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1. Cai JP, Randall B: HMB-45 expression in a clear cell variant of atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Feb;33(2):186-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] J Cutan Pathol. 2004 Mar;31(3):284-6 [14984584.001]
  • (PMID = 16420318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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2. Sargenti-Neto S, Brazão-Silva MT, do Nascimento Souza KC, de Faria PR, Durighetto-Júnior AF, Loyola AM, Cardoso SV: Multicentric granular cell tumor: report of a patient with oral and cutaneous lesions. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Jan;47(1):62-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multicentric granular cell tumor: report of a patient with oral and cutaneous lesions.
  • Granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon benign neoplasm of soft tissue that characteristically affects the oral cavity, with increased frequency in the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Lip Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Perineum / pathology. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18976838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1940
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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3. Sharma BK, Manglik V, Elias EG: Immuno-expression of human melanoma stem cell markers in tissues at different stages of the disease. J Surg Res; 2010 Sep;163(1):e11-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Human cutaneous melanoma can be one of the most aggressive tumors and is extremely resistant to all current therapeutic modalities.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-micron sections from paraffin blocks from primary melanoma, lymph node (LN) metastases, distant metastases, benign nevi from non-melanoma patients (NMP), and patients with past history of melanoma (MP) were IHC stained with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the four stem cell markers.
  • RESULTS: Overexpression of CD133+ was noted in tissues from LN and distant metastases compared to benign nevi (P < 0.0022, P < 0.013, respectively).
  • Overexpression of ABCB5+ was observed comparing primary melanoma, LN, and distant metastases to benign nevi from NMP (P < 0.0063, P < 0.001, P < 0.00058, respectively).
  • Significant overexpression of ABCB5+ was noted in tissues from LN and distant metastases compared with benign nevi from MP (P < 0.0003, P < 0.0068).
  • None of the benign nevi of NMP demonstrated ABCB5+.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly shows the existence of a distinct hyperpolarized population of stem cells and may implicate genetic factors in human cutaneous melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Disease Progression. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism. Skin / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20638684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCB5 protein, human; 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Peptides
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4. Mourmouras V, Falzarano SM, Malagnino V, Miracco C: Compound melanocytic nevus associated with dermatofibroma: an additional case. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):736-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17696924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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5. Cribier B, Worret WI, Braun-Falco M, Peltre B, Langbein L, Schweizer J: Expression patterns of hair and epithelial keratins and transcription factors HOXC13, LEF1, and beta-catenin in a malignant pilomatricoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):1-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that benign pilomatricomas not only maintain the sequential expression of the hair matrix and precortex keratins hHa5 and hHa1 of normal hair follicles in their transitional cell compartment, but also preserve the association of hHa5 expression with that of its regulatory homeoprotein HOXC13 in the lower transitional cell compartment.
  • METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin sections of the tumor were examined using a panel of mono- and polyclonal hair and epithelial keratin antibodies as well as antibodies against HOXC13, LEF1, and beta-catenin.
  • RESULTS: Morphologically, the malignant pilomatricoma investigated here clearly deviated from the described major tumor type by a large number of differently sized parakeratotic squamoid whorls emerging within the mass of basaloid cells and surrounded by cells remembering transitional cells, but only rarely containing shadow cells and signs of calcification.
  • We show that hHa5/HOXC13 co-expression was maintained in transitional cell areas, in which hHa1 expression was much stronger than in benign pilomatricomas, but again uncoupled from concomitant nuclear LEF1/beta-catenin expression.
  • Surprisingly, however, and in clear contrast to benign pilomatricomas, these transitional cells co-expressed the epithelial keratins K5, K14, and K17, with the latter being as strongly expressed as hHa1, both also staining the entire inner mass of the parakeratotic whorls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although the malignant pilomatricoma investigated here was distinctive in that it contained a multitude of parakeratinizing whorls and no signs of calcification, it shared both hHa5/HOXC13 co-expression and disrupted hHa1/beta-catenin-LEF1 expression in its transitional cell compartment around the whorls with benign pilomatricomas.
  • However, in clear contrast to the latter, transitional cells of the malignant tumor also strongly expressed the epithelial keratins K5, K14, and K17.
  • We speculate that the observed dominance of the epithelial differentiation pathway over the competing conventional shadow cell differentiation pathway may prevent massive calcification of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair / metabolism. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Pilomatrixoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1 / metabolism. Male. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16441405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / HOXC13 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / LEF1 protein, human; 0 / Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / beta Catenin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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6. González-Vela MC, Val-Bernal JF, Martino M, González-López MA, García-Alberdi E, Hermana S: Sclerotic fibroma-like dermatofibroma: an uncommon distinctive variant of dermatofibroma. Histol Histopathol; 2005 07;20(3):801-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Dermatofibroma (DF) is a common benign cutaneous tumor with many variants based on alterations in the morphology and composition of its diverse elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15944929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, CD99; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Vimentin
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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7. Abalo-Lojo JM, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Gonzalez F: Pilomatrixoma: late onset in two periocular cases. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Jan-Feb;24(1):60-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • First described by Malherbe and Chenantais in 1880, pilomatrixoma is a benign skin neoplasm that arises from hair follicle matrix cells.
  • It is typically a tumor of younger individuals and rarely presents in older patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18209650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Reis RM, Reis-Filho JS, Longatto Filho A, Tomarev S, Silva P, Lopes JM: Differential Prox-1 and CD 31 expression in mucousae, cutaneous and soft tissue vascular lesions and tumors. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;201(12):771-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential Prox-1 and CD 31 expression in mucousae, cutaneous and soft tissue vascular lesions and tumors.
  • The study of lymphatic vessels and lymphatic tumors has been hampered with difficulty due to the overlapping morphological features between blood and lymphatic endothelial cells, as well as to the lack of specific lymphatic endothelial markers.
  • Here, we describe a double-immunostaining strategy for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues that aims at evaluating the distribution of Prox-1 and CD 31 - a cytoplasmic pan-endothelial marker - in a series of 28 mucousae, cutaneous and soft tissue vascular lesions and tumors, including hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, lymphangiectasia, and Kaposi's sarcomas.
  • Our results showed that in non-lesional mucousae and skin, Prox-1 decorated exclusively the nuclei of endothelial cells in lymphatic vessels.
  • Prox-1 stained almost all the benign lymphatic vascular lesions/tumors (91%) and was absent or only focally positive in 75% of blood vascular tumors.
  • CD 31 stained endothelial cells of blood vessels of superficial and deep dermal plexuses, lymphatics, and all blood vascular lesions/tumors.
  • In conclusion, although Prox-1 expression in vascular lesions/tumors was not entirely restricted to tumors with known lymphatic differentiation, CD 31/Prox-1 double-immunolabeling can be used as an adjunct marker to identify lymphatic vessels in routinely processed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Mucous Membrane / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hemangioma / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lymphangioma / metabolism. Lymphatic Vessels / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16308102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein
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9. von Euler H, Sadeghi A, Carlsson B, Rivera P, Loskog A, Segall T, Korsgren O, Tötterman TH: Efficient adenovector CD40 ligand immunotherapy of canine malignant melanoma. J Immunother; 2008 May;31(4):377-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cutaneous canine melanomas are usually benign in contrast to human malignant melanoma.
  • However, the canine oropharyngeal, uveal, and mucocutaneous neoplasms are aggressive and have metastatic potential.
  • After treatment, the tumor tissue was infiltrated with T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes suggesting immune activation.
  • One hundred and twenty days after start of gene therapy and 60 days after the last injection, the tumor had regressed dramatically, and the dog had a minimal tumor mass and no signs of progression or metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] CD40 Ligand / immunology. CD40 Ligand / therapeutic use. Conjunctival Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / therapy. Immunotherapy, Active. Melanoma / veterinary. Mouth Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18391758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-9557
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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10. Dorić M, Radović S, Kuskunović S, Hukić A, Babić M, Tomić I, Selak I: Dermal squamomelano-cytic tumor: neoplasm of uncertain biological potential. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2008 May;8(2):152-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermal squamomelano-cytic tumor: neoplasm of uncertain biological potential.
  • We report a case of exceedingly rare cutaneous neoplasm with histological features of malignancy and uncertain biological potential.
  • The nodular, darkly pigmented facial tumor with central exulceration, size 12 x 10 x 7 mm, of the skin 61-year-old man preauricular left was completely exised.
  • Histologically tumor consists of atypical squamous cells, which express signs of moderate to significant pleomorphism, mitotically active, with foci forming of parakeratotic horn cysts ("pearls").
  • Characteristically tumor also consists of large number of atypical melanocytes with multifocal pattern, inserted between atypical squamous cells, and which contain large amount of dark brown pigment melanin.
  • The follow-up time of four years no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, similar all reported cases, but it is too short period in estimation to guarantee a benign course.
  • However, it appears that this group of neoplasm may have different prognosis from pure squamous carcinoma or malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Dermatology. 1997;194(4):378-9 [9252769.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2004 Oct;28(10):1393-6 [15371958.001]
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  • [Cites] Hum Pathol. 1999 May;30(5):525-9 [10333221.001]
  • (PMID = 18498266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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11. Demirseren ME, Afandiyev K, Ceran C: Reconstruction of the perioral and perinasal defects with facial artery perforator flaps. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2009 Dec;62(12):1616-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Twelve clinical cases with 14 perioral and perinasal skin defects resulting from malignant or benign skin tumour excision were reconstructed using facial artery perforator flaps.
  • The donor-site scars were designed parallel to the facial wrinkles when possible.
  • The aesthetically pleasing donor site based on the facial artery perforators offers a versatile tailor-made flap, because of the reliable presence of perforators, with a large arc of rotation.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Esthetics. Face / blood supply. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome


12. Emanuel PO, Phelps RG, Mudgil A, Shafir M, Burstein DE: Immunohistochemical detection of XIAP in melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Mar;35(3):292-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma for whom clinical follow up was available were identified from the records of the Mount Sinai Hospital, comprising 37 thin melanomas (Breslow thickness < 1.0 mm) and 30 thick melanomas (Breslow thickness > 1.0 mm).
  • RESULTS: Six benign intradermal nevi and four in situ melanomas were XIAP negative.
  • These results suggest that XIAP elevation may be correlated with increasing melanoma thickness and tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18251743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; 0 / XIAP protein, human
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13. Barroca H, Farinha NJ, Lobo A, Monteiro J, Lopes JM: Deep-seated congenital juvenile xanthogranuloma: report of a case with emphasis on cytologic features. Acta Cytol; 2007 May-Jun;51(3):473-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare, benign non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis that usually occurs in the head, neck or upper trunk of neonates and young children.
  • Lesions appear most frequently as solitary cutaneous nodule, but in 12% of cases they are multiple and in 5%, subcutaneous or deep-seated.
  • The lesions usually resolve spontaneously within 3 years of diagnosis.
  • Complete reexcision was performed 2 months later after regrowth of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


