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Items 1 to 100 of about 979
1. Adachi M, Kabasawa H, Kawaguchi E: Depiction of the cranial nerves within the brain stem with use of PROPELLER multishot diffusion-weighted imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 May;29(5):911-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Depiction of the cranial nerves within the brain stem with use of PROPELLER multishot diffusion-weighted imaging.
  • Despite the recent progress of MR imaging, visualization of the cranial nerves within the brain stem has not been accomplished.
  • We succeeded in depicting the cranial nerves within the brain stem in some subjects by using this method with motion-probing gradient applied in the superior-inferior direction.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Brain Stem / anatomy & histology. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 18258705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. McKinney AM, Short J, Lucato L, SantaCruz K, McKinney Z, Kim Y: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the orbit with associated enhancement of the meninges and multiple cranial nerves. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Nov-Dec;27(10):2217-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the orbit with associated enhancement of the meninges and multiple cranial nerves.
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS), and idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP) seem to be part of a spectrum of disorders that have diverse locations but similar histologic and imaging findings.
  • We report a case of a 50-year-old man presenting with multiple progressive cranial nerves palsies with leptomeningeal cranial nerve enhancement on MRI (II, V1-V3, and X), orbital and infraorbital masses, prominence within the left cavernous sinus, and diffuse dural enhancement.
  • Biopsies of the orbital lesion and infraorbital nerve revealed IMT.
  • The case also describes the unique finding of enhancement of the cisternal segments of multiple cranial nerves (simulating leptomeningeal malignant involvement), which may be related to inflammatory perineural edema or ischemic neuropathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Meninges. Orbital Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17110698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Erman AB, Kejner AE, Hogikyan ND, Feldman EL: Disorders of cranial nerves IX and X. Semin Neurol; 2009 Feb;29(1):85-92

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Disorders of cranial nerves IX and X.
  • The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves mediate the complex interplay between the many functions of the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • Defects may occur anywhere from the brainstem to the peripheral nerve and can result in significant impairment in speech, swallowing, and breathing.
  • In this review, the authors broadly examine the normal functions, clinical examination, and various pathologies of cranial nerves IX and X.
  • [MeSH-major] Deglutition / physiology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / physiopathology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases / etiology. Speech / physiology. Vagus Nerve / physiopathology. Vagus Nerve Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19214937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-8235
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS047653; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / U01 DK076160; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / U54 DA021519
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS642510; NLM/ PMC4239699
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4. Sheehan J, Kondziolka D, Flickinger J, Lunsford LD: Gamma knife surgery for glomus jugulare tumors: an intermediate report on efficacy and safety. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):241-246

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gamma knife surgery for glomus jugulare tumors: an intermediate report on efficacy and safety.
  • OBJECT: Glomus jugulare tumors are rare tumors that commonly involve the middle ear, temporal bone, and lower cranial nerves.
  • Despite these therapies, tumor control can be difficult to achieve particularly without undo risk of patient morbidity or mortality.
  • The authors examine the safety and efficacy of gamma knife surgery (GKS) for glomus jugulare tumors.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of the results obtained in eight patients who underwent GKS for recurrent, residual, or unresectable glomus jugulare tumors.
  • The median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (range 12-18 Gy).
  • No cranial nerve palsies arose or deteriorated after GKS.
  • In the seven patients in whom radiographic follow up was obtained, the tumor size decreased in four and remained stable in three.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma knife surgery would seem to afford effective local tumor control and preserves neurological function in patients with glomus jugulare tumors.

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  • (PMID = 28306446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gamma knife surgery / glomus jugulare tumor / radiosurgery
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5. Zerris VA, Noren GC, Shucart WA, Rogg J, Friehs GM: Targeting the cranial nerve: microradiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia with CISS and 3D-Flash MR imaging sequences. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):107-110
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting the cranial nerve: microradiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia with CISS and 3D-Flash MR imaging sequences.
  • OBJECT: The authors undertook a study to identify magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that can be used reliably during gamma knife surgery (GKS) to identify the trigeminal nerve, surrounding vasculature, and areas of compression.
  • METHODS: Preoperative visualization of the trigeminal nerve and surrounding vasculature as well as targeting the area of vascular compression may increase the effectiveness of GKS for trigeminal neuralgia.
  • During the past years our gamma knife centers have researched different MR imaging sequences with regard to their ability to visualize cranial nerves and vascular structures.
  • In 24 (96%) out of the 25 patients, the fifth cranial nerve, surrounding vessels, and areas of compression could be reliably identified using CISS/3D-Flash.
  • In one of 25 patients with a history of multiple RF lesions, the visualization was inadequate due to severe trigeminal nerve atrophy.
  • It affords the best visualization of the trigeminal nerve, surrounding vasculature, and the precise location of vascular compression.

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  • (PMID = 28306479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; constructive inteference in steady-state / cranial nerve / magnetic resonance imaging / three-dimensional gradient echo / trigeminal neuralgia
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6. Sanders RD: Cranial Nerves III, IV, and VI: Oculomotor Function. Psychiatry (Edgmont); 2009 Nov;6(11):34-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cranial Nerves III, IV, and VI: Oculomotor Function.
  • Motor activity affecting the direction of gaze, the position of the eyelids, and the size of the pupils are served by cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.

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  • (PMID = 20049149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-5194
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychiatry (Edgmont)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2801485
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; abducens nerve / cranial nerve III / cranial nerve IV / cranial nerve VI / examination of the visual system / extraocular movements / eye movements / nystagmus / oculomotor / oculomotor nerve / psychiatry and neurology / pupil / trochlear nerve
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7. Stark TA, McKinney AM, Palmer CS, Maisel RH, Truwit CL: Dilation of the subarachnoid spaces surrounding the cranial nerves with petrous apex cephaloceles in Usher syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2009 Feb;30(2):434-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dilation of the subarachnoid spaces surrounding the cranial nerves with petrous apex cephaloceles in Usher syndrome.
  • However, the specific appearance of the subarachnoid spaces surrounding the cranial nerves has not yet been described.
  • Multiple cranial nerve exits were enlarged to the point of causing cephaloceles with bony remodeling.
  • A combination of uncommon findings in this rare disorder raises the question of an etiologic association.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cranial Nerves. Dilatation, Pathologic / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18945801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Gillig PM, Sanders RD: Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII. Psychiatry (Edgmont); 2010 May;7(5):37-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII.
  • This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX-XII).
  • To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
  • Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia.
  • Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression.
  • A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use.
  • Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases.
  • Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement.
  • This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry.

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  • (PMID = 20532157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-5194
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychiatry (Edgmont)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2882282
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; bulimia / glossopharyngeal neuralgia / impaired gag reflex / neurology and psychiatry / obesity / pseudobulbar palsy / swallow syncope / tardive dystonia; hiccups / vagus nerve and depression
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9. Ozanne A, Pereira V, Krings T, Toulgoat F, Lasjaunias P: Arterial vascularization of the cranial nerves. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2008 May;18(2):431-9, xii

