  • In the former group, a continuum of lesions is recognised ranging from benign typical carcinoids to atypical carcinoids (having a low-grade behaviour, although often associated with regional and distant metastases), to the highly aggressive poorly differentiated carcinomas of the small and large cell types.
  • In the mixed tumour group, the NE component is extensively represented in association with any of the non-small cell carcinoma subtypes (so-called combined carcinomas), or the NE component is restricted to a cell population scattered among adenocarcinoma cells (or more rarely within squamous or large cell carcinomas).
  • The molecular profile of NE tumours has been widely investigated to identify features helpful for the diagnosis, prognosis and even therapy for this special lung tumour category.
  • Specific chromosomal alterations, oncogene mutations and cell cycle molecule disregulation has been documented in NE tumours of the lung, as well as the expression of specific receptors or enzymes implicated in the response to biotherapies or to chemotherapeutic agents.
  • The "molecular classification" of NE tumours should be integrated to morphology, for a better definition of the different histological types and a more appropriate selection of the therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17684766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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28. Molinié V, Ruffion A, Allory Y, Leroy X, Cochand Priollet B, Paraf F, de la Taille A: [Is tumour grade applicable to finasteride-treated prostate cancer?]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):387-91
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  • [Title] [Is tumour grade applicable to finasteride-treated prostate cancer?].
  • [Transliterated title] Un grade tumoral est-il applicable au cancer de la prostate sous finastéride?
  • The treatment of prostate cancer by endocrine therapy induces histological changes of benign or malignant prostate glands.
  • Most authors appear to agree that cancers discovered by biopsy in patients treated with endocrine therapy should not be graded.
  • (1) the extent of histological changes after androgen deprivation endocrine therapy;.
  • [MeSH-major] Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Finasteride / therapeutic use. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors. Animals. Atrophy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16097140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 57GNO57U7G / Finasteride
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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29. Adam N, Lim SS, Ananda V, Chan SP: VIPoma syndrome: challenges in management. Singapore Med J; 2010 Jul;51(7):e129-32
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  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumour (VIPoma) or Verner-Morrison syndrome is a very rare neuroendocrine tumour.
  • Diagnosis is characteristically delayed.
  • It may be curative in forty percent of patients with benign and non-metastatic disease.
  • Somatostatin analogues improve hormone-mediated symptoms, reduce tumour bulk and prevent local and systemic effects.
  • We present a female patient with VIPoma syndrome, which had metastasised to the liver at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Palliative Care. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Vipoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Catheter Ablation / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20730389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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30. Fendrich V, Bartsch DK: [Diagnosis and surgical management of neureondocrine pancreatic tumours]. Zentralbl Chir; 2010 Jun;135(3):210-7
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical management of neureondocrine pancreatic tumours].
  • The only chance of cure for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs) is complete surgical removal not only of the primary tumour, but also of local or distant metastases.
  • This is true for gastrinomas, vipomas, glucagonomas, somatostatinomas and non-functional pancreatic endocrine tumours.
  • An aggressive surgical approach leads to cure in patients with benign tumours, and may achieve long-term survival in patients with malignant NPTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperinsulinism / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreas / surgery. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 20549584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
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  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • GLUT1 and -3 were expressed in 33 and 17% of ACC samples respectively, but in none of the benign tumours or normal adrenals glands.
  • By contrast, TKTL1 and M2-PK were detectable in all benign tissues and the vast majority of ACCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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32. Uehara H, Tatsumi K, Masuda E, Kato M, Kizu T, Ishida T, Takakura R, Takano Y, Nakaizumi A, Ishikawa O, Takenaka A: Scraping cytology with a guidewire for pancreatic-ductal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 Jul;70(1):52-9
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  • Conventional procedures for acquisition of a specimen for cytology during ERCP have been limited in their ability to discriminate pancreatic-ductal strictures.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients with pancreatic-ductal strictures composed of 71 malignant and 15 benign diseases were evaluated.
  • Malignant diseases included 70 pancreatic carcinomas and 1 endocrine tumor; benign diseases included the following: 7 chronic pancreatitis, 3 autoimmune pancreatitis, 3 idiopathic pancreatic-ductal strictures, and 2 pancreatic cysts.
  • Sensitivities for pancreatic carcinoma with a tumor of <20 mm, 21 to 40 mm, 41 to 60 mm, and >61 mm were 95%, 92%, 100%, and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign or malignant pancreatic-ductal strictures were accurately discriminated by scraping cytology with a guidewire during ERCP.
  • The technique yielded high diagnostic sensitivities in pancreatic carcinoma, regardless of the location or size of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19249043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Velusamy A, Saw S, Gossage J, Bailey S, Schofield J: Combined adenocarcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:28

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  • INTRODUCTION: Adenocarcinoid of the appendix is a rare malignant tumour with features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid, showing both epithelial and endocrine differentiation.
  • Mucinous cystadenoma is the commonest of the benign neoplasms of the appendix, with an incidence of 0.6% in appendicectomy specimens.
  • Right hemicolectomy is generally advised if any of the following features are present: tumours greater than 2 cm, involvement of resection margins, greater than 2 mitoses/10 high-power fields on histology, extension of tumour beyond serosa.

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  • [Cites] Tumori. 2007 Nov-Dec;93(6):587-90 [18338494.001]
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  • (PMID = 19171048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2647933
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34. Wilkes D, Charitakis K, Basson CT: Inherited disposition to cardiac myxoma development. Nat Rev Cancer; 2006 Feb;6(2):157-65
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Carney complex is a genetic condition in which affected individuals develop benign tumours in various tissues, including the heart.
  • Genetically engineered mutant Prkar1a mouse models show an increased propensity to develop tumours, and have established a role for R1alpha in initiating tumour formation and, potentially, in maintaining cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Myxoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Endocrine System Diseases. Humans. Mice. Proteins / genetics. Signal Transduction. Skin Pigmentation. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16491075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-175X
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Rev. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Prkar1a protein, mouse; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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35. Kotzampassakis N, Maweja S, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Surgical management of adrenal tumours. Lessons from a 10 years personal experience. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 Apr;105(2):156-60
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  • The lesions resected were preoperatively considered non-secreting in 47 cases (45%) and hormonally active in 58 cases (55%).
  • In 78 patients (80%), LA was performed and 84 adrenal glands were resected.
  • In 19 patients (20%), OA was considered the best modality of resection and 21 adrenal glands were resected.
  • The average tumour size was 37.2 mm (range 25-90) in LA group and 82.6 mm (30-260) in the OA group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, trans-peritoneal LA proved to be a safe and reliable procedure for benign adrenal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Belgium. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Laparotomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15906906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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36. Queiroga FL, Pérez-Alenza D, Silvan G, Peña L, Lopes CS, Illera JC: Serum and intratumoural GH and IGF-I concentrations: prognostic factors in the outcome of canine mammary cancer. Res Vet Sci; 2010 Dec;89(3):396-403
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  • Hormonal determinations were done by enzyme immunoassays techniques validated for canine species in serum and tumour tissue from 32 bitches with CMT and in serum and normal mammary tissue from 10 controls.
  • Serum and tissular GH and IGF-I concentrations were significantly higher in the case of malignant tumour compared with benign and controls.
  • GH and IGF-I elevated concentrations were significantly associated with tumour relapse and/or metastases during follow-up and in dogs with reduced survival times; however these parameters were not independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis.
  • This association demonstrates a link between high serum and intratumoural GH and IGF-I concentrations and a worse prognosis and opens the possibility to new anticancer endocrine therapies in dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Growth Hormone / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Breast / chemistry. Breast / pathology. Dogs. Estrogen Receptor alpha / analysis. Female. Immunoenzyme Techniques / veterinary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20381105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2661
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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37. Lips C, Lentjes E, Höppener J, Luijt Rv, Moll F: Familial paragangliomas. Hered Cancer Clin Pract; 2006;4(4):169-76

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  • They are usually benign and have a low mortality.
  • However, they cause significant morbidity related to their mass effect.
  • Genetic predisposition can occur within the familial tumour syndromes multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), or be due to mutations in genes specific to the development of paraganglioma only.
  • Tumours should be diagnosed and resected as early as possible, as it has been shown that morbidity is related to tumour size.
  • This article gives an overview of the current literature on the origin of the different forms of paragangliomas, DNA diagnosis, as well as biochemical and radiological screening guidelines.