14. Lee JY, Lin MH: Pigmented malignant hidroacanthoma simplex mimicking irritated seborrheic keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Oct;33(10):705-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 71-year-old-woman presented with a well-demarcated pigmented hyperkeratotic tumor on the right knee resembling irritated seborrheic keratosis.
  • Histopathologic examination of the excised tumor revealed intraepidermal proliferation of atypical polygonal poroid cells forming large, sharply demarcated nests with colonization of dendritic melanocytes.
  • In addition, there were focal changes of a benign pigmented HS and syringofibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17026524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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15. Merritt BG, Snow SN, Longley BJ: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, infiltrative/morpheaform BCC, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma: differentiation by immunohistochemistry and determining the need for Mohs micrographic surgery. Cutis; 2010 May;85(5):254-8
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  • Several important cutaneous neoplasms present with basaloid cells in the dermis.
  • Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE), infiltrative/morpheaform basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) are tumors in this category that may be difficult to differentiate, especially when evaluating thin biopsy specimens.
  • An accurate diagnosis has important clinical implications.
  • While DTE is a benign neoplasm with indolent behavior, infiltrative/morpheaform BCC and MAC can be highly aggressive, leading to substantial local destruction and potential metastasis.
  • We present a patient with an unusual tumor demonstrating basaloid cells in the dermis and discuss the diagnostic approach for these lesions, emphasizing the potential role of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) in determining the need for Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20. Male. Middle Aged. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 20540416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-20
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16. dos Santos VM, de Vasconcelos RA, de Paula FH, Alves Tubino PV, Turra TZ, Gagliardi Castilho I: Coexistence of prostate cancer, gynecomastia, renal failure, melanonychia, and wrist lump. Arch Iran Med; 2009 Sep;12(5):503-6
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  • Although prostate cancer is among the most frequent malignancies in the elderly, this tumor may be under-reported, and it seems that its socioeconomic burden is not well-estimated.
  • Chronic urinary obstruction caused by the cancer may cause renal failure, with hemorrhagic tendency, neurologic disturbances, cutaneous disorders, and diverse fingernail changes.
  • Black or brown nail pigmentation has been associated with benign and malignant conditions, including antineoplastic drugs' side effects, subungual metastases, and melanoma.
  • It is recommended to consider the differential diagnosis of nail changes due to chronic renal failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Gynecomastia / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Nail Diseases / etiology. Pigmentation Disorders / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Wrist / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


17. Bachmann IM, Straume O, Puntervoll HE, Kalvenes MB, Akslen LA: Importance of P-cadherin, beta-catenin, and Wnt5a/frizzled for progression of melanocytic tumors and prognosis in cutaneous melanoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 15;11(24 Pt 1):8606-14
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  • [Title] Importance of P-cadherin, beta-catenin, and Wnt5a/frizzled for progression of melanocytic tumors and prognosis in cutaneous melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: It has been proposed that melanoma cells shift from E-cadherin to N-cadherin expression during tumor development, and recent gene profiling has shown increased expression of Wnt5a/Frizzled in aggressive melanomas possibly by interactions with beta-catenin.
  • We therefore wanted to investigate the role of cadherin subtypes, beta-catenin, and Wnt5a/Frizzled in melanocytic tumors, with focus on prognosis in nodular melanomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, P-cadherin, beta-catenin, and Wnt5a/Frizzled was examined using tissue microarrays of 312 melanocytic tumors.
  • RESULTS: Cytoplasmic expression of P-cadherin was associated with increasing tumor thickness (P=0.005) and level of invasion (P=0.019), whereas membranous staining was associated with thinner (P=0.012) and more superficial (P=0.018) tumors.
  • Lack of nuclear beta-catenin expression was related to increased tumor thickness (P=0.002) and poor patient survival in univariate (P=0.0072) and multivariate (P=0.004) analyses.
  • Membranous expression of N-cadherin was significantly increased from primary tumors to metastatic lesions, whereas E-cadherin staining tended to be decreased.
  • Wnt5a and its receptor Frizzled were highly coexpressed, and nuclear expression of both markers was significantly reduced from benign nevi to melanomas, with a shift from nuclear to cytoplasmic expression in malignant tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in the expression and subcellular localization of cell adhesion markers are important in the development and progression of melanocytic tumors, and strong cytoplasmic P-cadherin expression and loss of nuclear beta-catenin staining were associated with aggressive melanoma behavior and reduced patient survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Melanoma / mortality. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Membrane / chemistry. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Frizzled Receptors. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Nevus / diagnosis. Nevus / pathology. Prognosis. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled. Receptors, Neurotransmitter / analysis. Receptors, Neurotransmitter / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16361544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / FZD5 protein, human; 0 / Frizzled Receptors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neurotransmitter; 0 / WNT5A protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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18. Cooper JZ, Newman SR, Scott GA, Brown MD: Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma (cutaneous malignant histiocytoma): report of five cases. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Feb;31(2):221-5; discussion 225
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  • [Title] Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma (cutaneous malignant histiocytoma): report of five cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an unusual malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor of sun-damaged skin.
  • When first described, it was felt to be a reactive tumor of low malignant potential.
  • More recently, it has been shown to be a tumor of intermediate malignant potential.
  • Also, three of the five cases had other aggressive cutaneous malignancies.
  • LN-2 (CD74) staining was positive in three of five primary tumors and two of five metastatic tumors.
  • LN-2 staining may be a useful marker in identifying more aggressive tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Face / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Scalp / pathology. Upper Extremity / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15762219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Schöttler L, Körber A, Denisjuk N, Freise J, Dissemond J: [Malignant melanoma masquerading as a neurotrophic ulcer]. Med Klin (Munich); 2009 Sep 15;104(9):723-6
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  • After diagnosis and exclusion of metastases, a phase-adapted complete excision was carried out.
  • CONCLUSION: Malignant melanoma is a primary cutaneous malignant tumor.
  • Its thickness at the time of the initial diagnosis is crucial to the prognosis.
  • Ulcerated and amelanotic melanomas still present a considerable clinical challenge due to the likelihood of being mistaken for benign diseases and the occurrence of filiae when diagnosis is made too late.
  • This case report demonstrates the importance of differential diagnostic consideration of neoplasias, for example malignant melanoma, in cases of unclear, therapy-refractory wounds and discusses the relevant aspects in avoiding an unnecessary prolongation of diagnostics.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetic Foot / diagnosis. Diabetic Nephropathies / diagnosis. Heel. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Interferons / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2002 Apr;146 Suppl 61:24-30 [11966729.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatology. 2003;206(2):76-7 [12592070.001]
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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2005 Feb 1;103(3):616-24 [15630700.001]
  • (PMID = 19779677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-6722
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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20. Staibano S, Pepe S, Lo Muzio L, Somma P, Mascolo M, Argenziano G, Scalvenzi M, Salvatore G, Fabbrocini G, Molea G, Bianco AR, Carlomagno C, De Rosa G: Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 expression in malignant melanomas from photoexposed areas of the head and neck region. Hum Pathol; 2005 Jul;36(7):724-31
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  • The results were correlated with tumor thickness and patient's outcome.
  • Fifteen cases of benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls.
  • A significant correlation was present between PARP-1 expression in vertical growth phase and the thickness of tumor lesion (P = .014); all but one tumor measuring less than 0.75 mm showed no or low PARP-1 expression.
  • No correlation was found between PARP-1 expression in radial growth phase and tumor thickness (P = .38, data not shown).
  • These data suggest that PARP-1 overexpression is a potential novel molecular marker of aggressive cutaneous malignant melanoma and a direct correlation between PARP-1-mediated inhibition of the apoptosis and biologic behavior of cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / enzymology. Melanoma / enzymology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / enzymology. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16084940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.4.2.30 / PARP1 protein, human; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
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21. Annessi G, Bono R, Sampogna F, Faraggiana T, Abeni D: Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of three dermoscopic algorithmic methods in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic lesions: the importance of light brown structureless areas in differentiating atypical melanocytic nevi from thin melanomas. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 May;56(5):759-67
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  • [Title] Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of three dermoscopic algorithmic methods in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic lesions: the importance of light brown structureless areas in differentiating atypical melanocytic nevi from thin melanomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Over the past decade numerous epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) criteria and algorithmic methods have been developed to improve the diagnosis of cutaneous melanocytic lesions.
  • Two ELM-experienced dermatologists classified each lesion as benign or malignant using the pattern analysis, the ABCD rule of dermoscopy, and the 7-point checklist method.
  • After surgical excision, 102 lesions were histologically diagnosed as Clark's nevi and 96 as thin melanomas (TMs) (mean tumor thickness, 0.3 mm).
  • RESULTS: Of the melanocytic lesions studied, 82.3% were correctly diagnosed by using pattern analysis (85.4% sensitivity, 79.4% specificity, 79.6% PPV, and 70.8% diagnostic accuracy), compared with correct diagnosis of 79.3% (84.4% sensitivity, 74.5% specificity, 75.7% PPV, and 67.8% diagnostic accuracy) and 71.2% (78.1% sensitivity, 64.7% specificity, 67.6% PPV, and 57.7% diagnostic accuracy) with the ABCD and the 7-point checklist methods, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity


22. Lucas A, Betlloch I, Planelles M, Martínez T, Pérez-Crespo M, Mataix J, Belinchón I: Non-melanocytic benign skin tumors in children. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2007;8(6):365-9
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  • [Title] Non-melanocytic benign skin tumors in children.
  • BACKGROUND: Dermatologists often attend children with benign skin tumors and cysts.
  • The decision to perform dermatologic surgery in children may be difficult to make, especially in cases of benign tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the nature of non-melanocytic benign skin tumors amenable to dermatologic surgery in children.
  • METHODS: Histopathologic studies of skin tumors in children treated by our department between January 2004 and December 2005 were studied.
  • Malignant and melanocytic tumors were excluded.
  • Age, sex, type of tumor, diagnostic category, site, size, reason for removal, type of anesthesia, and any other associated disorders were recorded.
  • RESULTS: The records revealed that 121 patients presented 129 non-melanocytic benign skin tumors (73 in boys and 56 in girls).
  • Tumors were located on the head and neck (45.7%), trunk (34.1%), and limbs (20.1%).
  • The reasons that led to removal of the tumors were: increase in the size of the tumor (49%); various types of discomfort, such as severe itching or pain (30%); parental concern (4%); diagnostic uncertainty (16%); and esthetic reasons (1%).
  • CONCLUSION: There is a wide diversity of non-melanocytic benign skin tumors in children, some of which require surgical treatment.
  • Pilomatrixomas appear to be the most frequent benign tumors; there are also high frequencies of infundibular cysts, pyogenic granulomas, and viral tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18039019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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23. Albers AC, Gutmann DH: Gliomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. Expert Rev Neurother; 2009 Apr;9(4):535-9
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  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder characterized by numerous cutaneous features, including café-au-lait macules, skinfold freckling and iris hamartomas.
  • In addition, individuals with NF1 are prone to the development of both benign and malignant tumors.
  • The most common CNS tumor in children and adults with NF1 is the glioma.
  • Regular ophthalmologic evaluations in children are essential for the effective management of these tumors in patients with NF1.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Glioma / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications