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Arterial vascularization of the cranial nerves.
  • We discuss the arterial supply of the cranial nerves from their exit out of the brain stem to their exit from the skull base.
  • Understanding the arterial supply to the cranial nerves and the potential anastomoses is paramount in the endovascular treatment of dural AV shunts and highly vascularized tumors of the skull base to avoid neurologic deficits.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 18466840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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10. Hermier M, Leal PR, Salaris SF, Froment JC, Sindou M: [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves]. Neurochirurgie; 2009 Apr;55(2):162-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].
  • [Transliterated title] Imagerie anatomique des nerfs crâniens.
  • Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions.
  • MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely.
  • The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels).
  • This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19303113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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11. Okumura Y, Suzuki M, Takemura A, Tsujii H, Kawahara K, Matsuura Y, Takada T: [Visualization of the lower cranial nerves by 3D-FIESTA]. Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Feb 20;61(2):291-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Visualization of the lower cranial nerves by 3D-FIESTA].
  • This method is capable of visualizing tiny structures such as blood vessels and cranial nerves in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space because of its superior contrast resolution.
  • The cranial nerves and small vessels are shown as structures of low intensity surrounded by marked hyperintensity of the CSF.
  • In the present study, we evaluated visualization of the lower cranial nerves (glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory) by the three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) sequence and multiplanar reformation (MPR) technique.
  • We examined the visualization of a total of 66 nerves in 11 subjects by 3D-FIESTA.
  • In all cases, all glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves were identified to some extent, while accessory nerves were visualized either partially or entirely in only 16 cases.
  • In conclusion, 3D-FIESTA may be a useful method for visualization of the lower cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Accessory Nerve / pathology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / pathology. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Vagus Nerve / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15753871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0369-4305
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hōshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Nemec SF, Kasprian G, Nemec U, Czerny C: [Cranial nerves - spectrum of inflammatory and tumorous changes]. Radiologe; 2009 Jul;49(7):608-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cranial nerves - spectrum of inflammatory and tumorous changes].
  • [Transliterated title] Hirnnerven - Spektrum entzündlicher und tumoröser Veränderungen.
  • Inflammatory processes as well as primary and secondary tumorous changes may involve cranial nerves causing neurological deficits.
  • In addition to neurologists, ENT physicians, ophthalmologists and maxillofacial surgeons, radiologists play an important role in the investigation of patients with cranial nerve symptoms.
  • Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow the depiction of the cranial nerve anatomy and pathological neural changes.
  • This article briefly describes the imaging techniques in MDCT and MRI and is dedicated to the radiological presentation of inflammatory and tumorous cranial nerve pathologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19455297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2102
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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13. Gürdal E, Cakmak YO, Ozdogmus O, Yalçinkaya M, Uzün I, Gögüsgeren MA, Cavdar S: Morphometric measurements of the caudal cranial nerves in the petroclival region. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2007 May;68(2):47-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphometric measurements of the caudal cranial nerves in the petroclival region.
  • OBJECTIVE: The dural zone of entry or exit of the caudal cranial nerves in the petroclival region does not have a constant localization.
  • The present study aimed to measure the clival length, the distances between cranial nerve dural openings and the distance of cranial nerves from the mid-clival line in 30 human autopsy cases.
  • RESULTS: The average distances between the right and left dural openings of caudal cranial nerves in the petroclival region were as follows (mean+/-sd): trigeminal, 32.17+/-5.41 mm; abducent, 20.04+/-3.23 mm; facial and vestibulocochlear, 50.97+/-5.86 mm; glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, 41.59+/-6.46 mm and hypoglossal 26.8+/-4.33 mm.
  • The measurements of the distances of the cranial nerve exits to the mid-clival line showed considerable asymmetries for the left and right trigeminal nerves.
  • Furthermore, the distances between the trigeminal and the abducent nerves on the right and left differed significantly (p<0.029).
  • The average distance between these two cranial nerves on the left was 8.44+/-3.66 mm and on the right was 7.31+/-2.41 mm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most of the surgical procedures performed in this area are to remove tumors which significantly modify the local anatomy.
  • Knowledge of morphometric variations can increase the success of cranial nerve preservation during surgical procedures of the posterior cranial fossa.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 17614083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Brazis PW: Isolated palsies of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. Semin Neurol; 2009 Feb;29(1):14-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated palsies of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.
  • In this article, isolated palsies of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI are addressed.
  • After discussion of the pertinent clinical anatomy of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, the isolated involvement of each of these oculomotor nerves is defined.
  • Based on a review of the literature, methods of evaluation and follow-up of patients presenting with diplopia from lesions of these cranial nerves are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / physiopathology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Oculomotor Nerve / physiopathology. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Paralysis / physiopathology. Trochlear Nerve / physiopathology. Trochlear Nerve Diseases / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19214929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-8235
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 113
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15. Leonetti JP, Anderson DE, Marzo SJ, Origitano TC, Shirazi M: Intracranial schwannomas of the lower cranial nerves. Otol Neurotol; 2006 Dec;27(8):1142-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracranial schwannomas of the lower cranial nerves.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience in the diagnosis and management of 39 patients with lower cranial nerve schwannomas of the posterior fossa.
  • PATIENTS: All patients with intracranial lower cranial nerve schwannomas treated surgically in our institution between July 1998 and July 2005.
  • INTERVENTION: A retrosigmoid, transcondylar, or combined approach was used for tumor recurrence.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients underwent surgical resection, with complete tumor removal in 32, near-total resection in 5 patients, and subtotal tumor excision in 2 patients.
  • Long-term (mean, 8.2 years) magnetic resonance imaging surveillance demonstrated recurrent tumor in 2 of 32 complete resections and slow regrowth in 2 of 7 patients with known residual disease.
  • DISCUSSION: Intracranial schwannomas of the lower cranial nerves are relatively uncommon and may present with subtle or no clinical symptoms.
  • Successful surgical resection with low risk of tumor recurrence can be achieved with the retrosigmoid or transcondylar approach.
  • Morbidity, in this series, was primarily related to lower cranial nerve deficits.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17130803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-7129
  • [Journal-full-title] Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otol. Neurotol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Tubbs RS, Wellons JC 3rd, Blount JP, Salter EG, Oakes WJ: Forces necessary for the disruption of the cisternal segments of cranial nerves II through XII. Clin Anat; 2007 Apr;20(3):252-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Forces necessary for the disruption of the cisternal segments of cranial nerves II through XII.
  • Manipulation of the cisternal segment of cranial nerves is often performed by the neurosurgeon.
  • To date, attempts at quantifying the forces necessary to disrupt these nerves in situ, to our knowledge, has not been performed.
  • The present study seeks to further elucidate the forces necessary to disrupt the cranial nerves while within the subarachnoid space.
  • The cisternal segments of cranial nerves II through XII were exposed in six unfixed cadavers, all less than 6 hr postmortem.
  • Mean forces necessary to disrupt nerves for left sides in increasing order were found for cranial nerves IX, VII, IV, X, XII, III, VIII, XI, VI, V, and II, respectively.
  • Mean forces for right-sided cranial nerves in increasing order were found for cranial nerves IX, VII, IV, X, XII, VIII, V, VI, XI, III, and II, respectively.
  • Overall, cranial nerves requiring the least amount of force prior to failure included cranial nerves IV, VII, and IX.
  • Those requiring the highest amount of force included cranial nerves II, V, VI, and XI.
  • Cranial nerve III was found to require significantly (P < 0.05) greater forces to failure for right versus left sides.
  • To date, the neurosurgeon has had no experimentally derived data from humans for the in situ forces necessary to disrupt the cisternal segment of cranial nerves II through XII.
  • We found that cranial nerve IX consistently took the least amount of force until its failure and cranial nerve II took the greatest.
  • Other cranial nerves that took relatively small amount of force prior to failure included cranial nerves IV and VII.
  • Although in vivo damage can occur prior to failure of a cranial nerve, our data may serve to provide a rough estimation for the maximal amount of tension that can be applied to a cranial nerve that is manipulated while within its cistern.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomechanical Phenomena. Facial Nerve / anatomy & histology. Female. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Optic Nerve / anatomy & histology. Pressure. Trochlear Nerve / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16317744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0897-3806
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Zyrina GV: [Multiple lesions of cranial nerves in acute lymphoblast leukosis]. Klin Med (Mosk); 2010;88(1):72-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Multiple lesions of cranial nerves in acute lymphoblast leukosis].
  • A case of acute lymphoblast leucosis in the debut phase is reported with multiple lesions of cranial nerves (trigeminal, facial, cohleovestibular, sublingual, vagus).
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20369618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia meditsina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Med (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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18. Nikitin KA, Bachegova EM, Kotel'nikova DA: [Innovations in pathogenetic therapy for peripheral affection of the cranial nerves in otorhinolaryngology]. Vestn Otorinolaringol; 2008;(4):45-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Innovations in pathogenetic therapy for peripheral affection of the cranial nerves in otorhinolaryngology].
  • A total of 150 patients with peripheral affection of the facialnerve, 100 patients with acute neurosensory hypoacusis, 50 patients with affection of the reciprocal nerve were treated by the method using reciprocal interaction between M- and H-cholinergic mechanisms.
  • Treatment outcomes showed that anticholinesterase therapy raises the efficacy of rehabilitation in patients with peripheral affection of the cranial nerves.

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  • (PMID = 18833121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4668
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik otorinolaringologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Otorinolaringol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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19. Zhang J, Yang C, Gu HH, Liang WM: [Intraoperative cranial nerves monitoring under partial neuromuscular relaxation during cerebellopontine angle tumor resection]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jun 3;88(21):1481-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intraoperative cranial nerves monitoring under partial neuromuscular relaxation during cerebellopontine angle tumor resection].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of multiple cranial nerves monitoring under partial Seventy elective neuromuscular relaxation during cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor resection.
  • METHODS: patients undergoing CPA tumor resection via microneurosurgery were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups: Group FN receiving intraoperative facial nerve (NF) monitoring and Group MN receiving monitoring of multiple nerves: trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve other than the FN which were considered at risk by the neurosurgeon preoperatively.
  • The manipulation procedure were modified according to cranial nerves monitoring and neuromuscular relaxation was maintained at train of four stimulation (TOF)=3 by continuous vencronium infusion during the acoustic neuroma resection.
  • The function of the cranial nerves monitored were evaluated preoperatively and 8 days postoperatively.
  • RESULTS: Discernable and legible images of electromyographic wave complex were obtained during cranial nerve mapping and monitoring under intraoperative partial neuromuscular relaxation form all the patients.
  • The facial nerve function of 4 patients exacerbated (from H-B grade I-II to grade III-IV) in both groups, and one new glossopharyngeal nerve function deficiency was found in Group FN, and one new hypoglossal nerve function deficiency was found in Group MN postoperatively.
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative cranial nerves monitoring under partial neuromuscular relaxation is feasible.
  • Multiple cranial nerves combined with facial nerve monitoring seems unable to increase the short-term protective effects of nerve function after CPA tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellopontine Angle / surgery. Cranial Nerves / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18953855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
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20. Mercier P, Brassier G, Fournier HD, Delion M, Papon X, Lasjaunias P: [Morphological anatomy of the cranial nerves in their cisternal segment (III-XII)]. Neurochirurgie; 2009 Apr;55(2):78-86

