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1. Hsieh MS, Liu KL, Tien YW, Shun CT: Combined pancreatic endocrine tumor and serous cystadenoma. J Formos Med Assoc; 2009 Sep;108(9):739-45
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  • [Title] Combined pancreatic endocrine tumor and serous cystadenoma.
  • Pancreatic serous cystadenomas account for 1-2% of all exocrine pancreatic tumors, and endocrine tumors account for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms.
  • The combination of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumor is even rarer.
  • Here, we report two cases of combined pancreatic serous adenoma and endocrine tumor.
  • One was a 64-year-old woman with serous cystadenoma and pancreatic endocrine tumor.
  • The other case was a 28-year-old woman with von Hippel-Lindau disease with combined pancreatic serous oligocystic adenoma and well-differentiated malignant endocrine carcinoma.
  • Careful examination of benign serous cystadenoma should be kept in mind during clinical practice, to rule out the possibility of combined malignant endocrine tumor.
  • In addition, von Hippel-Lindau disease should also be suspected when a young adult presents with combination of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19773214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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2. van Nederveen FH, Korpershoek E, deLeeuw RJ, Verhofstad AA, Lenders JW, Dinjens WN, Lam WL, de Krijger RR: Array-comparative genomic hybridization in sporadic benign pheochromocytomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):505-13
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  • [Title] Array-comparative genomic hybridization in sporadic benign pheochromocytomas.
  • Pheochromocytomas (PCC) are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from the adrenal medulla that occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary cancer syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1, and the PCC-paraganglioma syndrome.
  • Conventional comparative genomic hybridization studies have shown loss of 1p and 3q in the majority of sporadic and MEN2-related PCC, and 3p and 11p loss in VHL-related PCC.
  • The development of a submegabase tiling resolution array enabled us to perform a genome-wide high-resolution analysis of 36 sporadic benign PCC.
  • We conclude that there appear to be two subgroups of benign sporadic PCC, one of which has a pattern of chromosomal abnormalities that is comparable with PCC from patients with MEN2 and the other that is comparable with the PCC that arise in patients with VHL disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. Female. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19153209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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3. Korpershoek E, Stobbe CK, van Nederveen FH, de Krijger RR, Dinjens WN: Intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):653-62
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  • [Title] Intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas.
  • Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas (sPGLs) are catecholamine-producing tumors occurring in the context of hereditary tumor syndromes, with known germline mutations, and as sporadic tumors.
  • Since knowledge on intra-tumoral heterogeneity is important for understanding the pathogenesis of these tumors, we investigated 12 benign and 8 malignant PCCs and sPGLs for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on DNA extracted from different regions of each tumor and from metastases.
  • Benign tumors were found to have less intra-tumoral heterogeneity (overall 8%) than malignant tumors (overall 23%), with the highest frequencies for chromosome 1p36 in the benign tumors (17%) and 1p13 and 3q24 in malignant tumors (both 38%).
  • In addition, differences in LOH patterns were detected between paired primary malignant tumors, and their metastases and different LOH patterns were observed in bilateral PCC of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 patient.
  • We demonstrate that malignant PCC and sPGL have more intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity than benign tumors, which suggests that benign and malignant PCC and sPGL have a different pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human. Loss of Heterozygosity. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Genetic Variation. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20488782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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4. Imanaka M, Iida K, Takahashi K, Tsuji K, Nishizawa H, Fukuoka H, Takeno R, Takahashi Y, Okimura Y, Kaji H, Chihara K: The N131S mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene in a Japanese family with pheochromocytoma and hemangioblastomas. Endocr J; 2006 Dec;53(6):819-27
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  • von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease (VHLD) is a hereditary autosomal dominant syndrome that causes various benign and malignant tumors.
  • VHLD is caused by mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene.
  • We also identified somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome 3p25-26 in the adrenal tumor of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Hemangioblastoma / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17001110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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5. Waldmann J, Fendrich V, Holler J, Buchholz M, Heinmöller E, Langer P, Ramaswamy A, Samans B, Walz MK, Rothmund M, Bartsch DK, Slater EP: Microarray analysis reveals differential expression of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):743-56
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  • [Title] Microarray analysis reveals differential expression of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • The diagnosis of a malignant pheochromocytoma (PC) can only be established by the presence of distant metastases, but a subset of apparently benign PCs develop metastases.
  • We have employed a microarray analysis to identify a typical gene expression profile which distinguishes malignant from benign PC.
  • Total RNA was isolated from fresh-frozen tissue of five benign and five malignant PCs.
  • The analysis revealed a more than twofold difference in expression between benign and malignant PCs in 132 genes: 19 were up-regulated and 113 were down-regulated.
  • Comparative analysis by microarray of all ten PCs (benign/malignant) versus normal adrenal medulla revealed a more than twofold expression difference in 455/539 and 491/671 genes respectively.
  • Several of these genes are known to participate on adrenal tumorigenesis, potential tumor suppressor genes, and oncogenes.
  • Comprehensive gene expression analysis of malignant and benign PCs revealed different gene profiles, which could be used to discriminate between malignant and benign PCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult


6. Libè R, Fratticci A, Bertherat J: Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):13-28
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  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • By contrast, benign adrenocortical tumors are frequent, underlying the importance of a correct diagnosis of malignancy of such tumors.
  • ACC can be diagnosed by the investigation of endocrine signs of steroid excess, symptoms due to tumor growth or an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Imaging by CT-scan or MRI shows a large heterogeneous tumor with a low fat content.
  • Careful pathological investigation with the assessment of the Weiss score is important for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Tumors localized to the adrenal gland (McFarlane stages 1 and 2) have a better outcome than invasive and metastatic tumors (stages 3 and 4).
  • Tumor removal by a specialized team is crucial for treatment and should always aim at complete removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Oncogenes / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17395972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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7. Tömböl Z, Eder K, Kovács A, Szabó PM, Kulka J, Likó I, Zalatnai A, Rácz G, Tóth M, Patócs A, Falus A, Rácz K, Igaz P: MicroRNA expression profiling in benign (sporadic and hereditary) and recurring adrenal pheochromocytomas. Mod Pathol; 2010 Dec;23(12):1583-95
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  • [Title] MicroRNA expression profiling in benign (sporadic and hereditary) and recurring adrenal pheochromocytomas.
  • The objective of our study was to perform microRNA expression profiling in sporadic and hereditary benign, and recurring adrenomedullary tumors.
  • A total of 21 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples (sporadic benign, multiple endocrine neoplasia 2, von Hippel-Lindau disease, sporadic recurring) were subjected to microRNA expression profiling using microarrays.
  • Furthermore, microRNA expression profiles of a malignant pheochromocytoma and a pair of primary and recurrent tumors were studied by TaqMan Human MicroRNA Cards.
  • Five of these were validated by real-time RT-PCR. miR-139-3p, miR-541 and miR-765 were significantly differentially expressed between sporadic benign and von Hippel-Lindau-related pheochromocytomas.
  • Significantly higher expression of miR-885-5p and miR-1225-3p was found in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and sporadic recurring pheochromocytomas, respectively.
  • Pathway analysis revealed the possible involvement of Notch- and G-protein-coupled receptor signaling in tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. MicroRNAs / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cluster Analysis. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20818339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
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8. Gartner W, Mineva I, Daneva T, Baumgartner-Parzer S, Niederle B, Vierhapper H, Weissel M, Wagner L: A newly identified RET proto-oncogene polymorphism is found in a high number of endocrine tumor patients. Hum Genet; 2005 Jul;117(2-3):143-53
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  • [Title] A newly identified RET proto-oncogene polymorphism is found in a high number of endocrine tumor patients.
  • To investigate endocrine tumor tissue characteristic RET proto-oncogene expression, we performed quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot and Southern blot analyses of benign and malignant endocrine-derived tissues.
  • In addition, the presence of a 3'-terminally truncated RET proto-oncogene mRNA variant in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias, as well as in a pheochromocytoma, an ovarian carcinoma and a medullary thyroid carcinoma, is demonstrated.
  • This polymorphism is close to a recently described polyadenylation site and lies within a binding site for the nucleic acid binding protein Pbx-1.
  • Screening of healthy subjects and of patients suffering from various endocrine malignancies revealed exclusively allele 1 homozygous and allele 1/allele 2 heterozygous genotypes.
  • Heterozygous genotypes were found in a significantly higher percentage in samples derived from endocrine tumor patients when compared with those from healthy control subjects.
  • Homozygosity for allele 2 was found exclusively in somatic DNA derived from endocrine tumors with high malignant potential.
  • In conclusion, our data demonstrate presence of a 5'-terminal RET proto-oncogene transcript in endocrine tissues and reveal a bi-allelic RET proto-oncogene polymorphism.
  • A heterozygous genotype for this polymorphism is found in a considerable number of endocrine tumor patients.
  • [MeSH-major] 3' Untranslated Regions / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15841388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6717
  • [Journal-full-title] Human genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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9. Zembowicz A, Garcia CF, Tannous ZS, Mihm MC, Koerner F, Pilch BZ: Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma: twelve new cases suggest that it is a precursor of some invasive mucinous carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Oct;29(10):1330-9
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  • [Title] Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma: twelve new cases suggest that it is a precursor of some invasive mucinous carcinomas.
  • Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is an underrecognized low-grade carcinoma with predilection to the eyelid.
  • The most common site of occurrence was the lower eyelid (8 cases).
  • Calponin, smooth muscle actin, and p63 immunohistochemical stains did not disclose myoepithelial cells around larger tumor nests in most cases, supporting the notion that EMPSGC is an invasive carcinoma.
  • In 10 cases, cystic areas lined by benign epithelium indistinguishable from eccrine ducts were present.
  • In some foci, the benign ductal epithelium was undermined or replaced by carcinoma in situ with similar cytologic features to the solid or papillary areas of EMPSGC.
  • The series provides histologic evidence for a multistage progression of noninvasive sweat gland neuroendocrine carcinoma to EMPSGC and then to mucinous carcinoma of the eyelid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cheek / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / metabolism. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16160476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Bordi C, D'Adda T, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Bottarelli L, Mormandi F, Antonetti T, Luong TV, Rindi G: Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):119-29
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  • [Title] Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors.
  • In contrast with the large amount of data generated from endocrine tumors of the pancreas, sparse and mostly unconfirmed data are available on the criteria for the assessment of malignancy risk and patient outcome in endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • In these conditions the 2000 WHO classification with its standardized scheme of pathologic report constitutes a framework facilitating the assessment of tumor malignancy and has been regarded as useful for clinical purposes, providing the basis for proper management of the patients and for the design of treatment protocols.
  • The classification is based on a combination of pathological and clinical features with parameters specific for each organ in which the endocrine tumors originate.
  • (1) well-differentiated endocrine tumors, further subdivided into tumors with benign and with uncertain behavior;.
  • (2) well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas, low grade; and (3) poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas, high grade.
  • In this review the differential tumor characteristics between the different categories are summarized.
  • Moreover, the relevance of additional features with respect to tumor prognostication, chiefly the Ki-67 proliferation index and malignancy-associated genetic changes, is discussed with emphasis on the discrepancies emerging between tumors of foregut and of midgut origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / classification. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / classification. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen. Mitotic Index. Prognosis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17159244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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11. Zhao Z, Wei Q, Zhao Y, Sun F, Jin X, Cui B, Ning G: Genetic copy number alterations and IL-13 expression differences in papillary thyroid cancers and benign nodules. Endocrine; 2009 Aug;36(1):155-60
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  • [Title] Genetic copy number alterations and IL-13 expression differences in papillary thyroid cancers and benign nodules.
  • Thyroid nodules were the extremely common endocrine tumors, in which papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) were the most prevalent endocrine malignancy, representing 80-90% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • It was still a dilemma to discriminate PTCs and benign thyroid nodules.
  • With a new molecular genetics technology of Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), we investigated 13 PTC and 14 benign nodule tissue samples.
  • The results showed that PTCs had more genetic copy number alteration than benign nodules (P < 0.001).
  • Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis suggested that genomic aberrations would provide a moderate accuracy method to discriminate PTCs and benign nodules.
  • The gain of interleukin 13 (IL-13) gene obviously identified the great difference between PTCs and benign nodules.
  • The current study showed that MLPA should be an effective method to diagnose PTCs and benign thyroid nodules, and also provided a clue to another relationship between IL-13 and PTCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Interleukin-13 / genetics. Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Dosage. Genetic Testing / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19507063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-13
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12. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • The use of these two markers sequentially in non-oncocytic lesions (testing HBME-1 as a second marker whenever galectin-3 proved negative) increased the sensitivity and specificity up to 97% and 95% respectively.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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13. Meyer-Rochow GY, Jackson NE, Conaglen JV, Whittle DE, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H, Westin G, Sandgren J, Stålberg P, Khanafshar E, Shibru D, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E, Gill AJ, Clifton-Bligh R, Robinson BG, Benn DE, Sidhu SB: MicroRNA profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas identifies novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):835-46
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  • [Title] MicroRNA profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas identifies novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.
  • There is increasing evidence to suggest that miRNAs could be useful in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.
  • We performed miRNA microarray expression profiling on a cohort of 12 benign and 12 malignant pheochromocytomas and identified a number of differentially expressed miRNAs.
  • These results were validated in a separate cohort of ten benign and ten malignant samples using real-time quantitative RT-PCR; benign samples had a minimum follow-up of at least 2 years.
  • It was found that IGF2 as well as its intronic miR-483-5p was over-expressed, while miR-15a and miR-16 were under-expressed in malignant tumours compared with benign tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MicroRNAs / physiology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Animals. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle. Cohort Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured


14. Conlon JM: Granin-derived peptides as diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors. Regul Pept; 2010 Nov 30;165(1):5-11
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  • [Title] Granin-derived peptides as diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors.
  • Chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity (CgA-LI) has been, and remains, the most widely used diagnostic and prognostic marker for endocrine tumors.
  • However, circulating concentrations of CgA-LI are elevated in several non-neoplastic diseases and in patients receiving acid-suppression therapy which may lead to false positive diagnosis.
  • Additionally, certain endocrine tumors, such as rectal carcinoids, do not express the CgA gene so that there is a need for additional markers to complement CgA measurements.
  • Other CgA-derived peptides with potential as tumor markers are vasostatin-1, WE-14, catestatin, GE-25, and EL-35 but their value has yet to be fully assessed.
  • Circulating concentrations of chromogranin B-like immunoreactivity (CgB-LI) are not elevated in non-neoplastic diseases and measurements of CCB, the COOH-terminal fragment of CgB, may be useful as a biochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in lung tumors.
  • Measurement of concentrations of a second secretogranin II-derived peptide, EM-66 in tumor tissue has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • These examples point to a limited although potentially valuable role for granin-derived peptides as tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromogranins / metabolism. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19931574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Secretogranin II
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15. Timmers HJ, Brouwers FM, Hermus AR, Sweep FC, Verhofstad AA, Verbeek AL, Pacak K, Lenders JW: Metastases but not cardiovascular mortality reduces life expectancy following surgical resection of apparently benign pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1127-33
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  • [Title] Metastases but not cardiovascular mortality reduces life expectancy following surgical resection of apparently benign pheochromocytoma.
  • The treatment of choice for non-metastatic pheochromocytoma is surgical resection.
  • Its goals are to abolish catecholamine hypersecretion, normalize blood pressure, and prevent further tumor growth or progression to metastatic disease.
  • We here report a retrospective study on the long-term outcome after surgery for apparently benign pheochromocytoma at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre.
  • Survival was compared with survival of a matched reference population.
  • Two patients experienced a benign recurrence. Mean+/-s.d. follow-up was 10.2+/-7.5 (median 9, range 1-38) years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality. Life Expectancy. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Pressure. Catecholamines / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18824558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
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16. Vezzosi D, Bouisson M, Escourrou G, Laurell H, Selves J, Seguin P, Pradayrol L, Caron P, Buscail L: Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jan;64(1):63-7

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  • [Title] Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The distinction between benign and malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours is hard to achieve.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether detection of telomerase or quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein subunit (hTERT) differ between benign and malignant endocrine tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study investigated 31 well-differentiated primary endocrine tumours.
  • Based on clinical and histopathological criteria, tumours were categorized with the most recent WHO classification as 'benign' (n = 14), 'uncertain' (n = 5) or 'malignant' (n = 12) with (n = 7) or without (n = 5) metastasis after a mean follow-up of 40.4 +/- 25.8 months (4-122 months).
  • RESULTS: Telomerase activity was detected in 7 malignant and metastatic tumours, in 1 malignant tumour without metastases, in 1 uncertain tumour and in 1 benign tumour. hTERT mRNA levels were significantly higher in malignant endocrine tumours with or without metastases (P = 0.001) when compared to benign tumours.
  • The negative predictive value of hTERT mRNA quantification for the diagnosis of malignancy was 88.9%, whereas the positive predictive value was 68.7%.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of telomerase activity within the primary endocrine tumour might indicate a malignant tumour and might suggest the need for an attentive search for concomitant metastases.
  • Quantification of hTERT mRNA could be used in clinical practice to exclude malignancy in most endocrine tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clinical Enzyme Tests. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Telomerase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16402930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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17. Marrache F, Cazals-Hatem D, Kianmanesh R, Palazzo L, Couvelard A, O'Toole D, Maire F, Hammel P, Levy P, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P: Endocrine tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: a fortuitous association? Pancreas; 2005 Jul;31(1):79-83
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  • [Title] Endocrine tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: a fortuitous association?
  • OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are rare diseases of the pancreas.
  • Cases of association of endocrine and exocrine neoplasms of the pancreas have been reported, corresponding to mixed or amphicrine tumors.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative diagnosis was unspecified pancreatic tumor (n = 1), IPMN (n = 2), and association of PET and IPMN (n = 3).
  • IPMN involved the main pancreatic duct in 4 patients and was classified as benign (n = 4), borderline (n = 1), or malignant noninvasive (n = 1).
  • CONCLUSION: This study describes a new aspect of endocrine-exocrine pancreatic neoplasm association.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15968252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon
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18. Fendrich V, Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Schlosser K, König A, Ramaswamy A, Bartsch DK, Karakas E: Unique expression pattern of the EMT markers Snail, Twist and E-cadherin in benign and malignant parathyroid neoplasia. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;160(4):695-703
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  • [Title] Unique expression pattern of the EMT markers Snail, Twist and E-cadherin in benign and malignant parathyroid neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Epithelial and mesenchymal transitions (EMT) are essential for embryonic development and progression of non-invasive tumor cells into malignant, metastatic carcinomas.
  • During embryogenesis, the parathyroid glands develop from pharyngeal pouches and migrate to their final destinations, densely enclosed by mesenchymal neural crest cells.
  • In this study, we examined the expression of the EMT markers Snail, Twist and E-cadherin in normal parathyroid glands and benign and malignant parathyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we compared expression of E-cadherin, Snail and Twist in 25 patients with parathyroid adenoma, 25 patients with parathyroid hyperplasia, and nine patients with parathyroid cancer with normal parathyroid glands.
  • RESULTS: Normal parathyroid glands, parathyroid adenomas, and parathyroid hyperplasias showed a typical membranous E-cadherin staining pattern.
  • Snail and Twist positive cells were homogeneously distributed throughout the gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of Snail and Twist at the invasive front and consecutive loss of E-cadherin in parathyroid carcinomas suggests a key role of EMT in the tumorigenesis of this cancer.
  • The unique expression pattern could help to distinguish between an adenoma and a non-metastatic carcinoma.
  • Loss of E-cadherin and change of the expression pattern of Snail and Twist together should result in an en bloc resection or a close follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 19176646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor; 0 / snail family transcription factors; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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19. Kupka S, Haack B, Zdichavsky M, Mlinar T, Kienzle C, Bock T, Kandolf R, Kroeber SM, Königsrainer A: Large proportion of low frequency microsatellite-instability and loss of heterozygosity in pheochromocytoma and endocrine tumors detected with an extended marker panel. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Apr;134(4):463-71
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  • [Title] Large proportion of low frequency microsatellite-instability and loss of heterozygosity in pheochromocytoma and endocrine tumors detected with an extended marker panel.
  • PURPOSE: Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a usually benign tumor originated in the majority of patients from the adrenal medulla.
  • Moreover, 23 endocrine tumors with gastrointestinal origin were examined in order to test the applicability of this marker panel.
  • Among the 23 patients with endocrine tumors, only three (one pancreatic endocrine tumor, one duodenal neuro-endocrine tumor, one hepatic metastasis of a primary tumor with unknown origin) demonstrated MSI.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Microsatellite Instability. Microsatellite Repeats. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17828419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Lai EW, Perera SM, Havekes B, Timmers HJ, Brouwers FM, McElroy B, Adams KT, Ohta S, Wesley RA, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K: Gender-related differences in the clinical presentation of malignant and benign pheochromocytoma. Endocrine; 2008 Aug-Dec;34(1-3):96-100
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  • [Title] Gender-related differences in the clinical presentation of malignant and benign pheochromocytoma.
  • Signs and symptoms associated with pheochromocytomas are predominantly caused by catecholamine excess, but tend to be highly variable and non-specific.
  • In this study, we evaluated 23 male and 35 female pheochromocytoma patients for symptoms and signs of pheochromocytoma with special regard to gender-related differences in presentation.
  • Subgroup analyses and multiple regression analysis revealed gender differences to be irrespective of benign or malignant disease, use of adrenoceptor-blockade, age and biochemical phenotype.
  • We conclude female patients have significantly more self-reported pheochromocytoma signs and symptoms than male patients irrespective of biochemical phenotype and tumor presentation which may be related to distinct catecholamine receptor sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 18982461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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21. Yuan W, Wang W, Cui B, Su T, Ge Y, Jiang L, Zhou W, Ning G: Overexpression of ERBB-2 was more frequently detected in malignant than benign pheochromocytomas by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and immunohistochemistry. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Mar;15(1):343-50
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  • [Title] Overexpression of ERBB-2 was more frequently detected in malignant than benign pheochromocytomas by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and immunohistochemistry.
  • To analyze the genetic alterations of pheochromocytomas and evaluate the difference among malignant, extra-adrenal, and benign pheochromocytomas.
  • Forty-three tumor samples were tested for genetic changes using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
  • All 43 patients (24 women and 19 men; mean age 44.6+/-13.6 years; range 18-75 years; 9 with malignant, 7 extra-adrenal, and 27 benign) showed multiple copy number losses or gains.
  • The average copy number change was 13.10 in malignant, 13.93 in benign, and 13.47 in paraganglioma patients.
  • However, we discovered that in the malignant pheochromocytomas, 6 of the 9 patients (67%) showed erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB-2) oncogene gain, whereas only 12 of the 34 (35%) identified change in the benign and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.
  • Further, IHC confirmed that ERBB-2-positive staining was more frequent and stronger in malignant pheochromocytomas than in benign and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.
  • The results suggest that there may be certain progression of genetic events that involves chromosomes 1p, 3p, 6p, 11q, 12q, 17q, and 19q in the development of pheochromocytomas, and the activation of ERBB-2 located on chromosome 17q is an important and early event in the malignancy development of these tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Genes, erbB-2 / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / classification. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. Female. Genome, Human. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18310300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2254511
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22. Willenberg HS, Zschucke D, Bornstein SR: [Adrenal gland tumors]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Sep;48(9):971-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumors].
  • They are a very heterogenous group of diseases and include benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions, metastases, pheochromocytomas and other entities.
  • Algorithms for endocrine testing, imaging studies and their combination are available for defining the tumor entity and for the characterization of the hormone excess syndromes.
  • Recent developments in molecular biology have provided tools for testing for hereditary tumor syndromes associated with adrenal tumorigenesis and to establish strategies for further treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17684715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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23. Michalakis K, Ilias I: Medical management of adrenal disease: a narrative review. Endocr Regul; 2009 Jul;43(3):127-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenal diseases comprise for a variety of medical endocrine issues, ranging from partial or complete gland insufficiency, to several kinds of adrenal hyperfunction, either of congenital or neoplastic etiology.
  • Most benign neoplastic adrenal diseases that cause hyperfunction of the gland are surgically treated, however this may not be always feasible or effective.
  • For malignant adrenocortical disease, surgical removal remains the indicated treatment, but if the potential for surgical intervention is limited due to tumor extension, medical treatment can alleviate symptoms of hormone hypersecretion; mitotane in selected patients has good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / drug therapy. Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19817507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-0668
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine regulations
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Regul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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24. Zhang YW, Greenblatt DY, Repplinger D, Bargren A, Adler JT, Sippel RS, Chen H: Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2842-6
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  • [Title] Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) are rare tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Medical records of 55 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid resections for the preoperative diagnosis of HCN were reviewed.
  • All HCNs less than 2 cm in diameter were benign.
  • One patient with HCC had recurrence of the disease, but there were no disease-related deaths.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18665423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS778770; NLM/ PMC4852735
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25. Yang CY, Chou CW, Lin MB, Li CF: Schwannomas of the left adrenal gland and posterior mediastinum. J Chin Med Assoc; 2009 Feb;72(2):83-7
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  • [Title] Schwannomas of the left adrenal gland and posterior mediastinum.
  • Schwannoma is a rare tumor of neural crest cell origin.
  • The laboratory findings and endocrine studies were all within normal limits.
  • Pathologic studies showed a picture of benign schwannoma.
  • In conclusion, preoperative differentiation of benign schwannoma from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor or other tumors is important for good prognosis.
  • Total excision of benign schwannoma is associated with favourable outcome in patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19251536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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26. Bourguignon LY: Hyaluronan-mediated CD44 activation of RhoGTPase signaling and cytoskeleton function promotes tumor progression. Semin Cancer Biol; 2008 Aug;18(4):251-9
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  • [Title] Hyaluronan-mediated CD44 activation of RhoGTPase signaling and cytoskeleton function promotes tumor progression.
  • In cancer patients HA concentrations are usually higher in malignant tumors than in corresponding benign or normal tissues, and in some tumor types the level of HA is predictive of malignancy.
  • This article reviews the current evidence for HA/CD44-mediated activation of the ankyrin-based cytoskeleton and RhoGTPase signaling during tumor progression.
  • A special focus is placed on the role of HA-mediated CD44 interaction with unique downstream effectors (e.g., the cytoskeletal protein, ankyrin and/or various GTPases (e.g., RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42)) in coordinating intracellular signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+) mobilization, Rho signaling, PI3 kinase-AKT activation, NHE1-mediated cellular acidification, transcriptional upregulation and cytoskeletal function) and generating the concomitant onset of tumor cell activities (e.g., tumor cell adhesion, growth, survival, migration and invasion) and tumor progression.
  • I believe this information will provide valuable new insights into poorly understood aspects of solid tumor malignancy.
  • Furthermore, the new knowledge concerning HA/CD44-mediated oncogenic signaling events will have potentially important clinical utility, and could establish CD44 and its associated signaling molecules as important tumor markers for the early detection and evaluation of oncogenic potential.
  • It could also serve as ground work for the future development of new drug targets to inhibit HA/CD44-mediated tumor metastasis and cancer progression.