24. Mandal RV, Duncan LM, Austen WG Jr, Nielsen GP: Infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma of the face. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:70-3
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  • Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous tumor, which usually arises on the back of the neck, shoulder or upper back of males in the third to seventh decade of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19187113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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25. Corte MD, Gonzalez LO, Corte MG, Quintela I, Pidal I, Bongera M, Vizoso F: Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma. Int J Biol Markers; 2005 Oct-Dec;20(4):242-8
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  • [Title] Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), enzymes with the ability to degrade the extracellular matrix, play an important role in tissue invasion by cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM).
  • METHODS: MMP-13 expression was analyzed in 51 paraffin-embedded tumor samples from patients with invasive CMM, ten samples from in situ melanomas, and in eight samples from benign lesions (three dermal melanocytic nevi, three compound melanocytic nevi and two atypical melanocytic nevi) using immunohistochemical techniques.
  • RESULTS: Benign lesions were consistently negative for MMP-13, whereas three of the ten in situ melanomas (30%) and 23 of the 51 invasive CMMs (45%) showed positive immunostaining for MMP-13.
  • The percentage of MMP-13-positive tumors correlated significantly and positively with the mitotic index (p=0.002) in invasive CMM.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MMP-13 appears to be a factor associated with tumor aggressiveness in CMM.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagenases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16398406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.- / Collagenases; EC 3.4.24.- / MMP13 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinase 13
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26. Massi D, Tarantini F, Franchi A, Paglierani M, Di Serio C, Pellerito S, Leoncini G, Cirino G, Geppetti P, Santucci M: Evidence for differential expression of Notch receptors and their ligands in melanocytic nevi and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2006 Feb;19(2):246-54
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  • [Title] Evidence for differential expression of Notch receptors and their ligands in melanocytic nevi and cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • No data are available in the literature concerning modulation of the expression of Notch receptors, and their ligands, in human cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • Here, we have investigated, for the first time, the expression of Notch-1, Notch-2, Jagged-1, Jagged-2 and Delta-like 1 proteins, by immunohistochemistry, in a series of benign and malignant human melanocytic lesions: five common melanocytic nevi, five 'dysplastic nevi' and 20 melanomas (five in situ, five T1-T2, five T3-T4 and five metastatic melanomas).
  • These results indicate that the activation of Notch may represent an early event in melanocytic tumor growth and upregulation of Notch signaling may sustain tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Ligands. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Receptors, Notch / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Mod Pathol. 2006 Apr;19(4):616
  • (PMID = 16341148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / JAG2 protein, human; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / Receptor, Notch2; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / delta protein; 134324-36-0 / Serrate proteins
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27. Usmani N, Merchant W, Yung A: A case of cutaneous symplastic leiomyoma - a rare variant of cutaneous pilar leiomyoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Mar;35(3):329-31
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  • [Title] A case of cutaneous symplastic leiomyoma - a rare variant of cutaneous pilar leiomyoma.
  • We describe the case of a cutaneous symplastic leiomyoma in a 37-year-old woman who presented with a 4-year history of a painful slow growing lesion on the left upper arm.
  • The diagnosis was felt to be in keeping with a cutaneous symplastic leiomyoma, a rarely reported variant of the pilar leiomyoma.
  • Although the long-term outlook is probably benign, the presence of cytological atypia and mitoses in any spindle cell tumor is generally a concerning feature and warrants long-term follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Desmin / analysis. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18251750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin
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28. González-Vela MC, Val-Bernal JF, González-López MA, Drake M, Fernández-Llaca JH: Pure sclerotic neurofibroma: a neurofibroma mimicking sclerotic fibroma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):47-50
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  • BACKGROUND: Neurofibroma (NF) is a benign tumor of the nerve sheath.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The patient was a 61-year-old man who had an asymptomatic cutaneous lesion on the right scapular region.
  • Microscopically, the nodule showed a well-circumscribed, nonencapsulated dermal tumor composed of scant cells and thick collagen bundles with prominent clefts.
  • The tumor cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and S100 protein.
  • CONCLUSION: It is important to recognize this exceptional type of NF because it may be easily confused with SF, as well as with a wide variety of neoplasms or hamartomatous conditions containing similar sclerotic pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma / diagnosis. Neurofibroma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / analysis. Sclerosis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16441412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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29. Astigueta JC, Abad MA, Pow-Sang MR, Morante C, Meza L, Destefano V, Dyer R: Epithelioid angiomyolipoma: a rare variant of renal angiomyolipoma. Arch Esp Urol; 2009 Jul;62(6):493-7
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  • METHODS: We present the case of a 12 year-old male with past medical history of tuberous sclerosis, characterized by developmental delay, tonic and clonic seizures, and cutaneous abnormalities.
  • CT scan of the abdomen showed the presence of a left renal tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Renal angiomyolipoma is an uncommon benign tumor, representing a challenge for clinical and pathological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19736381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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30. Koljonen V, Jahkola T, Tukiainen E, Granroth G, Haglund C, Böhling T: Tenascin-C in primary Merkel cell carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Mar;58(3):297-300
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare malignant cutaneous neuroendocrine tumour that mostly affects the elderly.
  • It shows rapid progression of the primary tumour, together with a vertical growth pattern into the underlying subcutaneous tissue.
  • Tenascin-C (Tn-C) is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is expressed in various benign and malignant processes.
  • The expression of Tn-C correlated significantly with large tumour size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tn-C expression seems to increase with tumour size and malignant behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tenascin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Division. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • [Cites] Hum Pathol. 2000 Jan;31(1):58-62 [10665914.001]
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  • (PMID = 15735164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tenascin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770604
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31. Sachdev R, Robbins J, Kohler S, Vanchinathan V, Schwartz EJ, Sundram UN: CD163 expression is present in cutaneous histiocytomas but not in atypical fibroxanthomas. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Jun;133(6):915-21
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  • [Title] CD163 expression is present in cutaneous histiocytomas but not in atypical fibroxanthomas.
  • Recent work has shown that this marker is specific for neoplasms of histiocytic differentiation.
  • Our aim was to test the ability of CD163 to separate cutaneous histiocytomas from their morphologic mimics.
  • CD163 is an excellent marker for confirming histiocytic differentiation and is useful in eliminating morphologic mimics such as Spitz nevi from the differential diagnosis.
  • The lack of CD163 in atypical fibroxanthomas argues against a histiocytic origin for this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / chemistry. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / immunology. Receptors, Cell Surface / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20472850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD163 antigen; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Scavenger; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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32. Ben Brahim E, Sfia M, Tangour M, Makhlouf R, Cribier B, Chatti S: Malignant eccrine spiradenoma: a new case report. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37(4):478-81
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  • Malignant eccrine spiradenoma is an extremely rare skin tumor of sweat gland origin.
  • In most cases, it arises in pre-existing benign eccrine spiradenoma.
  • The gross pathologic specimen showed a large cutaneous and subcutaneous multinodular tumor, measuring 6 cm in maximal dimension.
  • Microscopically, there were two distinct morphological components: a benign eccrine spiradenoma and a malignant eccrine spiradenoma of low grade with extensive necrosis.
  • Extensive sampling to look for a probable previously benign component is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19614990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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33. Cibull TL, Billings SD: Cutaneous malignant ossifying fibromyxoid tumor. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Apr;29(2):156-9
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  • [Title] Cutaneous malignant ossifying fibromyxoid tumor.
  • The tumor, partially surrounded by a shell of woven and lamellar bone, had a lobular arrangement of highly cellular islands of tumor cells embedded in a variably fibrous to myxoid stroma.
  • Areas of tumor necrosis were present.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as an ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT).
  • OFMT is a rare tumor first described in 1989.
  • Although OFMT usually occurs in deep soft tissue, up to 11% of reported lesions presented as cutaneous tumors.
  • Most are histologically bland and apparently benign tumors, but OFMT with high nuclear grade, high cellularity, and >2 MF/50 high-power fields have shown potential for aggressive behavior including metastasis.
  • Given the histologic features, this tumor was considered a malignant OFMT.
  • [MeSH-major] Buttocks. Fibroma / pathology. Neoplasms, Bone Tissue / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ossification, Heterotopic

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  • (PMID = 17414437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Hodge JC, Morton CC: Genetic heterogeneity among uterine leiomyomata: insights into malignant progression. Hum Mol Genet; 2007 Apr 15;16 Spec No 1:R7-13
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  • Uterine leiomyomata (UL), also known as fibroids, are the most common pelvic tumors in women of reproductive age and are the primary indication for hysterectomy in the USA.
  • Many lines of evidence indicate a strong genetic component to the development of these tumors.
  • In fact, approximately 40% of UL have non-random, tumor-specific chromosome abnormalities which have allowed classification into well-defined subgroups (deletion of portions of 7q, trisomy 12 or rearrangements of 12q15, 6p21 or 10q22) as well as identification of candidate genes for UL predisposition.
  • Although benign, UL have been linked to malignancy through two genomic regions on chromosome 1.
  • Mutation of fumarate hydratase (FH) at 1q43 is known to cause the Mendelian syndromes of multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata (MCL) and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC), and recently, FH mutations have been detected in some non-syndromic UL.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / genetics. Leiomyosarcoma / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17613550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0964-6906
  • [Journal-full-title] Human molecular genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA078895; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01HD046226; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32GM007748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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35. Soldano AC, Meehan SA: Cutaneous solitary fibrous tumor: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):54-8
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  • [Title] Cutaneous solitary fibrous tumor: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that can arise in both pleural and extrapleural locations.
  • Composed of spindled cells intimately admixed with collagen bundles arranged in a "patternless pattern," this heterogeneous tumor can mimic a variety of benign and malignant mesenchymal neoplasms.
  • We present the histological and immunohistochemical findings of two primary cutaneous solitary fibrous tumors, discuss the differential diagnosis, and review the literature.
  • Although solitary fibrous tumors in cutaneous and subcutaneous regions are extremely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary spindle cell neoplasms of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18212546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Alexis AF, Sergay AB, Taylor SC: Common dermatologic disorders in skin of color: a comparative practice survey. Cutis; 2007 Nov;80(5):387-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Common dermatologic disorders in skin of color: a comparative practice survey.
  • There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of dermatologic disease in populations with skin of color.
  • We reviewed the diagnosis codes of 1412 patient visits from August 2004 through July 2005 at the Skin of Color Center at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, in New York.
  • During visits by black patients, the 5 most common diagnoses observed at our center were acne (ICD-9 [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision] 706.1); dyschromia (ICD-9 709.09); contact dermatitis and other eczema, unspecified cause (ICD-9 692.9); alopecia (ICD-9 704.0); and seborrheic dermatitis (ICD-9 690.1).
  • During visits by white patients, the 5 most common diagnoses recorded were acne (ICD-9 706.1); lesion of unspecified behavior (ICD-9 238.2); benign neoplasm of skin of trunk (ICD-9 216.5); contact dermatitis and other eczema, unspecified cause (ICD-9 692.9); and psoriasis (ICD-9 696. 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / ethnology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / diagnosis. Acne Vulgaris / ethnology. African Continental Ancestry Group. Dermatitis, Contact / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Contact / ethnology. Dermatitis, Seborrheic / diagnosis. Dermatitis, Seborrheic / ethnology. Eczema / diagnosis. Eczema / ethnology. European Continental Ancestry Group. Humans. Psoriasis / diagnosis. Psoriasis / ethnology. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / ethnology