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  • (PMID = 20223020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-4287
  • [Journal-full-title] Hereditary cancer in clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hered Cancer Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2837305
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38. Clements D, Asprey SL, McCulloch TA, Morris TA, Watson SA, Johnson SR: Analysis of the oestrogen response in an angiomyolipoma derived xenograft model. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Mar;16(1):59-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Angiomyolipomas are benign mesenchymal tumours of smooth muscle, blood vessels and fat which occur sporadically or associated with tuberous sclerosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare cystic lung disease.
  • To address this question, we created a xenograft tumour system in nude mice using immortalised angiomyolipoma cells.
  • Angiomyolipoma xenografts had active S6K1, p38, p42/44 MAPK and Akt; they grew more rapidly and had greater Akt phosphorylation after oestrogen treatment of tumour-bearing mice.
  • This model may prove useful for studying the biology and effect of drugs on angiomyolipoma and diseases related to TSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / metabolism. Estrogens / pharmacology. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects. MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18988705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; 0 / platelet-derived growth factor C; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa
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39. Mukherjee R, Edwards J, Underwood MA, Bartlett JM: The relationship between angiogenesis and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in prostate cancer. BJU Int; 2005 Jul;96(1):62-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that angiogenesis in prostate cancer is associated with tumour invasion and metastasis, and that this is mediated through increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Angiogenesis was assessed in 105 patients with either prostate cancer (79) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 26) and these data correlated with levels of COX-2 expression in the same dataset.
  • RESULTS: There was no difference in MVD in progressive tumour stages compared with BPH.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that COX-2 drives tumour spread in prostate cancer by means other than the promotion of angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood supply. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cyclooxygenase 2. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Membrane Proteins. Microcirculation. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prostatic Hyperplasia / enzymology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15963122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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40. Krzysztof K, Wiktor B, Tadeusz Ł, Waldemar B, Magdalena K, Janusz D: Neuroendocrine tumours--analysis of own material--a nine--year retrospective study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Mar-Apr;57(98):236-41

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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuroendocrine tumours are fairly rare neoplasms that require different treatments and have various prognoses.
  • The aim of this study was to present the author's observations of the histological tumor types, occurrence and its surgical treatment.
  • Ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal cavity, pelvis, thorax or neck--depend on the tumor localization--were done in every individual.
  • All cases were subjected to surgical procedure with an aim to resect the tumour completely.
  • In adrenal glands we observed 10 benign and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma (one bilateral female case with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A).
  • The clinical manifestations of some neuroendocrine tumours are not specific, so it causes a lot of difficulties in early diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20583420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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41. Pitale A, Andrabi SI, Dolan SJ, Russell CF: Minimally invasive parathyroid exploration for solitary adenoma. Initial experience with an open, 'short incision' approach. Ulster Med J; 2008 May;77(2):115-8

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  • BACKGROUND: In the vast majority of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) the causative pathology is a benign solitary adenoma.
  • The conventional surgical approach for HPT has involved bilateral cervical exploration with attempted identification of all four parathyroids and resection of enlarged glands.
  • However, in recent years new techniques have permitted accurate preoperative localisation of the single parathyroid tumour in many patients.
  • More recently we have progressed to a minimally invasive surgical approach for such individuals in whom the tumour has been localised preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • [Cites] Br J Surg. 1999 Dec;86(12):1563-6 [10594506.001]
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  • (PMID = 18711630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-6193
  • [Journal-full-title] The Ulster medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ulster Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Northern Ireland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2516437
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42. Crippa S, Bassi C, Salvia R, Falconi M, Butturini G, Pederzoli P: Enucleation of pancreatic neoplasms. Br J Surg; 2007 Oct;94(10):1254-9
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  • [Title] Enucleation of pancreatic neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Standard resections for benign and borderline neoplasms of the pancreas are associated with a significant risk of long-term functional impairment, whereas enucleation preserves healthy parenchyma and pancreatic function.
  • A clinically significant pancreatic fistula was reported in 14 patients (23 per cent), and five patients (8 per cent) had a further operation for fistula-related complications.
  • The most common indication for surgery was endocrine neoplasm (38 patients; 62 per cent) and two patients (3 per cent) had a final histopathological diagnosis of malignant neoplasm.
  • At a median follow-up of 61 months no patient had developed tumour recurrence or exocrine insufficiency.
  • Two elderly patients developed non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
  • CONCLUSION: Enucleation is an effective procedure for the radical treatment of benign and borderline neoplasms of the pancreas, with good long-term outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Fistula / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2008 Feb;95(2):261; author reply 261-2 [18196559.001]
  • (PMID = 17583892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Musholt TJ: [Diagnosis of and surgical therapy for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma]. Zentralbl Chir; 2010 Jun;135(3):226-32
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis of and surgical therapy for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma].
  • Recent findings on the genetic background of hereditary tumours have challenged the rule of the 10 % -tumour and significantly changed the requirements for preoperative work-up and surgical strategy.
  • However, in the absence of metastasis, reliable differentiation between -benign and malignant growth is preoperatively and even histopathologically rarely possible.
  • Minimally invasive techniques using a transabdominal or retroperitoneal approach have become the gold standard for the resection of unifocal benign pheochromocytomas.
  • Open transabdominal resections are an approved therapy for large or potentially -malignant tumours and for settings with multi-focal tumour sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Paraganglioma / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 20549585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Kaltsas G, Androulakis II, de Herder WW, Grossman AB: Paraneoplastic syndromes secondary to neuroendocrine tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):R173-93
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  • Neuroendocrine tumours may be either benign or malignant tumours, and have the ability to synthesise and secrete biologically active substances characteristic of the cell of origin that can cause distinct clinical syndromes.
  • The term 'paraneoplastic syndromes' (PNSs) is used to denote syndromes secondary to substances secreted from tumours not related to their specific organ or tissue of origin and/or production of autoantibodies against tumour cells; such syndromes are mainly associated with hormonal and neurological symptoms.
  • Appreciation of the presence of such syndromes is important as clinical presentation, if not identified, may delay the diagnosis of the underlying neoplasia.
  • Conversely, early recognition can allow for more rapid diagnosis, particularly as the coexistence of a neoplasm with a clinical or biochemical marker offers an additional determinant of tumour status/progression.
  • Their diagnosis involves a multidisciplinary approach, and detailed endocrinological, neurological, radiological and histological studies are required.
  • Correct diagnosis is essential as the treatment of choice will be different for each disorder, particularly in the case of malignant tumours; it is therefore important to develop appropriate means to correctly identify and localise these tumours.
  • Disease-specific medical therapies are mandatory in order to prevent recurrence and/or further tumour growth.