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  • (PMID = 18450475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-3650
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in cancer biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Cancer Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA066163-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078633-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA78633; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P01 AR039448-190007; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA078633-10; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P01 AR039448-150002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA066163-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA66163; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P01 AR039448; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078633; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR039448-190007; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR039448-150002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA066163
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; EC 3.6.5.2 / rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 105
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS56454; NLM/ PMC2505114
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27. Brouwers FM, Petricoin EF 3rd, Ksinantova L, Breza J, Rajapakse V, Ross S, Johann D, Mannelli M, Shulkin BL, Kvetnansky R, Eisenhofer G, Walther MM, Hitt BA, Conrads TP, Veenstra TD, Mannion DP, Wall MR, Wolfe GM, Fusaro VA, Liotta LA, Pacak K: Low molecular weight proteomic information distinguishes metastatic from benign pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):263-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low molecular weight proteomic information distinguishes metastatic from benign pheochromocytoma.
  • Thus, the discovery of biomarkers that could distinguish patients with benign disease from those with metastatic disease would be of great clinical value.
  • Both approaches were able to identify combinations of LMW molecules which could distinguish all metastatic from all benign pheochromocytomas in a separate blinded validation set.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Proteome / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Weight. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proteomics

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  • (PMID = 15947101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
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28. Berber E, Mitchell J, Milas M, Siperstein A: Robotic posterior retroperitoneal adrenalectomy: operative technique. Arch Surg; 2010 Aug;145(8):781-4

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  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a robotic technique for posterior retroperitoneal (PR) adrenalectomy.
  • Of these, 8 cases were done using a PR approach.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Feasibility of the robotic approach, patient and tumor characteristics, operative time, and complications.
  • Pathology included benign adrenocortical adenoma in 3 patients, aldosteronoma in 2, and pheochromocytoma, subclinical Cushing syndrome, and lymphangioma in 1 patient each.
  • The mean (SD) tumor size was 2.9 (1.7) cm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first article describing robotic PR adrenalectomy, and we have demonstrated the technique to be feasible and safe.
  • Owing to the limitations of a conventional laparoscopic PR approach, we believe that use of the robot is a refinement of the technique.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20713932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Berker D, Isik S, Erden G, Tutuncu YA, Ozcan HN, Caner S, Tekelek B, Aydin Y, Guler S: Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):419-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels can be used as a diagnostic tool in determining the functioning status of benign adrenal tumors.
  • Operation was recommended when the incidentaloma was larger than 4 cm or when a hypersecreting tumor was suspected.
  • No significant linear correlation existed between tumor volume and MMP-9 levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum MMP-9 levels may be useful in differentiating benign subclinical functioning adrenal tumors from benign nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood

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  • (PMID = 20061295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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30. Han XN, Chen B, Ye XD, Wang J, Liu GH: [Clinical manifestation and multiphasic spiral CT scanning features of abdominal pheochromocytoma: report of 70 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;31(2):139-42
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  • RESULTS: Among the 70 patients, there were 41 patients with endocrine symptoms related to pheochromocytoma, 15 had a latent pheochromocytoma and the remaining 14 cases presented with a non-functioning pheochromocytoma.
  • Sixty cases had a tumor located in the adrenal gland, while 8 in retroperitoneal space, and 2 cases had both intraadrenal and ectopic lesions simultaneously.
  • Sixty patients had a benign pheochromocytoma, the other 10 had a malignant one or relapse after operation.
  • The average size of the tumor was 5.8 cm (range, 2 approximately 15 cm in the longest diameter).
  • CONCLUSION: Approximately half of the abdominal pheochromocytomas are lack of endocrine symptoms related with their tumors.
  • However, they may display some typical CT characteristics, such as that a small lesion is often homogeneous but hypervascular, a larger tumor may present hemorrhage, necrosis, and cystic change with rich or moderate blood supply.
  • However, when a small tumor has moderate blood supply, it should be differentiated with an adrenal adenoma; when a big one has moderate blood supply, it should be differentiated with other malignant tumors.
  • Furthermore, a part of malignant pheochromocytomas is really difficult to be differentiated from some benign lesions by spiral CT images alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19538893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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31. Cheema Y, Olson S, Elson D, Chen H: What is the biology and optimal treatment for papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid? J Surg Res; 2006 Aug;134(2):160-2
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  • BACKGROUND: Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid, defined as tumors measuring < or =10 mm, are believed to be a less aggressive subset of papillary cancers that behave more like benign lesions and are often more conservatively treated.
  • METHODS: From May 1994 to October 2004, 184 patients underwent thyroid surgery at the University of Wisconsin and had papillary thyroid cancer present in the resected gland.
  • Of these patients, 10 were excluded because there was no record of tumor size.
  • The mean tumor size was 5.7 +/- 0.38 mm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16780882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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32. Korsisaari N, Ross J, Wu X, Kowanetz M, Pal N, Hall L, Eastham-Anderson J, Forrest WF, Van Bruggen N, Peale FV, Ferrara N: Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;14(1):249-58
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  • [Title] Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • PURPOSE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is defined clinically by the combined occurrence of multiple tumors, typically of the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, and anterior pituitary gland.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To investigate whether tumor growth in Men1(+/-) mice is mediated by VEGF-A dependent angiogenesis, we carried out a monotherapy with the anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody (mAb) G6-31.
  • We evaluated tumor growth by magnetic resonance imaging and assessed vascular density in tissue sections.
  • RESULTS: During the treatment with mAb G6-31, a significant inhibition of the pituitary adenoma growth was observed, leading to an increased mean tumor doubling-free survival compared with mice treated with a control antibody.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that VEGF-A blockade may represent a nonsurgical treatment for benign tumors of the endocrine system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactin / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors


