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1. Göktas O, Lammert I: [Neurilemmoma of the head and neck--report of 3 cases]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2006 Aug;85(8):582-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Neurilemmoma are benign tumors of the nerve-sheath, also known as schwannoma.
  • Beside intracranial manifestation, neurilemmoma are found at other peripheral nerves of the head and neck.
  • CASE REPORT: We present three cases of patients with seldom manifestation of neurilemmoma of the supraglottis, the retropharyngeal space and a neurilemmoma of the hypoglossal nerve.
  • The histological examination showed two types of Antoni-A-neurilemmoma, whereas one tumor was found with mixed type A and B-neurilemmoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although extracranial neurilemmoma of retropharygeal space, neck or supraglottic larynx are rare tumors, neurilemmoma should be involved in differential diagnosis of tumors in these areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Airway Obstruction / diagnosis. Airway Obstruction / pathology. Airway Obstruction / surgery. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glottis / pathology. Glottis / surgery. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve / pathology. Hypoglossal Nerve / surgery. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / surgery. Incidental Findings. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Pharynx / pathology. Pharynx / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16883493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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2. Sanford RA, Merchant TE, Zwienenberg-Lee M, Kun LE, Boop FA: Advances in surgical techniques for resection of childhood cerebellopontine angle ependymomas are key to survival. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Oct;25(10):1229-40
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  • In infants and young children, the tumor often goes undetected until it causes hydrocephalus.
  • As CPA ependymomas grow, they distort the anatomy and encase cranial nerves and vessels, thereby making resection a formidable surgical challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellopontine Angle / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain / blood supply. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Cranial Nerves / surgery. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microsurgery / adverse effects. Microsurgery / methods. Postoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19484252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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3. Prescott DK, Racz MM, Ng JD: Epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in the infraorbital nerve. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2006 Mar-Apr;22(2):150-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in the infraorbital nerve.
  • Epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are rarely found in cranial nerves.
  • This report describes one such tumor originating from the infraorbital nerve in a 55-year-old man who presented with diplopia and right cheek numbness.
  • Four other cases from the literature involving cranial nerves are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology. Orbit / innervation
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16550070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Harnisch H, Altermatt HJ, Bornstein MM: [Intraoral lipoma in the region of the mental nerve--report of a case and review of the literature]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed; 2007;117(4):372-86
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  • [Title] [Intraoral lipoma in the region of the mental nerve--report of a case and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Intraorales Lipom im Bereich des Nervus mentalis. Ein Fallbericht mit Literaturübersicht.
  • The intraoral lipoma is a benign, slowly growing, painless soft tissue neoplasia, which can cause esthetic or functional problems for the patient, depending on its size.
  • Clinically, the tumour often exhibits an exophytic growth pattern, a soft consistency, a broad base connected to the underlying tissue, and frequently has a reddish-yellowish colour.
  • Depending on the localization of the tumour, the diagnosis and the resulting therapy can turn out to be a challenge for the clinician.
  • The following case report presents a female patient who is affected by a lipoma in the proximity of the mental nerve.

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  • (PMID = 17484156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-2855
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Monatsschrift fur Zahnmedizin = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie = Rivista mensile svizzera di odontologia e stomatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed
  • [Language] FRE; GER
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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5. Chennupati SK, Norris R, Dunham B, Kazahaya K: Osteosarcoma of the skull base: case report and review of literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2008 Jan;72(1):115-9
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  • Osteosarcomas are an aggressive neoplasm composed of spindle cells producing osteoid.
  • They primarily affect the long bones, particularly after radiation or chemotherapy for other neoplasms; however, 6-7% present in the head and neck.
  • On examination, she had right-sided palsies in cranial nerves X, XI, and XII.
  • During the evaluation process, she developed diplopia from a right cranial nerve VI palsy.
  • The diagnosis of high-grade osteosarcoma was made by histologic morphology and immunohistochemistry.
  • We describe a case of a high-grade clival osteosarcoma presenting primarily with lower cranial nerve palsies and pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17980919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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6. Yagi A, Sato N, Taketomi A, Nakajima T, Morita H, Koyama Y, Aoki J, Endo K: Normal cranial nerves in the cavernous sinuses: contrast-enhanced three-dimensional constructive interference in the steady state MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2005 Apr;26(4):946-50
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  • [Title] Normal cranial nerves in the cavernous sinuses: contrast-enhanced three-dimensional constructive interference in the steady state MR imaging.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Three-dimensional (3D) constructive interference in steady state (CISS) MR imaging is useful for demonstrating cranial nerves (CNs) in the cistern.
  • This useful method may contribute to the diagnosis of diseases involving the cavernous sinuses, such as Tolosa-Hunt syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus / innervation. Contrast Media. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15814950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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7. Russell D, Baloh RW: Gabapentin responsive audiovestibular paroxysmia. J Neurol Sci; 2009 Jun 15;281(1-2):99-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm are well-documented vascular compression syndromes involving the 5th and 7th cranial nerves.
  • Drugs that stabilize the irritated nerves and vascular decompression surgery are accepted treatments.
  • By contrast, the diagnosis and treatment of a comparable syndrome involving the 8th cranial nerve is controversial.
  • We describe two patients with brief, spontaneous, recurrent attacks of tinnitus and vertigo that responded to low dose gabapentin and we argue that this clinical presentation represents the prototypical 8th nerve vascular compression syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Amines / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Agents / therapeutic use. Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids / therapeutic use. Tinnitus / diagnosis. Tinnitus / drug therapy. Vertigo / diagnosis. Vertigo / drug therapy. gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Cranial Nerve Diseases / complications. Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Nerve Compression Syndromes / complications. Nerve Compression Syndromes / diagnosis


8. Zhang HZ, Lan Q: Design and microsurgical anatomy of the retrosigmoid-retrocondylar keyhole approach without occipital condyle removal. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2006 Feb;49(1):49-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • By means of adjusting the head position and the angle of microscope, the ipsilateral vertebral artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII cranial nerves and the ventral lateral aspect of medulla oblongata were exposed via this keyhole approach.
  • With the techniques of modern microsurgery, several diseases such as an aneurysm situated at the vertebral artery or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, a small hypoglossal neurinoma and tumor located at the ventral lateral aspect of the medulla oblongata, may be operated via this retrosigmoid-retrocondylar keyhole approach without drilling the occipital condyle.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior / anatomy & histology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Foramen Magnum / anatomy & histology. Foramen Magnum / surgery. Microsurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cadaver. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Dissection. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Medulla Oblongata / anatomy & histology. Vertebral Artery / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16547883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Sheehan J, Kondziolka D, Flickinger J, Lunsford LD: Gamma knife surgery for glomus jugulare tumors: an intermediate report on efficacy and safety. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):241-246
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gamma knife surgery for glomus jugulare tumors: an intermediate report on efficacy and safety.
  • OBJECT: Glomus jugulare tumors are rare tumors that commonly involve the middle ear, temporal bone, and lower cranial nerves.
  • Despite these therapies, tumor control can be difficult to achieve particularly without undo risk of patient morbidity or mortality.
  • The authors examine the safety and efficacy of gamma knife surgery (GKS) for glomus jugulare tumors.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of the results obtained in eight patients who underwent GKS for recurrent, residual, or unresectable glomus jugulare tumors.
  • The median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (range 12-18 Gy).
  • No cranial nerve palsies arose or deteriorated after GKS.
  • In the seven patients in whom radiographic follow up was obtained, the tumor size decreased in four and remained stable in three.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma knife surgery would seem to afford effective local tumor control and preserves neurological function in patients with glomus jugulare tumors.

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  • (PMID = 28306446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gamma knife surgery / glomus jugulare tumor / radiosurgery
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10. Rudolph G, Nentwich M, Hellebrand H, Pollack K, Gordes R, Bau V, Kampik A, Meindl A: KIF21A variant R954W in familial or sporadic cases of CFEOM1. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2009 Jul-Aug;19(4):667-74
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  • All patients had congenital restrictive ophthalmoplegia primarily affecting muscles innervated by the oculomotor nerve.
  • In one family, all patients were diagnosed with mental retardation, indicating that this syndrome might not only affect the development of cranial nerves, but can also be responsible for general neurologic dysfunction.

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  • (PMID = 19551685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KIF21A protein, human; EC 3.6.4.4 / Kinesin
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11. Milne EM, Fintl C, Hudson NP, Pearson GT, Mayhew IG, Hahn CN: Observations on the interstitial cells of Cajal and neurons in a recovered case of equine dysautonomia (grass sickness). J Comp Pathol; 2005 Jul;133(1):33-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Evidence of neuronal degeneration, such as neuronal chromatolysis, glial scars or a decrease in density of neurons, was not observed in the midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata or spinal cord, including the nuclei of cranial nerves III, V, VII, X and XII.