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  • (PMID = 20530594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Agarwal SK, Ozawa A, Mateo CM, Marx SJ: The MEN1 gene and pituitary tumours. Horm Res; 2009 Apr;71 Suppl 2:131-8
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  • Sporadic multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is defined as the occurrence of tumours in two of three main endocrine tissue types: parathyroid, pituitary and pancreaticoduodenal.
  • They also show various expressions of tumour multiplicity; however, pituitary tumour in MEN1 is usually solitary.
  • Diagnosis in MEN1 carriers during childhood is not directed at cancers but at benign morbid tumours.
  • Morbid prolactinoma occurred at the age of 5 years in one MEN1 individual; hence, this is the earliest age at which to recommend tumour surveillance in carriers.
  • The MEN1 gene shows biallelic inactivation in 30% of some types of common variety endocrine tumours (e.g. parathyroid adenoma, gastrinoma, insulinoma and bronchial carcinoid), but in only 1-5% of common pituitary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / metabolism. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Gene Knockout Techniques. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Mice. Mutation. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19407509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cdkn1b protein, mouse; 0 / HRPT2 protein, mouse; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Men1 protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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46. Forga L, Anda E, Martínez de Esteban JP: [Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes]. An Sist Sanit Navar; 2005 May-Aug;28(2):213-26

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  • We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases.
  • Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and, more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way.
  • Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour.
  • 1) It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia;.
  • 2) It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3) It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution.
  • The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Acromegaly / diagnosis. Acromegaly / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gynecomastia / diagnosis. Gynecomastia / etiology. Hormones, Ectopic / secretion. Humans. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Inappropriate ADH Syndrome / diagnosis. Male. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16155618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1137-6627
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales del sistema sanitario de Navarra
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Sist Sanit Navar
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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47. Fuhrer D, Eszlinger M, Karger S, Krause K, Engelhardt C, Hasenclever D, Dralle H, Paschke R: Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):785-90
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  • [Title] Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated three markers (insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ets-1) of thyroid growth stimulation and cell transformation together with a thyroid-specific marker (thyroglobulin (Tg)) for their potential to differentiate benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasia (FN).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR in 100 snap-frozen thyroid samples: 36 benign thyroid nodules with different histology and function (19 cold (CTN) and 17 toxic thyroid nodules (TTN)), 36 corresponding normal thyroid tissues of the same patients, eight Graves' disease (GD) thyroids, 10 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and 10 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • RESULTS: Mean IGF-II and COX-2 levels were not significantly altered between benign and malignant thyroid nodules (IGF-II) or nodular (FTC, TTN, CTN) and normal thyroid tissues (COX-2).
  • In contrast, eight- to tenfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in PTC and three- to fourfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in FTC (and GD) compared with benign thyroid nodules and normal thyroid tissues.
  • In addition, thyroglobulin mRNA expression was markedly downregulated (50- to 100-fold) in FTC, PTC and GD samples compared with benign nodular and normal thyroid tissues.
  • Hence an ets-1/Tg ratio >20 distinguished differentiated thyroid cancer from benign nodular or normal thyroid tissue.
  • However, in a consecutive series of 40 FNAC samples only equivocal results were obtained on 38 benign and two malignant (FTC) thyroid tumour samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of ets-1 and downregulation of Tg mRNA expression occur in differentiated thyroid cancer and may facilitate pre-operative identification of thyroid malignancy depending on further evaluation of these potentially promising markers in a larger series of benign and malignant thyroid tumours and their FNAC samples.

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  • (PMID = 15879365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ETS1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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48. Kendall-Taylor P, Jönsson PJ, Abs R, Erfurth EM, Koltowska-Häggström M, Price DA, Verhelst J: The clinical, metabolic and endocrine features and the quality of life in adults with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma compared with adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):557-67
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  • [Title] The clinical, metabolic and endocrine features and the quality of life in adults with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma compared with adult-onset craniopharyngioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngioma is a parasellar tumour that, although benign, tends to behave aggressively.
  • DESIGN: Inclusion criteria were: an established diagnosis of craniopharyngioma, severe GHD and no recent GH treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data emphasise the generally poor state of health of patients treated for craniopharyngioma, with respect to endocrine and metabolic function, and also the markedly reduced quality of life.

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  • (PMID = 15817911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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49. Singer E, Gschwantler M, Plattner D, Kriwanek S, Armbruster C, Schueller J, Feichtinger H, Roka R, Moeschl P, Weiss W, Kroiss A: Differential diagnosis of benign and malign pancreatic masses with 18F-fluordeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography recorded with a dual-head coincidence gamma camera. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Jun;19(6):471-8
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of benign and malign pancreatic masses with 18F-fluordeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography recorded with a dual-head coincidence gamma camera.
  • INTRODUCTION: Metabolic imaging using 18F-fluordeoxyglucose and a ring-positron emission tomography camera is an established method in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate how far 18F-fluordeoxyglucose scan with a conventional dual-head gamma-camera could differentiate between benign and malign pancreatic masses.
  • Focal tracer enhancement was suspicious for a malignoma and therefore regarded as positive, diffuse or no tracer uptake was suspicious for a benign process and was regarded as negative for cancer.
  • DEFINITION OF GOLD STANDARDS: A diagnosis of cancer had to be confirmed histologically by specimens obtained by 18G-needle biopsy, surgical resection or at autopsy.
  • A diagnosis of an inflammatory mass was considered proven, if no carcinoma could be found histologically in the surgically resected mass or at autopsy, or if there was no progression of the disease during a follow-up of at least 12 months.
  • RESULTS: In 22 patients carcinoma was diagnosed (pancreatic cancer: n=17; endocrine tumour: n=3; carcinoma of the common bile duct: n=2).
  • In 19 patients the final diagnosis was an inflammatory pancreatic mass.
  • CONCLUSION: 18F-fluordeoxyglucose scan with a conventional dual-head gamma-camera is a highly sensitive and specific method in the differential diagnosis of benign and malign pancreatic masses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Pancreatitis, Chronic / radionuclide imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17489057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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50. Krysiak R, Okopień B: [Parathyroid carcinoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 Aug;23(134):145-50
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  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine tumour accounting for only about one of every hundred cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Most patients with parathyroid carcinoma suffer from symptoms related to marked hypercalcemia; the incidence of associated renal, bone, gastrointestinal, neuromuscular and psychological symptoms is much more frequent than in those with benign parathyroid adenomas.
  • The treatment of parathyroid malignancy is predominantly surgical, comprising an initial en bloc resection of the tumour and adjacent neck structures.
  • The aim of this paper is to summarise the present state of knowledge on the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hypercalcemia / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / complications. Neoplasm Metastasis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / secretion. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Prognosis. Radionuclide Imaging. Rare Diseases. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18044348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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51. Matyja E, Maksymowicz M, Grajkowska W, Olszewski W, Zieliński G, Bonicki W: Spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis - a clinicopathological and ultrastructural study of two cases. Folia Neuropathol; 2010;48(3):175-84
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  • Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) of the pituitary gland is a relatively recently established, very rare subtype of adenohypophysis tumours that was introduced as a distinct clinicopathological entity in the fourth edition of WHO classification of the central nervous system tumours (2007).
  • It is non-endocrine neoplasm of the anterior pituitary that occurs in adults and usually follows a benign clinical course, corresponding to WHO grade I.
  • The clinical and radiological features suggested non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas without evidence of invasive growth.
  • One patient presented with tumour recurrence 3 years after undergoing the previous surgical removal of tumour, which was initially misdiagnosed as schwannoma.
  • The first tumour was removed by transsphenoidal surgery and the second one by frontal craniotomy.
  • The tumour cells exhibited immunoreactivity for S-100 protein, galectin-3, vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen but they were negative for GFAP, anterior pituitary neuroendocrine markers (prolactin, growth hormone, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH), chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin CK (AE1/AE3), smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD34 and CD68.
  • Ultrastructurally, the tumour cells were rich in mitochondria with lamellar cristae.
  • Moreover, in Case 2 some tumour cells showed a number of giant mitochondria with severely destructed internal matrix.
  • It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various sellar-region lesions of oncocytic morphology.