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Morphological anatomy of the cranial nerves in their cisternal segment (III-XII)].
  • [Transliterated title] Anatomie morphologique des nerfs crâniens dans leur portion cisternale (du III au XII).
  • One hundred brains (first injected in cerebral arteries and veins with latex neoprene or India ink and studied under optic magnification) illustrate this anatomic chapter concerning the microsurgical anatomy of the cisternal segment, the neurovascular relationships, and the blood supply of the IIIrd to the XIIth cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Cisterna Magna / anatomy & histology. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / anatomy & histology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Oculomotor Nerve / anatomy & histology. Trigeminal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Trochlear Nerve / anatomy & histology. Vestibular Nerve / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 19328500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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21. Ree A, Jain R, Rock J, Rosenblum M, Patel SC: Direct infiltration of brainstem glioma along the cranial nerves. J Neuroimaging; 2005 Apr;15(2):197-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Direct infiltration of brainstem glioma along the cranial nerves.
  • The authors describe a case of a low-grade brainstem glioma extending along the cranial nerves without any evidence of leptomeningeal spread.
  • The tumor extended directly along the VII-VIIIth cranial nerve complex and also along the trigeminal nerve, which is quite an unusual characteristic of the glial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Facial Nerve Diseases / pathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15746234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-2284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Saylam C, Ucerler H, Orhan M, Cagli S, Zileli M: The relationship of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery to cranial nerves VII-XII. Clin Anat; 2007 Nov;20(8):886-91

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relationship of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery to cranial nerves VII-XII.
  • It usually arises at the anterolateral margin of the medulla oblongata close to the lower cranial nerves.
  • The PICA had the most complex relationship to the cranial nerves of any artery and it is frequently exposed in approaches directed to the fourth ventricle.
  • The aim of this article is to describe the anatomical relationship of the PICA to the lower cranial nerves.
  • In this study, 12.5% of PICAs passed between the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, 20% between the vagus and accessory nerves, and 65% through the rootlets of the accessory nerve.
  • The lateral medullary segment of the PICA showed a lateral loop which in 20% specimens pressed against the inferior surfaces of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves.
  • The lateral medullary segment of the PICA in 20% specimens passed superior to the hypoglossal nerve, in 47.5% through the rootlets of the hypoglossal nerve, and in 30% inferior to the hypoglossal nerve.
  • The findings on the relationship of the PICA to the lower cranial nerves could be helpful in microsurgery of this region.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Nerve / anatomy & histology. Hypoglossal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Vertebral Artery / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Glossopharyngeal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Humans. Vagus Nerve / anatomy & histology. Vestibulocochlear Nerve / anatomy & histology

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • [CommentIn] Clin Anat. 2008 Mar;21(2):218-20; author reply 221 [18288764.001]
  • (PMID = 17907205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0897-3806
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Xu W, Sun G, Chen X, Chen Q, Fang Q, Sun N, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Ren M: [Observation of cranial nerves in the cerebellopontine angle region by retrosigmoid approach]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 May;23(10):454-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Observation of cranial nerves in the cerebellopontine angle region by retrosigmoid approach].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anatomical structures of cranial nerves in the cerebellopontine angle region to offer anatomical data for clinical operation.
  • After cutting cerebellum and meningeal between transverse and sigmoid sinus, simulate operating method of retrosigmoid approach to observe the cranial nerves.
  • RESULT: External diameter and length of left V, VII, VIII, IX cranial nerves are (2.54 +/- 0.84) mm and (6.79 +/- 2.51) mm, (1.18 +/- 0.31) mm and (9.89 +/- 2.66) mm, (2.17 +/- 0.52) mm and (9.92 +/- 2.61) mm, (0.77 +/- 0.24) mm and (10.34 +/- 3.12) mm respectively.
  • External diameter and length of right V , VII, VIII, IX cranial nerves are (2.52 +/- 0.86) mm and (6.91 +/- 2.66) mm, (1.14 +/- 0.31) mm and (10 +/- 2.96) mm, (2.13 +/- 0.63) m and (10.09 +/- 2.93) mm, (0.790.29) mm and (10.17 +/- 3.06) mm. intermedius nerve locate between facial nerve and acoustic nerve, external diameter of intermedius nerve is (0.47 +/- 0.91) mm (left) and (0.37 +/- 0.07) mm (right).
  • Length of vagal nerve is (10.44 +/- 2.57) mm (left), (9.91 +/- 2.91) mm (right), rootlets of f vagal nerve is 6.37 +/- 2.26 (left) and 6.33 +/- 2.38 (right).
  • external diameter of accessory nerve is (0.76 +/- 0.16) mm (left) and (0.81 +/- 0.19) mm (right).
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellopontine Angle / anatomy & histology. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Facial Nerve / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cranial Sinuses / anatomy & histology. Cranial Sinuses / surgery. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Humans. Vestibulocochlear Nerve / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 19670628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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24. Nishioka K, Fujishima K, Kobayashi H, Mizuno Y, Okuma Y: An extremely unusual presentation of varicella zoster viral infection of cranial nerves mimicking Garcin syndrome. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;108(8):772-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An extremely unusual presentation of varicella zoster viral infection of cranial nerves mimicking Garcin syndrome.
  • We report a patient with the varicella zoster viral (VZV) infection of multiple cranial nerves mimicking Garcin syndrome, who initially presented with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus).
  • VZV infection should be considered even in patients who show unilateral multiple cranial neuropathy mimicking Garcin syndrome because it is treatable.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Deglutition Disorders / diagnosis. Facial Paralysis / diagnosis. Herpes Zoster / diagnosis. Herpes Zoster Oticus / diagnosis. Ophthalmoplegia / diagnosis. Vocal Cord Paralysis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16226370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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25. Huang SQ, Liang BL, Yuan JP, Zhong JL: [MRI performance and diagnosis of schwannomas from cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossae]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Sep;25(9):1178-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [MRI performance and diagnosis of schwannomas from cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossae].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Cranial nerve schwannomas originate frequently in posterior cranial fossae and have various and complex MRI performances, some of which are still not well known.
  • This study was to explore MRI performances and features of schwannomas from cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossae.
  • METHODS: The MRI performances of 75 cases of schwannoma from cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossae, including trigeminal (n=9), facial (n=1), acoustic (n=53), 9th-11th (n=9) and hypoglossal (n=3) schwannomas, confirmed by surgical and pathologic findings, were analyzed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Most of schwannomas in posterior cranial fossae were solid-cystic lesions when their sizes were larger than 1.5 cm in diameter.
  • Small lesions (less than 1.5 cm in diameter) may be completely solid, which were closely related to cranial nerves.
  • On T1WI, the solid part of tumor appeared iso- or slightly hypointense, while cystic part was hypointense.
  • Some typical signs were very useful to infer tumor origin, such as, dumbbell-shaped trigeminal schwannoma extended across the middle and posterior cranial fossa, enlargement of internal auditory canal, widened jugular foramen and hypoglossal foramen caused by acoustic schwannoma, the 9th-11th shcwannoma, and hypoglossal schwannoma, respectively.
  • The correct ratio for qualitative diagnosis of schwannoma was 92% using MRI, but the incorrect ratio for identifying the nerve of tumor origin was 8.7%.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI is a good method in qualitative diagnosis of schwannoma and identifying cranial nerves of tumor origin in posterior cranial fossae.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neuroma, Acoustic / diagnosis. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / innervation. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16965666.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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26. Shoja MM, Tubbs RS, Ardalan MR, Loukas M, Eknoyan G, Salter EG, Oakes WJ: Anatomy of the cranial nerves in medieval Persian literature: Esmail Jorjani (AD 1042-1137) and The treasure of the Khwarazm shah. Neurosurgery; 2007 Dec;61(6):1325-30; discussion 1330-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anatomy of the cranial nerves in medieval Persian literature: Esmail Jorjani (AD 1042-1137) and The treasure of the Khwarazm shah.
  • We describe the life and times of Jorjani and provide a translation and interpretations of his detailed descriptions of the cranial nerves, which were written almost a millennium ago.
  • Medieval Persian and Muslim scholars have contributed to our current knowledge of the cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Anatomy / history. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Manuscripts, Medical / history. Neurology / history

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  • (PMID = 18162914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Jorjan E
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27. Policeni BA, Smoker WR: Pathologic conditions of the lower cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2008 May;18(2):347-68, xi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic conditions of the lower cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII.
  • The glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal cranial nerves can be affected by an acute or chronic process that has an impact on the way the patient presents clinically.
  • Knowledge of nerve pathways and relations to surrounding structures is fundamental when evaluating patients who have lower cranial nerve symptoms.
  • A systematic "segment-based" approach helps to narrow the differential diagnosis Pathologic conditions that cause lower cranial nerve symptoms are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18466836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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28. Beslow LA, Schwartz ES, Bönnemann CG: Thickening and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with cystic white matter lesions in early infantile Krabbe disease. Pediatr Radiol; 2008 Jun;38(6):694-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thickening and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with cystic white matter lesions in early infantile Krabbe disease.
  • In addition, the combination of both enlargement and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with unusual cystic lesions adjacent to the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was previously unreported and expands the spectrum of imaging findings in early Krabbe disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Leukodystrophy, Globoid Cell / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Airway Obstruction. Brain / diagnostic imaging. Brain / pathology. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Developmental Disabilities / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Electroencephalography. Fatal Outcome. Female. Galactosylceramidase / blood. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Radiography

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  • [Cites] Pediatr Neurol. 1998 Aug;19(2):151-2 [9744639.001]
  • [Cites] Pediatr Neurol. 1991 Jul-Aug;7(4):283-8 [1930420.001]
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  • (PMID = 18265968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; EC 3.2.1.46 / Galactosylceramidase
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29. Zhang Z, Meng Q, Chen Y, Li Z, Luo B, Yang Z, Mao L, Lin E: 3-T imaging of the cranial nerves using three-dimensional reversed FISP with diffusion-weighted MR sequence. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Mar;27(3):454-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 3-T imaging of the cranial nerves using three-dimensional reversed FISP with diffusion-weighted MR sequence.
  • PURPOSE: To depict the normal anatomy of cranial nerves in detail and define the exact relationships between cranial nerves and adjacent structures with three-dimensional reversed fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) (3D-PSIF) with diffusion-weighted MR sequence.
  • Postprocessing techniques were used to generate images of cranial nerves, and the images acquired were compared with anatomical sections and textbook diagrams.
  • RESULTS: In all subjects, 3D-PISF sequence could produce homogeneous images and high contrast between the cranial nerves and other solid structures.
  • The intracranial portions of all cranial nerves except the olfactory nerve were identified; the extracranial portions of nerves II-XII, except the nerves within the cavernous sinuses, were identified in all subjects bilaterally.
  • CONCLUSION: The 3D-PSIF with diffusion-weighted sequence can characterize the normal MR appearance of cranial nerves and its branches.
  • The ability to define the nerves may provide greater sensitivity and specificity in detecting abnormalities of craniofacial structure.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional

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  • (PMID = 18219629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Albanese A, Sturiale CL, D'Alessandris QG, Capone G, Maira G: Calcified extra-axial cavernoma involving lower cranial nerves: technical case report. Neurosurgery; 2009 Mar;64(3 Suppl):onsE135-6; discussion onsE136

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Calcified extra-axial cavernoma involving lower cranial nerves: technical case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Extra-axial cavernomas involving cranial nerves (CNs) are uncommon vascular malformations and may cause neurological deficits.
  • The clinical and radiological appearance may mimic that of other CPA tumors (meningiomas, schwannomas).
  • In spite of the benign nature and the very low risk of hemorrhage, we believe, with support from the literature, that surgical treatment is mandatory to prevent significant neurological deficits owing to the chronic CN compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19240578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Stepień A, Durka-Kesy M, Warczyńska A: [Compression neuropathy of cranial nerves in the course of Takayasu arteritis]. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2007 Nov-Dec;41(6):557-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Compression neuropathy of cranial nerves in the course of Takayasu arteritis].
  • We report a case presenting with unilateral paresis of the cranial nerves (V, IX and XII nerve) caused by a vascular conflict due to Takayasu arteritis.
  • Neurological examination revealed isolated trigeminal, glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction on the right side without other neurological symptoms.
  • Compression of glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves and the trigeminal ganglion was a result of a markedly dilated intracranial segment of the right carotid artery.
  • The clinical and radiological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Diseases / ethnology. Nerve Compression Syndromes / etiology. Takayasu Arteritis / complications. Takayasu Arteritis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Dysarthria / etiology. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Male. Trigeminal Nerve

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  • (PMID = 18224578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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32. Antić BD, Perić P, Stefanović SLj: [Disease of lower cranial nerves caused by vascular compression]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2008;55(2):27-31

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Disease of lower cranial nerves caused by vascular compression].
  • Between April 1989 and September 2007, 181 patients with disease of lower cranial nerves (DLCN) underwent posterior fossa exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Arteries / pathology. Nerve Compression Syndromes / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Decompression, Surgical. Female. Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases / etiology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases / surgery. Hemifacial Spasm / etiology. Hemifacial Spasm / surgery. Humans. Male. Meniere Disease / etiology. Meniere Disease / surgery. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18792570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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33. Sugita-Kitajima A, Sato S, Koizuka I: [Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cranial polyneuropathy involving cranial nerves VII, VIII, IX, and X]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2009 Sep;112(9):656-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cranial polyneuropathy involving cranial nerves VII, VIII, IX, and X].
  • In addition to facial and vestibular nerve paralysis, patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome may also show glossopharyngeal, vagal, and hypoglossal nerve paralysis.
  • We report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cranial polyneuropathy including cranial nerves VII, VIII, IX, and X.
  • Of the 33 patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome we have seen, 9 (27%) had cranial polyneuropathy, including cranial nerves IX and X in 4 years.
  • Of these, 9% involved total paralysis of nerves IX and X.
  • Physical symptoms of those with polyneuropathy, especially vagal nerve palsy, tended to worsen, making it important to observe other cranial nerve signs, such as for IX and X carefully, in addition to VII and VIII.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Nerve. Glossopharyngeal Nerve. Herpes Zoster Oticus / complications. Polyneuropathies / etiology. Vagus Nerve. Vestibulocochlear Nerve

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  • (PMID = 19860268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. Sanders RD: The Trigeminal (V) and Facial (VII) Cranial Nerves: Head and Face Sensation and Movement. Psychiatry (Edgmont); 2010 Jan;7(1):13-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Trigeminal (V) and Facial (VII) Cranial Nerves: Head and Face Sensation and Movement.
  • There are close functional and anatomical relationships between cranial nerves V and VII in both their sensory and motor divisions.
  • Sensation on the face is innervated by the trigeminal nerves (V) as are the muscles of mastication, but the muscles of facial expression are innervated mainly by the facial nerve (VII) as is the sensation of taste.
  • This article briefly reviews the anatomy of these cranial nerves, disorders of these nerves that are of particular importance to psychiatry, and some considerations for differential diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22(3):540-7 [17624717.001]
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  • (PMID = 20386632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-5194
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychiatry (Edgmont)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2848459
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bell’s palsy / Parry-Romberg syndrome / Sturge-Weber syndrome / facial nerve / taste / tic doloureaux / trigeminal nerve / trigeminal neuralgia
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35. Soyal OB, Turan S, Durak P, Erdemli O: Transient palsy of peripheral cranial nerves following open heart surgery. Singapore Med J; 2006 May;47(5):422-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transient palsy of peripheral cranial nerves following open heart surgery.
  • Peripheral injury of the cranial nerves IX, X and XII was suspected, and it was thought that the duration of the surgery together with the endotracheal tube cuff and trans-oesophageal echocardiography probe pressure, as well as the head and neck position might have been the causes of this complication.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiac Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Cranial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve Injuries. Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries. Laryngeal Nerve Injuries

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  • (PMID = 16645695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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36. Guclu B, Meyronet D, Simon E, Streichenberger N, Sindou M, Mertens P: [Structural anatomy of cranial nerves (V, VII, VIII, IX, X)]. Neurochirurgie; 2009 Apr;55(2):92-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Structural anatomy of cranial nerves (V, VII, VIII, IX, X)].
  • [Transliterated title] Anatomie structurelle des nerfs crâniens (V, VII, VIII, IX, X).
  • This study reports a review of the literature on the structural anatomy of the Vth, VIIth, VIIIth, IXth, and Xth cranial nerves, known to harbor dysfunction syndromes in humans.
  • All the cranial nerves, except the optic and olfactory nerves, which are considered to be more a direct expansion of the central nervous system, have a transitional zone between central myelin (coming from oligodendrocytes) and peripheral myelin (produced by Schwann cells).
  • It seems that this junctional region is situated more peripherally in sensory nerves than in motor nerves.
  • The transitional zone is situated very peripherally for the cochlear and vestibular nerves, and on the contrary very close to its exit from the brain stem for the facial nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Facial Nerve / anatomy & histology. Facial Nerve / cytology. Humans. Myelin Sheath / ultrastructure. Olfactory Nerve / anatomy & histology. Olfactory Nerve / cytology. Oligodendroglia / physiology. Rats. Schwann Cells / physiology. Trigeminal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Trigeminal Nerve / cytology. Vagus Nerve / anatomy & histology. Vagus Nerve / cytology. Vestibulocochlear Nerve / anatomy & histology. Vestibulocochlear Nerve / cytology

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  • (PMID = 19328501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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37. Matano S, Shirasaki H, Terahata S, Nobata K, Sugimoto T: Thickening of multiple cranial nerves in a patient with extranodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma. J Neuroimaging; 2006 Apr;16(2):167-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thickening of multiple cranial nerves in a patient with extranodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
  • A 57-year-old male became aware of a subcutaneous tumor in March 2001.
  • Cranial magnetic resonance imaging did not detect any intraparenchymal lesions, but thickening of multiple cranial nerves was detected.
  • These nerves were homogeneously enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA.
  • After intrathecal chemotherapy, atypical cells disappeared from the cerebrospinal fluid and thickening of the cranial nerves was resolved.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Contrast Media. Fatal Outcome. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16629741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-2284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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38. d'Avella E, Tschabitscher M, Santoro A, Delfini R: Blood supply to the intracavernous cranial nerves: comparison of the endoscopic and microsurgical perspectives. Neurosurgery; 2008 May;62(5 Suppl 2):ONS305-10; discussion ONS310-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blood supply to the intracavernous cranial nerves: comparison of the endoscopic and microsurgical perspectives.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide a comparative description of the endoscopic and microsurgical anatomic features of the blood supply to the cranial nerves in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus.
  • RESULTS: The neurovascular relationships in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus that are visible by the endonasal transsphenoidal approach but not visible by the transcranial microsurgical approach are as follows: between the oculomotor nerve and the tentorial artery, between the distal segment of the trochlear nerve and the tentorial artery, between the ophthalmic nerve and the inferolateral trunk, and between the abducens nerve and the inferolateral trunk.
  • The neurovascular relationships visible by the transcranial microsurgical approach but not visible by the transsphenoidal endoscopic approach are as follows: between the oculomotor nerve and the superoproximal artery, when present, and between the proximal segment of the trochlear nerve and the superoproximal artery.
  • This information could be relevant for preservation of the blood supply to the nerves during surgery in or around the cavernous sinus.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus / anatomy & histology. Cavernous Sinus / surgery. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Cranial Nerves / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Microsurgery / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 18596508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Geibprasert S, Pongpech S, Armstrong D, Krings T: Dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomoses and supply to the cranial nerves: vessels the neurointerventionalist needs to know. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2009 Sep;30(8):1459-68