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  • (PMID = 15904924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9975
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Naganawa S, Sugiura M, Kawamura M, Fukatsu H, Nakashima T, Maruyama K: Prompt contrast enhancement of cerebrospinal fluid space in the fundus of the internal auditory canal: observations in patients with meningeal diseases on 3D-FLAIR images at 3 Tesla. Magn Reson Med Sci; 2006 Oct;5(3):151-5
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  • We speculated that meningeal pathologies might facilitate the permeability of cranial nerves at the fundus of the internal auditory canal (IAC), causing prompt enhancement after administration of Gd-DTPA.
  • Twenty patients (aged 22 to 79 years) were divided into 2 groups, a group with meningeal disease comprising 9 patients with meningeal abnormalities (6, tumor dissemination; 3, infection) and a control group of 11 patients with unilateral IAC pathology whose healthy sides were included as controls.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Esophageal Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Herpes Zoster Oticus / cerebrospinal fluid. Herpes Zoster Oticus / pathology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17139141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medical sciences : MRMS : an official journal of Japan Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 84F6U3J2R6 / gadodiamide; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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13. Torres-Carranza E, Infante-Cossío P, García-Perla A, Belmonte R, Menéndez J, Gutiérrez-Pérez JL: [Paraganglioma of the vagus nerve]. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2006 Jun;17(3):255-60
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  • [Title] [Paraganglioma of the vagus nerve].
  • [Transliterated title] Paraganglioma del nervio vago.
  • Paragangliomas of the vagus nerve are uncommon vascular benign neoplasms of neuroectodermic origin.
  • Initial clinical manifestation is usually as an asymptomatic cervical mass, although sometimes may cause lower cranial nerve palsies.
  • Diagnosis is based on the clinics aided by imaging, where CT and MRI play an important role.
  • In this paper we describe a new case of paraganglioma of the vagus nerve in a cervical location, with hypertensive episodes and high catecholamine-levels.
  • The authors review the literature describing the clinical presentation, the diagnosis and the treatment of this rare lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / diagnosis. Vagus Nerve / pathology. Vagus Nerve Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Review Literature as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16855784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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14. Chen HC, Jen YM, Wang CH, Lee JC, Lin YS: Etiology of vocal cord paralysis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(3):167-71
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  • OBJECTIVE: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a sign of a certain underlying disease, a diagnosis which can be attributed to various causes.
  • In males, neoplasm was the most common cause occurring in 63 of 176 males, whereas surgery was most frequent in 59 of 115 females.
  • The possibility of a neoplasm must be ruled out before VCP is labeled idiopathic.
  • A benign thyroid tumor could also cause VCP.
  • Besides, radiation-induced cranial nerve paralysis in head and neck cancer may play a significant role.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Laryngeal Neoplasms / complications. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Radiation Injuries / complications. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17264533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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15. Mascarenhas L, Magalhães F, Magalhães Z, Romão H, Resende M, Resende-Pereira J, Honavar M, Rocha Vaz A: Cavernous malformation of the trigeminal nerve. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2006 Feb;17(1):64-6; discussion 67
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  • [Title] Cavernous malformation of the trigeminal nerve.
  • A cavernous malformation involving the Gasserian ganglion, 2nd and 3rd divisions of the trigeminal nerve on the left side was resected via an extradural route in a 54 year old male.
  • Cavernous malformations of the cranial nerves are rare.
  • Specific origin from the trigeminal nerve has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16565783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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16. Roberts DS, Faquin WC, Deschler DG: Giant cell tumors of the temporal bone and infratemporal fossa: a case report and review of the literature. Laryngoscope; 2010;120 Suppl 4:S180
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumors of the temporal bone and infratemporal fossa: a case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report a giant cell tumor (GCT) of temporal bone and infratemporal fossa and to review the literature pertinent to the care of such patients.
  • RESULTS: Six case reports over 23 years illustrate that these benign locally destructive lesions may originate in the temporal bone with extension into the infratemporal fossa.
  • Complete removal was achieved but required resection of the zygomatic arch and dissection of all upper facial nerve branches.
  • The patient is disease free after 24 months without facial nerve deficits.
  • Surgical techniques that allow for visualization of the facial nerve and increase surgical access can enhance overall clinical success with limited post-operative morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Temporal Bone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cranial Nerves / surgery. Dissection. Humans. Male. Zygoma / pathology. Zygoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21225778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Umphrey HR, Lockhart ME, Kenney PJ: Benign Renal Schwannoma: A Case Report and Literature Review. Radiol Case Rep; 2007;2(2):52-5
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  • [Title] Benign Renal Schwannoma: A Case Report and Literature Review.
  • Schwannomas are tumors arising from cells of the nerve sheath.
  • While schwannomas are commonly found in peripheral nerves and cranial nerves, these tumors are rarely found within the kidney and may be difficult to differentiate from renal cell carcinoma.
  • Few cases have been reported in the literature, and very little has been described regarding the imaging appearance of these rare renal tumors.

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  • (PMID = 27303463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4891620
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography
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18. Seol JG, Loevner LA, O'Malley BW Jr, Grady MS: Inflammatory pseudotumor of the trigeminal nerve: a neoplastic mimic you do not want to miss. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2009 Nov;30(10):1941-3
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  • [Title] Inflammatory pseudotumor of the trigeminal nerve: a neoplastic mimic you do not want to miss.
  • Inflammatory pseudotumor is a rare non-neoplastic mass that may clinically and radiologically mimic a spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • We present a case of pseudotumor originating from the trigeminal nerve in a patient who presented with headache and facial numbness.
  • A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose this benign but locally aggressive entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / radiography. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Trigeminal Nerve / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19749214.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 5-T35-DK-60441-08
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Cioffi JA, Yue WY, Mendolia-Loffredo S, Hansen KR, Wackym PA, Hansen MR: MicroRNA-21 overexpression contributes to vestibular schwannoma cell proliferation and survival. Otol Neurotol; 2010 Dec;31(9):1455-62
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  • HYPOTHESIS: Elevated levels of hsa-microRNA-21 (miR-21) in vestibular schwannomas (VSs) may contribute to tumor growth by downregulating the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and consequent hyperactivation of protein kinase B (AKT), a key signaling protein in the cellular pathways that lead to tumor growth.
  • BACKGROUND: Vestibular schwannomas are benign tumors that arise from the vestibular nerve.
  • Left untreated, VSs can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, vestibular dysfunction, trigeminal nerve dysfunction, and can even become life threatening.
  • RESULTS: We found consistent overexpression of miR-21 when compared with normal vestibular nerve tissue.

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  • (PMID = 20856158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4505
  • [Journal-full-title] Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otol. Neurotol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / DC009801-03; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / K08DC006211; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01 DC002971; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / DC006211-05; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / K08 DC006211-05; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01DC02971; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01 DC009801; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01 DC009801-03; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / DC002971-14; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01 DC002971-14; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / K08 DC006211
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MIRN21 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS237186; NLM/ PMC2978772
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20. Sakurazawa M, Katsumata T, Kunugi S, Katsura K, Sakamoto S, Katayama Y: [Case report of Wegener's granulomatosis presenting with multiple cranial nerve palsy and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2007 Feb-Mar;47(2-3):85-9
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  • [Title] [Case report of Wegener's granulomatosis presenting with multiple cranial nerve palsy and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis].
  • The patient was admitted because he developed left ocular pain, headache, bilateral visual loss and left abducens nerve palsy.
  • Two weeks later, a second seizure attack occurred, followed by palsy of the left side of cranial nerves II, III, IV, V and VI.
  • Brain MRI showed focal thickening and enhancement of the dura mater over left frontal lobe, leading to a new presumptive diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis.
  • A definitive diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis was established.
  • The initial presentation of this case was of multiple cranial neuropathies with no superior respiratory tract symptoms, which are typical of early stage Wegener's granulomatosis.
  • In patients with various central nervous system symptoms and MRI evidence of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis, a thorough clinical workup of vasculitis syndrome including Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / complications. Meningitis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17511274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-918X
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic; 0 / Biomarkers; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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21. Ishii M, Han J, Yen HY, Sucov HM, Chai Y, Maxson RE Jr: Combined deficiencies of Msx1 and Msx2 cause impaired patterning and survival of the cranial neural crest. Development; 2005 Nov;132(22):4937-50
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  • [Title] Combined deficiencies of Msx1 and Msx2 cause impaired patterning and survival of the cranial neural crest.
  • We show that Msx1/2 mutants exhibit profound deficiencies in the development of structures derived from the cranial and cardiac neural crest.
  • These include hypoplastic and mispatterned cranial ganglia, dysmorphogenesis of pharyngeal arch derivatives and abnormal organization of conotruncal structures in the developing heart.
  • The expression of the neural crest markers Ap-2alpha, Sox10 and cadherin 6 (cdh6) in Msx1/2 mutants revealed an apparent retardation in the migration of subpopulations of preotic and postotic neural crest cells, and a disorganization of neural crest cells paralleling patterning defects in cranial nerves.
  • Msx1/2 mutants also exhibited increased Bmp4 expression in migratory cranial neural crest and pharyngeal arches.
  • Finally, proliferation of neural crest-derived mesenchyme was unchanged, but the number of apoptotic cells was increased substantially in neural crest-derived cells that contribute to the cranial ganglia and the first pharyngeal arch.
  • This increase in apoptosis may contribute to the mispatterning of the cranial ganglia and the hypoplasia of the first arch.

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  • (PMID = 16221730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-1991
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE014078; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE012711; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE12450; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE016320; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE12941
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP4 protein, human; 0 / Bmp4 protein, mouse; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Early Growth Response Protein 2; 0 / HOXB1 homeodomain protein; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Hoxd4 protein, mouse; 0 / MSX1 Transcription Factor; 0 / MSX2 protein; 0 / Msx1 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, EphA4
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22. Feucht M, Griffiths B, Niemüller I, Haase W, Richard G, Mautner VF: Neurofibromatosis 2 leads to higher incidence of strabismological and neuro-ophthalmological disorders. Acta Ophthalmol; 2008 Dec;86(8):882-6
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  • PURPOSE: Ophthalmic features of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) include juvenile cataract, retinal hamartomas and tumours of the cranial nerves.
  • We hypothesize that these tumours lead to strabismological and neuro-ophthalmological symptoms, including palsies of cranial nerves III, IV and VI, nystagmus and gaze palsies.
  • A deviation based on a cranial nerve palsy was found in 16 patients (22%) and three had supranuclear palsies.
  • In the subgroup analysis of NF2 mutation types, the relative risk for cranial nerve palsies and negative stereopsis was statistically significantly increased for the nonsense mutation group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Codon, Nonsense. Cranial Nerve Diseases / epidemiology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Depth Perception. Genes, Neurofibromatosis 2. Humans. Incidence. Nystagmus, Pathologic / epidemiology. Nystagmus, Pathologic / etiology. Paralysis / epidemiology. Paralysis / etiology. Refractive Errors / epidemiology. Refractive Errors / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Vestibular Diseases / complications. Vestibular Diseases / etiology. Vision, Binocular. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 18976311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-3768
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ophthalmologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon, Nonsense
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23. Byun JS, Kim HJ, Yim YJ, Kim ST, Jeon P, Kim KH, Kim SS, Jeon YH, Lee J: MR imaging of the internal auditory canal and inner ear at 3T: comparison between 3D driven equilibrium and 3D balanced fast field echo sequences. Korean J Radiol; 2008 May-Jun;9(3):212-8
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  • Two neuroradiologists reviewed both MR images with particular attention to the visibility of the anatomic structures, including four branches of the cranial nerves within the IAC, anatomic structures of the cochlea, vestibule, and three semicircular canals.

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  • (PMID = 18525223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627251
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24. Giraldez-Perez RM, Gaytan SP, Ruano D, Torres B, Pasaro R: Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and nitric oxide synthase reactivity in the central nervous system of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). J Chem Neuroanat; 2008 Jan;35(1):12-32
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  • In the rhombencephalon, cells were found in the cerebellum, the reticular formation, the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the nuclei of the cranial nerves.