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  • (PMID = 18189024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Karaca S, Kulac M, Dilek FH, Polat C, Yilmaz S: Giant proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the gluteal region. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Dec;31(12):1734-6
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  • [Title] Giant proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the gluteal region.
  • BACKGROUND: Proliferating trichilemmal tumors are rare cutaneous neoplasms that show features of typical pilar cysts but also show extensive epithelial proliferation, variable cytologic atypia, and mitotic activity.
  • Proliferating trichilemmal tumors are benign lesions; however, there are numerous reports of malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present a case of benign proliferating trichilemmal tumor of an 81-year-old woman that was located on the left superior gluteal region for 30 years.
  • METHODS: A tumor measuring 9 x 7 cm was surgically excised with a 1 cm conservative margin of normal tissue.
  • RESULTS: Based on the histopathologic findings of tumor, this case was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our case is an unusual presentation of proliferating trichilemmal tumor.
  • Physicians should be aware of this entity while differentiating cutaneous tumor located on the gluteal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16336902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Krejsgaard T, Kopp K, Ralfkiaer E, Willumsgaard AE, Eriksen KW, Labuda T, Rasmussen S, Mathiesen AM, Geisler C, Lauenborg B, Becker JC, Zhang Q, Wasik MA, Odum N, Woetmann A: A novel xenograft model of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Exp Dermatol; 2010 Dec;19(12):1096-102
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  • [Title] A novel xenograft model of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are characterized by accumulation of malignant T cells in the skin.
  • Early disease resembles benign skin disorders but during disease progression cutaneous tumors develop, and eventually the malignant T cells can spread to lymph nodes and internal organs.
  • Here, we describe a novel xenograft model of tumor stage CTCL, where malignant T cells (MyLa2059) are transplanted to NOD/SCID-B2m(-/-) (NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) B2m(tm1Unc) /J) mice.
  • Subcutaneous transplantation of the malignant T cells led to rapid tumor formation in 43 of 48 transplantations, whereas transplantation of non-malignant T cells isolated from the same donor did not result in tumor development.
  • Importantly, the tumor growth was significantly suppressed in mice treated with vorinostat when compared to mice treated with vehicle.
  • Furthermore, in most mice the tumors displayed subcutaneous and/or lymphatic dissemination.
  • Histological, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analyses confirmed that both tumors at the inoculation site, as well as distant subcutaneous and lymphatic tumors, originated from the transplanted malignant T cells.
  • In conclusion, we describe a novel mouse model of tumor stage CTCL for future studies of disease dissemination and preclinical evaluations of new therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Transplantation, Heterologous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Transplantation / methods. Cell Transplantation / pathology. Humans. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Hydroxamic Acids / therapeutic use. Immunophenotyping. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Nude. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Skin / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 20629733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89194
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 58IFB293JI / vorinostat
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39. Fonseca Junior NL, Cha SB, Cartum J, Rehder JR: [Therapeutical effectiveness of interferon alpha in a child with craniofacial giant hemangioma: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2008 May-Jun;71(3):423-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Eficácia terapêutica do interferon alfa em criança com hemangioma gigante craniofacial: relato de caso.
  • Hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors of infancy.
  • The diagnosis of these tumors is based on physical examination.
  • This is a case of a patient with three months of age, that presented since birth, a purplish tumor in the superior eyelid of the right eye, plain and purplish cutaneous lesions in the temporal and parietal right region.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Craniofacial Abnormalities / drug therapy. Facial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hemangioma, Cavernous / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use


40. Hammami H, Benmously R, Badri T, Debbiche A, Ben Ayed M, Mokhtar I, Fenniche S: Atypical clinical appearance and localization of trichilemmoma. a case report. Pathologica; 2009 Jun;101(3):133-4
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  • Trichilemmoma is a benign cutaneous tumor that shows characteristics of differentiation similar to the outer hair sheath.
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that trichilemmoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any indistinct facial papule.
  • This report documents a non-facial example of trichilemmoma.
  • Atypical clinical appearance and localization of this neoplasm in our patient suggest that only histological findings are specific of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Back / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19886550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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41. Tucker T, Wolkenstein P, Revuz J, Zeller J, Friedman JM: Association between benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in NF1. Neurology; 2005 Jul 26;65(2):205-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association between benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in NF1.
  • OBJECTIVE: People with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have a 10% lifetime risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).
  • However, it is not known whether an individual's risk of developing an MPNST is associated with the burden of benign neurofibromas.
  • The authors conducted a study to determine whether people with NF1 who have benign neurofibromas of various kinds are at greater risk of developing MPNSTs than patients with NF1 who lack these benign tumors.
  • METHODS: Clinical information on 476 NF1 probands in the Henri Mondor Database was analyzed by logistic regression to examine associations between MPNSTs and internal plexiform, superficial plexiform, subcutaneous, and cutaneous neurofibromas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The observation that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are strongly associated with internal plexiform neurofibromas suggests that patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 with these benign tumors warrant increased surveillance for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neurofibroma, Plexiform / epidemiology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / epidemiology. Peripheral Nerves / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Comorbidity. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Life Expectancy. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Prevalence. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / adverse effects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / standards. Ultrasonography / standards

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  • (PMID = 16043787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Hsieh TJ, Wang CK, Tsai KB, Chen YW: Pilomatricoma: magnetic resonance imaging and pathological evaluation. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Mar-Apr;32(2):320-3
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  • Pilomatricoma is an asymptomatic, slowly growing, benign skin tumor that is typically located in the regions of head and neck.
  • Our case revealed late enhancement in the dynamic magnetic resonance imaging study that is a common pattern more in a benign soft tissue tumor and caused dramatic uptake in the bone scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18379325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Shin SJ, Scamman W, Gopalan A, Rosen PP: Mammary presentation of adult-type "juvenile" xanthogranuloma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jun;29(6):827-31
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  • Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign histiocytic disorder of infants and childhood.
  • Herein, we report an exceptional case of adult xanthogranuloma in a 74-year-old woman who presented with ipsilateral breast masses and also found to have prior cutaneous lesions.
  • This is the first reported case of cutaneous and extracutaneous adult JXG where the latter manifested in the breast as a spindle cell xanthogranuloma.
  • In the breast, the morphologic features of JXG evoked several entities in the differential diagnosis, including spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibromatosis, myofibroblastoma, and phyllodes tumor.
  • With the aid of immunohistochemical stains and appropriate clinical history, the correct diagnosis of extracutaneous adult JXG manifesting as a spindle cell xanthogranuloma can be made.


44. John T, Portenier D, Auster B, Mehregan D, Drelichman A, Telmos A: Leiomyosarcoma of scrotum--case report and review of literature. Urology; 2006 Feb;67(2):424.e13-424.e15
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  • Leiomyosarcoma of the scrotum is a rare tumor.
  • Cutaneous and subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas constitute the two subtypes.
  • We report a case of cutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the scrotum in a 73-year-old man.
  • Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arises from the smooth muscle of the dartos or arrectores pilorum.
  • It is often mistaken for a benign lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Scrotum

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  • (PMID = 16461113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 5
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45. Stefanato CM, Robson A, Calonje JE: The histopathologic spectrum of regression in atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):310-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) with prominent fibrosis, sclerosis and hyalinization, and near-total tumor regression is rare.
  • METHODS: Eight cases of AFX presenting with fibrosis were reviewed as to their tumor architecture, the degree and pattern of fibrosis and the associated inflammatory cell infiltrate.
  • Advanced fibrosis (6/8 cases) was associated with lamellar sclerosis, keloidal features, hyalinization and with near-total tumor replacement.
  • Prominent fibrosis rimming the periphery was present in all tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fibrosis with prominent sclerosis and hyalinization replacing the tumor is rare in AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology


46. Vandergriff TW, Reed JA, Orengo IF: An unusual presentation of atypical fibroxanthoma. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(1):6
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  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasm.
  • The tumor occurs most commonly in sun-damaged skin of the head and neck in elderly patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18319023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Wygledowska-Kania M, Kamińska-Winciorek G, Krauze E, Brzezińska-Wcisło L, Kajor M: Multifocal type of pilomatrixoma. Adv Med Sci; 2007;52:251-3
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  • Pilomatrixoma is a benign skin neoplasm that arises from hair follicle matrix cells.
  • The skin lesion occurs usually as a solitary tumor and the multifocal types are very rare.
  • Skin changes can be described as a firm to hard, non-painful, oval-shaped tumor that is covered by normal skin.
  • In this paper case of 16-years-old male patient with many solid tumors in subcutaneous tissue on both arms will be reported.
  • The first skin lesion appeared on the left arm 6 years ago.
  • Histopathological test has proved the clinical diagnosis of pilomatrixoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cicatrix / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Inflammation. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18217427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1896-1126
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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48. Vano-Galvan S, Moreno-Martin P, Salguero I, Jaen P: Cutaneous metastases of breast carcinoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2(1):71
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastases of breast carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases can have variable clinical appearances and can mimic benign skin lesions.
  • The recognition of cutaneous metastases often dramatically alters therapeutic plans, especially when metastases signify persistence of cancer originally thought to be cured.
  • The most common tumor to metastasize to the skin is breast cancer.

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 2007 May;143(5):613-20 [17515511.001]
  • [Cites] Aust Fam Physician. 2006 May;35(5):309-12 [16680209.001]
  • [Cites] Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2002 Sep-Oct;6(5):255-60 [12240484.001]
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  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993 Aug;29(2 Pt 1):228-36 [8335743.001]
  • (PMID = 19159440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2633325
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49. Repertinger S, Wang J, Adickes E, Sarma DP: Melanoma in-situ arising in seborrheic keratosis: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):263
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  • BACKGROUND: Seborrheic keratosis is a very common benign skin tumor in man.
  • Melanoma is rare but is the most dreaded of all malignant skin tumors.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An-86-year-old male with a history of multiple actinic keratoses and seborrheic keratoses of the head and trunk presented with a mid-back skin lesion.

