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1. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • The difference of shape, margin, the presence of a halo, internal content, and calcifications was not statistically significant (p value =0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • The use of these two markers sequentially in non-oncocytic lesions (testing HBME-1 as a second marker whenever galectin-3 proved negative) increased the sensitivity and specificity up to 97% and 95% respectively.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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3. Timmers HJ, Brouwers FM, Hermus AR, Sweep FC, Verhofstad AA, Verbeek AL, Pacak K, Lenders JW: Metastases but not cardiovascular mortality reduces life expectancy following surgical resection of apparently benign pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1127-33
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  • [Title] Metastases but not cardiovascular mortality reduces life expectancy following surgical resection of apparently benign pheochromocytoma.
  • The treatment of choice for non-metastatic pheochromocytoma is surgical resection.
  • Its goals are to abolish catecholamine hypersecretion, normalize blood pressure, and prevent further tumor growth or progression to metastatic disease.
  • We here report a retrospective study on the long-term outcome after surgery for apparently benign pheochromocytoma at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre.
  • Survival was compared with survival of a matched reference population.
  • Two patients experienced a benign recurrence. Mean+/-s.d. follow-up was 10.2+/-7.5 (median 9, range 1-38) years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality. Life Expectancy. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Pressure. Catecholamines / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18824558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
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4. Bordi C, D'Adda T, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Bottarelli L, Mormandi F, Antonetti T, Luong TV, Rindi G: Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):119-29
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  • [Title] Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors.
  • In contrast with the large amount of data generated from endocrine tumors of the pancreas, sparse and mostly unconfirmed data are available on the criteria for the assessment of malignancy risk and patient outcome in endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • In these conditions the 2000 WHO classification with its standardized scheme of pathologic report constitutes a framework facilitating the assessment of tumor malignancy and has been regarded as useful for clinical purposes, providing the basis for proper management of the patients and for the design of treatment protocols.
  • The classification is based on a combination of pathological and clinical features with parameters specific for each organ in which the endocrine tumors originate.
  • (1) well-differentiated endocrine tumors, further subdivided into tumors with benign and with uncertain behavior;.
  • (2) well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas, low grade; and (3) poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas, high grade.
  • In this review the differential tumor characteristics between the different categories are summarized.
  • Moreover, the relevance of additional features with respect to tumor prognostication, chiefly the Ki-67 proliferation index and malignancy-associated genetic changes, is discussed with emphasis on the discrepancies emerging between tumors of foregut and of midgut origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / classification. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / classification. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen. Mitotic Index. Prognosis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17159244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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5. Marrache F, Cazals-Hatem D, Kianmanesh R, Palazzo L, Couvelard A, O'Toole D, Maire F, Hammel P, Levy P, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P: Endocrine tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: a fortuitous association? Pancreas; 2005 Jul;31(1):79-83
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  • [Title] Endocrine tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: a fortuitous association?
  • OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are rare diseases of the pancreas.
  • Cases of association of endocrine and exocrine neoplasms of the pancreas have been reported, corresponding to mixed or amphicrine tumors.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative diagnosis was unspecified pancreatic tumor (n = 1), IPMN (n = 2), and association of PET and IPMN (n = 3).
  • IPMN involved the main pancreatic duct in 4 patients and was classified as benign (n = 4), borderline (n = 1), or malignant noninvasive (n = 1).
  • CONCLUSION: This study describes a new aspect of endocrine-exocrine pancreatic neoplasm association.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15968252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon
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6. Matyja E, Maksymowicz M, Grajkowska W, Olszewski W, Zieliński G, Bonicki W: Spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis - a clinicopathological and ultrastructural study of two cases. Folia Neuropathol; 2010;48(3):175-84
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  • Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) of the pituitary gland is a relatively recently established, very rare subtype of adenohypophysis tumours that was introduced as a distinct clinicopathological entity in the fourth edition of WHO classification of the central nervous system tumours (2007).
  • It is non-endocrine neoplasm of the anterior pituitary that occurs in adults and usually follows a benign clinical course, corresponding to WHO grade I.
  • The clinical and radiological features suggested non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas without evidence of invasive growth.
  • One patient presented with tumour recurrence 3 years after undergoing the previous surgical removal of tumour, which was initially misdiagnosed as schwannoma.
  • The first tumour was removed by transsphenoidal surgery and the second one by frontal craniotomy.
  • The tumour cells exhibited immunoreactivity for S-100 protein, galectin-3, vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen but they were negative for GFAP, anterior pituitary neuroendocrine markers (prolactin, growth hormone, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH), chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin CK (AE1/AE3), smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD34 and CD68.
  • Ultrastructurally, the tumour cells were rich in mitochondria with lamellar cristae.
  • Moreover, in Case 2 some tumour cells showed a number of giant mitochondria with severely destructed internal matrix.
  • It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various sellar-region lesions of oncocytic morphology.