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  • (PMID = 20925001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-572X
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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52. Caldarelli M, Massimi L, Tamburrini G, Cappa M, Di Rocco C: Long-term results of the surgical treatment of craniopharyngioma: the experience at the Policlinico Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Aug;21(8-9):747-57
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  • BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngioma (CP) is the most common intracranial non-glial tumour observed in pediatric age.
  • Although histologically benign and amenable to surgical treatment, its location and relation with vital nervous and vascular structures makes the feasibility of a radical resection difficult even in the microneurosurgery era.
  • Beside the difficulties experienced when performing tumour resection, post-operative complications, such as endocrinological imbalance, represent another point that makes CP total excision a challenge.
  • In order to avoid such complications, some authors have suggested to renounce to radical resection and to rely on post-operative radiation therapy to minimise the risk of residual tumour progression.
  • The most common presenting signs were related to endocrinological imbalance (35 cases), increased intracranial pressure (32 cases), and to a lesser extent, visual compromise (17 cases).
  • The tumour was managed by means of a single surgical approach in 47 cases and with a two-stage operation in the remaining five cases.
  • In 11 cases of intrasellar or intra/suprasellar midline location, the first surgical approach was done through the transsphenoidal route (which represented the first step of a staged operation in five instances); in the remaining 41 patients, craniotomy was the first surgical procedure.
  • Radical tumour resection was achieved in 40 cases, subtotal (only small tumour remnants adherent to the carotid arteries, 3rd ventricle floor or visual pathways) in nine, and only partial in the remaining three cases RESULTS: Histology demonstrated the adamantinous variant in all cases.
  • Twelve patients underwent radiotherapy, six after an initially incomplete tumour resection and six following relapse.
  • Although not insignificant, post-operative mortality and morbidity do not seem to represent a major contraindication in attempting a radical tumour resection whenever possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniotomy. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Italy / epidemiology. Longitudinal Studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Sphenoid Bone / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15995885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
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53. Casadei R, Ricci C, D'Ambra M, Marrano N, Alagna V, Rega D, Monari F, Minni F: Laparoscopic versus open distal pancreatectomy in pancreatic tumours: a case-control study. Updates Surg; 2010 Dec;62(3-4):171-4
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  • Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy has become an increasingly used procedure in the surgical treatment of benign or borderline cystic and endocrine tumours.
  • Tumour size was significantly smaller in laparoscopic group (2.0 ± 3.3 vs. 5.0 ± 4.2 cm; P = 0.038).
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatectomy. Pancreatic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21052893.001).
  • [ISSN] 2038-3312
  • [Journal-full-title] Updates in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Updates Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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54. Hannan FM, Athanasou NA, Teh J, Gibbons CL, Shine B, Thakker RV: Oncogenic hypophosphataemic osteomalacia: biomarker roles of fibroblast growth factor 23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Feb;158(2):265-71
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  • Oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) is characterised by tumour production of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) that results in hypophosphataemia and renal phosphate wasting, reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) synthesis and osteomalacia.
  • These findings indicated a diagnosis of OOM, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and octreotide scintigraphy did not identify any tumours.
  • Serum FGF23 concentration was elevated and MRI identified a 2 cm tumour within Hoffa's fat pad of the left knee.
  • Removal of the tumour resulted in a complete resolution of symptoms and normalisation of the serum biochemical abnormalities including serum FGF23.
  • Histology demonstrated a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT), which revealed immunostaining with anti-LYVE-1 antibody and hence the presence of lymphatic vessels.
  • In addition, the demonstration of lymphatics in the PMTMCT helps to distinguish this tumour from most typical benign haemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fibroblast Growth Factors / blood. Hypophosphatemia / complications. Osteomalacia / diagnosis. Osteomalacia / etiology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes. Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Calcitriol / administration & dosage. Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal / blood. Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal / diagnosis. Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal / surgery. Endothelium, Vascular. Humans. Knee. Lymphatic Vessels. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphates / administration & dosage. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18230836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G84/6423; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9825289
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / dihydroxy-vitamin D3; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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55. Isidori AM, Lenzi A: Ectopic ACTH syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1217-25
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  • Ectopic adrenocorticotropic secretion (EAS) is responsible for 12-17% of cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and covers a range of tumours, from undetectable benign lesions to widespread metastases.
  • EAS requires a complete workup that includes the establishment of endogenous CS, diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependency, localization of the source of ACTH secretion and rapid biochemical control of hypercortisolaemia.
  • Dynamic endocrine tests should include inferior petrosal sinus sampling with CRH stimulation.
  • In addition to small cell lung carcinoma, the most common causes of ectopic EAS are bronchial carcinoids, thymic tumours, islet cell tumour of the pancreas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, and phaeochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Abdominal Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Petrosal Sinus Sampling. Thoracic Neoplasms / complications. Thoracic Neoplasms / secretion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18209859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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56. Rivkine E, Goasguen N, Chelbi E, Couvelard A, Vullierme MP, Vilgrain V, Hammel P, Sauvanet A: [Cystic teratoma of the pancreas]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1016-9
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  • The preoperative diagnosis of cystic tumours of the pancreas can be difficult.
  • It is usually based on morphological and biological (i.e., cyst fluid content of tumour markers) data.
  • We report here the case of a 45-year old woman who was operated on for a benign cystic mature teratoma with endocrine component and high concentrations in cyst fluid CEA and CA 72.4 which was evocative of a malignant mucinous cystadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18166898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-72-4 antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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57. Sumarac-Dumanovic M, Micic D, Krstic M, Georgiev M, Diklic A, Tatic S, Stamenkovic-Pejkovic D, Kendereski A, Cvijovic G, Pavlovic A: Pitfalls in diagnosing a small cystic insulinoma: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2007;1:181

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  • Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic endocrine tumour and is typically sporadic and solitary.
  • Over 90% of all insulinomas are benign.
  • It is not difficult to determine the site of such neoplasm, as cystic insulinomas are usually 4-10 cm in diameter.
  • We present the case of a patient with a histologically confirmed cystic insulinoma diagnosed after approximately 10 years of hypoglycaemia symptoms.
  • This case is unique because of the small size (2.2 cm) of the tumour.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was useful for localizing this tumour.