33. Nakayama Y, Inoue H, Hamada Y, Takeshita M, Iwasaki H, Maeshiro K, Iwanaga S, Tani H, Ryu S, Yasunami Y, Ikeda S: Intraductal tubular adenoma of the pancreas, pyloric gland type: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 May;29(5):607-16
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  • [Title] Intraductal tubular adenoma of the pancreas, pyloric gland type: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases.
  • The intraductal tubular adenoma (ITA), pyloric gland type, of the pancreas is an uncommon benign tumor, akin to the pyloric gland type adenoma of the gallbladder.
  • Microscopically, the tumors were composed of closely packed tubular glands resembling pyloric type glands.
  • Endocrine cells were found in five tumors.
  • Pepsinogen II was positive in 5 tumors; thus, the results displayed a pattern of differentiation similar to those of ordinary gastric pyloric or metaplastic pyloric glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Pancreatic Ducts / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Mucins / analysis. Mucins / classification. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pepsinogen A / analysis. Smad4 Protein. Trans-Activators / analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15832084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Mucins; 0 / SMAD4 protein, human; 0 / Smad4 Protein; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9001-10-9 / Pepsinogen A
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34. Agarwal A, Mehrotra PK, Jain M, Gupta SK, Mishra A, Chand G, Agarwal G, Verma AK, Mishra SK, Singh U: Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy? World J Surg; 2010 Dec;34(12):3022-8
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  • [Title] Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy?
  • The goal of this study was to find a correlation between the tumor size and malignant potential of PCC and determine whether the "Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score" (PASS) proposed by Thompson can be applied to predict malignancy.
  • Tumor size was available for 90 tumors.
  • RESULTS: Of the benign cases, none developed recurrence or metastasis.
  • Of the sporadic benign cases, 21 (41%) patients with tumor size > 6 cm had a PASS of >4, and none of them developed metastasis.
  • No correlation was found between tumor size and PASS > 4 and PASS ≤ 4 (7.8 cm vs. 7.1 cm; p = 0.23).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20703467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Imai Y, Taketani T, Maemura K, Takeda N, Harada T, Nojiri T, Kawanami D, Monzen K, Hayashi D, Murakawa Y, Ohno M, Hirata Y, Yamazaki T, Takamoto S, Nagai R: Genetic analysis in a patient with recurrent cardiac myxoma and endocrinopathy. Circ J; 2005 Aug;69(8):994-5
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  • A 60 year-old male was referred for treatment of a cardiac myxoma in the right atrium.
  • He had a past history of left atrial cardiac myxoma at age 49 and pituitary microadenoma related to acromegaly at age 55.
  • He did not have a family history of cardiac neoplasm or endocrinopathy.
  • The intracardiac tumor was resected and its pathology was compatible with myxoma.
  • A diagnosis of Carney complex (CNC) was made because the diagnostic criteria of this neoplastic syndrome were satisfied by the presence of recurrent cardiac myxoma, endocrine tumor and spotty skin pigmentation.
  • Although it is the most common, usually benign, cardiac tumor, myxoma can cause a critical clinical situation and thus detecting the PRKAR1A mutation can assist with prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Myxoma / genetics. Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / complications. Acromegaly / diagnosis. Acromegaly / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16041174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-9843
  • [Journal-full-title] Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Circ. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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36. Cherenko M, Slotema E, Sebag F, De Micco C, Henry JF: Mild hypercalcitoninaemia and sporadic thyroid disease. Br J Surg; 2010 May;97(5):684-90
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  • BACKGROUND: Not operating on patients with mild hypercalcitoninaemia (MHCT) and sporadic thyroid disease carries the risk of omitting curative surgery for medullary thyroid cancer, but systematic surgery would result in unnecessary treatment of benign pathology.
  • This study reviewed the management of MCHT and non-hereditary thyroid disease in one centre.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20235084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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37. Vilar L, Freitas Mda C, Canadas V, Albuquerque JL, Botelho CA, Egito CS, Arruda MJ, Moura e Silva L, Coelho CE, Casulari LA, Naves LA: Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78
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  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 52 patients with AI undergoing routine follow-up in 2 Brazilian endocrine centers.
  • During follow-up of 21 patients with nonsurgically treated AI for 6 to 36 months (mean, 24.8 +/- 8.9), no patient had tumor reduction or disappearance.
  • Moreover, evidence of cortisol hypersecretion developed after 24 months of follow-up in a 30-year-old man with a 3.5-cm adenoma in the left adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that most AI are nonfunctioning benign lesions and emphasize the need for long-term follow-up of patients with conservatively managed lesions, in light of the potential for evolution to hormonal hypersecretion or tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Brazil. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8 [18463031.001]
  • (PMID = 18463032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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38. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • There was no expression of Ki67 or p53 protein above the assumed level in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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39. Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):569-85
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Although a subset of these tumours has metastatic disease at initial presentation, a significant number develops metastases during follow-up after excision of an apparently benign tumour.
  • Clinical, biochemical and histological features cannot reliably distinguish malignant from benign tumours.
  • Several imaging modalities have been utilised for the diagnosis and staging of these tumours.
  • The main therapeutic target is tumour reduction and control of symptoms of excessive catecholamine secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromaffin Cells / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Endocrine Surgical Procedures. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / trends

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  • (PMID = 17914089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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40. Pradeep PV, Mishra AK, Aggarwal V, Bhargav PR, Gupta SK, Agarwal A: Adrenal cysts: an institutional experience. World J Surg; 2006 Oct;30(10):1817-20
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  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over the past 15 years the Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, has had seven cases of adrenal cysts, of which two were functional: one patient had Cushing's syndrome and the other patient had pheochromocytoma.
  • Adrenal neoplasms, including adrenocortical carcinomas, can be associated with cysts that are benign in appearance.
  • However, surgical excision provides a definite histopathological diagnosis and also removes the fear of future complications such as hemorrhage into the cyst and local pressure effects due to the tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given that the adrenals are a vascular gland and taking into consideration the possibilities of bleeding and complications in the cyst, our treatment of choice is the elective excision of adrenal cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Academies and Institutes / statistics & numerical data. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. India. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16983481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Ramuz O, Lelong B, Giovannini M, Delpero JR, Rochaix P, Xerri L, Hassoun J, Flejou JF, Monges G: "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):555-9
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  • [Title] "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies.
  • This study is the second to report a pancreatic "sugar" tumor (ST) case.
  • This ST was incidentally discovered in a 31-year-old woman using computed tomography scan (CT scan) for work-up of a hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia.
  • Both CT scan and endoluminal ultrasonography (EUS) features evoked a 15-mm large benign endocrine tumor.
  • Pathological examination of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies could not confirm this diagnosis.
  • The tumor was intrapancreatic, well circumscribed, and organized in sheets of epithelioid cells.
  • The tumor cells expressed HMB-45 but did not express epithelial or endocrine immunohistochemical markers.
  • This observation highlights that STs should be considered in preoperative differential diagnosis of pancreas tumors, since they may be treated by limited surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiomyolipoma / chemistry. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Antigens, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / complications. Humans. Laparoscopy. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Pancreatectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15821930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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42. Brauckhoff M, Dralle H: [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands]. Chirurg; 2005 Mar;76(3):227-37
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  • [Title] [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands].
  • Repeat adrenalectomy may be required due to ipsilateral recurrence of benign or malignant adrenal tumors after previous total or subtotal adrenalectomy.
  • Even for multivisceral resection in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, complete resection of local recurrent tumor offers results similar to those of primary resection (5-year survival 40-60%).
  • In contrast, since no benefit on long-term survival has been shown so far by tumor debulking, palliative tumor resection should only be performed individually for control of severe endocrine symptoms.
  • In any case, during open or endoscopic approach, tumor spillage must be avoided to prevent local tumor cell implantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / mortality. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 15739057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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43. Mete O, Rotstein L, Asa SL: Controversies in thyroid pathology: thyroid capsule invasion and extrathyroidal extension. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Feb;17(2):386-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION AND DESIGN: Endocrine pathologists, surgeons, and oncologists who manage patients with thyroid carcinomas confront many critical dilemmas.
  • Controversies surrounding diagnostic criteria that distinguish benign from malignant thyroid follicular lesions have been brought to the attention of this community.
  • In this article, we confront another controversy, the definition of a thyroid "capsule" to clarify what constitutes extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and its clinical significance in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our review of the anatomy of the thyroid gland confirms that this structure has no defined anatomical fibrous capsule.
  • Moreover, the presence of adipose tissue within the thyroid gland and its pseudocapsule implies that thyroid tumor within fat tissue cannot be accepted as a criterion of ETE by that thyroid carcinoma.
  • While invasion of skeletal muscle is a more reliable feature of ETE, at the isthmus, these fibers can be normally present within the gland, and this criterion does not have value.
  • [MeSH-major] Connective Tissue / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 19949881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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44. Polamaung W, Wisedopas N, Vasinanukorn P, Pak-art P, Snabboon T: Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):667-71
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  • CONCLUSION: Myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumor of the adrenal glands composed of adipose cells and mature hematopoietic elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17954426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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45. Widimský J Jr, Zelinka T, Petrák O, Strauch B, Safarík L, Kasalický M, Vranková A, Holaj R: [Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in pheochromocytoma: current trends]. Vnitr Lek; 2007 Apr;53(4):428-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure (BP) can already contribute to the diagnosis of pheochromacytoma based on the frequent occurrence of BP variability and the absence of a night-time fall in BP.
  • 5 gene mutations have so far been identified that may be responsible for the familial form of pheochromacytoma: mutation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, leading to the onset of VHL syndrome, mutation of the RET-proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine adenomatosis type 2, mutation of the type 1 gene for neurofibromatosis, which is associated with von Recklinghausen's disease and finally mutation of the genes encoding the B and D subunits of succinated hydrogenase (SDHB, SDHD), which are associated with familial paragangliomas and pheochromacytoma.
  • The diagnosis of extraadrenal or multiple forms can use not only CT/MR but also imaging using the radiopharmaceutical 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or 18F-fluorodopamine PET (only available in the USA).
  • Pharmacological treatment using alpha or beta receptor blockers with subsequent laparoscopic excision of the tumor is usually successful in benign forms of pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / diagnosis. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17578179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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46. Fuhrer D, Eszlinger M, Karger S, Krause K, Engelhardt C, Hasenclever D, Dralle H, Paschke R: Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):785-90
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  • [Title] Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated three markers (insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ets-1) of thyroid growth stimulation and cell transformation together with a thyroid-specific marker (thyroglobulin (Tg)) for their potential to differentiate benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasia (FN).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR in 100 snap-frozen thyroid samples: 36 benign thyroid nodules with different histology and function (19 cold (CTN) and 17 toxic thyroid nodules (TTN)), 36 corresponding normal thyroid tissues of the same patients, eight Graves' disease (GD) thyroids, 10 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and 10 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • RESULTS: Mean IGF-II and COX-2 levels were not significantly altered between benign and malignant thyroid nodules (IGF-II) or nodular (FTC, TTN, CTN) and normal thyroid tissues (COX-2).
  • In contrast, eight- to tenfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in PTC and three- to fourfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in FTC (and GD) compared with benign thyroid nodules and normal thyroid tissues.
  • In addition, thyroglobulin mRNA expression was markedly downregulated (50- to 100-fold) in FTC, PTC and GD samples compared with benign nodular and normal thyroid tissues.
  • Hence an ets-1/Tg ratio >20 distinguished differentiated thyroid cancer from benign nodular or normal thyroid tissue.
  • However, in a consecutive series of 40 FNAC samples only equivocal results were obtained on 38 benign and two malignant (FTC) thyroid tumour samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of ets-1 and downregulation of Tg mRNA expression occur in differentiated thyroid cancer and may facilitate pre-operative identification of thyroid malignancy depending on further evaluation of these potentially promising markers in a larger series of benign and malignant thyroid tumours and their FNAC samples.