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  • (PMID = 20925001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-572X
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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7. Blandamura S, Parenti A, Famengo B, Canesso A, Moschino P, Pasquali C, Pizzi S, Guzzardo V, Ninfo V: Three cases of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;60(3):278-82
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  • [Title] Three cases of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumour.
  • AIMS: To report three cases of serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumour in the same pancreas, to review the literature and to evaluate the clinicopathological features of the tumours.
  • RESULTS: Histological examination of the pancreas showed one serous oligocystic adenoma associated with a benign, well-differentiated endocrine tumour, one serous oligocystic adenoma associated with an endocrine microadenoma, and a von Hippel-Lindau-related cystic neoplasm with a well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serous cystadenoma associated with endocrine tumour shows some clinicopathological differences with respect to the two tumours considered separately, and with respect to von Hippel-Lindau-related cases, although there is no convincing evidence at present to justify considering this association as a separate entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / metabolism. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16644876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 32
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860571
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8. Imai Y, Taketani T, Maemura K, Takeda N, Harada T, Nojiri T, Kawanami D, Monzen K, Hayashi D, Murakawa Y, Ohno M, Hirata Y, Yamazaki T, Takamoto S, Nagai R: Genetic analysis in a patient with recurrent cardiac myxoma and endocrinopathy. Circ J; 2005 Aug;69(8):994-5
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  • A 60 year-old male was referred for treatment of a cardiac myxoma in the right atrium.
  • He had a past history of left atrial cardiac myxoma at age 49 and pituitary microadenoma related to acromegaly at age 55.
  • He did not have a family history of cardiac neoplasm or endocrinopathy.
  • The intracardiac tumor was resected and its pathology was compatible with myxoma.
  • A diagnosis of Carney complex (CNC) was made because the diagnostic criteria of this neoplastic syndrome were satisfied by the presence of recurrent cardiac myxoma, endocrine tumor and spotty skin pigmentation.
  • Although it is the most common, usually benign, cardiac tumor, myxoma can cause a critical clinical situation and thus detecting the PRKAR1A mutation can assist with prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Myxoma / genetics. Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / complications. Acromegaly / diagnosis. Acromegaly / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16041174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-9843
  • [Journal-full-title] Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Circ. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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9. Vanbeckevoort D: Solid pancreatic masses: benign or malignant. JBR-BTR; 2007 Nov-Dec;90(6):487-9
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  • [Title] Solid pancreatic masses: benign or malignant.
  • Solid masses in the pancreas mostly occur in the pancreatic head and may be related to inflammation due to chronic pancreatitis or may be caused by malignancy.
  • Ductal pancreatic carcinoma is the most common malignant pancreatic neoplasm, accounting for more than 90% of malignant solid pancreatic tumours.
  • Endocrine tumours represent only a minority of those tumours.
  • While endocrine tumours tend to exhibit symptoms earlier in the course of the disease (due to tumour-related hormone production), adenocarcinomas present in nearly all cases in advanced stages when curative resection is not feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18376761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-7430
  • [Journal-full-title] JBR-BTR : organe de la Société royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JBR-BTR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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10. DiNorcia J, Ahmed L, Lee MK, Reavey PL, Yakaitis EA, Lee JA, Schrope BA, Chabot JA, Allendorf JD: Better preservation of endocrine function after central versus distal pancreatectomy for mid-gland lesions. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1247-54; discussion 1254-6
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  • [Title] Better preservation of endocrine function after central versus distal pancreatectomy for mid-gland lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditional resections for benign and low-grade malignant neoplasms of the mid pancreas result in loss of normal parenchyma that can cause pancreatic endocrine and exocrine insufficiency.
  • CONCLUSION: CP is safe and effective for select neoplasms of the mid pancreas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Continental Population Groups. Cysts / surgery. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Diabetes Mellitus / etiology. Disease Progression. Drainage / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / classification. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Retrospective Studies. Safety. Sepsis / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21134558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL-007854-14
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Mete O, Rotstein L, Asa SL: Controversies in thyroid pathology: thyroid capsule invasion and extrathyroidal extension. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Feb;17(2):386-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION AND DESIGN: Endocrine pathologists, surgeons, and oncologists who manage patients with thyroid carcinomas confront many critical dilemmas.
  • Controversies surrounding diagnostic criteria that distinguish benign from malignant thyroid follicular lesions have been brought to the attention of this community.
  • In this article, we confront another controversy, the definition of a thyroid "capsule" to clarify what constitutes extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and its clinical significance in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our review of the anatomy of the thyroid gland confirms that this structure has no defined anatomical fibrous capsule.
  • Moreover, the presence of adipose tissue within the thyroid gland and its pseudocapsule implies that thyroid tumor within fat tissue cannot be accepted as a criterion of ETE by that thyroid carcinoma.