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  • [Cites] Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1999 Sep;28(3):533-54 [10500930.001]
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  • (PMID = 18086310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2245958
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58. Jayle C, Franco S, Bris L, Lefort G, Corbi P: [Multiple myxomata: about one case]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss; 2007 Oct;100(10):878-81

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  • This benign tumour is sometimes described in the context of Carney's syndrome, in which cardiac myxoma, cutaneous myxoma, lentigo and pigmentary nevus cutaneous lesions, endocrine disorders, and testicular, thyroid and hypophyseal tumours are associated.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Myxoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18033020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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59. Juhlin C, Larsson C, Yakoleva T, Leibiger I, Leibiger B, Alimov A, Weber G, Höög A, Villablanca A: Loss of parafibromin expression in a subset of parathyroid adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Jun;13(2):509-23
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  • Inactivation of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT- JT) gene, HRPT2, was recently established as a genetic mechanism in the development of parathyroid tumours.
  • Its encoded protein parafibromin has tumour-suppressor properties that play an important role in tumour development in the parathyroids, jaws and kidneys.
  • Both high and low cyclin D1 levels were found among HRPT2-mutated and -unmutated tumours, suggesting that these events are not mutually exclusive in parathyroid tumour development.
  • The presented data suggest that in the majority of benign parathyroid tumours the expression of parafibromin remains unaltered, while the loss of parafibromin expression is strongly indicative of gene inactivation through mutation of the HRPT2 gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16728578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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60. Bertagna X, Guignat L, Groussin L, Bertherat J: Cushing's disease. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Oct;23(5):607-23
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  • There are three pathological conditions that can result in the chronic overproduction of endogenous cortisol in man: the most frequent is Cushing's disease where adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is overproduced by a pituitary corticotroph adenoma, rarely ACTH can be produced in an 'ectopic' manner by a non-pituitary tumour, finally cortisol can be directly over-secreted by one or (rarely) the two adrenals that have become tumourous, either benign or malignant.
  • The positive diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome requires that chronic hypercortisolism is unequivocally demonstrated biologically, using 24-h urinary cortisol, late-evening plasma or salivary cortisol, midnight 1-mg or the classic 48-h-low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, etc., all with essentially the same diagnosis potencies.
  • The search for the responsible tumour then relies on the assessment of the corticotroph function, and imaging: suppressed ACTH plasma levels indicate an 'adrenal' Cushing, and the responsible unilateral adrenocortical tumour is always visible at computed tomography (CT) scan, whereas its benign or malignant nature may be difficult to diagnose before surgery.
  • When the dynamics of the corticotroph function (high-dose dexamethasone suppression test, the CRH test) are equivocal, and/or the imaging is non-contributive, it may be difficult to distinguish between the two.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19945026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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61. Buchfelder M, Kann PH, Wüster C, Tuschy U, Saller B, Brabant G, Kleindienst A, Nomikos P, German KIMS Board: Influence of GH substitution therapy in deficient adults on the recurrence rate of hormonally inactive pituitary adenomas: a case control study. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Aug;157(2):149-56
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  • OBJECTIVE: Several studies documented metabolic and psychological benefits of GH substitution in deficient adults, most of them suffering from benign pituitary adenomas.
  • Since GH substitution is considered to promote tumour regrowth, adequate treatment is performed with some reservation.
  • Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effect of GH replacement therapy on tumour recurrence following surgery.
  • METHODS: In patients with hormonally inactive pituitary adenomas undergoing tumour surgery, a retrospective case-control study was performed.
  • Tumour recurrence and progression rates were determined according to the postoperative MR.
  • RESULTS: There were 16 tumour progressions in the treatment group and 12 in the control group.
  • Even residual tumour does not constitute a contraindication to GH replacement.

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  • (PMID = 17656592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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62. Soon PS, Yeh MW, Delbridge LW, Bambach CP, Sywak MS, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Laparoscopic surgery is safe for large adrenal lesions. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;34(1):67-70
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  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has surpassed open adrenalectomy as the gold standard for excision of benign adrenal lesions.
  • The size threshold for offering laparoscopic adrenalectomy is controversial as the prevalence of adrenocortical carcinoma increases with increasing tumour size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17532597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Han SJ, Kim TS, Jeon SW, Jeong SJ, Yun M, Rhee Y, Kang ES, Cha BS, Lee EJ, Lee HC, Lim SK: Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning. Int J Clin Pract; 2007 May;61(5):802-9
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  • This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of adrenal masses visible in the computerised tomography (CT) scans which have been also evaluated by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), and to characterise the features of 18F-FDG PET scans associated with various adrenal endocrine tumours, especially benign functional tumours.
  • Positive uptakes in the 18F-FDG PET scans were seen in 60 malignant tumours (54 metastasic lesions, six primary adrenal cancers) and seven benign tumours.
  • The positive predictive value of 18F-FDG PET imaging to characterise an adrenal mass as a malignant tumour was 90%; the corresponding negative predictive value to rule out malignancy was also 90%.
  • Benign adrenal tumours were smaller than that of malignant lesions (p<0.05).
  • The mean standardised uptake value max (SUVmax) of the metastatic lesions [8.4+/-6.5 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg] was significantly higher than that of the benign adrenal tumours [2.4+/-1.2 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg, p<0.001].
  • In conclusion, for patients presenting adrenal masses with a high probability of malignancy, 18F-FDG PET can be used to differentiate malignant from benign adrenal lesions.
  • However, the 18F-FDG PET uptake did not show an always consistent pattern for endocrine tumours, which was probably due to the variability inherent in 18F-FDG uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17343665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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64. Lumachi F, Basso SM, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Favia G: Role and cost-effectiveness of adrenal imaging and image-guided FNA cytology in the management of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4559-62
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  • Once an AI is detected, the two major questions are whether the patient has biochemical evidence of adrenal hyperfunction, and whether the mass is an adrenal metastasis or a malignant adrenal tumour.
  • In most cases (>90%) AI are non-functioning, with a low (<10%) risk of being malignant, and an estimated cumulative risk of malignant transformation of less than 1:1000.
  • However, all patients with non-functioning AI usually undergo several imaging studies, but the impact of imaging techniques and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) on the cost-effectiveness in the management of patients is not well established.
  • However, image-guided FNAC in conjunction with MRI as the exclusive imaging test has the major role and cost-effectiveness in the management of patients with AL, and should be considered the strategy of choice in distinguishing between benign and malignant non-functioning adrenal masses of more than 2 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / economics

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  • [ErratumIn] Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1a):446. Fabia, Gennaro [corrected to Favia, Gennaro]
  • (PMID = 16334141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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65. Taylor SE, Patel II, Singh PB, Nicholson CM, Stringfellow HF, Gopala Krishna RK, Matanhelia SS, Martin-Hirsch PL, Martin FL: Elevated oestrogen receptor splice variant ERαΔ5 expression in tumour-adjacent hormone-responsive tissue. Int J Environ Res Public Health; 2010 11;7(11):3871-89
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  • [Title] Elevated oestrogen receptor splice variant ERαΔ5 expression in tumour-adjacent hormone-responsive tissue.
  • Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantitatively assess the levels of four ER splice variants (ERαΔ3, ERαΔ5, ERβ2 and ERβ5), plus the full-length parent isoforms ERα and ERβ1, in high-risk [tumour-adjacent prostate (n = 10) or endometrial cancer (n = 9)] vs. low-risk [benign prostate (n = 12) or endometrium (n = 9)], as well as a comparison of UK (n = 12) vs. Indian (n = 15) benign prostate.
  • This splice variant was markedly raised in all of the tumour-adjacent prostate samples compared to benign tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrium / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / genetics. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. RNA Splicing