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  • (PMID = 15879365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ETS1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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47. Fassnacht M, Weismann D, Ebert S, Adam P, Zink M, Beuschlein F, Hahner S, Allolio B: AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):4366-70
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  • [Title] AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Activation of AKT plays a major role in a variety of human neoplasias.
  • Immunohistochemistry for total AKT and pAKT was performed in pheochromocytomas (n = 8), ACC (n = 4), and normal adrenal glands (n = 2).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / physiology. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / analysis. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15855265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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48. Grogan RH, Mitmaker E, Vriens MR, Harari A, Gosnell JE, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY: Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises? Surgery; 2010 Aug;148(2):392-7
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  • We sought to determine how accurately these guidelines identify functioning incidentalomas and how often these guidelines result in adrenalectomy for benign tumors.
  • The outcome measures studied were patient demographics, preoperative biochemical analysis, imaging characteristics, tumor size, type of operation performed, and postoperative histologic diagnosis.
  • Size was the only significant characteristic that distinguished cortical cancers from benign adenomas.
  • We also found that 25% of cortisol-secreting incidentalomas were cystic, and that benign adenomas accounted for 42% of all tumors resected.
  • However, even with the most up-to-date diagnostic tools available, most adrenal incidentalomas resected are benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20576282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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49. Sandgren J, Andersson R, Rada-Iglesias A, Enroth S, Akerstrom G, Dumanski JP, Komorowski J, Westin G, Wadelius C: Integrative epigenomic and genomic analysis of malignant pheochromocytoma. Exp Mol Med; 2010 Jul 31;42(7):484-502
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  • Epigenomic and genomic changes affect gene expression and contribute to tumor development.
  • Pheochromocytoma is a rare endocrine tumor of the adrenal gland that mostly occurs sporadic with unknown epigenetic/genetic cause.
  • The majority of cases are benign.
  • The integrated analysis of the tumor expression levels, in relation to normal adrenal medulla, indicated that either histone modifications or chromosomal alterations, or both, have great impact on the expression of a substantial fraction of the genes in the investigated sample.
  • Candidate tumor suppressor genes identified with decreased expression, a H3K27me3 mark and/or in regions of deletion were for instance TGIF1, DSC3, TNFRSF10B, RASSF2, HOXA9, PTPRE and CDH11.
  • Our approach to associate histone methylations and DNA copy number changes to gene expression revealed apparent impact on global gene transcription, and enabled the identification of candidate tumor genes for further exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Epigenesis, Genetic. Genome, Human / genetics. Genomics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Dosage / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Regulatory Networks / genetics. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Lysine / metabolism. Methylation. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20534969.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental & molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; K3Z4F929H6 / Lysine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2912476
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50. Neto MB, Machado MC, Mesquita F, de Castro Musolino NR, Toscanini AC, Ochman G, Cescato VA, Marino R Jr, Teixeira MJ: Thymus hyperplasia after resolution of hypercortisolism in ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome: the importance of thymic vein catheterization. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Jun;154(6):807-11
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  • We describe a case where the catheterization of the thymic vein was essential for the differential diagnosis of a thymic enlargement in an adrenalectomized patient with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome.
  • She underwent a transsphenoidal surgery with no tumor visualization and no remission of the syndrome.
  • She underwent a bilateral adrenalectomy and 8 months later a chest CT showed an increase of left thymic lobe, which was previously non-existent.
  • During the evolution, there was a spontaneous regression of the thymic lesion 38 months after the diagnosis.
  • The ACTH gradient during the catheterization of thymic vein was essential for the differential diagnosis of the thymic enlargement tumor after hypercortisolism resolution in ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, especially in this case, where the ACTH source was occult, thus avoiding an invasive surgical procedure for a benign entity with spontaneous resolution.

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  • (PMID = 16728539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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51. Erkiliç S, Koçer NE: The role of cytokeratin 19 in the differential diagnosis of true papillary carcinoma of thyroid and papillary carcinoma-like changes in Graves' disease. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):63-6
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  • [Title] The role of cytokeratin 19 in the differential diagnosis of true papillary carcinoma of thyroid and papillary carcinoma-like changes in Graves' disease.
  • The differential diagnosis between a true papillary carcinoma and foci mimicking papillary carcinoma in Graves' disease may be challenging by light microscopic features only.
  • It is known that CK19 may show faint staining in benign thyroid lesions such as adenomas.
  • Staining pattern with CK19 together with histopathological findings may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between foci mimicking papillary carcinoma and true papillary carcinoma in Graves' disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Graves Disease / diagnosis. Keratins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16000848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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52. Papotti M, Arrondini M, Tavaglione V, Veltri A, Volante M: Diagnostic controversies in vascular proliferations of the thyroid gland. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(3):175-83
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  • [Title] Diagnostic controversies in vascular proliferations of the thyroid gland.
  • The differential diagnosis includes benign lesions on one side, i.e., endothelial reactive hyperplasia (Masson's "hemangioma") in goiter and hemangioma, and malignant tumors on the other, i.e., angiosarcomas and undifferentiated (angio)sarcomatoid carcinomas.
  • Benign reactive endothelial hyperplasia with atypias mimicking malignant tumors may occur in long-standing nodular goiter, as a result of spontaneous hemorrhage followed by granulation tissue and fibrous organization.
  • Angiosarcoma is a rare primary malignant thyroid tumor, mainly observed in endemic goiter areas displaying morphologic and phenotypical similar to those typical of angiosarcomas in other locations (including focal cytokeratin expression).
  • Other extremely rare vascular lesions or mimics in the thyroid include benign hemangioma and pseudo-angiosarcomatous variant of medullary carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant vascular conditions in FNAB material is extremely challenging, and the cytopathology report should be remarkably cautious, especially in poorly cellular and highly hemorrhagic cases: atypias in endothelial cells are not per se indicative of malignancy, being a common feature of reactive endothelial hyperplasia in infracted goiter nodules as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Vascular Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18766472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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53. Waldmann J, Langer P, Habbe N, Fendrich V, Ramaswamy A, Rothmund M, Bartsch DK, Slater EP: Mutations and polymorphisms in the SDHB, SDHD, VHL, and RET genes in sporadic and familial pheochromocytomas. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):347-55
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  • The prevalence of germ line mutations within the RET-protooncogene and the tumor suppressor genes SDHB, SDHD, and VHL in pheochromocytomas (PC) varies in recent studies from 12 to 24%, if one look at them collectively.
  • DNA was extracted from frozen tumor tissue as well as from blood leukocytes of 36 PC (26 sporadic/10 MEN2).
  • Patients with wild type alleles in all assessed genes were older (53 vs. 37 years, P = 0.007) and presented with an increased tumor size (49 vs. 32 mm, P = 0.003) compared to patients with mutations.
  • Malignant PC revealed multiple (>2) genetic alterations more frequently than benign PC (4/7 vs. 4/29, P = 0.03).
  • Interestingly intronic variants of the SDHB gene occur more frequently in malignant than in benign PC (3/7 vs. 2/29, P = 0.04).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19399650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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54. Guillemot J, Compagnon P, Cartier D, Thouennon E, Bastard C, Lihrmann I, Pichon P, Thuillez C, Plouin PF, Bertherat J, Anouar Y, Kuhn JM, Yon L, Lefebvre H: Metoclopramide stimulates catecholamine- and granin-derived peptide secretion from pheochromocytoma cells through activation of serotonin type 4 (5-HT4) receptors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Mar;16(1):281-90
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  • Tissue explants, obtained from 18 pheochromocytomas including the tumor removed from a 46-year-old female patient who experienced life-threatening hypertension crisis after metoclopramide administration and 17 additional pheochromocytomas (9 benign and 8 malignant) were studied.
  • RESULTS: Metoclopramide and the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist cisapride were found to activate catecholamine- and granin-derived peptide secretions by cultured tumor cells.
  • 5-HT(4) receptor mRNAs were detected in the patient's tumor and the series of 17 additional pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology. Metoclopramide / pharmacology. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / drug effects. Catecholamines / secretion. Chromogranins / secretion. Cisapride / pharmacology. Domperidone / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Serotonin Receptor Agonists / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18948374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Serotonin Receptor Agonists; 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 5587267Z69 / Domperidone; L4YEB44I46 / Metoclopramide; UVL329170W / Cisapride
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55. Lal G, Padmanabha L, Nicholson R, Smith BJ, Zhang L, Howe JR, Robinson RA, O'Dorisio MS: ECM1 expression in thyroid tumors--a comparison of real-time RT-PCR and IHC. J Surg Res; 2008 Sep;149(1):62-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Real-time RT-PCR is not widely available and this has important implications for the widespread use of the expression of this gene for diagnosis.
  • The purpose of the current study is to evaluate and compare ECM1 expression by real-time RT-PCR with immunohistochemistry (IHC) as diagnostic aids in thyroid neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: ECM1 expression was studied in normal thyroid tissues (n = 14) and primary thyroid tumors (19 benign, 30 malignant) using both techniques.
  • RESULTS: ECM1 was highly expressed in thyroid carcinomas, compared with benign thyroid tissues, both at the mRNA (P < 0.01) and protein (P = 0.06) levels.
  • ECM1 expression by both methods was useful in identifying malignant follicular, but not Hürthle cell neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression. Humans. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18374945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA91578; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA82691
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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56. Hartley N, Rajesh A, Verma R, Sinha R, Sandrasegaran K: Abdominal manifestations of neurofibromatosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Jan-Feb;32(1):4-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mutations of the NF gene lead to abnormal tumor suppression.
  • Consequently, NF is a complex disease, with patients having an increased prevalence of benign and malignant neoplasms throughout the body.
  • We present cases of the most common abdominal presentations: neurofibroma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, pheochromocytoma, carcinoid, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and seminoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Seminoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18303281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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57. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Kim HY, Kim SG, Lee KW, Seo JA, Kim NH, Choi KM, Baik SH, Choi DS: Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea. Korean J Intern Med; 2005 Dec;20(4):303-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Endocrinological investigation revealed 16 pheochromocytomas (20%), nine Cushing's syndromes (11%), eight primary aldosteronism (10%) and 46 non-functioning tumors (58%).
  • The diameter of the carcinomas (mean: 10.8 cm, range: 5-19 cm) were significantly larger than the diameter of benign adenomas (mean: 2.84 cm, range: 1-6 cm) (p=0.002).
  • According to the receiver operating charactenstic (ROC) curve analysis, the cut-off value of tumor size for discriminate malignant tumor was 4.75 cm (sensitivity 90%, specificity 58%).
  • Twenty-four patients with non-functioning tumors were followed up for a period of 3 to 72 months.
  • During the follow up period, two patients showed an increase in tumor size of more than 1 cm, and one patient developed Cushing's syndrome.
  • Changes in mass size and function were observed only between 10 and 26 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data show that an endocrine evaluation should be performed in all adrenal incidentalomas, and an adrenalectomy is recommended for tumors 5 cm or greater or tumors with adrenocortical hyperfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16491828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891076
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59. Ilias I, Pacak K: Diagnosis and management of tumors of the adrenal medulla. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Dec;37(12):717-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of tumors of the adrenal medulla.
  • The adrenal medulla consists of chromaffin cells, the site of catecholamine biosynthesis.
  • Pheochromocytomas account for 6.5 % of incidentally discovered adrenal tumors; they are found in 50 % of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN 2A) and 5-25 % of patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma should first be established biochemically by measuring plasma free metanephrines (the measurement of urinary fractionated metanephrines is the second choice).
  • Primary treatment for both types of tumor is surgical; chemotherapy is used for inoperable disease.
  • After successful surgery, survival of patients with benign, sporadic pheochromocytomas is believed to be equal to that of the general population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Medulla / physiopathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / therapy. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16372223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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60. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • The difference of shape, margin, the presence of a halo, internal content, and calcifications was not statistically significant (p value =0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P: A perspective view of sodium iodide symporter research and its clinical implications. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Oct;155(4):495-512
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an intrinsic plasma membrane protein that mediates active iodide transport into the thyroid gland and into several extrathyroidal tissues, in particular the lactating mammary gland.
  • Cloning and molecular characterization of the NIS have allowed the investigation of its key role in thyroid physiology as well as its potential pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in benign and malignant thyroid diseases.
  • Similarly, elucidating the mechanisms underlying the regulation of NIS in lactating mammary gland and breast cancer, in which more than 80% of cases express endogenous NIS, may lead to findings that have novel implications for pathophysiology and therapy.
  • NIS offers the unique advantage that it can be used both as a reporter and as a therapeutic gene, so that it is possible to image, monitor, and treat the tumor with radioiodide, just as in differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • This review summarizes the main recent findings in NIS research that have a direct impact on diagnosis and therapeutic management.