  • While invasion of skeletal muscle is a more reliable feature of ETE, at the isthmus, these fibers can be normally present within the gland, and this criterion does not have value.
  • [MeSH-major] Connective Tissue / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 19949881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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12. Adler JT, Meyer-Rochow GY, Chen H, Benn DE, Robinson BG, Sippel RS, Sidhu SB: Pheochromocytoma: current approaches and future directions. Oncologist; 2008 Jul;13(7):779-93
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  • Improved medical management and surgical techniques and an increased understanding of hereditary disease have improved the outcome of pheochromocytoma patients with benign disease; however, the outcome of patients with malignant disease remains poor.
  • In this review, we discuss the presentation, diagnosis, management, and future directions in the management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Pheochromocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant


13. Papi G, Rossi G, Corsello SM, Corrado S, Fadda G, Di Donato C, Pontecorvi A: Nodular disease and parafollicular C-cell distribution: results from a prospective and retrospective clinico-pathological study on the thyroid isthmus. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):137-43

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The isthmus represents a peculiar, as yet partially unexplored, thyroid gland area.
  • ii) the frequency of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arising from the isthmus; and iii) the C-cell distribution in the isthmus of patients with MTC and benign nodular thyroid disease (NTD).
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-C(t) antibodies on lateral lobes and isthmi of 50 benign NTD and 50 MTC cases.
  • All patients had the neoplasm located in lateral thyroid lobes, none in the isthmus.
  • C cells were disclosed in lateral thyroid lobes of 100% MTC and 77% benign NTD patients; isthmi were free of C cells in either group.

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  • (PMID = 19793761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Illouz F, Rodien P, Saint-André JP, Triau S, Laboureau-Soares S, Dubois S, Vielle B, Hamy A, Rohmer V: Usefulness of repeated fine-needle cytology in the follow-up of non-operated thyroid nodules. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;156(3):303-8
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  • [Title] Usefulness of repeated fine-needle cytology in the follow-up of non-operated thyroid nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: The usefulness of repeated fine-needle cytology (FNC) in thyroid nodules with benign cytology remains unknown.
  • We compared the nodules with at least one suspicious or malignant FNC (S/M nodules) with nodules with repeatedly benign (RB) FNC (RB nodules).
  • RESULTS: Among the nodules with initial benign cytology, we found 35 nodules with one or more later suspicious or malignant results.
  • The probability for a nodule to have a repeated benign FNC decreases with time and with the number of FNC.
  • We did not find any clinical or ultrasonographic characteristics related to an S/M cytology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest to repeat FNC up to three adequate samples in the follow-up of thyroid nodules so as not to miss the presence of malignant neoplasm.

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Jun;156(6):705. Antoine, Hamy [corrected to Hamy, Antoine]
  • (PMID = 17322489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Ng VW, Ma RC, So WY, Choi KC, Kong AP, Cockram CS, Chow CC: Evaluation of functional and malignant adrenal incidentalomas. Arch Intern Med; 2010 Dec 13;170(22):2017-20
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  • We undertook this study to review the clinical characteristics of patients with adrenal incidentalomas who presented to a tertiary endocrine center in Hong Kong.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of all 139 cases of adrenal incidentalomas that were referred to the Endocrine Centre of the Prince of Wales Hospital between June 1, 2000, and May 31, 2007.
  • We reviewed detailed patient history, physical examination findings, and symptoms and signs related to hormonal hypersecretion or malignant neoplasm and recorded clinical indications for performing diagnostic radiological imaging.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (43.9%) had nonfunctional benign adrenal adenomas, 52 (37.4%) had functional lesions, 15 (10.8%) had malignant adrenal lesions, and the remaining 11 (7.9%) had varying adrenal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / secretion. Catecholamines / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 21149760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3679
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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16. Korpershoek E, Stobbe CK, van Nederveen FH, de Krijger RR, Dinjens WN: Intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):653-62
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  • [Title] Intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas.
  • Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas (sPGLs) are catecholamine-producing tumors occurring in the context of hereditary tumor syndromes, with known germline mutations, and as sporadic tumors.
  • Since knowledge on intra-tumoral heterogeneity is important for understanding the pathogenesis of these tumors, we investigated 12 benign and 8 malignant PCCs and sPGLs for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on DNA extracted from different regions of each tumor and from metastases.
  • Benign tumors were found to have less intra-tumoral heterogeneity (overall 8%) than malignant tumors (overall 23%), with the highest frequencies for chromosome 1p36 in the benign tumors (17%) and 1p13 and 3q24 in malignant tumors (both 38%).
  • In addition, differences in LOH patterns were detected between paired primary malignant tumors, and their metastases and different LOH patterns were observed in bilateral PCC of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 patient.