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomoses and supply to the cranial nerves: vessels the neurointerventionalist needs to know.
  • Transarterial embolization in the external carotid artery (ECA) territory has a major role in the endovascular management of epistaxis, skull base tumors, and dural arteriovenous fistulas.
  • Knowledge of the potential anastomotic routes, identification of the cranial nerve supply from the ECA, and the proper choice of embolic material are crucial to help the interventionalist avoid neurologic complications during the procedure.
  • To avoid cranial nerve palsy, one must have knowledge of the supply to the lower cranial nerves: The petrous branch of the middle meningeal artery and the stylomastoid branch of the posterior auricular artery form the facial arcade as the major supply to the facial nerve, and the neuromeningeal trunk of the ascending pharyngeal artery supplies the lower cranial nerves (CN IX-XII).
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Fistula / radiography. Arteriovenous Fistula / therapy. Cranial Nerve Diseases / prevention & control. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / radiography. Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / therapy. Radiography, Interventional / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cranial Nerves / blood supply. Cranial Nerves / radiography. Humans. Models, Anatomic. Neuroradiography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19279274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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40. Funaki T, Matsushima T, Masuoka J, Nakahara Y, Takase Y, Kawashima M: Adhesion of rhomboid lip to lower cranial nerves as special consideration in microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: Report of two cases. Surg Neurol Int; 2010;1:71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adhesion of rhomboid lip to lower cranial nerves as special consideration in microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: Report of two cases.
  • A preoperative magnetic resonance image demonstrated an offending artery at the root exit zone of the VII nerve.
  • The intraoperative findings showed that a large rhomboid lip adhered to the IX and X cranial nerves and prevented the exposure of the root exit zone of the VII cranial nerve.
  • The rhomboid lip was meticulously separated from the cranial nerves so that the choroid plexus of the foramen of Luschka and the rhomboid lip could be safely lifted with a spatula, and the offending artery was successfully detached from the root exit zone.
  • In another case of a 60-year-old male, the rhomboid lip was so large that it needed to be incised before separating it from the lower cranial nerves.
  • CONCLUSION: The large rhomboid lip adhering to the cranial nerves should be given more attention in the posterior fossa surgeries and should be managed based on the microsurgical anatomy for preventing unexpected lower cranial nerve deficit.

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  • (PMID = 21170363.001).
  • [ISSN] 2152-7806
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2997223
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hemifacial spasm / infrafloccular approach / microvascular decompression / rhomboid lip
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41. Voskanian IuE, Kolomeĭtsev SN, Shniukov RV: Risk factors and prevention of injuries to the cranial nerves in reconstructive surgery of the carotid arteries. Angiol Sosud Khir; 2005;11(2):96-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk factors and prevention of injuries to the cranial nerves in reconstructive surgery of the carotid arteries.
  • Iatrogenic injuries to the cranial nerves worsen the early end, particularly, the late postoperative period, decrease the quality of life and the social status of patients who had undergone carotid reconstructions.
  • The aim of the study was to improve the short- and long-term results of reconstructive operations on the carotid arteries by means of minimizing the incidence and severity of iatrogenic injuries to the cranial nerves.
  • Of these 82 patients forming the control group were examined for the incidence and character of injuries to the cranial nerves.
  • Neuropathy of the cranial nerves (CN) was identified in 16 (19.5%) patients (7 patients had injuries to the hypoglossal nerve, 3 to the facial nerve, 5 to the vagus; one patient presented with coexistent injury to the glossopharyngeal and pharyngeal branches of the vagus).
  • The clinically and statistically significant risk factors of injuries were: minor surgical experience, the high loop of the internal carotid artery (ICA), lengthy atherosclerotic stenosis greater than 2 cm, diabetes mellitus, intraoperative trauma of the area of the cranial nerves, high mobilization of the ICA, the lack of visualization of pairs X and XII of the CN, intraoperative bleeding, intersection of the superior radix of the deep cervical loop, edema and hematoma of the neck in the postoperative period, and early unscheduled reoperations.
  • One month later the cumulative stability of cranial dysfunction accounted for 62.5%, after 3 months it accounted for 43.8%, after 6 months for 31.2 , after 9 months for 18.8%, and after 12 months for 6,2%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Artery Diseases / surgery. Cranial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Cranial Nerve Injuries / prevention & control. Intraoperative Complications. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Perioperative Care / methods. Vascular Surgical Procedures / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16037809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1027-6661
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiologii︠a︡ i sosudistai︠a︡ khirurgii︠a︡ = Angiology and vascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiol Sosud Khir
  • [Language] eng; rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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42. Gierga K, Bürk K, Bauer M, Orozco Diaz G, Auburger G, Schultz C, Vuksic M, Schöls L, de Vos RA, Braak H, Deller T, Rüb U: Involvement of the cranial nerves and their nuclei in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Jun;109(6):617-31
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  • [Title] Involvement of the cranial nerves and their nuclei in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2).
  • Although the cranial nerves, their nuclei and related fiber tracts are crucial for a variety of oculomotor, somatomotor, somatosensory, auditory, vestibular-related, autonomic and ingestion-related functions, knowledge regarding the extent of their involvement in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) patients is incomplete.
  • Unconventionally thick serial sections through the brainstem stained for lipofuscin pigment (aldehyde-fuchsin) and Nissl material (Darrow red) showed that all oculomotor, somatomotor, somatosensory, auditory, vestibular and autonomic cranial nerve nuclei may undergo neurodegeneration during SCA2.
  • Similarly, examination of myelin-stained thick serial sections revealed that nearly all cranial nerves and associated fiber tracts may sustain atrophy and myelin loss in SCA2 patients.
  • In view of the known functional role of the affected cranial nerves, their nuclei and associated fiber tracts, the present findings provide appropriate pathoanatomical explanations for some of the disease-related and unexplained symptoms seen in SCA2 patients: double vision, gaze palsy, slowing of saccades, ptosis, ingestion-related malfunctions, impairments of the optokinetic nystagmus and the vestibulo-ocular reaction, facial and tongue fasciculation-like movements, impaired centripetal transmission of temperature-related information from the face, dystonic posture of the neck, as well as abnormalities of the brainstem auditory evoked potentials.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem / pathology. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Spinocerebellar Ataxias / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Degeneration / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15906049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Conti M, Prevedello DM, Madhok R, Faure A, Ricci UM, Schwarz A, Robert R, Kassam AB: The antero-medial triangle: the risk for cranial nerves ischemia at the cavernous sinus lateral wall. Anatomic cadaveric study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Jul;110(7):682-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The antero-medial triangle: the risk for cranial nerves ischemia at the cavernous sinus lateral wall. Anatomic cadaveric study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Vascular damage in the cavernous sinus can cause ischemic injury to the cranial nerves.
  • An appropriate anatomical knowledge of the blood supply to the cranial nerves can help to reduce the morbidity associated with cavernous sinus surgery.
  • RESULTS: The 12 explored cavernous sinuses demonstrated the presence of two principal branches directly from the intracavernous internal carotid artery that supply the cranial nerves: the infero-lateral trunk and the meningohypophyseal trunk.
  • The artery of the Superior Orbital Fissure (SOF), originated more often from the infero-lateral trunk, and vascularized the III, IV, VI, and VI, and ophtalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (TGN VI) at their entry in the fissure.
  • The blood supply to all cranial nerves in the SOF is at risk to injury when the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus is transgressed at the anteromedial triangle since the SOF-artery runs superficially at this level.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Artery, Internal / surgery. Cavernous Sinus / surgery. Cranial Nerves / blood supply. Ischemia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18554776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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44. Kim SR, Kanda F, Kobessho H, Sugimoto K, Matsuoka T, Kudo M, Hayashi Y: Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Nov 7;12(41):6727-9
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  • [Title] Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves.
  • We describe a rare case of HCV-related recurrent multiple hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves in a 50-year-old woman.
  • The patient presented with symptoms of ptosis, fixation of the right eyeball, and left abducens palsy, indicating disturbances of the right oculomotor and trochlear nerves and bilateral abducens nerves.
  • The diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the skull base was made on the basis of neurological findings and imaging studies including CT and MRI, without histological examinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17075993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
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  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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45. Drouet A, Caudie C, Vallat JM, Ruel JH, Felten D, Guilloton L, Giraud P: [Polyneuropathy involving cranial nerves associated with monoclonal IgM antibodies with anti-MAG/SGPG/SGPLG/sulfatides activity]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2006 Jun;162(6-7):760-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Polyneuropathy involving cranial nerves associated with monoclonal IgM antibodies with anti-MAG/SGPG/SGPLG/sulfatides activity].
  • [Transliterated title] Une polyneuropathie avec atteinte des nerfs crâniens associée à une IgM monoclonale à activité anti-MAG/SGPG/SGPLG/sulfatides.
  • INTRODUCTION: A typically distal and symmetrical, slowly progressive sensorimotor demyelinating neuropathy is caused by monoclonal IgM against myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and SGPG, SGLPG glycolipids in the context of a benign IgM paraproteinemia.
  • OBSERVATION: The patient was a 57-year-old man who had developed a slowly progressive distal sensorimotor neuropathy, involving the lower then upper limbs, with cranial nerves palsies (oro-pharyngo-laryngo territory).
  • Electron microscopy failed to show nerve fibers with widening of outer lamellae of the myelin.
  • When ENMG show a disproportionate slowing of conduction in distal segments of motor nerves, one should screen the serum with immunofixation to identify small monoclonal components.
  • Diagnosis enables optimal treatment using, in severe cases, expensive current strategies with immunoglobulins IV, plasma exchange, and corticosteroids, or, in the event of no response, rituximab before resorting to more toxic drugs like cyclophosphamide.
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Conduction / physiology. Peripheral Nerves / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16840988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Globosides; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein; 0 / Sulfoglycosphingolipids; 0 / sulfate-3-glucuronyl paragloboside
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46. Bink A, Berkefeld J, Zanella F: [Anatomy of the skull base and the cranial nerves in slice imaging]. Radiologe; 2009 Jul;49(7):584-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anatomy of the skull base and the cranial nerves in slice imaging].
  • [Transliterated title] Anatomie der Schädelbasis und Hirnnerven in der Schnittbildgebung.
  • MRI is the method of choice for examining the cranial nerves.
  • The total path of a cranial nerve can be visualized by choosing different sequences taking into account the tissue surrounding this cranial nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Anatomy, Cross-Sectional / methods. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Cranial Nerves / diagnostic imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Skull Base / anatomy & histology. Skull Base / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19506829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2102
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Hatipoğlu HG, Durakoğlugil T, Ciliz D, Yüksel E: Comparison of FSE T2W and 3D FIESTA sequences in the evaluation of posterior fossa cranial nerves with MR cisternography. Diagn Interv Radiol; 2007 Jun;13(2):56-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of FSE T2W and 3D FIESTA sequences in the evaluation of posterior fossa cranial nerves with MR cisternography.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare 3D fast imaging with steady state acquisition (3D FIESTA) to fast spin echo T2-weighted (FSE T2W) MRI sequences in the imaging of cisternal parts of cranial nerves V-XII.
  • In all, we evaluated 800 nerves.
  • RESULTS: The rate of visualization of these cranial nerves with FSE T2W and 3D FIESTA sequences, respectively, (partially and completely visualized) were as follows: nerve V (100% and 100%); nerve VI (43% and 98%); nerve VII (100% and 100%); nerve VIII (100% and 100%); nerve IX-XI complex (67% and 100%); nerve XII (2% and 91%).
  • CONCLUSION: 3D FIESTA sequences are superior to FSE T2W sequences in the imaging of cisternal parts of the posterior fossa nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neuroradiography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17562507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1305-3825
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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48. Borges A, Casselman J: Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts. Eur Radiol; 2007 Sep;17(9):2332-44
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  • [Title] Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts.
  • The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits.
  • The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves.
  • Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy.
  • This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17268799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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49. Tanrikulu L, Hastreiter P, Richter G, Doerfler A, Naraghi R: Virtual neuroendoscopy: MRI-based three-dimensional visualization of the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa. Br J Neurosurg; 2008 Apr;22(2):207-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Virtual neuroendoscopy: MRI-based three-dimensional visualization of the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa.
  • This article presents the advances of three-dimensional (3D) virtual neuroendoscopy of the cranial nerves (CN) in the posterior fossa.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior / innervation. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neuroendoscopy / methods. Trigeminal Neuralgia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18348015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. Højberg L, Søndergård E, Pedersen C: A case of Epstein-Barr virus infection complicated with Guillain-Barré syndrome involving several cranial nerves. Scand J Infect Dis; 2005;37(6-7):522-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of Epstein-Barr virus infection complicated with Guillain-Barré syndrome involving several cranial nerves.
  • Both peripheral and cranial nerves were affected causing paralysis and need for assisted ventilation.
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection must be considered among the possible causes in patients with cranial nerve affection or Guillain-Barré syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / virology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Guillain-Barre Syndrome / virology