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  • (PMID = 17616449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-0618
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chemical neuroanatomy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Chem. Neuroanat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.6.99.1 / NADPH Dehydrogenase
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25. Finsterer J: Systemic and non-systemic vasculitis affecting the peripheral nerves. Acta Neurol Belg; 2009 Jun;109(2):100-13
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  • [Title] Systemic and non-systemic vasculitis affecting the peripheral nerves.
  • Vasculitis affecting the peripheral nerves predominantly manifests as subacute, progressive, asymmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy or mononeuritis multiplex, and more rarely as painful mononeuropathy, pure sensory neuropathy, neuropathy of the cranial nerves, plexopathy, or as autonomic neuropathy.
  • Systemic vasculitis with involvement of the peripheral nerves is further subdivided into primary (Takayasu syndrome, giant cell arteritis, classical panarteritis nodosa, thrombangitis obliterans, Kawasaki disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener granulomatosis, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, Behcet disease, microscopic polyangitis, Schoenlein Henoch purpura) or secondary systemic vasculitis (autoimmune connective tissue diseases, vasculitis from infection, sarcoidosis, malignancy, drugs, radiation, or diabetes).
  • In addition to routine laboratory investigations and nerve conduction studies, nerve biopsy is essential for diagnosing the condition and to delineate it from differentials, although its sensitivity is only approximately 60%.
  • [MeSH-major] Peripheral Nerves / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Vasculitis / classification. Vasculitis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19681441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9009
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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26. Doherty JK, Yong M, Maceri D: Endolymphatic sac tumor: a report of 3 cases and discussion of management. Ear Nose Throat J; 2007 Jan;86(1):30-5
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  • [Title] Endolymphatic sac tumor: a report of 3 cases and discussion of management.
  • Patients with an endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) typically present with palsy of cranial nerves VII and/or VIII; other presenting symptoms include hearing loss, otalgia, occipital headaches, cranial nerve palsies, vertigo, gait ataxia, tinnitus, and otorrhea.
  • Because of these characteristics, they are often mistaken for glomus tumors of the skull base.
  • Preoperative tumor embolization was performed, anda near-complete resection was achieved via an extended transotic approach in all 3 patients.
  • The facial nerve was preserved without transposition in the first patient, the second patient underwent a primary nerve anastomosis, and the third required a cable graft of the facial nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / therapy. Endolymphatic Sac

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  • (PMID = 17315832.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Takahashi T, Arai N, Shimamura M, Suzuki Y, Yamashita S, Iwamoto H, Inayama Y, Kameda Y, Kuroiwa Y: Autopsy case of acute encephalopathy linked to familial hemiplegic migraine with cerebellar atrophy and mental retardation. Neuropathology; 2005 Sep;25(3):228-34
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  • Neuropathological examinations revealed acute changes in the widespread cerebral cortex, chronic degenerative changes in the anterior lobe of the cerebellar vermis, axonal spheroids in the Goll's nucleus, pseudo-calcinosis in the globus pallidus, and glial bundles in the cranial nerves.


28. Suárez C, Sevilla MA, Llorente JL: Temporal paragangliomas. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Jul;264(7):719-31
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  • Familial PGL have recently been shown to be associated with germline alterations in SDH group of genes, and occasionally are associated with a variety of genetic multisystemic disorders (von Hippel-Lindau disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and neurofibromatosis type 1).
  • Temporal bone PGL are normally located in the region of the jugular foramen and on the promontory along the Jacobson nerve.
  • Treatment of temporal PGL must be based on the biological behavior of the tumour, age and medical condition of the patient, location and size of the PGL, and potential for treatment induced morbidity.
  • Jugular PGL limited to the infralabyrinthine region involving only the vertical segment of the ICA, can benefit of an extended facial recess approach, which allows a postoperative normal hearing and facial nerve function.
  • For more extensive disease in the middle ear or around the ICA, external auditory canal preservation is not possible and some kind of facial nerve mobilization is required.
  • Preservation of lower cranial nerves is facilitated by intrabulbar dissection, previous extradural ligation of the sigmoid sinus.
  • Management of large intracranial involvement is controversial, although most authors advocate resection of the tumour in a single stage.
  • Surgical control of the tumour can be expected in 70-85% of the patients and is clearly dependent on the tumour stage.
  • Tumour size determines success in hearing and lower cranial nerves preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Nervous System Neoplasms. Paraganglioma
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiography. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Prognosis. Temporal Bone. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17333230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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29. Kumar GP, Sukumar S, Bhat SH, Nambiar A: Schwannoma of the penis: a common tumour at a rare site. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2006;40(2):166-7
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  • [Title] Schwannoma of the penis: a common tumour at a rare site.
  • Schwannoma is a benign tumour arising from neurilemmal cells and is commonly seen along cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16608817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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30. Aihara N, Mase M, Yamada K: [Treatment of benign brain tumor in elderly patients]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Sep;63 Suppl 9:600-6
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  • [Title] [Treatment of benign brain tumor in elderly patients].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Cochlear Nerve / surgery. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16201588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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31. Kim JH, Hwang JM: Absence of the trochlear nerve in patients with superior oblique hypoplasia. Ophthalmology; 2010 Nov;117(11):2208-13.e1-2
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  • [Title] Absence of the trochlear nerve in patients with superior oblique hypoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) are developmental abnormalities involving the hypoplasia or aplasia of the cranial nerves with muscle dysinnervation.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Examination of ductions and versions, 3-step test, angle of deviation, and presence of the trochlear nerve and superior oblique hypoplasia on MRI.
  • RESULTS: Trochlear nerve was absent on the affected side in 10 patients with confirmed hypoplastic superior oblique muscles.
  • The trochlear nerves as well as normal-sized superior oblique muscles were observed in 24 (100%) of 24 eyes screened as controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Congenital superior oblique palsy with superior oblique hypoplasia also can be classified as a CCDD by the MRI documentation of congenital aplasia of the trochlear nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Diseases, Hereditary / diagnosis. Ocular Motility Disorders / congenital. Oculomotor Muscles / innervation. Trochlear Nerve / abnormalities. Trochlear Nerve Diseases / congenital

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [ErratumIn] Ophthalmology. 2010 Dec;117(12):2272
  • (PMID = 20570358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Zalc B, Goujet D, Colman D: The origin of the myelination program in vertebrates. Curr Biol; 2008 Jun 24;18(12):R511-2
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  • Although myelin itself is not retained in the fossil record, within the skulls of fossilized Paleozoic vertebrate fish are exquisitely preserved imprints of cranial nerves and the foramina they traversed.
  • Examination of these structures now suggests how the nerves functioned in vivo.
  • In placoderms, the first hinge-jawed fish, oculomotor nerve diameters remained constant, but nerve lengths were ten times longer than in the jawless osteostraci.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Neural Crest / anatomy & histology. Neural Crest / growth & development. Oculomotor Nerve / anatomy & histology. Oculomotor Nerve / growth & development. Optic Nerve / anatomy & histology. Optic Nerve / growth & development. Trochlear Nerve / anatomy & histology. Trochlear Nerve / growth & development

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  • (PMID = 18579089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9822
  • [Journal-full-title] Current biology : CB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS20147
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Borges A, Casselman J: Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts. Eur Radiol; 2007 Sep;17(9):2332-44
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  • [Title] Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts.
  • The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits.
  • The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves.
  • Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy.
  • This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17268799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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34. Löttrich M, Mawrin C, Chamaon K, Kirches E, Dietzmann K, Freigang B: Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type 1 and type 2 in human sporadic vestibular Schwannoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(4):245-9
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  • TGF-beta is also expressed in benign peripheral nervous system tumors such as vestibular schwannomas.
  • TGF-beta R1 immunoexpression was found in about 95% of the tumors.
  • TGF-beta R1 was equally present in Antoni A and Antoni B areas of the tumors.
  • In addition, all tumors showed strong expression of TGF-beta.
  • Therefore, the TGF-beta/TGF-beta R1 and -R2 system is present in human schwannomas, but its biologic role for tumor development and growth remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / metabolism. Neurilemmoma / metabolism. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / biosynthesis. Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17317032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta
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35. Hofling AA, Kim JH, Fantz CR, Sands MS, Song SK: Diffusion tensor imaging detects axonal injury and demyelination in the spinal cord and cranial nerves of a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy. NMR Biomed; 2009 Dec;22(10):1100-6
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  • [Title] Diffusion tensor imaging detects axonal injury and demyelination in the spinal cord and cranial nerves of a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy.
  • Globoid cell leukodystrophy is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme galactosylceramidase.
  • Compared to age-matched, normal littermates, DTI of optic nerve and trigeminal nerve in end-stage Twitcher mice displayed a statistically significant increase in lambda perpendicular and decrease in lambda parallel, consistent with previously characterized demyelination and axonal damage in these regions.
  • Fractional anisotropy, a nonspecific but sensitive indicator of white matter disease, was significantly reduced in the optic nerve, trigeminal nerve, and throughout the spinal cord white matter of Twitcher mice, relative to normal controls.

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  • (PMID = 19650072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1492
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01-HD055461; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054194-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054194; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS054194-04; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD055461; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01-NS054194
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS217324; NLM/ PMC2910583
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36. Wesołowska E, Kaciński M: [Cranial neuropathies in children]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(11):1230-6
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  • [Title] [Cranial neuropathies in children].
  • BACKGROUND: Cranial nerves damages are very important in clinical neuropediatry.
  • Differential diagnosis is very complicated and difficult because of variety of cranial nerves and causes of neuropathies.
  • Paretic symptoms are commonly diagnosed, but also sometimes isolated cranial nerves pareses are seen.
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: was to recall the value of differential diagnosis in cranial neuropathies for early assessment of very complicated diseases of the head and neck and for early proper therapy.
  • Congenital and genetic factors of cranial neuropathies and their clinical effects are discussed.
  • The specific signs of cranial nerves damages are also performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Deepening of knowledge in the aspect of etiopathogenesis and clinical signs of cranial neuropathies combined with new therapeutic methods should improve the proper follow up of these disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Nerve Injuries / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Facial Paralysis / diagnosis. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Humans. Neuritis / diagnosis. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Polyneuropathies / diagnosis. Sensation Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17348423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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37. Dizdarević K, Link MJ: [Operative treatment of the vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma): correlation between the microsurgical approach and cranial nerve lesion]. Med Arh; 2005;59(3):160-3
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  • [Title] [Operative treatment of the vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma): correlation between the microsurgical approach and cranial nerve lesion].
  • INTRODUCTION: Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign tumour of cerebellopontine angle which total microsurgical resection is considered as a complex surgery.
  • Through analyzed series of operated patients (MJLink), we evaluated the correlation of VII and VIII nerves postoperative lesion with different operative approaches.
  • House-Brackmann grading scale is used for VII nerve deficit appraisal.
  • However, the most frequently used microsurgical approaches (retrosigmoid, translabyrinthine and extradural subtemporal) are still connected with certain morbidity rate, especially regarding the postoperative VII and VIII nerves lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: Team approach, intraoperative cranial nerves monitoring and microsurgery with utilizing different surgical approaches optimize the outcome of VS neurosurgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Microsurgery. Neuroma, Acoustic / surgery. Vestibulocochlear Nerve Injuries
  • [MeSH-minor] Facial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Humans. Intraoperative Complications