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  • (PMID = 21139866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-4601
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of environmental research and public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Environ Res Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2996214
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; endometrial cancer (major topic) / oestrogen receptor (major topic) / prostate cancer (major topic) / real-time RT PCR (major topic) / splice variant (major topic)
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66. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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67. Lundgren CI, Stalberg P, Grodski S, Sidhu S, Sywak M, Delbridge L: Minimally invasive thyroid surgery for diagnostic excision of solitary thyroid nodules. Asian J Surg; 2007 Oct;30(4):250-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The mean tumour size was 17.3 mm, but the mean size of the thyroid lobe removed was 39.5 mm.
  • Final diagnoses included benign multinodular goitre (26%), follicular adenoma (22%) and carcinoma (20%).

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  • (PMID = 17962127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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68. Garnett MR, Puget S, Grill J, Sainte-Rose C: Craniopharyngioma. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2007;2:18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Craniopharyngiomas are benign slow growing tumours that are located within the sellar and para sellar region of the central nervous system.
  • The point prevalence of this tumour is approximately 2/100,000.
  • The onset of symptoms is normally insidious with most patients at diagnosis having neurological (headaches, visual disturbances) and endocrine (growth retardation, delayed puberty) dysfunctions.
  • The neuroradiological diagnosis is mainly based on the three components of the tumour (cystic, solid and calcified) in the characteristic sellar/para sellar location.
  • Definitive diagnosis is made following histological examination of a surgical specimen.
  • The differential diagnosis includes other tumours in this region (pituitary adenoma), infectious or inflammatory processes (eosinophilic granuloma), vascular malformations (aneurysm) and congenital anomalies (Rathke's cleft cyst).
  • The current treatment is gross total excision of the tumour, if there is no hypothalamic invasion or, in the presence of hypothalamic invasion, a sub-total resection with post-operative radiotherapy.
  • Endocrine disturbances are normally permanent and need careful replacement.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Medical Oncology / methods. Prognosis. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 17425791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 43
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1855047
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69. Pozo J, Muñoz MT, Martos G, Argente J: Sporadic phaeochromocytoma in childhood: clinical and molecular variability. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;18(6):527-32
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Norepinephrine .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sporadic phaeochromocytoma is an infrequent tumour during paediatric age and may or may not be associated with specific autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) type 2 or neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1.
  • We report two cases of benign, adrenal, and unilateral phaeochromocytoma that clearly demonstrate the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of this disease during the paediatric period.
  • The second patient, an incidental finding, was practically asymptomatic and had a de novo germline point mutation in the VHL gene (Arg167Trp).
  • The frequency of de novo mutations in susceptible genes (especially the VHL gene) in paediatric patients with sporadic phaeochromocytoma and the elevated mortality of these cancer syndromes suggest that screening for mutations should be performed even in cases of non-familial sporadic phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16042317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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70. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases. Asian J Surg; 2009 Oct;32(4):224-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases.
  • The mean tumour diameter was 10.5 +/- 5 cm.
  • Preoperative diagnosis with fine needle aspiration cytology could be made in 72% of cases.
  • The histology report was benign, borderline and malignant PT in 28%, 20% and 52% of cases respectively.
  • Except for the extent of primary surgery, there were no significant differences in other clinicopathological factors between the recurrent and non-recurrent groups.

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  • (PMID = 19892625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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71. Toulemonde A, Croue A, Rodien P, Verret JL: [Malignant nodular hidradenoma and multiple nodular hidradenomas in a hypogonadic patient]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Dec;133(12):1005-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of multiple benign nodular hidradenomas associated with malignant nodular hidradenoma in a hypogonadic patient.
  • CASE-REPORT: A 49 year-old man presented 11 benign nodular hidradenomas in the pectoral region.
  • A malignant nodular hidradenoma had recently appeared in this region some distance from the pre-existing benign modular hidradenomas.
  • Large numbers of estrogen receptors were demonstrated in each of the benign nodular hidradenomas.
  • To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports to date of combined malignant nodular hidradenoma and multiple benign nodular hidradenoma.
  • The coexistence of endocrine anomalies associated with this type of tumour has never been reported.
  • However, the presence of estrogen receptors has occasionally been demonstrated in benign nodular hidradenomas.
  • Our patient's endocrine disease may have played a role in the presentation of multiple hidradenomas, but this cannot be demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / complications. Hypogonadism / complications. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17185934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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72. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pheochromocytoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • RESULTS: In pathological examination benign pheochromo-cytoma was diagnosed in 39 presented patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Grant CS: Insulinoma. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):783-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although rare, insulinomas are the most common functioning islet cell tumour of the pancreas.
  • Biochemical proof of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia establishes the diagnosis.
  • The tumours are usually small, single, benign, well-circumscribed, and evenly distributed throughout the pancreas.
  • This tumour may be a part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) syndrome, in which case the tumours are almost always multiple.
  • Patients are almost invariably cured lifelong with complete excision of a benign insulinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulinoma / diagnosis. Insulinoma / surgery. Pancreatectomy / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Endosonography / methods. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phlebography / methods. Prognosis. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16253900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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74. Veveris-Lowe TL, Lawrence MG, Collard RL, Bui L, Herington AC, Nicol DL, Clements JA: Kallikrein 4 (hK4) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are associated with the loss of E-cadherin and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like effect in prostate cancer cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):631-43
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Kallikrein 4 (hK4) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are associated with the loss of E-cadherin and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like effect in prostate cancer cells.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the related kallikrein family of serine proteases are current or emerging biomarkers for prostate cancer detection and progression.
  • In this study, we now show that the comparative expression of hK4 protein in prostate cancer tissues, compared with benign glands, is greater than that of PSA and kallikrein 2 (KLK2/hK2), suggesting that hK4 may play an important functional role in prostate cancer progression in addition to its biomarker potential.
  • We hypothesised that this increase in motility displayed by the hK4 and PSA-expressing PC-3 cells may be related to the observed change in structure in these cells from a typical rounded epithelial-like cell to a spindle-shaped, more mesenchymal-like cell, with compromised adhesion to the culture surface.
  • Thus, the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin, both associated with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was investigated.
  • E-cadherin protein was lost and mRNA levels were significantly decreased in PC-3 cells expressing hK4 and PSA (10-fold and 7-fold respectively), suggesting transcriptional repression of E-cadherin, while the expression of vimentin was increased in these cells.
  • The loss of E-cadherin and associated increase in vimentin are indicative of EMT and provides compelling evidence that hK4, in particular, and PSA have a functional role in the progression of prostate cancer through their promotion of tumour cell migration.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / metabolism. Kallikreins / metabolism. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness


75. Klagge A, Krause K, Schierle K, Steinert F, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Apr;42(4):237-40
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in various endocrine tumours.
  • The expression of SSTR at the tumour cell surface confers the possibility for diagnostic imaging and therapy of tumours using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues.
  • We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues.
  • Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 20094970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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76. Moore DJ, Adi Y, Connock MJ, Bayliss S: Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pegvisomant for the treatment of acromegaly: a systematic review and economic evaluation. BMC Endocr Disord; 2009;9:20
PubMed Health. DARE review .