  • We demonstrate that malignant PCC and sPGL have more intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity than benign tumors, which suggests that benign and malignant PCC and sPGL have a different pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human. Loss of Heterozygosity. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Genetic Variation. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20488782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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17. Ramuz O, Lelong B, Giovannini M, Delpero JR, Rochaix P, Xerri L, Hassoun J, Flejou JF, Monges G: "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):555-9
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  • [Title] "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies.
  • This study is the second to report a pancreatic "sugar" tumor (ST) case.
  • This ST was incidentally discovered in a 31-year-old woman using computed tomography scan (CT scan) for work-up of a hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia.
  • Both CT scan and endoluminal ultrasonography (EUS) features evoked a 15-mm large benign endocrine tumor.
  • Pathological examination of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies could not confirm this diagnosis.
  • The tumor was intrapancreatic, well circumscribed, and organized in sheets of epithelioid cells.
  • The tumor cells expressed HMB-45 but did not express epithelial or endocrine immunohistochemical markers.
  • This observation highlights that STs should be considered in preoperative differential diagnosis of pancreas tumors, since they may be treated by limited surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiomyolipoma / chemistry. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Antigens, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / complications. Humans. Laparoscopy. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Pancreatectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15821930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
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18. Brauckhoff M, Dralle H: [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands]. Chirurg; 2005 Mar;76(3):227-37
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  • [Title] [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands].
  • Repeat adrenalectomy may be required due to ipsilateral recurrence of benign or malignant adrenal tumors after previous total or subtotal adrenalectomy.
  • Even for multivisceral resection in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, complete resection of local recurrent tumor offers results similar to those of primary resection (5-year survival 40-60%).
  • In contrast, since no benefit on long-term survival has been shown so far by tumor debulking, palliative tumor resection should only be performed individually for control of severe endocrine symptoms.
  • In any case, during open or endoscopic approach, tumor spillage must be avoided to prevent local tumor cell implantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / mortality. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 15739057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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19. Korpershoek E, Loonen AJ, Corvers S, van Nederveen FH, Jonkers J, Ma X, Ziel-van der Made A, Korsten H, Trapman J, Dinjens WN, de Krijger RR: Conditional Pten knock-out mice: a model for metastatic phaeochromocytoma. J Pathol; 2009 Mar;217(4):597-604
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  • Phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) are neuro-endocrine tumours of the adrenal medulla that are usually benign, but approximately 10% of patients develop metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / secondary


20. Brouwers FM, Petricoin EF 3rd, Ksinantova L, Breza J, Rajapakse V, Ross S, Johann D, Mannelli M, Shulkin BL, Kvetnansky R, Eisenhofer G, Walther MM, Hitt BA, Conrads TP, Veenstra TD, Mannion DP, Wall MR, Wolfe GM, Fusaro VA, Liotta LA, Pacak K: Low molecular weight proteomic information distinguishes metastatic from benign pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):263-72
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  • [Title] Low molecular weight proteomic information distinguishes metastatic from benign pheochromocytoma.
  • Thus, the discovery of biomarkers that could distinguish patients with benign disease from those with metastatic disease would be of great clinical value.
  • Both approaches were able to identify combinations of LMW molecules which could distinguish all metastatic from all benign pheochromocytomas in a separate blinded validation set.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Proteome / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Weight. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proteomics

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  • (PMID = 15947101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
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21. Hutchinson CB, Canlas K, Evans JA, Obando JV, Waugh M: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of the intrapancreatic accessory spleen: a report of 2 cases. Acta Cytol; 2010 May-Jun;54(3):337-40
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  • BACKGROUND: Intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) can pose a challenge in the diagnostic workup by mimicking a pancreatic neoplasm.
  • Reports of IPAS identified by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) are scant in the literature, and increased recognition of this benign entity may reduce misdiagnosis and unnecessary surgical intervention.
  • In both cases, the cytomorphologic appearance of smears and cell blocks demonstrated aggregates of benign splenic tissue characteristic of both white and red pulp.
  • One cell block demonstrated benign splenic and pancreatic parenchyma immediately adjacent to one another without an apparent intervening capsule.
  • Definitive tissue diagnosis in these 2 cases avoided not only unnecessary surgical intervention but also the need for consideration of a "watch and wait" strategy with further imaging and possible additional biopsy attempts.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Pancreatic Diseases / diagnosis. Spleen
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20518423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers
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22. Han XN, Chen B, Ye XD, Wang J, Liu GH: [Clinical manifestation and multiphasic spiral CT scanning features of abdominal pheochromocytoma: report of 70 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;31(2):139-42
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  • RESULTS: Among the 70 patients, there were 41 patients with endocrine symptoms related to pheochromocytoma, 15 had a latent pheochromocytoma and the remaining 14 cases presented with a non-functioning pheochromocytoma.
  • Sixty cases had a tumor located in the adrenal gland, while 8 in retroperitoneal space, and 2 cases had both intraadrenal and ectopic lesions simultaneously.