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  • (PMID = 16012019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5548
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; HG18B9YRS7 / Valine; MZ1IW7Q79D / valacyclovir; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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51. Hamamcioglu MK, Hicdonmez T, Tiryaki M, Cobanoglu S: A laboratory training model in fresh cadaveric sheep brain for microneurosurgical dissection of cranial nerves in posterior fossa. Br J Neurosurg; 2008 Dec;22(6):769-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A laboratory training model in fresh cadaveric sheep brain for microneurosurgical dissection of cranial nerves in posterior fossa.
  • A four-step approach was designed to simulate microneurosurgical dissection along the posterior fossa cisterns, and to dissect cranial nerves emerging from the brain stem.
  • We conclude that this laboratory training model is useful to allow trainees to gain experience with the general use of an operating microscope, and familiarity with handling cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / surgery. Cranial Nerves / surgery. Microsurgery / education. Neurosurgical Procedures / education

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  • (PMID = 19085361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Borges A, Casselman J: Imaging the cranial nerves: Part I: methodology, infectious and inflammatory, traumatic and congenital lesions. Eur Radiol; 2007 Aug;17(8):2112-25
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  • [Title] Imaging the cranial nerves: Part I: methodology, infectious and inflammatory, traumatic and congenital lesions.
  • Many disease processes manifest either primarily or secondarily by cranial nerve deficits.
  • Neurologists, ENT surgeons, ophthalmologists and maxillo-facial surgeons are often confronted with patients with symptoms and signs of cranial nerve dysfunction.
  • The emergence of volumetric CT scanners, higher field MR scanners in clinical practice and higher resolution MR sequences has made a tremendous contribution to the development of cranial nerve imaging.
  • The use of surface coils and parallel imaging allows sub-millimetric visualization of nerve branches and volumetric 3D imaging.
  • Both with CT and MR, multiplanar and curved reconstructions can follow the entire course of a cranial nerve or branch, improving tremendously our diagnostic yield of neural pathology.
  • This review article will focus on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of normal anatomy and on infectious and inflammatory, traumatic and congenital pathology affecting the cranial nerves.
  • A detailed discussion of individual cranial nerves lesions is beyond the scope of this article.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cranial Nerve Injuries / diagnosis. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Inflammation

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  • (PMID = 17323090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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53. Ishikawa M, Kusaka G, Takashima K, Kamochi H, Shinoda S: Clipping of a vertebral artery aneurysm behind the hypoglossal nerve under the monitoring of lower cranial nerves. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2010 Jun;112(5):450-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clipping of a vertebral artery aneurysm behind the hypoglossal nerve under the monitoring of lower cranial nerves.
  • Under an operative view, an aneurysm of the vertebral artery is located behind the lower cranial nerves.
  • The condylar fossa approach was taken while recording electromyography (EMG) of the lower cranial nerves.
  • The aneurysm was located just behind the hypoglossal nerve and could not be clipped without strong traction of the hypoglossal nerve.
  • Therefore, the hypoglossal nerve was divided to separate the lower two bundles of the hypoglossal nerve from the other bundles, and the clip was applied to the aneurysm between the nerve bundles without any change of the tongue EMG.
  • In conclusion, we report a case of a ruptured aneurysm of a vertebral artery, which was clipped while monitoring the lower cranial nerves.
  • Tongue EMG monitoring enabled us to clip the aneurysm without nerve injury and revealed that the hypoglossal nerve near the hypoglossal canal can be divided into several bands without neurological deficit.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / physiology. Intracranial Aneurysm / pathology. Intracranial Aneurysm / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Neurosurgical Procedures / instrumentation. Surgical Instruments. Vertebral Artery / pathology. Vertebral Artery / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve. Middle Aged. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / pathology. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / radiography. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20197210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6968
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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54. Topsakal C, Al-Mefty O, Bulsara KR, Williford VS: Intraoperative monitoring of lower cranial nerves in skull base surgery: technical report and review of 123 monitored cases. Neurosurg Rev; 2008 Jan;31(1):45-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative monitoring of lower cranial nerves in skull base surgery: technical report and review of 123 monitored cases.
  • The fundamental goal of skull base surgery is tumor removal with preservation of neurological function.
  • Injury to the lower cranial nerves (LCN; CN 9-12) profoundly affects a patient's quality of life.
  • Although intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring (IOM) is widely practiced for other cranial nerves, literature addressing the LCN is scant.
  • The vagus nerve (n=37), spinal accessory nerve (n=118), and the hypoglossal nerve (n=83) were monitored intraoperatively.
  • Patients who underwent IOM tended to have larger tumors with more intricate involvement of the lower cranial nerves.
  • Worsening of preoperative lower cranial nerve function was seen in the monitored and unmonitored groups.
  • It can also help identify the course of a nerve in patients with severely distorted anatomy.
  • These factors may facilitate gross total tumor resection with cranial nerve preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / physiology. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Accessory Nerve / physiology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Electromyography. Evoked Potentials, Motor. Female. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / physiology. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve / physiology. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control. Male. Middle Aged. Vagus Nerve / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17957398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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55. Sheth S, Branstetter BF 4th, Escott EJ: Appearance of normal cranial nerves on steady-state free precession MR images. Radiographics; 2009 Jul-Aug;29(4):1045-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appearance of normal cranial nerves on steady-state free precession MR images.
  • For example, standard T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences adequately depicted only the larger cranial nerves, whereas current steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences are capable of depicting the cisternal segments of all 12 cranial nerves.
  • SSFP sequences provide submillimetric spatial resolution and high contrast resolution between cerebrospinal fluid and solid structures, allowing the reconstruction of elegant multiplanar images that highlight the course of each nerve.
  • Usually referred to by their trade names or acronyms (eg, constructive interference steady state, or CISS, and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition, or FIESTA), SSFP sequences allow precise differentiation between branches of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves, accurate detection of small masses in the cerebellopontine angles and internal auditory canals, and detailed evaluation of endolymph and perilymph within the inner ear.
  • To take full advantage of these imaging sequences, radiologists must be familiar with the appearances of similar anatomic details of all 12 cranial nerves on SSFP MR images.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Image Enhancement / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2009
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1544
  • (PMID = 19605655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 4
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56. Meek MF, Coert JH: US Food and Drug Administration/Conformit Europe-approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves. Ann Plast Surg; 2008 Jan;60(1):110-6
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  • [Title] US Food and Drug Administration/Conformit Europe-approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves.
  • Several absorbable nerve conduits are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Conformit Europe (CE) for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves.
  • Surgeons are often not aware of the different (bio)materials of these conduits when performing nerve repair.
  • An overview of these FDA- and CE-approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical use is presented.
  • The available FDA and CE absorbable nerve conduits for peripheral and cranial nerve repair are 2 collagen- and 2 synthetic-polyester-based conduits.
  • Based on the available data in this paper at this moment, we favor the PGA (Neurotube) nerve conduit for repair of peripheral and cranial nerve defects because of its advantages in length, price, and availability of clinical data.
  • However, no prospective studies comparing the available nerve conduits have been published.
  • [MeSH-major] Absorbable Implants. Biocompatible Materials. Cranial Nerve Injuries / surgery. Cranial Nerves / surgery. Peripheral Nerve Injuries. Peripheral Nerves / surgery. Tissue Scaffolds
  • [MeSH-minor] Collagen Type I. Europe. Guided Tissue Regeneration. Humans. Nerve Regeneration. Polyglycolic Acid. Prosthesis Design. Tissue Engineering. United States. United States Food and Drug Administration