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  • BACKGROUND: Acromegaly, an orphan disease usually caused by a benign pituitary tumour, is characterised by hyper-secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1).
  • RESULTS: One RCT and 17 non-randomised studies were reviewed for effectiveness.
  • Tumour size was unaffected at least in the short term.

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  • (PMID = 19814797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6823
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC endocrine disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Endocr Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2768727
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77. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Herman ZS: [Insulinoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 Jan;22(127):70-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pancreatic Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Insulinoma is considered the most common endocrine tumour of the pancreas with an annual prevalence of 4 cases per million people.
  • Contrary to the other endocrine tumours of this organ, over 90% of the insulinomas are benign in nature.
  • The clinical presentation of this neoplasm depends on excessive production of insulin and pro-insulin and is characterised by the symptoms of neuroglycopenia and catecholamine response.
  • Effective management requires directed biochemical testing, careful choice of preoperative imaging tests, and complete pancreatic exploration by an experienced endocrine surgeon utilising intraoperative ultrasound.
  • The only curative treatment for insulinoma is complete resection of the tumour.
  • The aim of this paper is to critically discuss contemporary diagnosis and treatment of this neoplasm on the basis of progress made in recent years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Islet Cell / complications. Adenoma, Islet Cell / diagnosis. Insulinoma / complications. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Endocrine Surgical Procedures / methods. Gastrinoma / complications. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / metabolism. Gastrinoma / surgery. Humans. Hypoglycemia / complications. Insulin / metabolism. Pancreatectomy / methods. Prognosis. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 17477096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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78. Rohana AG, Norazmi MK, Norlaila M: A rare case of Von Hippel Lindau disease. Med J Malaysia; 2006 Jun;61(2):254-7
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  • Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-secreting tumour typically arising within the adrenal medulla.
  • It may occur sporadically or be associated as part of a tumour syndrome including Von Hippel Lindau (VHL), Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) 2 and Neurofibromatosis Type 1.
  • VHL is associated with multi-organ involvement of benign and malignant tumours characterized by the presence of retinal angiomas, hemangioblastomas of the cerebellum and spinal cord, renal cell carcinomas, pheochromocytomas and other cystic lesions in the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis.
  • It is a rare disorder with prevalence estimated at 2-3 per 100,000.
  • With these features the criteria for the diagnosis of von Hippel Lindau disease was established.
  • [MeSH-major] von Hippel-Lindau Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16898326.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5283
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Malaysia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Malaysia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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79. Suárez C, Rodrigo JP, Ferlito A, Cabanillas R, Shaha AR, Rinaldo A: Tumours of familial origin in the head and neck. Oral Oncol; 2006 Nov;42(10):965-78
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  • Individuals with inherited cancer syndromes are at significant risk of developing both benign and malignant tumours as a result of a germline mutation in a specific tumour suppressor gene.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 1 are characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of at least two of the three main related endocrine tumours: parathyroid, enteropancreatic and anterior pituitary.
  • No clear correlation of MEN-1 genotype with genotype has emerged to date, and MEN-1 mutation testing in tumours is not used clinically because it have not implications for tumour staging.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is due to a germline mutation in the RET proto-oncogene.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / genetics. Neurofibromatoses / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16857415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 121
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80. Lena G, Paz Paredes A, Scavarda D, Giusiano B: Craniopharyngioma in children: Marseille experience. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Aug;21(8-9):778-84
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  • Even if craniopharyngioma is a benign tumour, recurrences are frequent, and the aim of our study was to analyse our results, to try to determine some prognostic factors of recurrences and to discuss about a new strategy concerning the initial management of these tumours.
  • All of the patients, but five children treated by intracystic bleomycin, underwent a surgical resection of the tumour as initial treatment with the goal of achieving gross total removal (GTR) of the tumour.
  • Using statistical analysis, some prognostic factors (age, sex, location, aspect, size of the tumour and result of the first MRI) have been studied.
  • Subtotal removal (STR) was obtained in 14 children (34.2%), but 9 patients (64.3%) developed a recurrence defined as the growth of the residual tumour with or without clinical symptoms.
  • All the prognostic factors studied, except one (presence of a residue on the first MRI control), do not have a statistical significance.
  • CONCLUSION: Craniopharyngioma in children remains a formidable tumour, and regardless of whatever progress made in their management, the incidence of recurrences is still elevated and severe sequelae can be observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / therapy. Neurosurgery / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Educational Status. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. France. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • [Cites] Neurosurgery. 1982 Sep;11(3):382-9 [7133354.001]
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  • (PMID = 16133277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Cheah WK, Rauff A, Lee KO, Tan W: Parathyroid carcinoma: a case series. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Aug;34(7):443-6
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  • One patient presented with osteitis fibrosa, 1 with renal stone and a neck mass, and 1 with recurrence of PHPT after excision of supposedly benign parathyroid adenoma 4 years ago.
  • Exploration of the neck clearly identified 1 parathyroid tumour with local invasion; 2 other specimens showed capsular and vascular invasion on frozen section and final histology.
  • No patient had tumour recurrence after a follow-up period of 1 year.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy.
  • Parathyroidectomy with ipsilateral hemithyroidectomy and nodal clearance gives the best chance of reducing local tumour recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16123819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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82. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Szkróbka W: [Etiology, histopathological picture and clinical presentation of craniopharyngioma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2008 Aug;25(146):175-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Craniopharyngioma is a rare, benign, suprasellar brain tumour accounting for about 1 to 3% of all intracranial neoplasms.
  • Because of the proximity of the tumour to the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, many patients suffering from this tumour exhibit significant endocrine dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18942342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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83. Gleeson H, Amin R, Maghnie M: 'Do no harm': management of craniopharyngioma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Dec;159 Suppl 1:S95-9
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  • Although histology is benign, the tumour can be clinically aggressive with local invasion and frequent recurrences.
  • Extensive morbidity may be present at diagnosis and furthermore, occurs as a consequence of neurosurgery and radiotherapy.
  • This case highlights both the challenge of managing hyperphagia and morbid obesity and the importance of initial treatment preserving existing hypothalamic function and the need to avoid tumour recurrence and further surgery.

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  • (PMID = 18775978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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84. Hemerly JP, Bastos AU, Cerutti JM: Identification of several novel non-p.R132 IDH1 variants in thyroid carcinomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):747-55
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  • [Title] Identification of several novel non-p.R132 IDH1 variants in thyroid carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: We identified four novel and two previously described non-synonymous variants in thyroid carcinomas, which were absent in benign tumours and paired normal thyroid.
  • Sequence alignment across several species shows that all IDH1 genetic alterations occurred at evolutionarily conserved residues located within the active site, and therefore, are likely to affect protein function.
  • Our findings not only extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying pathogenesis of thyroid tumours, but also emphasize the biological differences between tumour types.