  • Sixty patients had a benign pheochromocytoma, the other 10 had a malignant one or relapse after operation.
  • The average size of the tumor was 5.8 cm (range, 2 approximately 15 cm in the longest diameter).
  • CONCLUSION: Approximately half of the abdominal pheochromocytomas are lack of endocrine symptoms related with their tumors.
  • However, they may display some typical CT characteristics, such as that a small lesion is often homogeneous but hypervascular, a larger tumor may present hemorrhage, necrosis, and cystic change with rich or moderate blood supply.
  • However, when a small tumor has moderate blood supply, it should be differentiated with an adrenal adenoma; when a big one has moderate blood supply, it should be differentiated with other malignant tumors.
  • Furthermore, a part of malignant pheochromocytomas is really difficult to be differentiated from some benign lesions by spiral CT images alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19538893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Zhang YW, Greenblatt DY, Repplinger D, Bargren A, Adler JT, Sippel RS, Chen H: Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2842-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) are rare tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Medical records of 55 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid resections for the preoperative diagnosis of HCN were reviewed.
  • All HCNs less than 2 cm in diameter were benign.
  • One patient with HCC had recurrence of the disease, but there were no disease-related deaths.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18665423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS778770; NLM/ PMC4852735
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24. Cheema Y, Olson S, Elson D, Chen H: What is the biology and optimal treatment for papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid? J Surg Res; 2006 Aug;134(2):160-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid, defined as tumors measuring < or =10 mm, are believed to be a less aggressive subset of papillary cancers that behave more like benign lesions and are often more conservatively treated.
  • METHODS: From May 1994 to October 2004, 184 patients underwent thyroid surgery at the University of Wisconsin and had papillary thyroid cancer present in the resected gland.
  • Of these patients, 10 were excluded because there was no record of tumor size.
  • The mean tumor size was 5.7 +/- 0.38 mm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16780882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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25. Agarwal A, Mehrotra PK, Jain M, Gupta SK, Mishra A, Chand G, Agarwal G, Verma AK, Mishra SK, Singh U: Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy? World J Surg; 2010 Dec;34(12):3022-8
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  • [Title] Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy?
  • The goal of this study was to find a correlation between the tumor size and malignant potential of PCC and determine whether the "Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score" (PASS) proposed by Thompson can be applied to predict malignancy.
  • Tumor size was available for 90 tumors.
  • RESULTS: Of the benign cases, none developed recurrence or metastasis.
  • Of the sporadic benign cases, 21 (41%) patients with tumor size > 6 cm had a PASS of >4, and none of them developed metastasis.
  • No correlation was found between tumor size and PASS > 4 and PASS ≤ 4 (7.8 cm vs. 7.1 cm; p = 0.23).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20703467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Waldmann J, Fendrich V, Holler J, Buchholz M, Heinmöller E, Langer P, Ramaswamy A, Samans B, Walz MK, Rothmund M, Bartsch DK, Slater EP: Microarray analysis reveals differential expression of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):743-56
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  • [Title] Microarray analysis reveals differential expression of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • The diagnosis of a malignant pheochromocytoma (PC) can only be established by the presence of distant metastases, but a subset of apparently benign PCs develop metastases.
  • We have employed a microarray analysis to identify a typical gene expression profile which distinguishes malignant from benign PC.
  • Total RNA was isolated from fresh-frozen tissue of five benign and five malignant PCs.
  • The analysis revealed a more than twofold difference in expression between benign and malignant PCs in 132 genes: 19 were up-regulated and 113 were down-regulated.
  • Comparative analysis by microarray of all ten PCs (benign/malignant) versus normal adrenal medulla revealed a more than twofold expression difference in 455/539 and 491/671 genes respectively.
  • Several of these genes are known to participate on adrenal tumorigenesis, potential tumor suppressor genes, and oncogenes.
  • Comprehensive gene expression analysis of malignant and benign PCs revealed different gene profiles, which could be used to discriminate between malignant and benign PCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult


27. Owston MA, Ramsay EC, Rotstein DS: Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003. J Zoo Wildl Med; 2008 Dec;39(4):608-13

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  • [Title] Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003.
  • A review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (Panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (Panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (Panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (Panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (Panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (Felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (Felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, female).
  • Neoplasia rate at necropsy was 51% (24/47), and overall incidence of felid neoplasia during the study period was 25% (26/103).
  • Neoplasia was identified as the cause of death or reason for euthanasia in 28% (13/47) of those necropsied.
  • Neoplasms were observed in the integumentary-mammary (n=11), endocrine (n=10), reproductive (n=8), hematopoietic-lymphoreticular (n=5), digestive (n=3), and hepatobiliary (n=2) systems.
  • One neoplasm was unclassified by system.
  • Multiple neoplasms were observed in 11 animals.
  • Both benign and malignant neoplasms were observed in all systems except for the hematopoietic-lymphoreticular systems where all processes were malignant.