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  • (PMID = 16990649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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62. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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63. Dossett LA, Rudzinski ER, Blevins LS, Chambers EP Jr: Malignant pheochromocytoma of the organ of Zuckerkandl requiring aortic and vena caval reconstruction. Endocr Pract; 2007 Sep;13(5):493-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of a malignant pheochromocytoma located in the organ of Zuckerkandl that required aortic and vena caval resection and reconstruction.
  • RESULTS: A 46-year-old man was referred for evaluation of a 1.4-cm left adrenal mass incidentally discovered on an abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Imaging characteristics of the left adrenal mass were consistent with a benign adenoma, but CT also demonstrated a hypervascular para-aortic mass.
  • The mass was excised en bloc, including portions of the aorta, inferior vena cava, and right ureter.
  • The remaining right ureter and kidney were removed to avoid the possibility of a urine leak from an ureteroureterostomy.
  • Final pathologic and operative findings confirmed a malignant pheochromocytoma of the organ of Zuckerkandl with invasion into the wall of the inferior vena cava and tumor thrombus extending into the lumen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aorta, Abdominal / surgery. Para-Aortic Bodies / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17872352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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64. Righi A, Zhang S, Jin L, Scheithauer BW, Kovacs K, Kovacs G, Goth MI, Korbonits M, Lloyd RV: Analysis of IMP3 expression in normal and neoplastic human pituitary tissues. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Mar;21(1):25-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein highly expressed in fetal tissue and malignant tumors but rarely found in adult benign tissues.
  • In various tumors, IMP3 expression is correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and reduced overall survival.
  • We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in five normal pituitary tissues and 75 pituitary tumors (64 adenomas and 11 carcinomas) to determine if specific tumor types expressed IMP3 and if there were differences in IMP3 expression between adenomas and carcinomas.
  • These results indicate that IMP3 is expressed both in normal and in neoplastic pituitary gland tissues without significant differences in expression levels in pituitary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19898970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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65. Yu R, Furmark L, Wong C: Cardiac abnormalities associated with pheochromocytoma and other adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):10-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: In this case-control study, we reviewed pathology records of patients seen at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 1997 and 2007; patients with adrenal or extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma and those with nonfunctioning benign or malignant adrenal tumors were identified.
  • QTc was prolonged in patients with pheochromocytoma compared with control patients (448.3 +/- 9.7 ms vs 424.7 +/- 4.5 ms, respectively; P = .02) and was correlated with levels of norepinephrine and normetanephrine, but not with levels of epinephrine and metanephrine or tumor size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Heart / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19211391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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66. Fallo F, Pezzi V, Sonino N, Altavilla G, Barzon L: Adrenal incidentaloma in pregnancy: clinical, molecular and immunohistochemical findings. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 May;28(5):459-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report a case of a pregnant woman with an adrenal mass discovered serendipitously, who was followed-up during gestation and underwent adrenalectomy shortly after delivery.
  • Four months after delivery, the patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and pathologic analysis revealed a 2.7 cm benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • This case of an adrenal incidentaloma discovered during pregnancy shows that a close observation with endocrine investigations and ultrasonography could be an appropriate approach, delaying the decision of surgical intervention after delivery.
  • Estrogen receptor mRNA levels in the adrenal mass similar to those observed in normal adrenals suggest that estrogen oversecretion during pregnancy was not a risk factor for tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / immunology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / immunology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16075931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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67. Kirschner LS, Kusewitt DF, Matyakhina L, Towns WH 2nd, Carney JA, Westphal H, Stratakis CA: A mouse model for the Carney complex tumor syndrome develops neoplasia in cyclic AMP-responsive tissues. Cancer Res; 2005 Jun 1;65(11):4506-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A mouse model for the Carney complex tumor syndrome develops neoplasia in cyclic AMP-responsive tissues.
  • Carney complex is an autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, myxomatosis, endocrine tumors, and schwannomas.
  • Although genotype-specific cardiac and adrenal lesions were not seen, benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias were observed in older mice.
  • Genetic analysis indicated that allelic loss occurred in a subset of tumor cells, suggesting that complete loss of Prkar1a plays a key role in tumorigenesis.
  • These observations confirm the identity of PRKAR1A as a tumor suppressor gene with specific importance to cyclic AMP-responsive tissues and suggest that these mice may be valuable tools not only for understanding endocrine tumorigenesis but also for understanding inherited predispositions for schwannoma formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Neurilemmoma / genetics. Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Alleles. Animals. Bone Neoplasms / enzymology. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Male. Mice. Osteoblasts / cytology. Osteoblasts / physiology. Schwann Cells / cytology. Schwann Cells / physiology. Syndrome. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15930266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16058; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD01323
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Prkar1a protein, mouse; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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68. Mathur A, Weng J, Moses W, Steinberg SM, Rahbari R, Kitano M, Khanafshar E, Ljung BM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1170-6; discussion 1176-7
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Clinical, tumor genotyping for common somatic mutations (BRAF V600E, NRAS, KRAS, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and NTRK1), and the gene expression levels of 6 candidate diagnostic markers were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods in 341 patients to determine whether they could distinguish reliably benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms, and a scoring model was derived.
  • RESULTS: By a multivariate analysis, fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology classification, the presence of a NRAS mutation, and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression level were associated jointly with malignancy.
  • The overall accuracy of the scoring model, including these 3 variables, to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid tumors was 91%, including 67% for the indeterminate and 77% for the suspicious FNA subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Ethnic Groups. Female. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Male. Medical History Taking. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Mutation. Prospective Studies. RNA / genetics. RNA / isolation & purification. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Published by Mosby, Inc.
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  • [ErratumIn] Surgery. 2012 Feb;151(2):343. Rahabari, Reza [corrected to Rahbari, Reza]
  • (PMID = 21134548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS240002; NLM/ PMC3052943
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69. Uehara H, Tatsumi K, Masuda E, Kato M, Kizu T, Ishida T, Takakura R, Takano Y, Nakaizumi A, Ishikawa O, Takenaka A: Scraping cytology with a guidewire for pancreatic-ductal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 Jul;70(1):52-9
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  • Conventional procedures for acquisition of a specimen for cytology during ERCP have been limited in their ability to discriminate pancreatic-ductal strictures.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients with pancreatic-ductal strictures composed of 71 malignant and 15 benign diseases were evaluated.
  • Malignant diseases included 70 pancreatic carcinomas and 1 endocrine tumor; benign diseases included the following: 7 chronic pancreatitis, 3 autoimmune pancreatitis, 3 idiopathic pancreatic-ductal strictures, and 2 pancreatic cysts.
  • Sensitivities for pancreatic carcinoma with a tumor of <20 mm, 21 to 40 mm, 41 to 60 mm, and >61 mm were 95%, 92%, 100%, and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign or malignant pancreatic-ductal strictures were accurately discriminated by scraping cytology with a guidewire during ERCP.
  • The technique yielded high diagnostic sensitivities in pancreatic carcinoma, regardless of the location or size of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19249043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Yu R, Nissen NN, Dhall D, Wei M: Pheochromocytoma in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis: management and clinical predictors. Endocr Pract; 2008 Nov;14(8):967-72
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  • Pathologic diagnosis, demographic data, clinical history, imaging studies, and laboratory test results were reviewed and compared among patients whose adrenal mass was determined to be metastasis, adenoma, or pheochromocytoma.
  • Of the adrenal masses, 18 (60%) were metastases, 8 (27%) were benign adenomas, and 4 (13%) were pheochromocytomas.
  • Adrenal biopsy was performed without biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma in 9 patients (30%), including 2 subsequently found to have this tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pheochromocytoma occurs frequently in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis, but this tumor is often not considered in clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19095594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Mazurkiewicz M, Wasiutyński A: [Current opinion in pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 Jun;22(132):509-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor with significant clinical relevance.
  • Most of the tumors are benign, but sometimes malignant cases are seen and there prognosis is unfavorable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Pheochromocytoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications

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  • (PMID = 17874618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; English Abstract
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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72. Sakai T, Fujimori M, Tominaga Y, Kanai T, Ito K, Shingu K, Amano J, Kushima H, Tsuchiya S: A case of unilateral gravid macromastia in 23-year-old Japanese woman associated with elevated serum CA19-9. Breast Cancer; 2005;12(3):238-42
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Tumors and Pregnancy.

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  • The mass had proliferated to the exclusion of normal gland.
  • This benign tumor is sometimes difficult to distinguish from malignant tumors since it shows few histological characteristics and grows rapidly.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. CA-19-9 Antigen / biosynthesis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16110297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen
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73. Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Kann PH, Fendrich V, Rothmund M, Langer P: Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Jul;392(4):437-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal tumors are a common manifestation of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) syndrome.
  • Adrenal glands have been screened by biochemical analysis and either by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or computed tomography (CT) or both.
  • Age at diagnosis of MEN-1, type of adrenal tumor, genotype, therapy, and clinical characteristics have been analyzed.
  • Adrenal lesions were detected in average 6.9 years after the initial diagnosis of MEN-1.
  • Median tumor size was 12 mm (5-40 mm).
  • Tumor size smaller than 10 mm was observed in 11 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: MEN-1-associated adrenal tumors are mostly small, benign, and nonfunctioning and much more common than previously reported.