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  • [Cites] Australas J Dermatol. 2006 May;47(2):109-13 [16637806.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 May;42(5 Pt 1):831-3 [10775864.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2004 Apr;30(4 Pt 1):559-61 [15056152.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Dermatopathol. 1996 Jun;18(3):278-82 [8806962.001]
  • (PMID = 18947402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2577645
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50. Rotunda AM, Ablon G, Kolodney MS: Lipomas treated with subcutaneous deoxycholate injections. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Dec;53(6):973-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Lipomas are benign neoplasms of mature fat cells.
  • Tumor size, cutaneous reactions, and patients' subjective responses were recorded before and after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Deoxycholic Acid / administration & dosage. Lipoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DEOXYCHOLIC ACID .
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  • [CommentIn] Dermatol Surg. 2006 Sep;32(9):1217 [16970711.001]
  • (PMID = 16310057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 005990WHZZ / Deoxycholic Acid
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51. Talantov D, Mazumder A, Yu JX, Briggs T, Jiang Y, Backus J, Atkins D, Wang Y: Novel genes associated with malignant melanoma but not benign melanocytic lesions. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Oct 15;11(20):7234-42
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  • [Title] Novel genes associated with malignant melanoma but not benign melanocytic lesions.
  • PURPOSE: Cutaneous melanoma is a common, aggressive cancer with increasing incidence.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Total RNA isolated from 45 primary melanoma, 18 benign skin nevi, and 7 normal skin tissue specimens were analyzed on an Affymetrix Hu133A microarray containing 22,000 probe sets.
  • RESULTS: Hierarchical clustering revealed a distinct separation of the melanoma samples from the benign and normal specimens.
  • Differential gene expression of two melanoma-specific genes, PLAB and L1CAM, were tested by a one-step quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay on primary malignant melanoma, benign nevi, and normal skin samples, as well as on malignant melanoma lymph node metastasis and melanoma-free lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study systematically identified novel melanoma-specific genes and showed the feasibility of using a combination of PLAB and L1CAM in a reverse transcription-PCR assay to differentiate clinically relevant samples containing benign or malignant melanocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanoma / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cluster Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16243793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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52. Herron MD, Coffin CM, Vanderhooft SL: Vascular stains and hair collar sign associated with congenital anomalies of the scalp. Pediatr Dermatol; 2005 May-Jun;22(3):200-5
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  • We reported a series of three meningothelial hamartomas, one benign fibrous tumor, and one aplasia cutis congenita presenting with the hair collar sign and a coexistent vascular stain.
  • Our series highlighted the importance of coexisting cutaneous markers found in the newborn period.
  • [MeSH-major] Ectodermal Dysplasia / diagnosis. Scalp Dermatoses / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibrosis / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male

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  • (PMID = 15916564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-8046
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
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  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with a long-standing, slowly growing, asymptomatic solitary tumor the size of a large nut in the coccygeal area, which was surgically excised.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm was located in the dermis with focal extension into the subcutis.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • It differs from previously published cases of malignant adnexal tumors with multidirectional differentiation and further exemplifies the spectrum of diversity encountered in malignant proliferations with differentiation toward the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Shape. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Eloy-Garcia Carrasco C, Benguigui Benadiva J, Martinez Garcia S, Sanz Trelles A, Palacios S: Atypical primary carcinoid tumour of the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33 Suppl 2:32-4
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  • [Title] Atypical primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • We present a new case of a primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • Literature review showed this to be only the seventh case of primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • Although the number of cases is too small to draw definitive conclusions, information to date suggests that this type of tumour can be expected to have a benign behaviour, despite the presence in some cases of criteria suggestive of uncertainty, such as the presence of mitosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16972951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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55. Velazquez EF, Werchniack AE, Granter SR: Desmoplastic/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. A diagnostically challenging tumor mimicking a scar: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):333-9
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. A diagnostically challenging tumor mimicking a scar: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 6 cases.
  • Desmoplastic cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are rare neoplasms with an increased risk of local recurrence and metastasis usually affecting sun-exposed skin of the elderly.
  • To expand this clinicopathologic spectrum, we report 6 cases of an unusual variant of desmoplastic SCC in which the "desmoplastic" areas are predominantly composed of cytologically bland malignant spindle cells mimicking a reactive/benign scarring process.
  • All tumors affected sun-damaged skin of the head and commonly infiltrated into the subcutaneous fat and deeper structures.
  • Accurate recognition of this entity is essential because of potential misdiagnosis as a benign process including scar and dermatofibroma.
  • Careful search for atypical features and squamous differentiation, immunohistochemical studies, and, in some cases, deeper sections are required to establish the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cicatrix / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology


56. Scalvenzi M, Balato A, De Natale F, Francia MG, Mignogna C, De Rosa G: Hemosiderotic dermatofibroma: report of one case. Dermatology; 2007;214(1):82-4
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  • Dermatofibroma (DF) is a common benign fibrohistiocytic lesion which presents with a wide variety of clinicopathological features.
  • Generally, the clinical diagnosis is easy, but differentiating it from other cutaneous tumors could be difficult in atypical cases and rare variants.
  • We may find at least four different histopathological variants of DF; more than one of which may be present in a single tumor.
  • The differential diagnosis may comprise melanoma as well as other melanocytic and nonmelanocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemosiderosis / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17191053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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57. Han JI, Kim DY, Na KJ: Dysregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in canine cutaneous melanotic tumor. Vet Pathol; 2010 Mar;47(2):285-91
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  • [Title] Dysregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in canine cutaneous melanotic tumor.
  • To investigate whether the Wnt/beta-catenin signal transduction pathway is involved in canine cutaneous melanomagenesis, 18 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded canine cutaneous melanotic tumor tissues were examined.
  • For analysis of expression and translocation of beta-catenin in canine cutaneous melanotic tumors, semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were performed.
  • Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed a substantial increase in expression of ctnnb1 mRNA in canine cutaneous melanotic tumors compared to normal canine melanocytes, regardless of whether the tumor was benign or malignant.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin in melanotic tumors.
  • The present study demonstrated that abnormal intracellular accumulation and substantially increased expression of beta-catenin are involved in canine cutaneous melanotic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Dogs. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. RNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Sequence Alignment. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Signal Transduction. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20139375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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58. Finger PT, Chin KJ, Wong JJ, Iacob CE: Reactive keratoma of the central corneal epithelium. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2009 May-Jun;19(3):484-6
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  • PURPOSE: The authors present a unique corneal tumor.
  • RESULTS: Clinical examination revealed a gray-white central corneal tumor without extension to the limbus.
  • No significant tumor neovascularization or intraocular inflammation was noted.
  • The tumor was removed with a platinum spatula.
  • Few and focal clusters of passenger bacteria were found (as seen in cutaneous leukoplakia).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors present a benign keratoma of the central corneal epithelium.

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  • (PMID = 19396801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Vélez D, Reina Duran T, Pérez-Gala S, Fernández JF: Rosetoid schwannoma (neuroblastoma-like) in association with an anetoderma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Aug;33(8):573-6
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  • BACKGROUND: We report an additional case of an extremely uncommon but distinctive histological variant of benign schwannoma, which was previously designated as neuroblastoma-like schwannoma by Goldblum et al.
  • RESULTS: A cutaneous biopsy showed findings consistent with a neuroblastoma-like schwannoma with the following peculiar features: (i) Being fully composed of rosette-like structures. (ii) Association to an anetoderma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because neither the histological pattern nor the type of tumor allows a differential diagnosis with neuroblastoma, we propose the descriptive term of rosetoid schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16919032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins
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60. Sapp M, Bienkowska-Haba M: Viral entry mechanisms: human papillomavirus and a long journey from extracellular matrix to the nucleus. FEBS J; 2009 Dec;276(24):7206-16
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  • Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses, whose replication is strictly dependent on the terminally differentiating tissue of the epidermis.
  • They induce self-limiting benign tumors of skin and mucosa, which may progress to malignancy (e.g. cervical carcinoma).

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  • (PMID = 19878308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-4658
  • [Journal-full-title] The FEBS journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEBS J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI081809-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI081809; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR018724; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20-RR018724; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI081809-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / HPV L1 protein, Human papillomavirus; 0 / Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 80
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS160680; NLM/ PMC2795018
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61. Chaby G, Viseux V, Chatelain D, Denoeux JP, Lok C: [Myxofibrosarcoma associated with anetoderma]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Jan;133(1):35-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Association of malignant cutaneous tumor and secondary anetoderma is rare.
  • One year later, she developed a recurrent tumor at the same site, with similar clinical presentation, which was treated by broad excision.
  • DISCUSSION: Secondary anetoderma is usually seen in association with cutaneous infections and benign skin tumors.
  • Myxofibrosarcoma (formerly referred to as myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma) is characterized by an abundant myxoid background in at least one half of the tumor.
  • The tumor recurs in almost two-thirds of cases and metastasizes in one-fourth.
  • Our case confirms that a unique, acquired anetodermic lesion can reveal a malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16495849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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62. Pongpudpunth M, Keady M, Mahalingam M: Morphometric analyses of elastic tissue fibers in dermatofibroma: clues to etiopathogenesis? J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36(10):1083-8
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  • BACKGROUND: The etiopathogenesis of dermatofibroma (DF), a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor, is debatable.
  • METHOD: Three groups comprising eight cellular DFs, eight paucicellular DFs and eight scars (control group) were stained with a modified Verhoeffs-van Gieson (without counterstain), and elastic fibers in three randomly selected fields within the lesional area/case semiquantitatively analyzed and examined in a blinded fashion.
  • [MeSH-major] Elastic Tissue / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19615002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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63. Florell SR, Cessna M, Lundell RB, Boucher KM, Bowen GM, Harris RM, Petersen MJ, Zone JJ, Tripp S, Perkins SL: Usefulness (or lack thereof) of immunophenotyping in atypical cutaneous T-cell infiltrates. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 May;125(5):727-36
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  • [Title] Usefulness (or lack thereof) of immunophenotyping in atypical cutaneous T-cell infiltrates.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the interobserver concordance for the diagnoses of mycosis fungoides (MF), atypical dermatoses (AD), and benign dermatoses (BD) and the impact of T-cell immunophenotyping on the diagnoses MF, AD, and BD.
  • Specimens of MF (n = 57), AD (n = 27), BD and normal skin (n = 54) were reviewed by 2 hematopathologists and 1 dermatopathologist to establish diagnostic interobserver concordance by routine morphologic examination.
  • The interobserver concordance was fair to moderate compared with the original diagnosis.
  • Immunophenotyping generally resulted in downgrading of the reaction pattern but was helpful in distinguishing MF from benign dermatoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunophenotyping. Leukemic Infiltration / diagnosis. Mycosis Fungoides / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. ROC Curve. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16707374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K23 RR 17525-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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64. Blomberg M, Jeppesen EM, Skovby F, Benfeldt E: FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature. Dermatology; 2010;220(4):297-305
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  • [Title] FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature.
  • Somatic FGFR3 mutations have been found in malignant neoplasms and more recently in several cutaneous elements.
  • In the recent literature, an increasing number of different cutaneous elements have been found to harbor mutations of FGFR3, suggesting that FGFR3 plays a role in the pathogenesis of these elements.
  • We review the present literature, describing studies in which FGFR3 mutations have been investigated in skin lesions: primarily seborrheic keratoses and epidermal nevi, but also other benign skin tumors and a single case of a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In addition, an overview of the FGFR3 point mutations in relation to each cutaneous element is given.
  • Based on the current knowledge, it seems likely that these cutaneous lesions have a common genetic background.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20453470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / C-Peptide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9100L32L2N / Metformin; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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65. Ali F, Brown A, Gottwald L, Thomas J: Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation in a transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jul;32(6):445-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Shadow cells, characterized by basaloid squamous cells with a distinct well-defined border and a central unstained area as a shadow of lost nuclei, are characteristic of pilomatricoma, a distinct neoplasm of hair matrix differentiation.
  • The presence of shadow cells within tumor islands composed of follicular germinative cells of an otherwise classic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been considered as a distinct diagnostic category of BCC with matrical differentiation.
  • In these areas, the tumor nodules were connected to the epidermis, whereas in others, it extended deep into the reticular dermis to the subcutaneous fat junction.
  • Elsewhere, the majority of the tumor contained a population of shadow cells, similar to those in pilomatricoma, with basaloid-appearing matrical cells in the periphery.
  • Areas of cystic degeneration were present throughout the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: BCC with matrical differentiation is a distinct pathologic entity and a rare subtype of BCC featuring shadow and matrical cells, typically seen in pilomatricoma, a benign hair matrix neoplasm.
  • This tumor has not yet been reported in an immunosuppressed transplant patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Heart Transplantation. Immunocompromised Host. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hand / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilomatrixoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15953381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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66. Kluijt I, de Jong D, Teertstra HJ, Axwijk PH, Gille JJ, Bell K, van Rens A, van der Velden AW, Middelton L, Horenblas S: Early onset of renal cancer in a family with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Clin Genet; 2009 Jun;75(6):537-43
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  • Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is a hereditary syndrome characterized by benign disease of skin and lungs and a risk of malignant renal tumors.
  • Renal cancer at very young age occurred in one branch of this family, while in other branches, cutaneous and pulmonary symptoms predominated.
  • [MeSH-major] Family. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. DNA / analysis. Female. Humans. Lung Diseases / diagnosis. Lung Diseases / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Pedigree. Pneumothorax / diagnosis. Pneumothorax / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Sequence Deletion. Skin Abnormalities / diagnosis. Skin Abnormalities / genetics. Syndrome. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