38. Vera-Sempere F, Vera-Sirera B: Intraosseus plexiform schwannoma of the mandible: immunohistochemical differential diagnosis. J Craniofac Surg; 2010 Nov;21(6):1820-4
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  • [Title] Intraosseus plexiform schwannoma of the mandible: immunohistochemical differential diagnosis.
  • Schwannomas and neurofibromas are the most common benign tumors derived from peripheral nerves, and whereas the head and neck region is the most common location for the occurrence of benign neural sheath neoplasms, origin within the oral cavity is uncommon, and occurrence centrally in the jaws is most unusual.
  • In current report, we present the first reported case of intraosseous plexiform schwannoma of the mandible, an extremely rare benign neurogenic tumor, diagnosed by optical and immunohistochemical procedures, showing the importance of differential diagnosis of these unusual intraosseous mandibular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Ameloblastoma / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mandibular Diseases / diagnosis. Mandibular Nerve / pathology. Middle Aged. Odontogenic Cysts / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21119430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Kim IY, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Gamma Knife surgery for schwannomas originating from cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. J Neurosurg; 2008 Dec;109 Suppl:149-53
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  • [Title] Gamma Knife surgery for schwannomas originating from cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.
  • OBJECT: Schwannomas from the motor cranial nerves controlling eye movement are rare.
  • The authors evaluated the role of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in the management of schwannomas originating from cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.
  • METHODS: Over a 7-year period, 8 patients with schwannomas originating from the oculomotor (2 patients), trochlear (5 patients), or abducent (1) nerve underwent GKS.
  • The median and mean tumor volumes were 0.22 and 1.32 cm(3) (range 0.03-7.4 cm(3)).
  • A median margin dose of 12.5 Gy (range 11.0-13.0 Gy) was prescribed to the tumor margin.
  • RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging showed tumor regression in all patients.
  • No improvement was noted in the 2 patients with oculomotor nerve palsies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma Knife surgery is an effective and minimally invasive approach capable of inactivating schwannomas originating from the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducent nerves.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Cranial Nerves / physiopathology. Eye Movements. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19123902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Cavalcanti DD, Garcia-Gonzalez U, Agrawal A, Tavares PL, Spetzler RF, Preul MC: A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle. World Neurosurg; 2010 Jul;74(1):188-94
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  • [Title] A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle.
  • BACKGROUND: The lower cranial nerves must be identified to avoid iatrogenic injury during skull base and high cervical approaches.
  • The most superficial segments of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and its superior laryngeal nerves, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves were exposed and designated into smaller anatomic triangles.
  • The midpoint of each nerve segment inside the triangles was correlated to the angle of the mandible (AM), mastoid tip (MT), and bifurcation of the common carotid artery.
  • RESULTS: A triangle bounded by the styloglossus muscle, external carotid artery, and facial artery housed the glossopharyngeal nerve.
  • This nerve segment was 0.06 ± 0.71 cm posterior to the AM and 2.50 ± 0.59 cm inferior to the MT.
  • The vagus nerve ran inside the carotid sheath posterior to internal carotid artery and common carotid artery bifurcation in 48.3% of specimens.
  • A triangle formed by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and internal jugular vein housed the accessory nerve, 1.90 ± 0.60 cm posterior to the AM and 2.30 ± 0.57 cm inferior to the MT.
  • A triangle outlined by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, internal jugular vein, and common facial vein housed the hypoglossal nerve, which was 0.82 ± 0.84 cm posterior to the AM and 3.64 ± 0.70 cm inferior to the MT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensible landmarks can be defined to help expose the lower cranial nerves to avoid injury to this complex region.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / pathology. Neck / innervation. Neck / surgery. Skull Base / innervation. Skull Base / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Accessory Nerve / pathology. Accessory Nerve / surgery. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / pathology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / surgery. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve / pathology. Hypoglossal Nerve / surgery. Laryngeal Nerves / pathology. Laryngeal Nerves / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21300012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Ladziński P, Majchrzak H, Szymczyk C, Kaspera W, Maliszewski M, Maciejewski A, Wierzgoń J, Majchrzak K, Tymowski M, Adamczyk P: Direct and remote outcome after treatment of tumours involving the subtemporal fossa and related structures with the extended subtemporal approach. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2010 Mar-Apr;44(2):148-58
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  • The approximate volume of the operated tumour, its relation to large blood vessels and cranial nerves, as well as consistency and vascularisation were assessed.
  • Less frequent symptoms were: paralysis of the abducent nerve and disturbances of the trigeminal nerve.
  • The most frequent histological diagnosis was meningioma (16%), followed by angiofibroma, neurinoma and adenocystic carcinoma (12%).
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures / statistics & numerical data. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20496285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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42. Colli BO, Assirati JA Jr, Deriggi DJ, Neder L, dos Santos AC, Carlotti CG Jr: Tentorial meningiomas: follow-up review. Neurosurg Rev; 2008 Oct;31(4):421-30; discussion 430
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This study aimed to analyze factors influencing the outcome of 29 patients (30 tumors) with tentorial meningiomas surgically treated.
  • Eight tumors were located on the inner tentorial ring, 15 on the outer ring, four were falcotentorial, and three attached/invading the torcula.
  • Twenty-seven tumors were WHO grade I and three were grades II-III.
  • Total and subtotal resections were reached in 87.5% and 12.5% of tumors.
  • Survival was better for patients with grade I tumors and similar according to sex, location, size, and extent of resection.
  • Permanent postoperative cranial nerve deficits occurred in 9.7% (all inner ring tumors).
  • Nevertheless, subtotal resection may be acceptable for cases with cranial nerves or sinuses invasions.
  • [MeSH-major] Dura Mater. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18521636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Hu W, Li L, Shi D, Guo F, Wei D, Gu P, Miao Y, Chen G: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation-assisted surgery for intracranial giant vasogenic tumors. Surg Neurol; 2008 Dec;70(6):570-4; discussion 574-5
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  • [Title] Radiofrequency thermocoagulation-assisted surgery for intracranial giant vasogenic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: We report the novel use of radiofrequency thermocoagulation to facilitate surgical excision of intracranial giant vasogenic tumors and detail the operative procedures and patient outcomes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were 2 patients with intracranial giant vasogenic tumors.
  • The tumors were well exposed during surgery and separated from the surrounding brain tissue by blunt dissection.
  • The external surface of each tumor was devascularized.
  • Radiofrequency thermocoagulation was applied in multiple cycles with each cycle encompassing a 3-cm-diameter volume to coagulate the inner tissue of the tumors prior to resection.
  • The tumors were then resected in a piecemeal fashion starting from the thermocoagulated regions until complete removal was achieved.
  • RESULTS: With radiofrequency thermocoagulation assistance, the 2 intracranial giant vasogenic tumors were removed completely with no bleeding.
  • The surrounding brain tissue, cranial nerves, and vessels were kept intact.
  • No complications and no tumor recurrences have occurred over a 2-year follow-up period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation is extremely effective in controlling bleeding during surgical excision of intracranial giant vasogenic tumors.
  • This improves the ease and safety of such procedures and allows for complete removal of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Electrocoagulation / methods. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / surgery. Hemangiopericytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18514279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. O'Malley BW Jr, Weinstein GS: Robotic skull base surgery: preclinical investigations to human clinical application. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Dec;133(12):1215-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To develop a minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of parapharyngeal space and infratemporal fossa skull base neoplasms using the technical and optical advantages of robotic surgical instrumentation.
  • Based on the preclinical work, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) was then performed in February 2007 on 1 human patient with a parapharyngeal to infratemporal fossa cystic neoplasm as part of a large prospective human trial.
  • For the human surgical case, a TORS approach was evaluated on one side for a benign neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS: For the human clinical trial, a TORS approach was evaluated for a patient with a benign neoplasm of the parapharyngeal space and infratemporal fossa.
  • In the first known human surgical case, TORS was used to remove a parapharyngeal space and infratemporal fossa cystic neoplasm.
  • The robotic procedure allowed adequate and safe identification of the internal carotid artery and cranial nerves, and excellent hemostasis was achieved with no complications during or after surgery.
  • Robotic surgery for the skull base holds potential as a minimally invasive approach to skull base neoplasms; however, continued development and investigation is warranted in a prospective human clinical trial before final conclusions can be drawn as to the full advantages and limitations of this approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopes. Endoscopy / methods. Robotics / instrumentation. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery. Dogs. Equipment Design. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mouth. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18086962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. McCool RR, Warren FM, Wiggins RH 3rd, Hunt JP: Robotic surgery of the infratemporal fossa utilizing novel suprahyoid port. Laryngoscope; 2010 Sep;120(9):1738-43
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  • The second arm and 30 degrees camera were placed transorally, and dissections were performed through the lateral pharyngeal wall and into the infratemporal fossa with identification and preservation of the lingual nerve, inferior alveolar nerve, internal and external carotid arteries, jugular vein, and cranial nerves IX-XII.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carotid Artery, Internal / pathology. Carotid Artery, Internal / surgery. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Cranial Nerves / surgery. Dissection / instrumentation. Humans. Jugular Veins / pathology. Jugular Veins / surgery. Surgical Instruments. Time and Motion Studies

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  • (PMID = 20583114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Taylor EW, Leite CA, McKenzie DJ, Wang T: Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and reptiles. Braz J Med Biol Res; 2010 May;43(5):409-24
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  • Fish and amphibians utilise a suction/force pump to ventilate gills or lungs, with the respiratory muscles innervated by cranial nerves, while reptiles have a thoracic, aspiratory pump innervated by spinal nerves.
  • However, fish can recruit a hypobranchial pump for active jaw occlusion during hypoxia, using feeding muscles innervated by anterior spinal nerves.

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  • (PMID = 20396858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1414-431X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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47. Sinclair J, Kelly ME, Steinberg GK: Surgical management of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery; 2006 Apr;58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-189-201; discussion ONS-201
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  • In addition to considering the location of the nidus, arterial supply, and predominant venous drainage, the surgical approach must also be selected with consideration of the small confines of the posterior fossa and eloquence of the brainstem, cranial nerves, and deep cerebellar nuclei.