74. Pantalone KM, Gopan T, Remer EM, Faiman C, Ioachimescu AG, Levin HS, Siperstein A, Berber E, Shepardson LB, Bravo EL, Hamrahian AH: Change in adrenal mass size as a predictor of a malignant tumor. Endocr Pract; 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):577-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Change in adrenal mass size as a predictor of a malignant tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of adrenal mass absolute growth, growth rate, and percentage growth rate on serial imaging for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses.
  • RESULTS: There were 111 benign (81.6%) and 25 malignant (18.4%) adrenal masses.
  • After adjustment for other factors, the 3 growth measures remained statistically significant predictors of a malignant tumor.
  • We could not identify an adrenal mass growth cutoff value to provide 100% sensitivity or specificity to confirm or exclude the presence of a malignant lesion.
  • In 3 patients with metastatic lesions, no growth or a decrease in mass size during a period of 4 to 36 months was observed.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, the largest with surgical histopathology findings as the "gold standard" for diagnosis, change in adrenal mass size was a significant predictor of a malignant tumor.
  • Nevertheless, we could not identify an adrenal mass growth cutoff value for reliable confirmation or exclusion of a malignant lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20150023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TECHNETIUM, ELEMENTAL .

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  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • SUMMARY: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Endocrine Unit in May 2009 due to the incidental discovery of a large left thyroid lobe nodule by a computed tomography study.
  • This had been performed to search for a primitive tumor in a patient with bone metastasis.
  • Histological analysis of the surgical specimen led to a diagnosis of Burkitt-like large B-cell lymphoma harbored within a thyroid adenoma.
  • After further staging, the final diagnosis was stage IV E Burkitt-like lymphoma with the involvement of the bone and the thyroid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of the thyroid gland by Burkitt-like lymphoma is extremely rare as is close localization of malignancy and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • As highlighted by the present report, performing fine-needle aspiration cytology should be always considered in the clinical context of a metastatic disease of unknown origin or when there are ultrasonography signs suggesting malignancy, even when the nodule is hyperfunctioning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Male. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Technetium. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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76. Al-Harthy M, Al-Harthy S, Al-Otieschan A, Velagapudi S, Alzahrani AS: Comparison of pheochromocytomas and abdominal and pelvic paragangliomas with head and neck paragangliomas. Endocr Pract; 2009 Apr;15(3):194-202
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pheochromocytoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Compared with patients with head and neck paraganglioma, patients with pheochromocytoma or abdominal and pelvic paraganglioma were younger (35.7 +/- 16 years vs 43 +/- 17 years, P = .042) and were more likely to have the classic triad associated with catecholamine hypersecretion of palpitation, excessive sweating, and headache (40% vs 0%, P<.001); hypertension (70% vs 37%, P = .005); and benign tumors (65% vs 43%, P = .03).
  • Patients with head and neck paraganglioma and patients with pheochromocytoma/abdominal and pelvic paraganglioma were not different in female to male ratios (27:19 vs 29:11, respectively, P = .18), tumor size (5.8 +/- 2.7 cm vs 5.7 +/- 3 cm, respectively; P = .85), or remission rate (43% vs 60%, respectively, P = .13).
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Paraganglioma / epidemiology. Pelvic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Comorbidity. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19364686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Oda D: Soft-tissue lesions in children. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am; 2005 Nov;17(4):383-402

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This article reviews some of the benign and malignant oral soft-tissue swellings that occur in children, with an emphasis on their clinical presentation, etiology, histopathology, and treatment.
  • These lesions include single and multiple nodules, reactive lesions, and benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • Diseases discussed include reactive gingival swelling, generalized gingival fibromatosis, melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, fibromas, vascular lesions, salivary gland lesions, and infantile rhabdomyomas.
  • Also covered are lesions that may present in multiples, such as neuromas, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b, neurofibromatosis, and human papilloma virus-related benign epithelial lesions.
  • Benign but locally aggressive and malignant neoplasms are discussed, such as aggressive fibromatosis, myofibromatosis, fibrosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 18088794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3699
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Ulisse S, Baldini E, Toller M, Delcros JG, Guého A, Curcio F, De Antoni E, Giacomelli L, Ambesi-Impiombato FS, Bocchini S, D'Armiento M, Arlot-Bonnemains Y: Transforming acidic coiled-coil 3 and Aurora-A interact in human thyrocytes and their expression is deregulated in thyroid cancer tissues. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):827-37
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • Its expression was found, with respect to HTU5 cells, unchanged in cells derived from a benign thyroid follicular tumor (HTU42), and significantly reduced in cell lines derived from follicular (FTC-133), papillary (B-CPAP), and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (CAL-62 and 8305C).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17914111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / TACC3 protein, human; 639089-54-6 / VX680; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2216418
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79. Luo Z, Li J, Qin Y, Ma Y, Liang X, Xian J, Lu D, Wei M, Yang JY, Yang MQ, He Z: Differential expression of human telomerase catalytic subunit mRNA by in situ hybridization in pheochromocytomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):387-98
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pheochromocytoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We investigated the expression of human telomerase catalytic component (hTERT) mRNA, hTERT protein, Ki-67 antigen, and p27kip1 in pheochromocytomas (27 benign, 7 suspected malignant, and 7 malignant), and evaluated the possibility of expressions of these proteins, and hTERT mRNA serve as diagnostic markers for predicting the biological behavior of these tumors.
  • By in situ hybridization, hTERT mRNA was expressed in 5/7 malignant tumors (defined as the presence of metastasis and/or extensive local invasion) as compared with 3/27 benign tumors.
  • All benign tumors exhibited no immunopositivity or <1% of cells stained for Ki-67 antigen.
  • While no statistical difference in p27kip1 expressions was observed among benign, malignant, and suspected malignant tumors, there was a statistical difference between the normal adrenal medulla samples and tumors (p < 0.001).
  • Thus, hTERT mRNA detection by in situ hybridization, hTERT expression, and Ki-67 antigen expression are all useful tools for differentiating malignant from benign pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Telomerase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17525487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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80. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
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  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • RESULTS: In pathological examination benign pheochromo-cytoma was diagnosed in 39 presented patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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81. Imachi H, Murao K, Yoshimoto T, Sugimoto M, Kakehi Y, Hayashi T, Kushida Y, Haba R, Tahara R, Ishida T: Idiopathic unilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an elderly patient. Endocrine; 2010 Apr;37(2):249-52
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  • The patient was admitted to our hospital for the evaluation of a right adrenal tumor (size, 10 × 9 cm²).
  • The final pathological diagnosis was simply idiopathic adrenal hematoma.
  • It is important to distinguish this benign lesion from a neoplasm and to consider idiopathic AH in an adrenal tumor during differential diagnosis in elderly patients who have not received anticoagulation therapy or suffered from trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Hematoma / radiography. Hemorrhage / radiography. Hypertension / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 20960259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Comlekci A, Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Yesil S, Eraslan S: Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):40-6
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  • The vast majority of the participants (85.6%) had benign adrenal adenomas.
  • Subjects with adrenal adenomas had significantly smaller tumor diameters (P ≤ 0.001 vs. other tumors).
  • Sensitivity and specificity of 40 mm as a cut-off value in the differentiation of adrenal gland malignancies from benign tumors was 73.3 and 54.8%, respectively.
  • Most of the adrenal adenomas were non-functioning (73.5%).
  • During 24 months follow-up 10.2% of adenomas featured increase in tumor diameter and 2.06% developed sCS.
  • Young subjects featured more stable tumor diameter and hormonal status.
  • Most of the incidentally discovered adrenal tumors were non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • Clinically overt hormone hypersecretion syndromes were mainly shown in young subjects, while adrenal gland malignancies and sCS were more common in older ages.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aging. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Normetanephrine / urine. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19882253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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83. Calaf GM: Susceptibility of human breast epithelial cells in vitro to hormones and drugs. Int J Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):285-95
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  • Breast cancer is often hormone responsive with growth or regression of tumors modulated by endocrine manipulations.
  • Knowledge of tumor response to hormones will greatly improve the ability to plan therapy for breast cancer patients.
  • Cell proliferation in mammary gland occurs in a non-random fashion since there are specific compartments with varied rates of proliferation represented by the terminal end buds that are ready for differentiation into alveolar buds.
  • Normal, benign lesions, and duct carcinomas of human breast tissues were processed for organ culture.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogen Antagonists / pharmacology. Tamoxifen / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mifepristone / pharmacology. Organ Culture Techniques. Progesterone / pharmacology. Progestins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16391781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Progestins; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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84. Perrier ND, Kennamer DL, Bao R, Jimenez C, Grubbs EG, Lee JE, Evans DB: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases. Ann Surg; 2008 Oct;248(4):666-74
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  • [Title] Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) is a minimally invasive approach to removal of the adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The prospective endocrine surgery database at a tertiary care center was used to capture all patients who underwent PRA between October 2005 and February 2008.
  • Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm.
  • PRA may be the preferred technique for removing benign adrenal tumors and isolated metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Retroperitoneal Space / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18936580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Hagiwara H, Usui T, Kimura T, Tagami T, Naruse M, Minamiguchi S, Kato T, Okuno H, Shimatsu A: Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):122-7
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  • Myelolipomas of the adrenal gland are benign, nonfunctioning tumors.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a huge mass on the left adrenal gland, and an enlarged right adrenal mass.
  • Adrenalectomy for the left-side tumor was performed.
  • Histological study revealed that the tumor consisted of fat cells and myeloid components, findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Neither ACTH receptors nor androgen receptor was over-expressed in the tumor.
  • Our finding that the tumor did not over-express ACTH or androgen receptor suggests a limited direct role for these hormones in the development of the myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Myelolipoma / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18618087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Melanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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86. Trojanowicz B, Brodauf L, Sekulla C, Lorenz K, Finke R, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C: The role of AUF1 in thyroid carcinoma progression. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):857-71
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  • AUF1/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D is an adenylate-uridylate-rich elements (AREs) -binding protein, which regulates the mRNA stability of many genes related to growth regulation, such as proto-oncogenes, growth factors, cytokines, and cell cycle-regulatory genes.
  • Investigations on thyroid tissues revealed that cytoplasmic expression of AUF1 in malignant tissues was increased when compared with benign thyroid tissues.
  • Our data demonstrate the existence of a complex network between AUF1 and mRNAs encoding proteins related to cell proliferation.
  • Although we cannot exclude participation of other factors, thyroid carcinoma may recruit cytoplasmic AUF1 to disturb the stability of mRNAs encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, leading to uncontrolled growth and progression of tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / antagonists & inhibitors. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Knockdown Techniques. Genes, cdc. Humans. Protein Binding. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19574297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / hnRNP D0
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87. Mitchell J, Barbosa G, Tsinberg M, Milas M, Siperstein A, Berber E: Unrecognized adrenal insufficiency in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Surg Endosc; 2009 Feb;23(2):248-54
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  • RESULTS: The 41 patients' diagnoses included 13 pheochromocytomas, 15 nonsecreting adenomas, 5 aldosteronomas, 5 metastatic lesions, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma, and 2 other benign lesions.
  • Tumor size and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity were predictive of postoperative AI (p < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Insufficiency / epidemiology. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19037697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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88. Strong VE, Kennedy T, Al-Ahmadie H, Tang L, Coleman J, Fong Y, Brennan M, Ghossein RA: Prognostic indicators of malignancy in adrenal pheochromocytomas: clinical, histopathologic, and cell cycle/apoptosis gene expression analysis. Surgery; 2008 Jun;143(6):759-68
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  • The histologic differentiation between benign and malignant tumors is difficult, the latter diagnosed by the presence of metastatic disease or recurrence.
  • AIM: To determine if postoperative histologic evaluation using the previously proposed Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and cell cycle/apoptosis markers can predict patients at risk for recurrence.
  • A senior endocrine pathologist, blinded to clinical outcome, reviewed the histopathologic characteristics of all cases using the PASS system.
  • This pheochromocytoma scoring system is based on the presence of 12 different histologic parameters, including tumor necrosis, mitotic rate, tumor cell spindling, and the presence of large cell nests.
  • In addition, we constructed a tissue microarray of all 5 malignant tumors and 41 of the benign tumors.
  • By immunostaining of the tissue microarray, we assessed the expression of 7 different cell cycle/apoptosis-related genes (p53, Ki-67, Bcl-2, mdm-2, cyclin D1, p21, and p27).
  • RESULTS: Forty-three patients had a benign clinical course while 5 patients harbored a clinically malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • Tumor necrosis (focal or confluent) was a particularly powerful indicator of malignancy present in 4 of 5 patients (80%) with malignant tumors, but only in 3 of 42 cases (7%) with benign neoplasms (P = .0009).
  • The presence of a high mitotic rate (>3/10 high power fields) and tumor cell spindling significantly correlated with malignancy (P = .026 and .041, respectively).
  • There was a highly significant difference in PASS scores between benign and malignant cases (P = .0003).
  • Ki-67-positive tumor had a significantly higher chance of harboring tumor necrosis than Ki-67-negative neoplasms (P < .01).
  • There was no difference in staining between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas using p53, Bcl-2, mdm-2, cyclin D1, p21, and p27. CONCLUSIONS:.
  • (1) A PASS score of <4 predicted benign pheochromocytomas. (2) All malignant pheochromocytomas had a PASS score >/=6, which was significantly higher compared with the benign lesions.
  • Ki-67 may help identify those neoplasms at risk for recurrence by prompting the pathologist to look aggressively for adverse histologic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Apoptosis. Cell Cycle. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis / diagnosis. Necrosis / genetics. Necrosis / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Single-Blind Method