  • Of the endocrine neoplasms, those involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands predominated (n=8) over other endocrine organs and included adenomas and carcinomas.
  • In the integumentary system, 63% (7/11) of neoplasms involved the mammary gland, with mammary carcinoma representing 83% (6/7) of the neoplasms.
  • The rates of neoplasia at this institution, during the given time period, appears to be greater than rates found in the one other published survey of captive felids.
  • [MeSH-major] Felidae. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19110704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-7260
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Mathur A, Weng J, Moses W, Steinberg SM, Rahbari R, Kitano M, Khanafshar E, Ljung BM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1170-6; discussion 1176-7
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • METHODS: Clinical, tumor genotyping for common somatic mutations (BRAF V600E, NRAS, KRAS, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and NTRK1), and the gene expression levels of 6 candidate diagnostic markers were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods in 341 patients to determine whether they could distinguish reliably benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms, and a scoring model was derived.
  • RESULTS: By a multivariate analysis, fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology classification, the presence of a NRAS mutation, and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression level were associated jointly with malignancy.
  • The overall accuracy of the scoring model, including these 3 variables, to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid tumors was 91%, including 67% for the indeterminate and 77% for the suspicious FNA subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Ethnic Groups. Female. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Male. Medical History Taking. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Mutation. Prospective Studies. RNA / genetics. RNA / isolation & purification. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Published by Mosby, Inc.
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  • [ErratumIn] Surgery. 2012 Feb;151(2):343. Rahabari, Reza [corrected to Rahbari, Reza]
  • (PMID = 21134548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS240002; NLM/ PMC3052943
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29. Uehara H, Tatsumi K, Masuda E, Kato M, Kizu T, Ishida T, Takakura R, Takano Y, Nakaizumi A, Ishikawa O, Takenaka A: Scraping cytology with a guidewire for pancreatic-ductal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 Jul;70(1):52-9
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  • Conventional procedures for acquisition of a specimen for cytology during ERCP have been limited in their ability to discriminate pancreatic-ductal strictures.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients with pancreatic-ductal strictures composed of 71 malignant and 15 benign diseases were evaluated.
  • Malignant diseases included 70 pancreatic carcinomas and 1 endocrine tumor; benign diseases included the following: 7 chronic pancreatitis, 3 autoimmune pancreatitis, 3 idiopathic pancreatic-ductal strictures, and 2 pancreatic cysts.
  • Sensitivities for pancreatic carcinoma with a tumor of <20 mm, 21 to 40 mm, 41 to 60 mm, and >61 mm were 95%, 92%, 100%, and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign or malignant pancreatic-ductal strictures were accurately discriminated by scraping cytology with a guidewire during ERCP.
  • The technique yielded high diagnostic sensitivities in pancreatic carcinoma, regardless of the location or size of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19249043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Kotzampassakis N, Maweja S, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Surgical management of adrenal tumours. Lessons from a 10 years personal experience. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 Apr;105(2):156-60
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  • The lesions resected were preoperatively considered non-secreting in 47 cases (45%) and hormonally active in 58 cases (55%).
  • In 78 patients (80%), LA was performed and 84 adrenal glands were resected.
  • In 19 patients (20%), OA was considered the best modality of resection and 21 adrenal glands were resected.
  • The average tumour size was 37.2 mm (range 25-90) in LA group and 82.6 mm (30-260) in the OA group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, trans-peritoneal LA proved to be a safe and reliable procedure for benign adrenal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Belgium. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Laparotomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15906906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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31. Perrier ND, Kennamer DL, Bao R, Jimenez C, Grubbs EG, Lee JE, Evans DB: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases. Ann Surg; 2008 Oct;248(4):666-74
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  • [Title] Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) is a minimally invasive approach to removal of the adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The prospective endocrine surgery database at a tertiary care center was used to capture all patients who underwent PRA between October 2005 and February 2008.
  • Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm.
  • PRA may be the preferred technique for removing benign adrenal tumors and isolated metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Retroperitoneal Space / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18936580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Lew JI, Solorzano CC: Use of ultrasound in the management of thyroid cancer. Oncologist; 2010;15(3):253-8
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  • Since the late 1960s, ultrasound has become essential in the examination of the thyroid gland with the increased availability of high-frequency linear array transducers and computer-enhanced imaging capabilities of modern day portable ultrasound equipment in a clinic- or office-based setting.
  • Ultrasound has become useful in the qualitative characterization of thyroid nodules based on benign or malignant features.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20215358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227957
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33. Strong VE, Kennedy T, Al-Ahmadie H, Tang L, Coleman J, Fong Y, Brennan M, Ghossein RA: Prognostic indicators of malignancy in adrenal pheochromocytomas: clinical, histopathologic, and cell cycle/apoptosis gene expression analysis. Surgery; 2008 Jun;143(6):759-68
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  • The histologic differentiation between benign and malignant tumors is difficult, the latter diagnosed by the presence of metastatic disease or recurrence.