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  • (PMID = 18281807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Collagen Type I; 26009-03-0 / Polyglycolic Acid
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57. Vieira VL, Pereira DC, Ribeiro VT, Leite AB, Emerique I: [Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection with paralysis of lower cranial nerves: case report]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2006 Dec;64(4):1047-9
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  • [Title] [Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection with paralysis of lower cranial nerves: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Dissecção espontânea de artéria carótida interna com paralisia de nervos cranianos inferiores: relato de caso.
  • The objective is making an early diagnosis and treatment to avoid a bad outcome.
  • We report the case of a 46 years-old man with spontaneous carotid artery dissection that had an atypical manifestation characterized by sudden paralysis of lower cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Aneurysm, Dissecting / complications. Carotid Artery Diseases / complications. Carotid Artery, Internal. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Paralysis / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007 Jun;65(2B):542-3; author reply 543 [17665034.001]
  • (PMID = 17221025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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58. Miyazaki K, Fukuzumi M, Aizawa T, Shibata M, Sakai T, Tojima H: [Patient with MPO-ANCA-associated disease with interstitial pneumonia and lower cranial nerves palsy who was previously exposed to asbestos]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Nov;48(11):876-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Patient with MPO-ANCA-associated disease with interstitial pneumonia and lower cranial nerves palsy who was previously exposed to asbestos].
  • Under a diagnosis of either hypertrophic pachymeningitis or neuritis due to angiitis of the lower cranial nerves, steroid pulse therapy was performed.
  • Furthermore, the fact that cranial nerves palsy occurred in spite of steroid therapy may also be important.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic. Asbestos / adverse effects. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / etiology. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Peroxidase / immunology

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  • (PMID = 21141070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic; 1332-21-4 / Asbestos; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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59. Meek MF, Coert JH: US Food and Drug Administration /Conformit Europe- approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves. Ann Plast Surg; 2008 Apr;60(4):466-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] US Food and Drug Administration /Conformit Europe- approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves.
  • Several absorbable nerve conduits are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Conformit Europe (CE) for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves .
  • Surgeons are often not aware of the different(bio) materials of these conduits when performing nerve repair.
  • An overview of these FDA- and CE-approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical use is presented .
  • The available FDA and CE absorbable nerve conduits for peripheral and cranial nerve repair are 2 collagen- and 2 synthetic- polyester based conduits.
  • Based on the available data in this paper at this moment, we favor the PGA (Neurotube) nerve conduit for repair of peripheral and cranial nerve defects because of its advantages in length, price, and availability of clinical data.
  • However, no prospective studies comparing the available nerve conduits have been published.
  • [MeSH-major] Absorbable Implants. Biocompatible Materials. Cranial Nerve Injuries / surgery. Cranial Nerves / surgery. Peripheral Nerve Injuries. Peripheral Nerves / surgery. Tissue Scaffolds
  • [MeSH-minor] Collagen Type I. Europe. Humans. Nerve Regeneration. Polyglycolic Acid. Prosthesis Design. Trauma, Nervous System / surgery. United States. United States Food and Drug Administration

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Plast Surg. 2010 Sep;65(3):371 [20733377.001]
  • [CommentIn] Ann Plast Surg. 2009 Jun;62(6):710 [19461292.001]
  • (PMID = 18437784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Collagen Type I; 26009-03-0 / Polyglycolic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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60. Zavarella MM, Leblebicioglu B, Claman LJ, Tatakis DN: Unilateral severe chronic periodontitis associated with ipsilateral surgical resection of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII. J Periodontol; 2006 Jan;77(1):142-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unilateral severe chronic periodontitis associated with ipsilateral surgical resection of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII.
  • The aim of this clinical report is to present a case of unilateral severe periodontitis associated with ipsilateral surgical resection of the fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves and to discuss the possible contribution of the nervous system to periodontal pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A 39-year-old female patient with a history of a cerebrovascular accident caused by a right pontine arteriovenous malformation and destruction of the right fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves was diagnosed with severe chronic periodontitis affecting only the right maxillary and mandibular quadrants.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / surgery. Facial Nerve / surgery. Periodontitis / etiology. Trigeminal Nerve / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16579716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of periodontology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Periodontol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Cavalcanti DD, Garcia-Gonzalez U, Agrawal A, Tavares PL, Spetzler RF, Preul MC: A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle. World Neurosurg; 2010 Jul;74(1):188-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle.
  • BACKGROUND: The lower cranial nerves must be identified to avoid iatrogenic injury during skull base and high cervical approaches.
  • The most superficial segments of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and its superior laryngeal nerves, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves were exposed and designated into smaller anatomic triangles.
  • The midpoint of each nerve segment inside the triangles was correlated to the angle of the mandible (AM), mastoid tip (MT), and bifurcation of the common carotid artery.
  • RESULTS: A triangle bounded by the styloglossus muscle, external carotid artery, and facial artery housed the glossopharyngeal nerve.
  • This nerve segment was 0.06 ± 0.71 cm posterior to the AM and 2.50 ± 0.59 cm inferior to the MT.
  • The vagus nerve ran inside the carotid sheath posterior to internal carotid artery and common carotid artery bifurcation in 48.3% of specimens.
  • A triangle formed by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and internal jugular vein housed the accessory nerve, 1.90 ± 0.60 cm posterior to the AM and 2.30 ± 0.57 cm inferior to the MT.
  • A triangle outlined by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, internal jugular vein, and common facial vein housed the hypoglossal nerve, which was 0.82 ± 0.84 cm posterior to the AM and 3.64 ± 0.70 cm inferior to the MT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensible landmarks can be defined to help expose the lower cranial nerves to avoid injury to this complex region.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / pathology. Neck / innervation. Neck / surgery. Skull Base / innervation. Skull Base / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Accessory Nerve / pathology. Accessory Nerve / surgery. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / pathology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / surgery. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve / pathology. Hypoglossal Nerve / surgery. Laryngeal Nerves / pathology. Laryngeal Nerves / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21300012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Liang C, Du Y, Xu J, Wu L, Liu C, Wang X, Wang H, Yu F: MR imaging of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves: neurovascular relationships and abnormal changes. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Jul;75(1):57-63
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  • [Title] MR imaging of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves: neurovascular relationships and abnormal changes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the detailed anatomic features, neurovascular relationships of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves (PGCN: IX, X, XI, XII); to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in demonstrating the PGCN with disorders caused by abnormal compression related to artery or tumor.
  • Anatomical features, neurovascular relationships of the PGCN in 59 volunteers and abnormal changes in 12 patients caused by neurovascular compression or tumor were observed from multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images, cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver were used to testify the PGCN displayed in 59 volunteers.
  • RESULTS: 3D-CISS MR imaging depicted the proximal cisternal segment of the cranial nerves complex (CN IX, X, XI) at the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 100% (118/118), 99% (117/118) of 118 sides; CNXII in the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 90% (106/118), 91% (107/118) of 118 sides.
  • At the sagittal planes, the CN IX, X, XI were found parallel to each other in the cisternal segment in 45.2% (53/117) of 117 sides, gathering into a bundle of nerves complex before entering the jugular foramen (JF) in 54.7% (64/117) of 117 sides.
  • 3D-CISS MR imaging of volunteers revealed the similar result corresponding to cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver.
  • Twelve patients with abnormal changes in the PGCN were all displayed well, among them 8 were pressed by arteries, 1 by arachnoid cyst, and 3 caused by tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Use of 3D-CISS sequence enables accurate identification of the cisternal segment of the PGCN, neurovascular relationships and abnormal changes caused by neurovascular compression or tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Nerve Compression Syndromes / pathology. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19395211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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63. Mori K, Yamamoto T, Oyama K, Ueno H, Nakao Y, Honma K: Modified three-dimensional skull base model with artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, and venous sinuses for training in skull base surgery: technical note. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2008 Dec;48(12):582-7; discussion 587-8
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  • [Title] Modified three-dimensional skull base model with artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, and venous sinuses for training in skull base surgery: technical note.
  • A modification of a commercially available prototype three-dimensional (3D) skull base model, made by a selective laser sintering method and incorporating surface details and inner bony structures such as the inner ear structures and air cells, is proposed to include artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, venous sinuses, and the internal carotid artery for such surgical training.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carotid Artery, Internal. Cranial Nerves. Cranial Sinuses. Craniotomy / education. Dissection. Dura Mater. Humans. Lasers. Nylons. Polyvinyls. Siloxanes