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  • (PMID = 16582640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Wanebo JE, Bristol RE, Porter RR, Coons SW, Spetzler RF: Management of cranial base chondrosarcomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Feb;58(2):249-55; discussion 249-55
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  • [Title] Management of cranial base chondrosarcomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Chondrosarcomas are rare, infiltrative, progressive lesions that occur at the cranial base.
  • Their intimate association with cranial nerves and major vessels of the head and neck often precludes complete surgical resection.
  • METHODS: Between 1983 and 2003, 23 patients (14 females, 9 males) were treated at our institution with the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma of the cranial base (mean age at presentation, 43 yr).
  • Four patients have no evidence of disease, and 13 have residual tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Because of the intricate nature of the cranial base, a team approach is preferable for managing these challenging lesions.
  • This cohort also illustrates that patients with chondrosarcomas have better long-term survival rates than patients with chordomas of the cranial base.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondrosarcoma / radiotherapy. Chondrosarcoma / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16462478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Sturm V, Kordic H, Leiba H, Landau K: Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy related to sinusitis? Int Ophthalmol; 2008 Aug;28(4):303-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy related to sinusitis?
  • Typically, sinusitis can influence ocular motility by affecting single muscles or a combination of muscles and/or cranial nerves due to a local inflammatory tissue reaction.
  • We report a case of progressive, isolated, third-cranial-nerve palsy caused by an aneurysm of the posterior-communicating artery that initially was thought to be related to pansinusitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Intracranial Aneurysm / complications. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Sphenoid Sinusitis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebral Angiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Eye Movements. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Posterior Cerebral Artery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] HNO. 2002 May;50(5):490-1 [12089817.001]
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  • (PMID = 17786388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5701
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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50. Zhao J, Zhao KX, Tian YM: [Advances in clinical and molecular genetics of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan;43(1):82-6
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  • [Title] [Advances in clinical and molecular genetics of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders].
  • Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) are congenital non-progressive, sporadic or familial abnormalities of cranial musculature that result from developmental abnormalities of, or the complete absence of, one or more cranial nerves with primary or secondary muscle dysinnervation.
  • The advances in clinical and molecular genetics of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / abnormalities. Facial Paralysis / genetics. Ophthalmoplegia / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17442174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0412-4081
  • [Journal-full-title] [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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51. Ahmad A, Baghomian A, Travis P, Doran M: Internal Carotid Artery dissection presenting as Isolated Hypoglossal nerve palsy. Acute Med; 2009;8(1):22-5
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  • [Title] Internal Carotid Artery dissection presenting as Isolated Hypoglossal nerve palsy.
  • Rarely it can manifest itself by causing a palsy of the lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, XII).
  • The reported incidence of isolated cranial nerve palsies is rare.
  • We report a case of an internal carotid artery dissection manifesting as isolated XII (hypoglossal) cranial nerve palsy.

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  • (PMID = 21607205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1747-4884
  • [Journal-full-title] Acute medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acute Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Mathiesen T, Gerlich A, Kihlström L, Svensson M, Bagger-Sjöbäck D: Effects of using combined transpetrosal surgical approaches to treat petroclival meningiomas. Neurosurgery; 2008 Jun;62(6 Suppl 3):1213-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We analyzed our series of transpetrosally operated petroclival meningiomas to obtain detailed information regarding the surgery outcomes with respect to facial nerve effects, hearing changes, general neurological and psychosocial differences, and recurrence rates to identify opportunities for improvement.
  • Facial nerve function was found to be of House-Brackmann Grade 3 or worse in six patients (including three individuals with transcochlear surgery and facial nerve rerouting).
  • Outcomes can be improved, however by improving patients' psychosocial support; striving to decompress, preserve, and minimize dissection of ill-defined planes of cranial nerves; and using Simpson Grade 4 gamma knife approaches when radicality is precluded.
  • Currently, the performance of transpetrosal surgery for petroclival meningiomas is a major undertaking that significantly affects a patient's health for several years; however, the approaches that we used allowed a high degree of tumor control with relatively little neurological morbidity.

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  • [ReprintOf] Neurosurgery. 2007 Jun;60(6):982-91; discussion 991-2 [17538371.001]
  • (PMID = 18695542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Sanna M, Bacciu A, Falcioni M, Taibah A, Piazza P: Surgical management of jugular foramen meningiomas: a series of 13 cases and review of the literature. Laryngoscope; 2007 Oct;117(10):1710-9
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  • RESULTS: Four (28.5%) patients underwent single-stage tumor removal through the petro-occipital transigmoid (POTS) approach.
  • A modified transcochlear approach type D with posterior rerouting of the facial nerve and transection of the sigmoid sinus and jugular bulb was performed in two patients with a huge cerebellopontine angle tumor component with extension to the prepontine cistern together with massive involvement of the petrous bone and middle ear and encasement of the vertical and horizontal segments of the intrapetrous carotid artery.
  • In one patient with evidence of a dominant sinus on the site of the tumor, a subtotal tumor removal via an enlarged translabyrinthine approach (ETLA) was planned to resect the intradural component of the tumor.
  • Two patients in our series underwent a planned staged procedure on account of a huge tumor component in the neck.
  • One of these patients underwent a first-stage infratemporal fossa approach type A to remove the tumor component in the neck; the second-stage intradural removal of the tumor was accomplished via an ETLA.
  • The last patient underwent a first-stage modified transcochlear type D approach to remove the intradural tumor component followed by a second-stage transcervical procedure for removal of the extracranial component.
  • Gross total tumor removal (Simpson grade I-II) was achieved in 11 (84.6%) cases.
  • Subtotal removal of the tumor was accomplished in two patients.
  • Good facial nerve function (grades I and II) was achieved in 46.1% of cases, whereas acceptable function (grade III) was achieved in the remaining cases 1 year after tumor removal.
  • After surgery, no patient recovered function of the preoperatively paralyzed lower cranial nerves.
  • A new deficit of one or more of the lower cranial nerves was recorded in 61.5% of cases.
  • Despite the advances in skull base surgery, new postoperative lower cranial nerve deficits still represent a challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Jugulare Tumor / pathology. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Ear, Inner / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Petrous Bone / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Skull Base. Temporal Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17690614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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54. Hurtado-Lopez LM, Fink-Josephi G, Ramos-Méndez L, Dena-Espinoza E: Nonresectable carotid body tumor: hybrid surgical procedure to achieve complete and safe resection. Head Neck; 2008 Dec;30(12):1646-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonresectable carotid body tumor: hybrid surgical procedure to achieve complete and safe resection.
  • BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumors of Shamblin class III without free internal carotid, between the tumor and skull base, are considered nonresectable.
  • The objective of this work is to describe a surgical technique that combines traditional and endovascular strategies to achieve a safe surgical resection of the carotid body tumor of this class.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A female patient with a nonresectable carotid body tumor underwent placement of an endoprosthesis going from the common carotid artery to the internal carotid beyond the skull base (to secure cerebral circulation) excluding the external carotid artery.
  • Forty-five days later, the tumor was resected without vascular or cranial nerves injury, and bleeding amounted to 50 cm(3).
  • At 6 months, the patient is tumor free and asymptomatic.
  • The endoprosthesis maintained cerebral circulation, which otherwise would have been impossible; besides, the vascular supply from the external carotid artery was excluded leading to a decrease in tumor size and a recovery of the sub-adventitial dissection plane, allowing for a successful and safe tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Vessel Prosthesis. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery. Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18302274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Ismail AA, Rohlman DS, Abdel Rasoul GM, Abou Salem ME, Hendy OM: Clinical and biochemical parameters of children and adolescents applying pesticides. Int J Occup Environ Med; 2010 Jul;1(3):132-43
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  • They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes.

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  • (PMID = 23022799.001).
  • [ISSN] 2008-6520
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of occupational and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Occup Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pesticides; EC 3.1.1.7 / Acetylcholinesterase
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56. Samii M, Gerganov VM: Surgery of extra-axial tumors of the cerebral base. Neurosurgery; 2008 Jun;62(6 Suppl 3):1153-66; discussion 1166-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery of extra-axial tumors of the cerebral base.
  • Because of the complex structure of the cranial base and its close proximity to cranial nerves and vessels, surgery in this area is associated with considerable risk of morbidity and mortality.
  • Multiple approaches to each part of the cranial base have been developed over the past few decades, ranging from small modifications of more traditional approaches to complex and sophisticated new techniques.
  • Furthermore, not all cranial base tumors can be cured by surgery.
  • On the other hand, in some basal tumors, e.g., chordomas and chondrosarcomas, the approach has to be selected individually and must always be tailored to the characteristics of the particular tumor, its location, and the patient's expectations.
  • The expertise of the surgeon is not reflected in his or her ability to perform the most complex approaches but in the ability to select the approach that affords both removal of the tumor and preservation of patient's neurological function and quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chordoma / surgery. Foramen Magnum / surgery. Humans. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Neuroma, Acoustic / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Skull Base / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18695537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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57. Ishikawa M, Kusaka G, Takashima K, Kamochi H, Shinoda S: Intraoperative monitoring during surgery for hypoglossal schwannoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Aug;17(8):1053-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 54-year-old man presented with an intracranial schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve between the medulla and the left hypoglossal canal.
  • The condylar fossa approach was used with intra-operative electromyography (EMG) monitoring of the lower cranial nerves.
  • The tumor was then removed carefully without decreasing the tongue EMG responses.
  • EMG monitoring enabled us to remove the tumor while maintaining the function of the hypoglossal nerve.
  • Tongue EMG was easily recorded by stimulating the hypoglossal nerve fibers, which was useful in identifying the hypoglossal nerve and evaluating its function.
  • This suggests that tongue EMG is a useful monitoring tool to enhance neurological outcome following removal of tumors in this region.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Hypoglossal Nerve / surgery. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20488709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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58. Sanders RD: Cranial Nerves III, IV, and VI: Oculomotor Function. Psychiatry (Edgmont); 2009 Nov;6(11):34-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cranial Nerves III, IV, and VI: Oculomotor Function.
  • Motor activity affecting the direction of gaze, the position of the eyelids, and the size of the pupils are served by cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.

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  • (PMID = 20049149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-5194
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychiatry (Edgmont)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2801485
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; abducens nerve / cranial nerve III / cranial nerve IV / cranial nerve VI / examination of the visual system / extraocular movements / eye movements / nystagmus / oculomotor / oculomotor nerve / psychiatry and neurology / pupil / trochlear nerve
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59. Linskey ME, Davis SA, Ratanatharathorn V: Relative roles of microsurgery and stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of patients with cranial meningiomas: a single-surgeon 4-year integrated experience with both modalities. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:59-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Relative roles of microsurgery and stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of patients with cranial meningiomas: a single-surgeon 4-year integrated experience with both modalities.
  • The mean tumor coverage was 94.7%, and the mean conformity index was 1.76.
  • Significant differences between the two treatment groups (GKS compared with microsurgery) included age (mean 60 compared with 50.7 years), volume (mean 7.85 cm3 compared with 44.4 cm3), treatment history (55.3% compared with 14.3%), and tumor location (cavernous sinus/petroclival, 14 compared with three).
  • In patients with benign meningiomas GKS tumor control was 96.8% with one recurrence at the margin.
  • Transient and permanent cranial nerve morbidity was 7.9 compared with 2.9%, and 5.3 compared with 8.5% for GKS and microsurgery, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / surgery. Microsurgery / instrumentation. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Skull Base / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiation Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15662783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Bos-Thompson MA, Hillaire-Buys D, Roux C, Faillie JL, Amram D: Möbius syndrome in a neonate after mifepristone and misoprostol elective abortion failure. Ann Pharmacother; 2008 Jun;42(6):888-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DISCUSSION: Möbius syndrome is characterized by unilateral or bilateral palsy of the abducens (VI) and facial (VII) cranial nerves.
  • Other cranial nerves (eg, the hypoglossal [XII]), craniofacial or orofacial anomalies, and limb malformations are often associated.
  • If these occur during the critical embryonic period, they may cause flexion in the areas of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves and decreased blood flow.