  • AIM: To determine if postoperative histologic evaluation using the previously proposed Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and cell cycle/apoptosis markers can predict patients at risk for recurrence.
  • A senior endocrine pathologist, blinded to clinical outcome, reviewed the histopathologic characteristics of all cases using the PASS system.
  • This pheochromocytoma scoring system is based on the presence of 12 different histologic parameters, including tumor necrosis, mitotic rate, tumor cell spindling, and the presence of large cell nests.
  • In addition, we constructed a tissue microarray of all 5 malignant tumors and 41 of the benign tumors.
  • By immunostaining of the tissue microarray, we assessed the expression of 7 different cell cycle/apoptosis-related genes (p53, Ki-67, Bcl-2, mdm-2, cyclin D1, p21, and p27).
  • RESULTS: Forty-three patients had a benign clinical course while 5 patients harbored a clinically malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • Tumor necrosis (focal or confluent) was a particularly powerful indicator of malignancy present in 4 of 5 patients (80%) with malignant tumors, but only in 3 of 42 cases (7%) with benign neoplasms (P = .0009).
  • The presence of a high mitotic rate (>3/10 high power fields) and tumor cell spindling significantly correlated with malignancy (P = .026 and .041, respectively).
  • There was a highly significant difference in PASS scores between benign and malignant cases (P = .0003).
  • Ki-67-positive tumor had a significantly higher chance of harboring tumor necrosis than Ki-67-negative neoplasms (P < .01).
  • There was no difference in staining between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas using p53, Bcl-2, mdm-2, cyclin D1, p21, and p27. CONCLUSIONS:.
  • (1) A PASS score of <4 predicted benign pheochromocytomas. (2) All malignant pheochromocytomas had a PASS score >/=6, which was significantly higher compared with the benign lesions.
  • Ki-67 may help identify those neoplasms at risk for recurrence by prompting the pathologist to look aggressively for adverse histologic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Apoptosis. Cell Cycle. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis / diagnosis. Necrosis / genetics. Necrosis / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Single-Blind Method


34. Blanes A, Sanchez-Carrillo JJ, Diaz-Cano SJ: Topographic molecular profile of pheochromocytomas: role of somatic down-regulation of mismatch repair. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1150-8
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  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Microdissected samples from the peripheral and internal zones of 143 pheochromocytomas from a referral hospital (95 sporadic and 48 associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A) were selected for loss of heterozygosity and single nucleotide polymorphism analyses.
  • PATIENTS, OUTCOME MEASURES, AND INTERVENTIONS: Pheochromocytomas were classified as malignant (16 sporadic tumors with distant metastases), locally invasive (30 sporadic tumors showing retroperitoneal infiltration only), and benign (all remaining tumors).
  • More genetic abnormalities involving the peripheral compartment were revealed in 34 pheochromocytomas (23.8%): 12 of 16 malignant, 10 of 30 locally invasive, and 12 of 97 benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Base Pair Mismatch / genetics. DNA Repair / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Satellite / genetics. Genes, p53. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16394087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Satellite; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein
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35. Imachi H, Murao K, Yoshimoto T, Sugimoto M, Kakehi Y, Hayashi T, Kushida Y, Haba R, Tahara R, Ishida T: Idiopathic unilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an elderly patient. Endocrine; 2010 Apr;37(2):249-52
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  • The patient was admitted to our hospital for the evaluation of a right adrenal tumor (size, 10 × 9 cm²).
  • The final pathological diagnosis was simply idiopathic adrenal hematoma.
  • It is important to distinguish this benign lesion from a neoplasm and to consider idiopathic AH in an adrenal tumor during differential diagnosis in elderly patients who have not received anticoagulation therapy or suffered from trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Hematoma / diagnostic imaging. Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging. Hypertension / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 20960259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Barroeta JE, Wang H, Shiina N, Gupta PK, Livolsi VA, Baloch ZW: Is fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of multiple thyroid nodules justified? Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(1):61-5
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  • Subsequent information regarding the histological diagnosis was obtained in the cases that underwent surgical excision.
  • The FNA specimens were diagnosed as benign (n = 1,663, 51%), neoplasm (n = 880, 27%), suspicious for neoplasm or papillary carcinoma (n = 234, 7%), malignant (n = 187, 6%), and non-diagnostic (n = 310, 9%).
  • The surgical pathology diagnosis was benign in 656 nodules (52%) and malignant in 596 nodules (48%).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16760581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Montone KT, Rosen M, Siegelman ES, Fogt F, Livolsi VA: Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):128-33

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  • [Title] Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present pathologic and radiographic features of 3 patients with adrenocortical neoplasms-2 with uncertain malignant potential and 1 adenoma with areas of myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia.
  • METHODS: We describe 3 patients who had adrenocortical neoplasms with foci of myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia.