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  • (PMID = 20702649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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85. Muşat M, Morris DG, Korbonits M, Grossman AB: Cyclins and their related proteins in pituitary tumourigenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Sep 15;326(1-2):25-9
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  • [Title] Cyclins and their related proteins in pituitary tumourigenesis.
  • Pituitary tumours are benign neoplasms that may cause major endocrine dysfunction.
  • It is probable that the primary initiating events lie beyond the cell cycle and may be related to co-activation of Akt, MAP-kinase and beta-catenin pathways.
  • Nevertheless, molecular CDK inhibitors may play a role in pituitary tumour treatment in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclins / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cyclin E / metabolism. Cyclin E / physiology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / genetics. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Neoplasms. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20347931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Cyclins; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
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86. Darby S, Stockley J, Khan MM, Robson CN, Leung HY, Gnanapragasam VJ: Expression of GnRH type II is regulated by the androgen receptor in prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):613-24
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  • GnRH II protein was equally expressed in benign (73%) and malignant (78%) biopsies studied in a prostate tissue microarray (P = 0.779).
  • GnRH II was, however, significantly reduced in tumour biopsies following hormone ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Androgen / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgens / pharmacology. Animals. Base Sequence. Binding Sites. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / genetics. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Response Elements. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17914092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0500966
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 91097-16-4 / LHRH, His(5)-Trp(7)-Tyr(8)-
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87. Cunningham JL, Grimelius L, Sundin A, Agarwal S, Janson ET: Malignant ileocaecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumours: the presence of a solid growth pattern and/or Ki67 index above 1% identifies patients with a poorer prognosis. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(6):747-56
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  • [Title] Malignant ileocaecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumours: the presence of a solid growth pattern and/or Ki67 index above 1% identifies patients with a poorer prognosis.
  • In some patients, however, tumour progression is more rapid and there is a need to identify them at an early stage.
  • Eighty-one patients with this tumour were included in the study; all had metastases and their survival range was 1-223 months.
  • For 57 patients whose tumour material was available, the Ki67 and apoptotic indices were calculated for ten randomly selected tumour areas and 'hot spots'.
  • One of the histopathological growth patterns-the solid (non-organoid) cell pattern-was correlated to shorter survival in both primary tumours and metastases, when compared with the organoid growth patterns (hazard ratio 2.9 and 2.3, p</=0.01).
  • Ki67 index >/=1%, in both primary tumour and metastases, identified patients at increased risk of shorter survival (hazard ratio 5.4 and 2.5, p</=0.01).
  • This study also showed that Ki67 index <2% cannot, as previously suggested, be used to indicate a benign progression for this tumour category.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / physiopathology. Cecal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ileal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Serotonin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis. Disease Progression. Female. Health Status Indicators. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17653896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin
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88. Dworakowska D, Wlodek E, Leontiou CA, Igreja S, Cakir M, Teng M, Prodromou N, Góth MI, Grozinsky-Glasberg S, Gueorguiev M, Kola B, Korbonits M, Grossman AB: Activation of RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways in pituitary adenomas and their effects on downstream effectors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Dec;16(4):1329-38
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  • We studied tissue from 16 non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), six GH-omas, six prolactinomas and six ACTH-omas, all collected at transsphenoidal surgery; 16 normal autopsy pituitaries were used as controls.
  • The expression of pSer217/221 MEK1/2 and pThr183 ERK1/2 (but not total MEK1/2 or ERK1/2) was significantly higher in all tumour subtypes in comparison to normal pituitaries.
  • However, c-MYC phosphorylation at Thr58/Ser62 (a response target for Akt) was decreased in all tumour types.
  • However, we speculate that other processes, such as senescence, attenuate the changes downstream in these benign tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. raf Kinases / metabolism


89. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • Also the management of this condition is largely empirical, and data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or non-surgical approach to managing patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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90. Beger HG, Rau BM, Gansauge F, Poch B: Duodenum-preserving subtotal and total pancreatic head resections for inflammatory and cystic neoplastic lesions of the pancreas. J Gastrointest Surg; 2008 Jun;12(6):1127-32
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  • INTRODUCTION: For treatment of inflammatory and benign neoplastic lesions of the pancreatic head, a subtotal or total pancreatic head resection is a limited surgical procedure with the impact of replacing the application of a Whipple procedure.
  • The advantages of this limited surgical procedure are the preservation of the stomach, the duodenum and the extrahepatic biliary ducts for treatment of benign lesions of the pancreatic head, papilla, and intrapancreatic segment of the common bile duct.
  • Performing, in addition, a biliary anastomosis or a Partington Rochelle type of pancreatic main duct drainage, respectively, is a logic and simple extension of the procedure.
  • The rationale for the application of duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection for cystic neoplastic lesions are complete exstirpation of the tumor and, as a consequence, interruption of carcinogenesis of the neoplasia preventing development of pancreatic cancer.
  • Based on controlled clinical trials, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection is superior to the Whipple-type resection with regard to lower postoperative morbidity, almost no delay of gastric emptying, preservation of the endocrine function, lower frequency of rehospitalization, early professional rehabilitation, and establishment of a predisease level of quality of life.
  • CONCLUSION: The limited surgical procedures of subtotal or total pancreatic head resection are simple, safe, ensures free tumour margins and replace in the authors institution the application of a Whipple-type head resection.

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  • (PMID = 18299945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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91. de Souza Meyer EL, Dora JM, Wagner MS, Maia AL: Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentation towards papillary carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jun;62(6):672-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) catalyses the 5' monodeiodination of T4 and is highly expressed in normal human thyroid gland.
  • We have investigated D1 expression in a series of benign and malignant differentiated thyroid neoplasias.
  • DESIGN: Surgically isolated thyroid tumour fragments were used.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15943828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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92. Iacono C, Bortolasi L, Serio G: Indications and technique of central pancreatectomy-early and late results. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2005 Jun;390(3):266-71
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Central pancreatectomy (CP) is an operation that allows one to resect benign or low grade malignant tumours located in the pancreatic isthmus that are not suitable for enucleation.
  • Thereafter, the gland is dissected from the splenic artery and porto-mesenteric axis and divided with a 1 cm clear margin.
  • The cephalic stump is sutured, and the distal stump is anastomosed end-to-end or end-to-side with a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop.
  • The indications for CP were: serous cystadenoma in seven patients, mucinous in three, solid cystic papillary tumour in one, metastasis from renal cancer in one and endocrine tumour in eight patients.
  • Results of postoperative endocrine and exocrine function tests were normal in all controlled patients.
  • CONCLUSION: CP is a safe technique for benign or low-grade malignant tumours of the pancreatic neck that allows one to cure the tumour with evident functional results without increasing the risk to the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatectomy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15864637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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93. Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Tupikowski K, Akinpelumi BF: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Jan;18(103):107-10
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It is a rare, benign, hormonally inactive tumor of the adrenal gland composed of mature fat tissue and hematopoietic tissue in varying amounts.
  • This tumour is discovered during autopsy or USG, CT MRI of the abdomen usually by chance and because of that is included in the group of tumors called incidentaloma.
  • It is usually hormonally inactive but there were several cases in which adrenal myelolipoma coexisted with various endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, hirsutism, hermaphroditism, inborn deficiencies of 17- and 21-hydroxylase.
  • Surgical treatment is called for when the diameter of tumor reaches more than 4 cm, tumour shows tendency to fast growth or causes clinical disorders.
  • In cases of small lesions, that show no progression, it is advised to observe the tumor using imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15859562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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