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  • (PMID = 18460590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-6270
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal; 0 / Abortifacient Agents, Steroidal; 0E43V0BB57 / Misoprostol; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone
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61. Di Comite G, Sabbadini MG: Neurological involvement in rheumatological diseases. Neurol Sci; 2005 May;26 Suppl 1:S9-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Every structure-the brain, meninges, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves-can be affected.
  • Early recognition of neurological abnormality can help achieving diagnosis of the underlying condition and prevent permanent sensorimotor or cognitive function loss.

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  • (PMID = 15883701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-1874
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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62. Huang KL, Lu CS: Skull base osteomyelitis presenting as Villaret's syndrome. Acta Neurol Taiwan; 2006 Dec;15(4):255-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This report documents a 47-year-old male who developed acute deficits of the IX, X, XI, XII cranial nerves and Horner's symptoms, consistent with Villaret's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Horner Syndrome / etiology. Osteomyelitis / complications. Proteus Infections / complications. Proteus mirabilis. Skull Base

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  • (PMID = 17214089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-768X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Taiwanica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol Taiwan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 75J73V1629 / Ceftriaxone
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63. Ruggieri M, Iannetti P, Polizzi A, La Mantia I, Spalice A, Giliberto O, Platania N, Gabriele AL, Albanese V, Pavone L: Earliest clinical manifestations and natural history of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) in childhood: a study of 24 patients. Neuropediatrics; 2005 Feb;36(1):21-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Causes of referral prior to a definitive diagnosis of NF2 were:.
  • 1) Ophthalmologic problems: early onset lens opacities (n = 3); strabismus (n = 3) and amblyopia (n = 3) (due to underlying cranial nerves and/or brain tumours);.
  • 3) Neurological dysfunction: seizures secondary to intracranial meningioma (n = 1) or vestibular schwannomas (VS) (n = 1), neurological dysfunction related to brainstem and/or spinal cord tumours (n = 7), isolated and multiple cranial nerve deficits (n = 10), and peripheral neuropathy secondary to schwannomas (n = 4);.
  • The clinical course at this young age is highly variable, depending on tumour burden, early surgical intervention, surgical outcome after tumour resection, and complications.


64. Kerr AG: Assessment of vertigo. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 May;34(4):285-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most important step in the diagnosis is an unhurried and detailed history, bearing in mind that many patients will have difficulty in describing their symptoms.
  • A detailed neurological examination is usually unnecessary but one must examine the ears, cranial nerves, cerebellum, and balance function, and look for the presence of nystagmus.
  • [MeSH-major] Vertigo / diagnosis. Vertigo / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15937568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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65. Mikami T, Minamida Y, Yamaki T, Koyanagi I, Nonaka T, Houkin K: Cranial nerve assessment in posterior fossa tumors with fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA). Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Oct;28(4):261-6
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  • [Title] Cranial nerve assessment in posterior fossa tumors with fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA).
  • The purpose of this work was to assess fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and to evaluate its efficacy for depiction of the cranial nerve affected by the tumor.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients with posterior fossa tumors underwent FIESTA sequence after contrast agent administration, and then displacement of the cranial nerve was evaluated.
  • The 23 patients with posterior fossa tumor consisted of 12 schwannomas, eight meningiomas, and three cases of epidermoid.
  • Except in the cases of epidermoid, intensity of all tumors increased on FIESTA imaging of the contrast enhancement.
  • In the schwannoma cases, visualization of the nerve became poorer as the tumor increased in size.
  • In cases of encapsulated meningioma, all the cranial nerves of the posterior fossa were depicted regardless of location.
  • The ability to depict the nerves was also significantly higher in meningioma patients than in schwannoma patients (P<0.05).
  • In cases of epidermoid, extension of the tumors was depicted clearly.
  • Although the FIESTA sequence offers similar contrast to other heavily T2-weighted sequences, it facilitated a superior assessment of the effect of tumors on cranial nerve anatomy.
  • FIESTA sequence was useful for preoperative simulations of posterior fossa tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Cranial Nerves / diagnostic imaging. Infratentorial Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Meningioma / diagnostic imaging. Neurilemmoma / diagnostic imaging

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  • (PMID = 15933875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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66. Appenzeller S, Veilleux M, Clarke A: Third cranial nerve palsy or pseudo 3rd nerve palsy of myasthenia gravis? A challenging diagnosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus; 2009 Aug;18(9):836-40
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  • [Title] Third cranial nerve palsy or pseudo 3rd nerve palsy of myasthenia gravis? A challenging diagnosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • Diplopia is frequently encountered in neurological practice and may occur as part of the clinical spectrum of 3rd cranial nerve palsy.
  • Correct localization of the underlying problem is the first step in making an accurate diagnosis.
  • Pathologies affecting the supranuclear structures, cranial nerves and nuclei, extraocular muscles and the neuromuscular junction may cause or simulate 3rd nerve palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Diplopia / diagnosis. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / complications. Myasthenia Gravis / diagnosis. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Oculomotor Nerve / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome


67. Mitchell JP, Beer J, Yancy A, Saint-Louis LA, Rosberger DF: Lateral rectus muscle palsy, facial numbness and ataxia as the initial manifestation of multiple sclerosis. J Natl Med Assoc; 2008 May;100(5):572-4
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  • Lateral rectus muscle (LRM) palsy due to a nuclear or fascicular sixth nerve lesion is rare as the presenting sign of multiple sclerosis (MS).
  • It is more common to find this palsy in the company of other nearby cranial nerves deficits.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Ataxia / etiology. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Multiple Sclerosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 18507211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Zuccoli G, Motti L: Atypical Wernicke's encephalopathy showing lesions in the cranial nerve nuclei and cerebellum. J Neuroimaging; 2008 Apr;18(2):194-7
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  • [Title] Atypical Wernicke's encephalopathy showing lesions in the cranial nerve nuclei and cerebellum.
  • Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by a dietary deficiency of Vitamin B1 and characterized by consciousness changes, ocular abnormalities, and ataxia.
  • We report here on a nonalcoholic atypical case of WE which presented with reversible symmetrical lesions in the cranial nerves nuclei and in the cerebellum alongside the classic neuroradiological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellum / pathology. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Wernicke Encephalopathy / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Thiamine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18298680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-2284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] X66NSO3N35 / Thiamine
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69. Zajkowska J, Czupryna P, Kuśmierczyk J, Ciemerych A, Ciemerych M, Kondrusik M, Pancewicz S, Grygorczuk S, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T: [Clinical forms of neuroborreliosis--the analysis of patients diagnosed in department of infectious diseases and neuroinfection medical academy in Bialystok between 2000-2005]. Przegl Epidemiol; 2007;61(1):59-65
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  • Analysis of demographical, epidemiological and clinical data of patients hospitalised in Departament on Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections in years 2000-2005 revealed that among patients with Lyme disease 13% were with neuroborreliosis with broad spectrum of neurologic symptoms as cranial nerves paresis (mainly n.VII), as well concentration and memory disturbances, and general symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme Neuroborreliosis / diagnosis. Lyme Neuroborreliosis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17702440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2100
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Przegl Epidemiol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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70. Conti M, Prevedello DM, Madhok R, Faure A, Ricci UM, Schwarz A, Robert R, Kassam AB: The antero-medial triangle: the risk for cranial nerves ischemia at the cavernous sinus lateral wall. Anatomic cadaveric study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Jul;110(7):682-6
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  • [Title] The antero-medial triangle: the risk for cranial nerves ischemia at the cavernous sinus lateral wall. Anatomic cadaveric study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Vascular damage in the cavernous sinus can cause ischemic injury to the cranial nerves.
  • An appropriate anatomical knowledge of the blood supply to the cranial nerves can help to reduce the morbidity associated with cavernous sinus surgery.
  • RESULTS: The 12 explored cavernous sinuses demonstrated the presence of two principal branches directly from the intracavernous internal carotid artery that supply the cranial nerves: the infero-lateral trunk and the meningohypophyseal trunk.
  • The artery of the Superior Orbital Fissure (SOF), originated more often from the infero-lateral trunk, and vascularized the III, IV, VI, and VI, and ophtalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (TGN VI) at their entry in the fissure.
  • The blood supply to all cranial nerves in the SOF is at risk to injury when the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus is transgressed at the anteromedial triangle since the SOF-artery runs superficially at this level.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Artery, Internal / surgery. Cavernous Sinus / surgery. Cranial Nerves / blood supply. Ischemia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18554776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Bek S, Genc G, Demirkaya S, Eroglu E, Odabasi Z: Ophthalmoplegic migraine. Neurologist; 2009 May;15(3):147-9
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  • INTRODUCTION: According to the International Headache Society, ophthalmoplegic migraine is recurrent attacks of headache with migrainous characteristics associated with paresis of one or more ocular cranial nerves (commonly the third nerve) in the absence of any demonstrable intracranial lesion.
  • Brain MRI revealed a thickened, enhancing right oculomotor nerve.
  • Only 2 weeks later, clinical improvement was observed and 3 months later the oculomotor nerve enhancement resolved.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first ophthalmoplegic migraine case presented pretreatment and post-treatment with clinical photographic documentation and an MRI showing enduring thickening of the oculomotor nerve although symptoms and contrast enhancement resolved.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19430270.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-2637
  • [Journal-full-title] The neurologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Giffoni SD, Gonçalves VM, Zanardi VA, Gil-da-Silva-Lopes VL: Cerebellar involvement in midline facial defects with ocular hypertelorism. Cleft Palate Craniofac J; 2006 Jul;43(4):466-70
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  • Mild hypotonia (24 of 24), abnormalities in cranial shape (24 of 24), cranial nerves (19 of 24), motor coordination (18 of 24), dynamic equilibrium (14 of 24), and language problems (8 of 24) were noted.


73. Smith A, Letters S, Lange A, Perrett D, McHugh S, Bagg J: Residual protein levels on reprocessed dental instruments. J Hosp Infect; 2005 Nov;61(3):237-41
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  • Endodontic files are used in the preparation of root canals and are likely to have close contact and become contaminated with neural material from branches of the maxillary and mandibular cranial nerves.