67. Lee D, Suh YL, Han J, Kim ES: Spinal nerve sheath myxoma (neurothekeoma). Pathol Int; 2006 Mar;56(3):144-9
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  • Nerve sheath myxoma (NSM) is a rare, benign tumor of predominantly cutaneous location.
  • They usually arise from small cutaneous nerves in the head, neck, and extremities, but exceptionally they arise from spinal nerve roots.
  • Both tumors had typical histological features of myxoid-type NSM.
  • The tumors had a strong immunoreactivity for vimentin, S-100 protein, and neuron-specific enolase and focal expression of epithelial membrane antigen and phosphorylated neurofilament.
  • Ultrastructural observation of tumor cells with perineurial, fibroblast-like, and Schwann-cell differentiation suggests an origin from nerve sheath precursor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurothekeoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Nerves / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16497247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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68. Kim YH, Lee YK, Choi KW, Lee CY, Kim KH: A Case of Trichilemmal Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery. Ann Dermatol; 2008 Sep;20(3):157-61
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  • Trichilemmal carcinoma is a cutaneous adnexal tumor originating from the outer root sheath of hair follicle, and it was first described by Headington in 1976.
  • This neoplasm is a malignant counterpart of trichilemmoma, and it has been reported in the literature as trichilemmal carcinoma, tricholemmal carcinoma, malignant trichilemmoma, and tricholemmocarcinoma.
  • Although histologically, trichilemmal carcinoma frequently has maliganant features, it has a relatively benign clinical behavior.
  • We think Mohs micrographic surgery is a useful treatment modality in trichilemmal carcinoma because the final skin defect is smaller than a wide excision.

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  • (PMID = 27303183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-9087
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4903970
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mohs micrographic surgery / Trichilemmal carcinoma
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69. Takeuchi S, Takahashi A, Motoi N, Yoshimoto S, Tajima T, Yamakoshi K, Hirao A, Yanagi S, Fukami K, Ishikawa Y, Sone S, Hara E, Ohtani N: Intrinsic cooperation between p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the onset of cellular senescence and tumor suppression in vivo. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 15;70(22):9381-90
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  • [Title] Intrinsic cooperation between p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the onset of cellular senescence and tumor suppression in vivo.
  • Notably, we found the DKO mice to be extremely susceptible to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced skin carcinogenesis that involves oncogenic mutation of the H-ras gene.
  • Mechanistic investigations suggested that the high incidence of cancer in DKO mice likely reflected a cooperative effect of increased benign skin tumor formation caused by p21Waf1/Cip1 loss, with increased malignant conversion of benign skin tumors caused by p16(INK4a) loss.
  • Our findings establish an intrinsic cooperation between p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the onset of cellular senescence and tumor suppression in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Aging. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 12-O-TETRADECANOYLPHORBOL-13-ACETATE .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 21062974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / H2AX protein, mouse; 0 / Histones; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / Pou5f1 protein, mouse; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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70. Faraone D, Aguzzi MS, Toietta G, Facchiano AM, Facchiano F, Magenta A, Martelli F, Truffa S, Cesareo E, Ribatti D, Capogrossi MC, Facchiano A: Platelet-derived growth factor-receptor alpha strongly inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Neoplasia; 2009 Aug;11(8):732-42
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  • Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer; it is highly metastatic and responds poorly to current therapies.
  • The expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-Rs) is reported to be reduced in metastatic melanoma compared with benign nevi or normal skin; we then hypothesized that PDGF-Ralpha may control growth of melanoma cells.
  • In a mouse model of primary melanoma growth, infection with the Ad-vector overexpressing PDGF-Ralpha reached a significant 70% inhibition of primary melanoma growth (P < .001) and a similar inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Differentiation / genetics. Antigens, Differentiation / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. MAP Kinase Kinase 3 / genetics. MAP Kinase Kinase 3 / metabolism. Mice. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 12 / genetics. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 12 / metabolism. Phosphorylation. Protein Array Analysis. Protein Phosphatase 2 / genetics. Protein Phosphatase 2 / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / metabolism. Receptors, Immunologic / genetics. Receptors, Immunologic / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19649203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / SIRPA protein, human; EC 2.7.1.- / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 12; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 3; EC 3.1.3.16 / Protein Phosphatase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2713586
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71. Goh SG, Dayrit JF, Calonje E: Sarcomatoid eccrine porocarcinoma: report of two cases and a review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jan;34(1):55-60
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  • We present two cases of sarcomatoid eccrine porocarcinoma associated with a benign poroma.
  • Case 1 pertained to an 82-year-old woman with an ulcerated chest wall tumor, and Case 2 was that of a 74-year-old woman who presented with an ulcerated plaque in the lower leg.
  • In both the cases, benign poromatous elements were histologically evident.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Leg. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Thoracic Wall

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  • (PMID = 17214856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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72. Gupta R, Singh S, Gupta K, Kudesia M: Clear-cell hidradenoma in a child: a diagnostic dilemma for the cytopathologist. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jul;37(7):531-3
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  • Primary cutaneous tumors are infrequently subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • As a result, the cytological reports of skin adnexal tumors like hidradenoma are scarce in the available literature.
  • The cytological features, in conjunction with the clinical examination, suggested a skin appendageal tumor.
  • Though nuclear pleomorphism and occasional larger nucleus posed a cytological diagnostic challenge, a diagnosis of benign appendageal tumor was suggested, considering the young age of the patient.
  • The cytopathologist should consider skin appendageal tumors during evaluation of cutaneous nodules.
  • An accurate diagnosis requires a close clinico-pathologic correlation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19459171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Tierney E, Ochoa MT, Rudkin G, Soriano TT: Mohs' micrographic surgery of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor in a young black man. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Mar;31(3):359-63
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  • [Title] Mohs' micrographic surgery of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor in a young black man.
  • BACKGROUND: Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is an uncommon tumor of the follicular isthmus of the hair follicle.
  • Although these lesions typically behave in a benign fashion, recurrences and metastasis after local excision have been reported.
  • Mohs' micrographic surgery has been effectively used to treat adnexal neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor in a young black man, which was excised using Mohs' micrographic surgery.
  • RESULTS: Mohs' micrographic surgery demonstrated an irregular extension of the tumor beyond a 1 cm surgical margin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Proliferating trichilemmal tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous neoplasms on the scalp in persons of any age (with the possible exception of infants and children), sex, or race.
  • Mohs' micrographic surgery may be considered an optimal treatment option for proliferating trichilemmal tumors because these lesions may have an infiltrative component that may not be clinically apparent.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / surgery. Hair Follicle. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15841643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Adler N, Tsabari C, Sulkes J, Ad-El D, Feinmesser M: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jun;35(6):532-5
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  • Findings within the tumors were compared with fibrocyte staining in adjacent tissue.
  • The prominent expression of COX-2 in DFSP may have clinical implications for treatment with COX-2 inhibitors in tumors that are not amenable to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Dermatofibrosarcoma / enzymology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18201240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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75. Torrijos-Aguilar A, Alegre-de Miquel V, Pitarch-Bort G, Mercader-García P, Fortea-Baixauli JM: [Cutaneous granular cell tumor: a clinical and pathologic analysis of 34 cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Mar;100(2):126-32
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous granular cell tumor: a clinical and pathologic analysis of 34 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células granulares cutáneo: análisis clínico-patológico de treinta y cuatro casos.
  • BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumor (GCT), also known as Abrikossoff tumor, is an uncommon benign neoplasm, probably of neural origin derived from Schwann cells.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics associated with this tumor and to determine whether these findings correspond to those reported to date in the literature.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective study of 34 patients with histologic diagnosis of GCT, we analyzed clinical characteristics (site, age, sex, duration, and suspected diagnosis), histological findings (border, cell atypia and mitoses, involvement of adnexal structures, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, and presence of the recently described pustulo-ovoid bodies), and immunohistochemical findings (S-100 staining in 16 randomly selected cases).
  • The most common site was the oral cavity (61.76 %).
  • The most frequently suspected clinical diagnosis was fibroma (17.65 %).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our series confirms the characteristics described previously for GCT, except for certain peculiarities, and supports the presence of pustulo-ovoid bodies as an additional histologic finding for diagnosis of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoplasmic Granules / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Staining and Labeling. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19445877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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76. Sariya D, Ruth K, Adams-McDonnell R, Cusack C, Xu X, Elenitsas R, Seykora J, Pasha T, Zhang P, Baldassano M, Lessin SR, Wu H: Clinicopathologic correlation of cutaneous metastases: experience from a cancer center. Arch Dermatol; 2007 May;143(5):613-20
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic correlation of cutaneous metastases: experience from a cancer center.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of skin metastases.
  • PATIENTS: Fifty-one patients (21 men and 30 women) with biopsy-proven skin metastases and correlative clinical data.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Four dermatopathologists reviewed a random mixture of metastases and primary skin tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical studies for 12 markers were performed on the metastases, with skin adnexal tumors as controls.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical characteristics of cutaneous lesions, clinical outcomes, histologic features, and immunohistochemical markers.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-six percent (43 of 50) of the patients had known stage IV cancer, and skin metastasis was the presenting sign in 12% (6 of 50).
  • On pathologic review, many metastases from adenocarcinomas were either recognized or suspected, but the primary site was not easily identified based on histologic findings alone.
  • Metastases from small cell carcinomas and sarcomas were histologically misinterpreted as primary skin tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis using a panel including p63, B72.3, calretinin, and CK5/6 differentiated metastatic carcinoma from primary skin adnexal tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous metastases can have variable clinical appearances and can mimic benign skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cancer Care Facilities. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17515511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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77. Behroozan DS, Goldberg LH, Glaich AS, Kaplan B, Kaye VN: Mohs micrographic surgery for deeply penetrating, expanding benign cutaneous neoplasms. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Jul;32(7):958-65
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  • [Title] Mohs micrographic surgery for deeply penetrating, expanding benign cutaneous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / surgery. Female. Forehead / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / surgery. Heel / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nose / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / surgery. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16875482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Sengul D, Sengul I, Astarci MH, Ustun H, Mocan G: Differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and benign tumors of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicles by using CD34. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(6):1615-9
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and benign tumors of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicles by using CD34.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Differential diagnosis of the group of benign trichoblastomas, trichofolliculomas, trichoadenomas and trichoepitheliomas, and basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is troublesome for the clinician as well as the pathologist, especially when only small biopsy specimens are available.
  • METHODS: Thirty benign tumors of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicles (BTCOHF) and 30 BCCs were retrieved from our archives and immunohistochemically stained.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD34 may contribute to differential diagnosis of skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 21338206.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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79. Miettinen M, Finnell V, Fetsch JF: Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts--a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 104 cases with long-term follow-up and a critical review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jul;32(7):996-1005
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  • [Title] Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts--a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 104 cases with long-term follow-up and a critical review of the literature.
  • Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFT) is a unique soft tissue tumor of uncertain histogenesis.
  • The majority of reported cases (approximately 220) have pursued a benign clinical course.
  • However, recent literature has emphasized the existence of morphologically atypical and clinically malignant examples of this tumor and proposed guidelines for assessment of biologic potential.
  • Herein, OFT was strictly defined as a tumor with lobular architecture, predominantly epithelioid cell morphology, a low level of atypia, corded and trabecular growth patterns, moderate amounts of myxocollagenous matrix, and often, focal peripheral metaplastic bone formation.
  • Tumors that lacked conventional morphology were excluded.
  • The exclusion group included cutaneous mixed tumors, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas, and extraskeletal osteosarcomas.
  • The tumor size ranged from 0.7 to 17 cm (median, 3 cm).
  • Tumor cell nuclei typically contained small, distinct nucleoli, and necrosis was infrequent (11/104).
  • The great majority of tumors (67/71, 94%) were positive for S100 protein, whereas only occasional examples had (focal) positivity for desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and an AE1/AE3 keratin cocktail.
  • A mitotic rate of >2 mitotic figures/50 HPFs was a risk factor for local recurrence, but necrosis, tumor size, the presence of satellite nodules, and positive margins were not.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma, Ossifying / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18469710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins
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80. Ruibal Moldes M, López García D, Chantada Abal V, Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada J, González Martín M: [Kaposis sarcoma in a renal graft]. Actas Urol Esp; 2008 Oct;32(9):934-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Sarcoma de Kaposi sobre injerto renal.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is an infrequent tumor of unknown cause, but with a higher impact in immune depressed individuals, particularly in HIV and transplant patients.
  • It usually appears as a benign cutaneous lesions, while the invasive visceral form is uncommon with malignant evolution and wit rare remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms. Kidney Transplantation. Postoperative Complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi


81. Paradol PO, Toussoun G, Delbaere M, Delaporte T, Delay E: [Extra-abdominal desmoid tumor in a scar of donor-site of a latissimus dorsi flap: case report]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2008 Feb;53(1):63-9
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  • [Title] [Extra-abdominal desmoid tumor in a scar of donor-site of a latissimus dorsi flap: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur desmoïde extra-abdominale survenue sur cicatrice de prélèvement de lambeau de grand dorsal: à propos d'un cas.
  • We will discuss one case of desmoid tumor arising from a latissimus dorsi flap donor-site scar.
  • A dorsal tumefaction, with a benign aspect, was observed during the follow-up period.
  • The biopsy showed an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor.
  • The patient was treated with a large excision of the lesion and reconstructed using two opposing local cutaneous advancing flaps.
  • [MeSH-major] Cicatrix / complications. Fibromatosis, Aggressive / etiology. Mammaplasty / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Surgical Flaps / adverse effects


82. Mordasky Markell L, Pérez-Lorenzo R, Masiuk KE, Kennett MJ, Glick AB: Use of a TGFbeta type I receptor inhibitor in mouse skin carcinogenesis reveals a dual role for TGFbeta signaling in tumor promotion and progression. Carcinogenesis; 2010 Dec;31(12):2127-35
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  • [Title] Use of a TGFbeta type I receptor inhibitor in mouse skin carcinogenesis reveals a dual role for TGFbeta signaling in tumor promotion and progression.
  • To test this, we treated mouse skin with SB431542 (SB), a well-characterized ALK5 inhibitor, during a two-stage skin carcinogenesis assay.
  • Topical SB significantly reduced the total number, incidence and size of papillomas compared with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) promotion alone, and this was linked to increased epidermal apoptosis, decreased proliferation and decreased cutaneous inflammation during promotion.
  • Although there was no difference in tumor cell proliferation in early premalignant lesions, those that formed after SB treatment exhibited reduced squamous differentiation and an altered inflammatory microenvironment similar to SCC.
  • In an inducible epidermal RAS transgenic model, treatment with SB enhanced proliferation and cutaneous inflammation in skin but decreased expression of keratin 1 and increased expression of simple epithelial keratin 18, markers of premalignant progression.
  • In agreement with increased frequency of progression in the multistage model, SB treatment resulted in increased tumor formation with a more malignant phenotype following long-term RAS induction.
  • In contrast to the current paradigm for TGFβ in carcinogenesis, these results demonstrate that cutaneous TGFβ signaling enables promotion of benign tumors but suppresses premalignant progression through context-dependent regulation of epidermal homeostasis and inflammation.

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  • (PMID = 20852150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2180
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0 CA117957; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0 CA122109
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(5-benzo(1,3)dioxol-5-yl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzamide; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Dioxoles; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad2 protein, mouse; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; EC 2.7.1.11 / TGF-beta type I receptor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994279
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83. Leinweber B, Chott A, Kerl H, Cerroni L: Epidermotropic precursor T-cell lymphoma with highly aggressive clinical behavior simulating localized pagetoid reticulosis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Aug;29(4):392-4
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  • The tumor cells expressed a T-phenotype (CD3+, CD20-) and were CD30-, CD4-, and CD8-negative.
  • A diagnosis of localized pagetoid reticulosis (Woringer-Kolopp disease) with possible large cell transformation was proposed.
  • Reevaluation of the skin lesion and of a tonsil specimen previously interpreted as benign hyperplasia showed features consistent with those observed in the lymph node.
  • The disease was rapidly progressive, and the patient died 15 months after the first skin biopsy.
  • This case represents a unique cutaneous presentation of aggressive precursor lymphoma, showing the protean nature of lymphoproliferative disorders and the overlapping clinical and histopathologic features of different entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Nipples / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17667175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD43; 0 / Antigens, CD7
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84. Thamboo TP, Tan LH, Tan SY: Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):27-32
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  • [Title] Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • Little is known about the expression of Bcl-x in cutaneous adnexal structures and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • METHODS: Tissues from 31 cases of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors (five trichofolliculomas, five trichoepitheliomas, two sebaceous adenomas, five apocrine hidradenomas, five eccrine poromas, five eccrine spiradenomas, and four syringomas) were immunostained for Bcl-x.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The degree of Bcl-x expression in cutaneous adnexal glandular structures appears to be related to their mode of secretion, being strongest in cells with apoptotic degradation of the entire cell (sebocytes).
  • This pattern is recapitulated in the corresponding benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • Bcl-x may be useful in identifying cells with sebaceous differentiation in poorly differentiated adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Sweat Glands / metabolism. Sweat Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16441408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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85. Winnes M, Mölne L, Suurküla M, Andrén Y, Persson F, Enlund F, Stenman G: Frequent fusion of the CRTC1 and MAML2 genes in clear cell variants of cutaneous hidradenomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2007 Jun;46(6):559-63
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  • [Title] Frequent fusion of the CRTC1 and MAML2 genes in clear cell variants of cutaneous hidradenomas.
  • Here we show that the CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion is also frequent in benign hidradenomas of the skin.
  • FISH and RT-PCR analyses revealed that hidradenomas are genetically heterogeneous, and that 10 of the 20 tumors analyzed (50%) contained the CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion and expressed the resulting fusion transcript.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated expression of the fusion protein in the majority of tumor cells, including clear cells, poroid cells, and cells with epidermoid and ductal differentiation.
  • In addition, we could show that all fusion-positive tumors were morphologically distinguished by the presence of more or less abundant areas of clear cells whereas all fusion-negative tumors lacked clear cells.
  • Our findings thus demonstrate that the CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion is frequent in hidradenomas and is associated with clear cell variants of this tumor.
  • Taken together, the present and previous observations indicate that the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion is etiologically linked to benign and low-grade malignant tumors originating from diverse exocrine glands rather than being linked to a separate tumor entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / genetics. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17334997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MECT1-MAML2 fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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86. Saadat P, Doostan A, Vadmal MS: Folliculosebaceous smooth muscle hamartoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Jun;56(6):1021-5
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  • Cutaneous hamartomas are a group of heterogenous benign skin conditions demonstrating epithelial and mesenchymal components in varying proportions.
  • Folliculosebaceous (cystic) hamartomas comprise a distinct group of uncommon cutaneous tumor-like malformations.