89. de Krijger RR, van Nederveen FH, Korpershoek E, Dinjens WN: New developments in the detection of the clinical behavior of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):137-41
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  • As is true for many (neuro)endocrine tumors, but unlike most other epithelial tumors, histopathological analysis does not allow a distinction to be made between PCC and PGL that will follow a benign course and those that have metastasized or will do so, a condition associated with poor prognosis.
  • Therefore, many studies have been undertaken in the past decade, with the aim of providing a marker or a set of markers that allows clinical behavior in PCC and PGL to be predicted.
  • In this article, recent attempts at marker detection, such as those mentioned above, as well as emerging knowledge on the molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant PCC and PGL will be presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17159246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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90. de Souza Meyer EL, Dora JM, Wagner MS, Maia AL: Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentation towards papillary carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jun;62(6):672-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) catalyses the 5' monodeiodination of T4 and is highly expressed in normal human thyroid gland.
  • We have investigated D1 expression in a series of benign and malignant differentiated thyroid neoplasias.
  • DESIGN: Surgically isolated thyroid tumour fragments were used.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15943828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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91. Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Tupikowski K, Akinpelumi BF: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Jan;18(103):107-10
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  • It is a rare, benign, hormonally inactive tumor of the adrenal gland composed of mature fat tissue and hematopoietic tissue in varying amounts.
  • This tumour is discovered during autopsy or USG, CT MRI of the abdomen usually by chance and because of that is included in the group of tumors called incidentaloma.
  • It is usually hormonally inactive but there were several cases in which adrenal myelolipoma coexisted with various endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, hirsutism, hermaphroditism, inborn deficiencies of 17- and 21-hydroxylase.
  • Surgical treatment is called for when the diameter of tumor reaches more than 4 cm, tumour shows tendency to fast growth or causes clinical disorders.
  • In cases of small lesions, that show no progression, it is advised to observe the tumor using imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15859562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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92. Lo CY, Lam KY, Leung PP, Luk JM: High prevalence of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):545-50
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  • Its incidence of expression and potential application as a tumor marker remain to be elucidated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression was performed for 30 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 40 benign thyroid specimens.
  • RESULTS: COX-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 27 of 30 (90%) PTC but was absent in 40 benign thyroid specimens, including 27 nodular hyperplasia, 7 follicular adenoma and 6 lymphocytic thyroiditis.
  • Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the level of COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in PTC than in both the adjacent non-cancerous tissues and the benign thyroid specimens.
  • CONCLUSION: COX-2 is frequently expressed in PTC but not in benign thyroid specimens.

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  • (PMID = 15817909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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93. Kusinski M, Wdzieczak-Bakala J, Liu JM, Bignon J, Kuzdak K: AcSDKP: a new potential marker of malignancy of the thyroid gland. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2006 Feb;391(1):9-12
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  • [Title] AcSDKP: a new potential marker of malignancy of the thyroid gland.
  • However, no data on the concentration of AcSDKP present in solid tumor tissue are available.
  • The aim of our study was to measure tissue concentration of AcSDKP in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • The specimens were taken intraoperatively from 20 patients (17 women and 3 men aged 21-68 years): 10 patients with benign nodular goiter and 10 patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • RESULTS: The obtained results show that tissue concentration of AcSDKP in malignant thyroid tumors is five times higher when compared to benign lessions.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that AcSDKP may play a role in the development of the thyroid gland lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16418871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oligopeptides; H041538E9P / goralatide
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94. Henneman D, Chang Y, Hodin RA, Berger DL: Effect of laparoscopy on the indications for adrenalectomy. Arch Surg; 2009 Mar;144(3):255-9; discussion 259
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is now the criterion standard for removal of most benign adrenal lesions and may be used for malignant lesions as well.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient characteristics, comorbidity, tumor size, indication, and time between diagnosis and surgery.
  • RESULTS: Group 2 had more patients in American Society of Anesthesiologists class III with gastrointestinal and metabolic-endocrine comorbidities.
  • Tumor size did not change, and, despite an increase in the number of adrenalectomies, indications for surgery remained consistent over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19289665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Ozimek A, Diebold J, Linke R, Heyn J, Hallfeldt K, Mussack T: Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):625-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors.
  • Most of the adrenal tumors that are incidentally detected are benign adenomas.
  • Unfortunately hitherto preoperative diagnosis of potentially malignant adrenal masses is still a main problem in the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • We present the case of a 57-year-old male patient with ACC and the case of an 87-year-old male patient with PAL and provide a systematic comparison of the clinical and pathological features of both entities.
  • In both cases clinical and radiological features resulted in an initially false diagnosis.
  • The patient with ACC showed tumor progression with local and systemic recurrence despite adjuvant therapy with mitotane and additional surgical therapy.
  • We propose some guidelines for diagnosis and surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18490838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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96. Buurman H, Saeger W: Abnormalities in incidentally removed adrenal glands. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):277-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Abnormalities in incidentally removed adrenal glands.
  • The incidence and type of pathological findings in a large group of surgically removed adrenal glands were analyzed: 282 resected adrenals from the years 1995 to 2004 were examined; 242 adrenals were removed for therapy of renal cell carcinomas (in one case both adrenals were removed).
  • Other indications for adrenalectomies were malignant tumors (urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, etc.) and benign findings (oncocytoma, angiomyolipoma, pyelonephritis, etc.).
  • A total of 18 adrenals exhibited a metastasis or diffuse infiltration of the adrenal or para-adrenal tissue by a malignant tumor (17 renal cell carcinomas, 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17308364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Björklund P, Akerström G, Westin G: Activated beta-catenin in the novel human parathyroid tumor cell line sHPT-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2007 Jan 12;352(2):532-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activated beta-catenin in the novel human parathyroid tumor cell line sHPT-1.
  • Recently, we presented evidence for aberrant accumulation of non-phosphorylated (stabilized) beta-catenin in benign parathyroid tumors from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) or HPT secondary to uremia (sHPT).
  • Here we have used a human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-producing cell line (sHPT-1), established from a hyperplastic parathyroid gland removed at operation of a patient with sHPT, to further investigate the potential importance of beta-catenin in parathyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Growth and survival of the parathyroid tumor cells are thus dependent on maintained expression level of beta-catenin.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Signal Transduction

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  • Cellosaurus - a cell line knowledge resource. culture/stock collections - sHPT-1 (CVCL_0I22) .
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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 17126301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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98. Van Effenterre R, Boch AL: [Craniopharyngiomas]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Dec;68(6):412-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Craniopharyngiomas are rare benign epithelial tumors, arising from the pituitary stalk or gland and developing in the sellar and suprasellar region, affecting both adults and children.
  • Clinical features essentially include visual disturbances, endocrine deficiencies, and neurological signs.
  • Diagnosis is made on MRI and CT scan, demonstrating a sellar or suprasellar tumor, heterogeneous, with frequent calcifications.
  • This classification allows surgical series comparison, which is of importance since developments and extensions of the tumor can explain surgical difficulties.
  • Because it is an extra-cerebral benign lesion, the ideal goal of treatment should be complete tumor removal with improvement of altered visual functions, minimal deterioration of endocrine function, and no neuropsychological impairment.
  • But the situation of the tumor, its relationship with third ventricle, hypothalamus, optic tract, vascular structures make its removal often difficult.
  • When total removal is impossible, radiotherapy may reduce the risk of a poor evolution.
  • Long term follow up is necessary in these patients, due to medical management of endocrine, visual and psychological problems, and risk of late recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17825241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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99. De Krijger RR, Petri BJ, Van Nederveen FH, Korpershoek E, De Herder WW, De Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Dinjens WN: Frequent genetic changes in childhood pheochromocytomas. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:166-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are rare catecholamine-producing tumors of the adrenal gland which may also occur elsewhere in the abdomen and are then called paragangliomas.
  • A proportion of PCCs occurs in hereditary cancer syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2), caused by mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, caused by VHL gene abnormalities, and the pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma (PCC-PGL) syndrome, caused by mutations in SDHB and SDHD.
  • From our single-institution collection of PCCs, we have selected 10 cases that occurred in individuals up to 18 years of age at diagnosis.
  • In these, we have performed mutation analysis on normal and tumor tissues for exons 10, 11, and 16 of RET and for the entire coding sequence of VHL, SDHB, and SDHD.
  • All tumors were benign (average follow-up: 12 years) and were located in the adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Child. DNA Primers. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1086:241. Petri, Bart-Jeroen [added]
  • (PMID = 17102083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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100. Treska V, Wirthová M, Hadravská S, Mukensnábl P, Kuntscher V, Kreuzberg B, Lisá L, Kozák K: [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia]. Zentralbl Chir; 2006 Feb;131(1):80-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Ein bilaterales Riesenmyelolipom der Nebennieren in Kombination mit kongenitaler adrenaler Hyperplasie.
  • BACKGROUND: Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor formed by mature fat tissue with strata of haematopoiesis.
  • It is usually localized in the region of the adrenal gland.
  • Myelolipomas are mostly clinically inert, only a small number of them are associated with Cushing's type of endocrine disorders, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, etc.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors present a rare case of a giant bilateral myelolipoma emerging out of the adrenal gland cortex in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a woman with pronounced virilism.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of myelolipoma and congenital disorder with subsequent overproduction of the adrenocorticotropin hormone and androgens, might be explained by the incipient of myelolipoma through chronic hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Myelolipoma / complications. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed






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