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  • (PMID = 16002186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6701
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hospital infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hosp. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 643-79-8 / o-Phthalaldehyde; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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74. Erol FS, Kaplan M, Kavakli A, Ozveren MF: Jugular foramen syndrome caused by choleastatoma. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2005 Jun;107(4):342-6
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  • Unilateral paresis of 9th-11th cranial nerves together is defined as jugular foramen (Vernet's) syndrome.
  • Early surgery is important to completely reverse the lost nerve functions in treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / complications. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 15885397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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75. Ulu EM, Töre HG, Bayrak A, Güngör D, Coşkun M: MRI of central nervous system abnormalities in childhood leukemia. Diagn Interv Radiol; 2009 Jun;15(2):86-92
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  • The imaging abnormalities seen in 12 patients prior to or during treatment, or within three months after completion of treatment included orbital, temporal, cerebellopontine angle, and spinal chloroma; bilateral subdural hematoma in the subacute stage; multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhage; bilateral retinal hemorrhage and detachment; hematoma in the pons and mesencephalon; PRES (posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome); bilateral leukemic infiltration of the 3(rd), left 7(th), and 8(th) cranial nerves; and meningeal leukemia.
  • Three months after completion of treatment, three patients had CNS complications including radiation necrosis and secondary brain tumor, osteomyelitis of the L3 vertebra, and meningeal leukemia.
  • Because many neurologic complications of leukemia are treatable, early diagnosis is essential.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leukemia / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19517377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1305-3612
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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76. Roberts A, Feetham B, Pajak M, Teare T: Responses of hatchling Xenopus tadpoles to water currents: first function of lateral line receptors without cupulae. J Exp Biol; 2009 Apr;212(Pt 7):914-21
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  • Local stimulation in immobilised animals where motor activity was recorded electrically suggested that the receptors detecting water currents were located between the eyes and the gills and were innervated by cranial nerves.

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  • (PMID = 19282488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0949
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Boğa I, Aktas S: Treatment, classification, and review of Tapia syndrome. J Craniofac Surg; 2010 Jan;21(1):278-80
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  • Possible cause of this disorder is injury to the 10th and 12th cranial nerves without involvement of the pharyngeal branches of the 10th nerve.

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  • (PMID = 20098201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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78. Mitsuyama T, Ide M, Hagiwara S, Tanaka N, Kawamura H, Aiba M: [Adult choroid plexus papilloma of the posterior fossa: extraventricular location]. No Shinkei Geka; 2005 Aug;33(8):825-9
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  • Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare neuroectodermal neoplasms accounting for 0.4% of all intracranial neoplasms in adults.
  • It is difficult to diagnose CPP preoperatively when the main portion of the tumor is not located in the 4th ventricle.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intracerebellar solid tumor with multilocular cysts, extending towards both the right lateral medullary region and the foramen of Luschka.
  • Angiographically, via the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery revealed the tumor was faintly opacified.
  • Preoperative diagnosis included meningiomas, low-grade astrocytomas, ependymomas or CPPs, but none of them had neuroradiologically decisive findings.
  • Tumor was subtotally resected through a right suboccipital craniectomy.
  • A calcified solid portion adhering to the lower cranial nerves was left unresected.
  • CPP should be considered among calcified and enhanced masses in the lateral medullary to cerebellopontine angle space in adults, even if the main portion of the tumor is not located in the 4th ventricle.
  • [MeSH-major] Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] No Shinkei Geka. 2005 Oct;33(10):977
  • (PMID = 16095214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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79. Zhang HY, Yang GH, Chen HJ, Wei B, Ke Q, Guo H, Ye L, Bu H, Yang K, Zhang YH: Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of 13 cases of melanotic schwannoma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2005 Sep 5;118(17):1451-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The description of the course of the tumors differs somewhat, but it is generally considered as a benign lesion.
  • METHODS: Tumor specimens of each patient were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Fontana-Masson, Prussian blue, and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS).
  • The tumor sites included the spinal nerve root (5 patients), cranial nerve (1), greater omentum (1), subcutaneous tissue (3), mesentery (1), bone (1) and mediastinum (1).
  • One patient (9.1%) with a primary tumor in the greater omentum developed another primary tumor of the same type in the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal wall after the first operation.
  • Local recurrence of the tumor was seen in 2 patients (18.2%).
  • Grossly, all tumors were well-circumscribed and the gross findings were suggestive of melanin-containing tumors.
  • The tumor was composed of spindled and epithelioid cells with abundant intracytoplasmic melanin pigments.
  • Ultrastructurally, numerous elongated tumor-cell processes, duplicated basement membrane and melanosomes were observed in all developmental stages.
  • Distinguishing between this tumor and malignant melanoma is of paramount importance in planning of management.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Middle Aged. Prognosis


80. Querol-Pascual MR: Clinical approach to brainstem lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2010 Jun;31(3):220-9
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  • The brainstem contains 9 of the 12 cranial nerves and is crossed by ascending, descending, and cerebellar pathways and their nuclei as well as the reticular formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem Infarctions / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Mapping / methods. Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20483390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-2171
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Ultrasound CT MR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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81. Dhingra S, Williams G, Pearson A: Severe, permanent orbital disease in herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Orbit; 2008;27(4):325-7
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  • A 63-year-old man with HZO presented with involvement of cranial nerves II, III, IV, V, and VI, with proptosis, raised intraocular pressure, and chemosis.
  • With the aid of orbital imaging, a diagnosis of orbital apex inflammation secondary to HZO was confirmed, and he was treated with intravenous acyclovir and oral steroids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Blepharoptosis / diagnosis. Blepharoptosis / drug therapy. Blepharoptosis / etiology. Conjunctival Diseases / diagnosis. Conjunctival Diseases / drug therapy. Conjunctival Diseases / etiology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Edema / diagnosis. Edema / drug therapy. Edema / etiology. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Exophthalmos / drug therapy. Exophthalmos / etiology. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Intraocular Pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Ocular Hypertension / diagnosis. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy. Ocular Hypertension / etiology. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18716975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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82. Assessing the cranial nerves. Nursing; 2006 Nov;36(11):47-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessing the cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves. Neurologic Examination / methods. Nursing Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Documentation. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17079921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-4039
  • [Journal-full-title] Nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nursing
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Fu JY, Gao XG, Li SY, Wang LZ, Hu YJ: [Ectopic meningioma in oral and maxillofacial region: report of 23 cases]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue; 2010 Feb;19(1):23-7
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  • The primary sites of the tumor were parapharyngeal space(13), infratemporal space/ pterygopalatine space(5), temporal region(3),orbital area (1) and buccal mucosa(1).
  • All 23 cases underwent surgical treatment, seventeen cases underwent the tumor totally resected and 6 cases underwent partially resected.
  • Twelve cases were followed up, in which 3 cases recurred and 8 cases had a long-term nerve injury.
  • The predilection site of the tumor is the deep space of oral and maxillofacial region with adherence to the cervical sheath and lower cranial nerves.
  • Preoperative CT scan is helpful for diagnosis.
  • The main complication is nerve injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningioma. Mouth Neoplasms. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20300688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1006-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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84. Kandenwein JA, Richter HP, Antoniadis G: Foramen magnum meningiomas--experience with the posterior suboccipital approach. Br J Neurosurg; 2009 Feb;23(1):33-9
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  • Between 1992 and 2006, 16 patients with foramen magnum meningiomas were operated on in our institution, and in all cases a posterior suboccipital approach was utilised with lateral extension of the bone opening according to the position of the tumour.
  • In 14 patients, intraoperative monitoring of the lower cranial nerves was performed.
  • Complete removal of the tumour was possible in 14 cases (Simpson 1-2).
  • [MeSH-major] Foramen Magnum / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Microsurgery / methods. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 19234907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Liu TR, Yang AK, Guo X, Li QL, Song M, He JH, Wang YH, Guo ZM, Zhang Q, Chen WQ, Chen FJ: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasopharynx: 27-year experience. Laryngoscope; 2008 Nov;118(11):1981-8
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  • We presented one institution's experience with this tumor and the outcomes of treatment.
  • Cranial nerves invasion, advanced stage and nonsurgical treatment indicated a significant worse OS, whereas combined surgical treatment was an independent factor affecting disease free survival rate and OS.
  • Cranial nerves invasion, stage and treatment approach might be important factors affecting the prognosis of the patients with NACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. China / epidemiology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pharyngectomy / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18758378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Chung KH, Cherian M, Chandran KN: Schwannoma with tentorial attachment in the cerebellopontine angle mimicking a meningioma. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Aug;14(8):797-801
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  • Intracranial schwannoma not associated with the cranial nerves is rare.
  • It is also an intriguing neoplasm since the Schwann cell is not native to the central nervous system.
  • In addition, we briefly review the main hypotheses for the origin of this neoplasm and highlight its resemblance to meningioma and inclusion as a differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / surgery. Trochlear Nerve Diseases

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  • (PMID = 17532220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins
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87. Belzile O, Gulemetova R, Kinkead R: Effects of medullary Raphé stimulation on fictive lung ventilation during development in Rana catesbeiana. J Exp Biol; 2007 Jun;210(Pt 12):2046-56
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  • Fictive lung ventilation was recorded extracelluarly from the Vth and Xth cranial nerves.

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  • (PMID = 17562878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0949
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indoles; 0 / Receptors, Serotonin; 0 / Serotonin Antagonists; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 55D94103HL / Methiothepin; 6I819NIK1W / tropisetron
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88. Gläsker S, Pechstein U, Vougioukas VI, Van Velthoven V: Monitoring motor function during resection of tumours in the lower brain stem and fourth ventricle. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Oct;22(10):1288-95
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  • METHODS: We performed intraoperative neuromonitoring of cranial nerve function by electromyography (EMG) and motor evoked potential (MEP).
  • We recommend using monitoring of MEP and EMG of the lower cranial nerves in surgery on all patients with lesions involving the lower brain stem and fourth ventricle.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Brain Stem / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Monitoring, Intraoperative
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Nerves / physiopathology. Electromyography / methods. Evoked Potentials, Motor / physiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16699805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Waterval JJ, Stokroos RJ, Bauer NJ, De Bondt RB, Manni JJ: Phenotypic manifestations and management of hyperostosis cranialis interna, a hereditary bone dysplasia affecting the calvaria and the skull base. Am J Med Genet A; 2010 Mar;152A(3):547-55
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  • [Title] Phenotypic manifestations and management of hyperostosis cranialis interna, a hereditary bone dysplasia affecting the calvaria and the skull base.
  • Hyperostosis cranialis interna is a hereditary bone disorder that is characterized by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the calvaria and the skull base (OMIM 144755).
  • The progressive bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of cranial nerves I, II, V, VII, and VIII, its first symptoms often presenting during the second decade.
  • The disorder appears to have an autosomal-dominant transmission pattern.
  • Facial and vestibulocochlear nerve dysfunction are most frequently reported.
  • Surgical decompression of the accessible impaired cranial nerves is advised in the early symptomatic period or even in the presymptomatic period in high-risk individuals.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Decompression, Surgical. Diagnosis, Differential. Facial Paralysis / genetics. Facial Paralysis / surgery. Female. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Netherlands. Pedigree. Phenotype. Sex Characteristics. Skull / radiography. Skull Base / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20140965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. MacNally SP, Rutherford SA, Ramsden RT, Evans DG, King AT: Trigeminal schwannomas. Br J Neurosurg; 2008 Dec;22(6):729-38
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  • The vast majority are benign in nature although malignancies have been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms. Neurilemmoma. Trigeminal Nerve. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Facial Pain / etiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / standards. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiosurgery / standards