  • The lesion size averaged 6.8 cm (range, 3.9 to 11.0), and the mean gland weight was 128.8 g (range, 32.5 to 249).
  • Pathologically, 2 of the lesions were classified as adrenocortical neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, and 1 lesion was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • All 3 lesions contained myelolipomatous foci throughout the neoplasm, and 2 of the tumors contained several pure lipomatous foci.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenocortical neoplasms, including those associated with an uncertain malignant potential, may be associated with areas of myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia.
  • Imaging studies may result in a false diagnosis of a benign adrenal myelolipoma and potential undertreatment in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19289323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Luo Z, Li J, Qin Y, Ma Y, Liang X, Xian J, Lu D, Wei M, Yang JY, Yang MQ, He Z: Differential expression of human telomerase catalytic subunit mRNA by in situ hybridization in pheochromocytomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):387-98
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  • We investigated the expression of human telomerase catalytic component (hTERT) mRNA, hTERT protein, Ki-67 antigen, and p27kip1 in pheochromocytomas (27 benign, 7 suspected malignant, and 7 malignant), and evaluated the possibility of expressions of these proteins, and hTERT mRNA serve as diagnostic markers for predicting the biological behavior of these tumors.
  • By in situ hybridization, hTERT mRNA was expressed in 5/7 malignant tumors (defined as the presence of metastasis and/or extensive local invasion) as compared with 3/27 benign tumors.
  • All benign tumors exhibited no immunopositivity or <1% of cells stained for Ki-67 antigen.
  • While no statistical difference in p27kip1 expressions was observed among benign, malignant, and suspected malignant tumors, there was a statistical difference between the normal adrenal medulla samples and tumors (p < 0.001).
  • Thus, hTERT mRNA detection by in situ hybridization, hTERT expression, and Ki-67 antigen expression are all useful tools for differentiating malignant from benign pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Telomerase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17525487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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39. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
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  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • RESULTS: In pathological examination benign pheochromo-cytoma was diagnosed in 39 presented patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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40. Kariya Y, Moriya T, Suzuki T, Chiba M, Ishida K, Takeyama J, Endoh M, Watanabe M, Sasano H: Sex steroid hormone receptors in human skin appendage and its neoplasms. Endocr J; 2005 Jun;52(3):317-25
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  • [Title] Sex steroid hormone receptors in human skin appendage and its neoplasms.
  • Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized sex steroid receptor protein (estrogen receptor (ER)alpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR)A, PRB and androgen receptor (AR)) in 23 cases of non-pathological skin (male: 10, female: 13) and in 50 cases of skin adnexal tumors (male 24, female 26; 38 benign and 12 malignant).
  • ERalpha immunoreactivity was detected exclusively in basal cells of sebaceous glands of non-pathological skin.
  • AR and PRB immunoreactivity was detected in both differentiated and basal cells of sebaceous gland.
  • AR and ERbeta immunoreactivity was also detected in sebaceous and eccrine sweat glands but not in outer root sheath of hair follicles.
  • In sebaceous gland neoplasms, the number of ERalpha positive cases was significantly lower in skin appendage neoplasms than non-pathological skin.
  • ERbeta immunoreactivity was not detected in any of sebaceous gland neoplasms examined.
  • There were no significant differences in PRA, PRB and AR immunoreactivity between non-pathological sebaceous gland and its neoplasm.
  • In sweat gland neoplasms, the number of AR positive cases was significantly lower in benign neoplasms than their non-pathological counterpart.
  • Therefore sex steroids are considered to play important roles in regulation of non-pathological skin appendage function and pathogenesis and/or development of its neoplasm.
  • In addition, the status of the great majority of sex steroid hormone receptors was maintained throughout the process of neoplastic transformation of skin appendages, except for AR and ERalpha in sweat and sebaceous gland neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16006726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / progesterone receptor A; 0 / progesterone receptor B
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41. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • SUMMARY: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Endocrine Unit in May 2009 due to the incidental discovery of a large left thyroid lobe nodule by a computed tomography study.
  • This had been performed to search for a primitive tumor in a patient with bone metastasis.
  • Histological analysis of the surgical specimen led to a diagnosis of Burkitt-like large B-cell lymphoma harbored within a thyroid adenoma.
  • After further staging, the final diagnosis was stage IV E Burkitt-like lymphoma with the involvement of the bone and the thyroid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of the thyroid gland by Burkitt-like lymphoma is extremely rare as is close localization of malignancy and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • As highlighted by the present report, performing fine-needle aspiration cytology should be always considered in the clinical context of a metastatic disease of unknown origin or when there are ultrasonography signs suggesting malignancy, even when the nodule is hyperfunctioning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Male. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Technetium. Vincristine / therapeutic use

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Thyroid Lymphoma.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DEXAMETHASONE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VINCRISTINE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHIMAZOLE .
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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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