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  • (PMID = 17504719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Naik V, Arsenovic N, Reed M: Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: a rare multifocal variant with features suggesting trauma. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(9):6
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  • Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH) is a rare, benign cutaneous tumor characterized by proliferation of the eccrine gland elements closely associated with capillary angiomatosis and proliferation of other dermal elements, such as adipose tissue, hair and epidermis.
  • Clinically, this condition must be differentiated from other angiomatoses and a definitive diagnosis is based upon histology.
  • Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma is a benign slowly growing lesion for which aggressive treatment is not indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands / pathology. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Friction. Hemangioendothelioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin / injuries. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19930993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Cross NJ, Fung DE: Tuberous sclerosis: a case report. Spec Care Dentist; 2010 Jul-Aug;30(4):157-9
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  • Tuberous sclerosis is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder that occurs in approximately 1 in 7,500 live births.
  • It is characterized by benign neoplasms of the skin, heart, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system, and mucosa.
  • Histologically, the appearance was described as nonspecific, but was consistent with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gingival Diseases / diagnosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Dental Care for Disabled. Dental Caries / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Incisor / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 20618782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-4505
  • [Journal-full-title] Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spec Care Dentist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Titus-Ernstoff L, Perry AE, Spencer SK, Gibson J, Ding J, Cole B, Ernstoff MS: Multiple primary melanoma: two-year results from a population-based study. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Apr;142(4):433-8
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  • PARTICIPANTS: Three-hundred fifty-four New Hampshire residents with a confirmed first diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Diagnosis of a subsequent primary cutaneous melanoma.
  • RESULTS: An additional melanoma occurred in 27 individuals (8%) within 2 years of their initial diagnosis, including 20 (6%) within the first postdiagnosis year.
  • In 9 (33%) of these 27 cases, at least 1 subsequent melanoma was deeper than the first tumor.
  • The 27 individuals with a subsequent melanoma diagnosis were classified as "cases" and were compared on the basis of risk factors to the 327 "controls" with a single melanoma diagnosis.
  • Our study confirms that atypical moles are strongly associated with risk of multiple primary melanomas but provides little evidence that risk is influenced by pigmentary characteristics, hours of sun exposure, or benign moles.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. New Hampshire / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 16618861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA66032
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Hoefnagel JJ, Mulder MM, Dreef E, Jansen PM, Pals ST, Meijer CJ, Willemze R, Vermeer MH: Expression of B-cell transcription factors in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Mod Pathol; 2006 Sep;19(9):1270-6
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  • [Title] Expression of B-cell transcription factors in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma.
  • Expression patterns of eight transcription factors involved in different stages of B-cell development were investigated in a large group of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and compared with expression patterns during normal B-cell development.
  • Primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas, leg type showed aberrant coexpression of Bcl-6 and Mum1/IRF4 and in addition strong expression of FOXP1.
  • In contrast, primary cutaneous follicle center lymphomas showed expression of Bcl-6, Pax-5, PU.1, Oct2 and BOB.1, but not of Mum1/IRF4, Blimp-1 and FOXP1.
  • Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma showed expression of Pax-5, PU.1, Oct2 and BOB.1, but not Bcl-6 by the neoplastic B-cells, and Mum1/IRF4 and Blimp-1 by the neoplastic plasma cells.
  • In conclusion, in primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma and primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma expression patterns were observed similar to their supposed benign counterparts, germinal center B-cells and postgerminal center B-cells, respectively, which might reflect their indolent clinical behaviour and excellent prognosis.
  • In contrast, the activated B-cell expression pattern in the group of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type may contribute to its poor prognosis and Mum1/IRF4 and FOXP1 may serve as additional diagnostic markers for this type of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Lymphoma, B-Cell / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biopsy. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Forkhead Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Germinal Center / metabolism. Germinal Center / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Interferon Regulatory Factors / biosynthesis. Octamer Transcription Factor-2 / biosynthesis. Palatine Tonsil / metabolism. Palatine Tonsil / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Repressor Proteins / biosynthesis. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis

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  • [Copyright] Published online 16 June 2006.
  • (PMID = 16778825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / BCL6 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / FOXP1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factors; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-2; 0 / PAX5 protein, human; 0 / POU2AF1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / interferon regulatory factor-4; 0 / proto-oncogene protein Spi-1
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91. Takahara M, Ichikawa R, Oda Y, Uchi H, Takeuchi S, Moroi Y, Kiryu H, Furue M: Desmoplastic fibroblastoma: a case presenting as a protruding nodule in the dermis. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Oct;35 Suppl 1:70-3
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  • Desmoplastic fibroblastoma is a rare, benign, soft tissue tumor.
  • Histological examination from total excision showed a well-circumscribed tumor in the dermis, which comprised of spindle, oval and stellate cells arranged in a haphazard fashion, accompanied by abundant collagenous stroma and inconspicuous vasculature.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, and focally positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and muscle-specific actin, but negative for CD34, S-100 protein, desmin and beta-catenin.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2008.
  • (PMID = 18544056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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92. Benlier E, Alicioglu B, Kandulu H, Yurdakul ES, Top H: An unusual association of cutaneous myxoma with Favre-Racouchot syndrome. Prague Med Rep; 2008;109(4):321-4
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  • [Title] An unusual association of cutaneous myxoma with Favre-Racouchot syndrome.
  • We present a case of bilateral foot multiple cutaneous myxomas, associated with Favre-Racouchot syndrome (FRS) which is a dermatologic condition of multiple large comedones and nodules of the periorbital areas.
  • To our knowledge, there has been no report of the association of cutaneous myxoma and FRS.
  • Additionally, the magnetic resonance images of this benign tumor which is rare in the literature are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / complications. Foot Diseases / complications. Myxoma / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19537683.001).
  • [ISSN] 1214-6994
  • [Journal-full-title] Prague medical report
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prague Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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93. Boneschi V, Parafioriti A, Armiraglio E, Gaiani F, Brambilla L: Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:20-4
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  • [Title] Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration.
  • BACKGROUND: Soft tissue giant cell tumor (GCT-ST) of low malignant potential is an uncommon neoplasm, considered the soft tissue counterpart of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Histologically, this tumor is characterized by a mixture of uniformly scattered osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells intimately admixed with short fascicles of spindled cells.
  • Complete excision with negative surgical margins is associated with a benign clinical course in most cases.
  • RESULTS: Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a multinodular growth pattern with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells admixed with spindle cells partially arranged in a storiform pattern, fibrosis and foci of haemorrhage and mature bone.
  • CONCLUSION: GCT-ST is a rare neoplasm characterized by benign clinical course if excised adequately, as shown by our case of exceptionally long duration.
  • Emphasis is placed on the importance of differential diagnosis with other giant cell-rich soft tissue neoplasms because clinical behaviour, prognosis and treatment significantly differ.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Groin / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age of Onset. Aged. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Biopsy. Diagnostic Errors. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19222697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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94. Hatta J, Yanagihara M, Hasei M, Abe S, Tanabe H, Mochizuki T: Case of multiple cutaneous granular cell tumors. J Dermatol; 2009 Sep;36(9):504-7
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  • [Title] Case of multiple cutaneous granular cell tumors.
  • Granular cell tumor is an uncommon, benign tumor, which mainly occurs on the skin, tongue and oral cavity as a single nodule.
  • Multiple granular cell tumors are rare, with the incidence reported to vary from 7-29% in adult cases of the tumor.
  • We describe a case of multiple cutaneous granular cell tumors in the right lumber and back regions along with a brief review of the published work on multiple cutaneous granular cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19712278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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95. Brown JA, Morgan MB: Pedunculated hemangiopericytoma-like tumor: peculiar fibroepithelial polyp or fibrous histiocytoma variant. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Aug;35(8):748-51
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  • [Title] Pedunculated hemangiopericytoma-like tumor: peculiar fibroepithelial polyp or fibrous histiocytoma variant.
  • Apropos of this concern, we present a series of three cutaneous polypoid lesions that simulated fibroepithelial polyp, yet upon close scrutiny yielded histologic features of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) or hemangiopericytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangiopericytoma / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Polyps / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18422978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa
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96. Gambichler T, Grothe S, Rotterdam S, Altmeyer P, Kreuter A: Protein expression of carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules in benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Jun;131(6):782-7
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  • [Title] Protein expression of carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules in benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions.
  • Immunohistologic study of benign nevi (BN), dysplastic nevi (DN), and primary superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) was performed for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CEA cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) using monoclonal antibodies.
  • Our data support the findings of previous studies indicating that cell adhesion molecules of the CEA family may have a role in the development and progression of cutaneous melanoma and potentially serve as prognostic markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / biosynthesis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease Progression. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / metabolism. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19461083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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97. Ramaswamy PV, Storm CA, Filiano JJ, Dinulos JG: Multiple granular cell tumors in a child with Noonan syndrome. Pediatr Dermatol; 2010 Mar-Apr;27(2):209-11
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  • [Title] Multiple granular cell tumors in a child with Noonan syndrome.
  • Granular cell tumors are benign neurally derived neoplasms, involving cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues; and typically occur as solitary lesions.
  • Multiple granular cell tumors occur in 10% of affected individuals, but are in children.
  • Children with underlying somatic and genetic syndromes, including neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome, appear to be at higher risk of developing multiple granular cell tumors.
  • Skin biopsy assists in diagnosis, since granular cell tumors have a similar appearance to other cutaneous nodules.
  • Painful or rapidly growing granular cell tumors should be excised and asymptomatic non-growing granular cell tumors may be observed.
  • Children with multiple granular cell tumors should have a complete physical examination to rule out an underlying genetic syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Noonan Syndrome / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11 / genetics. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20537083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPN11 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11
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98. Zhang Q, Wang WH, Zhao M, Shen L, Cheng JH, Zhang BY, Li LF: Clinical and pathological study of lichen-planus-like keratosis in China. J Dermatol; 2006 Jul;33(7):457-61
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  • Lichen-planus-like keratosis is usually diagnosed pathologically; rarely, a definitive diagnosis can be made grossly in the clinic.
  • Lichen-planus-like keratosis is not uncommon in clinical practice in China, the diagnosis of lichen-planus-like keratosis should be made by a combination of clinical manifestations and pathological changes.
  • It is better to classify lichen-planus-like keratosis as a benign skin tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. China / epidemiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lichen Planus / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16848817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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99. Rongioletti F, De Lucchi S, Meyes D, Mora M, Rebora A, Zupo S, Cerruti G, Patterson JW: Follicular mucinosis: a clinicopathologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular study comparing the primary benign form and the mycosis fungoides-associated follicular mucinosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jan;37(1):15-9
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  • [Title] Follicular mucinosis: a clinicopathologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular study comparing the primary benign form and the mycosis fungoides-associated follicular mucinosis.
  • Group 1 comprised 20 patients with no associated mycosis fungoides or Sézary syndrome (PFM) and group 2 was made up of the other 11 patients who had clinicopathological evidence of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (LAFM).
  • As for histopathological findings, large cystic spaces filled with mucin and a slight perivascular and periadnexal polyclonal infiltrate of mostly non-atypical lymphocytes without epidermotropism and with an equivalent CD4+/CD8+ cell rate were more suggestive of PFM.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Mucins / metabolism. Young Adult


100. Chen J, Feilotter HE, Paré GC, Zhang X, Pemberton JG, Garady C, Lai D, Yang X, Tron VA: MicroRNA-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates cyclin D1 in melanoma. Am J Pathol; 2010 May;176(5):2520-9
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  • Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of human skin cancer characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis.
  • To better understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma, the expression of 470 miRNAs was profiled in tissue samples from benign nevi and metastatic melanomas.
  • We identified 31 miRNAs that were differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in metastatic melanomas relative to benign nevi.

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  • (PMID = 20304954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MIRN193 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2861116
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