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  • (PMID = 19085355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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91. Strickler J, Bonifacio A: Assessing cranial nerves with a stick of gum. J Emerg Nurs; 2010 Sep;36(5):470-1
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  • [Title] Assessing cranial nerves with a stick of gum.
  • [MeSH-major] Chewing Gum. Cranial Nerves. Craniocerebral Trauma / diagnosis. Neurologic Examination / methods

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  • (PMID = 20837219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Emerg Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chewing Gum
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92. Fei Z, Zhang X, Jiang XF, Liu WP, Wang XL, Xie L: Removal of large benign cephalonasal tumours by transbasal surgery combined with endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery and neuronavigation. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2007 Jan;35(1):30-4
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  • [Title] Removal of large benign cephalonasal tumours by transbasal surgery combined with endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery and neuronavigation.
  • In 20 cases neuronavigation was used in addition to locate the tumour and adjoining structures.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven cases had a complete removal of the tumour whilst the others had only a subtotal resection.
  • The long-term postoperative sequelae included hypoosmia, ophthalmoplegia, paralysis of the 6th cranial nerve or hypopsia in 8 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Transbasal surgery combined with endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery and neuronavigation is a particularly useful technique for resecting large benign cephalonasal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neuronavigation / methods. Skull Base / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Olfaction Disorders / etiology. Ophthalmoplegia / etiology. Paralysis / etiology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17261369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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93. Zhou LF, Mao Y, Zhang R: Surgical treatment of dumbbell-shaped neurinomas: report of an experience with 57 cases in a single hospital. Surg Neurol; 2007 Dec;68(6):594-602
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  • BACKGROUND: Dumbbell-shaped trigeminal neurinomas are rare benign tumors with a controversy regarding their treatment and surgical approaches.
  • METHODS: One hundred thirty-seven patients with trigeminal neurinomas, accounting for 0.6% of all intracranial tumors and 3.8% of intracranial neurinomas, were screened out from the data bank on brain tumors in Hua Shan Hospital (Shanghai, China) from 1978 to 2003.
  • After the tumor in the middle cranial fossa was resected, the tumor in the posterior fossa was resected via a suboccipital approach in the early group and through enlarged porus trigeminus without resection of the petrous apex in the latter group.
  • RESULTS: There were 12 patients in the early group and 45 patients (including 6 patients with recurrent tumors) in the latter group.
  • Tumor size measured on MRI and/or CT were 30 to 40 mm in 4 (33%) cases from the early group and 14 (31%) cases from the latter group, 41 to 50 mm in 8 (67%) cases from the early group and 25 (56%) cases from the latter group, and more than 50 mm in 6 (13%) cases from the latter group.
  • There were 3 patients in the latter group with a tumor extending into the infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa.
  • Total tumor resection was achieved in 42% (5/12) of the early group and 87% (39/45) of the latter group (chi(2) = 10.897, P < .001); incomplete tumor removal was done in 58% (7/12) of the early group and 13% (6/45) of the latter group.
  • Cranial nerve morbidities were seen in 80% of the early group and 41% of the latter group (chi(2) = 12.052, P < .01), when patients were discharged.
  • Six months after operation, however, cranial nerve morbidities were seen in 55% of the early group and 18.6% of the latter group (chi(2) = 8.585, P < .01).
  • Recurrent tumors occurred in 3 patients from the early group and were reoperated on.
  • One patient with a recurrent tumor from the latter group underwent radiosurgery 5 years after the operation.
  • It is not necessary to resect the petrous apex for removal of the tumor in the posterior fossa.
  • Radiosurgery can be used for the residual or recurrent tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Trigeminal Nerve / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18053854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Chang SD, Gibbs IC, Sakamoto GT, Lee E, Oyelese A, Adler JR Jr: Staged stereotactic irradiation for acoustic neuroma. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jun;56(6):1254-61; discussion 1261-3
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  • Prior reports using single-stage radiosurgery consistently have shown excellent tumor control, but only up to a 50 to 73% likelihood of maintaining hearing at pretreatment levels.
  • Staged, frame-based radiosurgery using 12-hour interfraction intervals previously has been shown by our group to achieve excellent tumor control while increasing the rate of hearing preservation at 2 years to 77%.
  • We hypothesize that such factors may further minimize injury of adjacent cranial nerves.
  • Among the treated patients, the mean transverse tumor diameter was 18.5 mm, whereas the total marginal dose was either 18 or 21 Gy using three 6- or 7-Gy fractions.
  • Only one treated tumor (2%) progressed after radiosurgery; 29 (48%) of 61 decreased in size and 31 (50%) of the 61 tumors were stable.
  • In no patients did new trigeminal dysfunction develop, nor did any patient experience permanent injury to their facial nerve; two patients experienced transient facial twitching that resolved in 3 to 5 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Although still preliminary, these results indicate that improved tumor dose homogeneity and a staged treatment regimen may improve hearing preservation in acoustic neuroma patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroma, Acoustic / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 15918941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Hermier M, Leal PR, Salaris SF, Froment JC, Sindou M: [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves]. Neurochirurgie; 2009 Apr;55(2):162-73
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  • [Title] [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].
  • [Transliterated title] Imagerie anatomique des nerfs crâniens.
  • Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions.
  • MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely.
  • The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels).
  • This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19303113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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96. Zerris VA, Noren GC, Shucart WA, Rogg J, Friehs GM: Targeting the cranial nerve: microradiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia with CISS and 3D-flash MR imaging sequences. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:107-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting the cranial nerve: microradiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia with CISS and 3D-flash MR imaging sequences.
  • OBJECT: The authors undertook a study to identify magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that can be used reliably during gamma knife surgery (GKS) to identify the trigeminal nerve, surrounding vasculature, and areas of compression.
  • METHODS: Preoperative visualization of the trigeminal nerve and surrounding vasculature as well as targeting the area of vascular compression may increase the effectiveness of GKS for trigeminal neuralgia.
  • During the past years our gamma knife centers have researched different MR imaging sequences with regard to their ability to visualize cranial nerves and vascular structures.
  • In 24 (96%) out of the 25 patients, the fifth cranial nerve, surrounding vessels, and areas of compression could be reliably identified using CISS/3D-Flash.
  • In one of 25 patients with a history of multiple RF lesions, the visualization was inadequate due to severe trigeminal nerve atrophy.
  • It affords the best visualization of the trigeminal nerve, surrounding vasculature, and the precise location of vascular compression.


97. Pavlisa G, Ozretic D, Murselovic T, Pavlisa G, Rados M: Sole stenting of large and giant intracranial aneurysms with self-expanding intracranial stents-limits and complications. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 May;152(5):763-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The symptoms due to the compression of cranial nerves resolved in four patients (57%).

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  • (PMID = 20101418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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98. Babbitz JD, Harsh GR 4th: Concomitant ectatic posterior communicating artery and tentorial meningioma as a source of oculomotor palsy: case report. Neurosurgery; 2005 Dec;57(6):E1316; discussion E1316
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Although non-aneurysmal vascular compression of the oculomotor nerve is rare, it should be considered in the evaluation of unilateral oculomotor palsy.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old non-diabetic man presented with two months of intermittent retro-orbital headache and third nerve paresis caused by compression of the oculomotor nerve between an ectatic, atherosclerotic posterior communicating artery (PComA) and a small tentorial meningioma.
  • At operation, the subarachnoid portion of the nerve, prevented from migrating posteriorly and laterally by the meningioma, was grooved by the apex of the artery's loop.
  • INTERVENTION: Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the artery loop from the nerve and resection of the meningioma were performed.
  • Tumor infiltrating the posterior tentorium and lateral cavernous sinus was treated by Cyberknife radiosurgery five months later.
  • CONCLUSION: Only one other report describes MVD of the third nerve from PComA compression.
  • A review is presented of MVD carried out for similar cases of non-aneurysmal vascular compression of the oculomotor nerve.
  • Complete evaluation of an isolated third nerve palsy should include MRI sequences designed to detect vascular compression of cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Circle of Willis / physiopathology. Intracranial Arteriosclerosis / complications. Meningioma / complications. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Vasodilation

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  • (PMID = 16331147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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99. Lewis CM, Dolence EK, Hubbard CS, Rose JD: Identification of roughskin newt medullary vasotocin target neurons with a fluorescent vasotocin conjugate. J Comp Neurol; 2005 Oct 31;491(4):381-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Direct application of AVT-Oregon green to the fourth ventricular surface of the medulla in vivo resulted in conjugate internalization by a widespread population of medullary neurons, particularly in the medial reticular formation and nuclei of cranial nerves V, VII, VIII, IX, and X.

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16175544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9967
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of comparative neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR015553; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM062139
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluoresceins; W6S6URY8OF / Vasotocin
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100. Tubbs RS, Stetler W, Louis RG Jr, Gupta AA, Loukas M, Kelly DR, Shoja MM, Cohen-Gadol AA: Surgical challenges associated with the morphology of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior cervical triangle: functional or structural? J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Jan;12(1):22-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical challenges associated with the morphology of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior cervical triangle: functional or structural?
  • OBJECT: The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) has been reported to have a distinctly coiled appearance in its course through the posterior cervical triangle of the neck.
  • As this is unusual compared with other peripheral nerves including the cranial nerves, the present histological analysis was performed to further elucidate the reason for this anatomy with potential application in nerve injury and repair.
  • For comparison with other cranial nerves within the neck, the cervical vagus and hypoglossal nerves were also harvested.
  • All nerves underwent histological analysis.
  • The histology of the SAN both with routine analysis and electron microscopy was similar in both regions and to nerves used as controls (for example, vagus and hypoglossal nerves).
  • Moreover, such a coiled nature of this nerve may assist the neurosurgeon in identifying it during, for example, neurotization procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Accessory Nerve / pathology. Accessory Nerve / surgery. Neck / innervation. Neck / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Accessory Nerve Injuries. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve / pathology. Hypoglossal Nerve / surgery. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Microsurgery / methods. Middle Aged. Nerve Transfer / methods. Pregnancy. Vagus Nerve / pathology. Vagus Nerve / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20043759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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