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  • (PMID = 19106500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nylons; 0 / Polyvinyls; 0 / Siloxanes; 0 / vinyl polysiloxane
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64. Kim IY, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Gamma Knife surgery for schwannomas originating from cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. J Neurosurg; 2008 Dec;109 Suppl:149-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gamma Knife surgery for schwannomas originating from cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.
  • OBJECT: Schwannomas from the motor cranial nerves controlling eye movement are rare.
  • The authors evaluated the role of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in the management of schwannomas originating from cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.
  • METHODS: Over a 7-year period, 8 patients with schwannomas originating from the oculomotor (2 patients), trochlear (5 patients), or abducent (1) nerve underwent GKS.
  • The median and mean tumor volumes were 0.22 and 1.32 cm(3) (range 0.03-7.4 cm(3)).
  • A median margin dose of 12.5 Gy (range 11.0-13.0 Gy) was prescribed to the tumor margin.
  • RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging showed tumor regression in all patients.
  • No improvement was noted in the 2 patients with oculomotor nerve palsies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma Knife surgery is an effective and minimally invasive approach capable of inactivating schwannomas originating from the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducent nerves.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Cranial Nerves / physiopathology. Eye Movements. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19123902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Haberlová J, Claeys KG, De Jonghe P, Seeman P: Cranial nerves palsy as an initial feature of an early onset distal hereditary motor neuropathy--a new distal hereditary motor neuropathy phenotype. Neuromuscul Disord; 2009 Jun;19(6):427-8
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  • [Title] Cranial nerves palsy as an initial feature of an early onset distal hereditary motor neuropathy--a new distal hereditary motor neuropathy phenotype.
  • Here we report a Czech family with cranial nerves palsy as an initial feature of a non progressive infantile onset dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Motor Neuron Disease / complications. Motor Neuron Disease / diagnosis. Phenotype
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Electromyography. Family. Female. Humans. Infant. Neural Conduction

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  • (PMID = 19409784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2364
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuromuscular disorders : NMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuromuscul. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Yagi A, Sato N, Taketomi A, Nakajima T, Morita H, Koyama Y, Aoki J, Endo K: Normal cranial nerves in the cavernous sinuses: contrast-enhanced three-dimensional constructive interference in the steady state MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2005 Apr;26(4):946-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Normal cranial nerves in the cavernous sinuses: contrast-enhanced three-dimensional constructive interference in the steady state MR imaging.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Three-dimensional (3D) constructive interference in steady state (CISS) MR imaging is useful for demonstrating cranial nerves (CNs) in the cistern.
  • This useful method may contribute to the diagnosis of diseases involving the cavernous sinuses, such as Tolosa-Hunt syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus / innervation. Contrast Media. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15814950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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67. Akagami R, Dong CC, Westerberg BD: Localized transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials for monitoring cranial nerves in cranial base surgery. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jul;57(1 Suppl):78-85; discussion 78-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Localized transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials for monitoring cranial nerves in cranial base surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel monitoring technique that allows "functional" assessment of cranial nerve continuity during cranial base surgery.
  • METHODS: Facial motor evoked potentials (MEP) in 71 consecutive patients were obtained by localized transcranial electrical stimulation in all patients requiring facial nerve monitoring during the period from November 2002 to August 2004.
  • With transcranial electrical stimulation localized to the contralateral cortex, facial nerve MEPs are obtained through stimulation of more proximal intracranial structures.
  • CONCLUSION: Facial nerve MEPs recorded intraoperatively during cranial base surgery using the proposed technique predicts immediate postoperative facial nerve outcome.
  • This technique can also be used to monitor other motor cranial nerves in cranial base surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Evoked Potentials, Motor. Facial Nerve / physiopathology. Facial Nerve / surgery. Skull Base / surgery. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cranial Nerves / physiopathology. Cranial Nerves / surgery. Craniotomy / methods. Electrodiagnosis / methods. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care / methods. Male

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  • (PMID = 15987572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Kimura J: Electrodiagnosis of the cranial nerves. Acta Neurol Taiwan; 2006 Mar;15(1):2-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Electrodiagnosis of the cranial nerves.
  • Isolated facial weakness suggests either a contralateral hemispheric lesion or a disease of the facial nerve per se.
  • In contrast, the absence of sensory disturbances suggests a peripheral nerve lesion, some system diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or a stroke sparing the sensory cortex.
  • Acoustic neuroma, strategically located at the cerebellopontine angle, may compress the facial nerve.
  • The amplitude of the direct response elicited by stimulation of the facial nerve after the fourth to fifth day of onset serves as the best means predicting the eventual outcome of recovery.
  • Blink reflex studies usually show an absent or delayed R1, implicating the central reflex arc, which includes the intrapontine portion of the facial nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Bell Palsy / diagnosis. Facial Nerve / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Accessory Nerve / physiology. Blinking / physiology. Electric Stimulation. Humans. Trigeminal Nerve / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16599278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-768X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Taiwanica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol Taiwan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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69. Meng L, Quinlan JJ: Assessing risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting: a retrospective study in patients undergoing retromastoid craniectomy with microvascular decompression of cranial nerves. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol; 2006 Oct;18(4):235-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessing risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting: a retrospective study in patients undergoing retromastoid craniectomy with microvascular decompression of cranial nerves.
  • We have observed that patients, after retromastoid craniectomy (RMC) with microvascular decompression (MVD) of cranial nerves, frequently experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV).
  • It was higher for the patients after RMC with MVD of cranial nerve V [69%, 82/119, P=0.005, odds ratio (OR)=2.8].
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / surgery. Craniotomy. Decompression, Surgical. Mastoid / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting / diagnosis


70. Scheithauer BW, Erdogan S, Rodriguez FJ, Burger PC, Woodruff JM, Kros JM, Gokden M, Spinner RJ: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of cranial nerves and intracranial contents: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):325-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of cranial nerves and intracranial contents: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases.
  • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) arising from cranial nerves or their branches are very uncommon.
  • With one exception, the tumors affected adults (age range 5 to 69 y, mean 39, median 32).
  • Sites of involvement included vestibular nerves (n=6), vagal nerves (n=4), facial nerves (n=3) (1 centered in the geniculate ganglion), and 2 unspecified cranial nerves in the posterior fossa.
  • In addition, 1 tumor involved the optic chiasm (n=1).
  • Only 1 tumor arose in brain parenchyma of (frontal lobe).
  • Five tumors arose in patients who satisfied clinical criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
  • One patient with a vestibular tumor and presumed NF2 had previously undergone resection of a contralateral vestibular cellular schwannoma.
  • One posterior fossa tumor was a malignant melanotic schwannoma.
  • Four patients had postirradiation malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 2 having been treated for optic chiasm glioma, both being NF1 affected.
  • All tumors were histologically high grade (6 grade III and 10 grade IV).
  • Three tumors showed heterologous elements, 2 osseous, and 1 rhabdomyoblastic.
  • More often scattered than diffuse, S-100 protein staining was noted in 11 of 16 tumors and variable collagen IV staining in 10 of the 16.
  • Immunoreactivity for p53 protein was diffuse and strong in 7 of 11 tumors.
  • Twelve patients died within 17 months to 3 years of diagnosis, 1 was lost to follow-up, 2 are very recent cases, and 2 patients are currently alive, 1 after 2 recurrences, and another with spinal leptomeningeal metastases.
  • Malignant cranial nerve sheath tumors are rare and are associated with the same poor prognosis as those of spinal nerves at other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19065105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Röttgen R, Haltaufderheide K, Schröder RJ, Lorenz M, Herzog H, Neumann F, Lehmkuhl L, Winter L, Felix R, Bruhn H: [The effect of the field strength on standardized MRI of the brain to demonstrate cranial nerves and vessels: a comparison of 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla]. Rofo; 2005 Apr;177(4):530-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The effect of the field strength on standardized MRI of the brain to demonstrate cranial nerves and vessels: a comparison of 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla].
  • [Transliterated title] Auswirkung der Feldstärke bei der standardisierten Kernspintomographie des Gehirns am Beispiel der Darstellung von Hirnnerven und Gefässen in den basalen Zisternen: Vergleich zwischen 1.5 und 3.0 Tesla.
  • The quality of the images was evaluated with regard to depicting the cranial nerves N.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / anatomy & histology. Cerebral Arteries / anatomy & histology. Cerebral Veins / anatomy & histology. Cisterna Magna / anatomy & histology. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Image Enhancement / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 15838758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9029
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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72. Fischbach F, Müller M, Bruhn H: High-resolution depiction of the cranial nerves in the posterior fossa (N III-N XII) with 2D fast spin echo and 3D gradient echo sequences at 3.0 T. Clin Imaging; 2009 May-Jun;33(3):169-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-resolution depiction of the cranial nerves in the posterior fossa (N III-N XII) with 2D fast spin echo and 3D gradient echo sequences at 3.0 T.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-resolution imaging obtainable with the higher field strength of 3.0 T on the visualization of the brain nerves in the posterior fossa by using T(2)-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) and fast imaging employing steady-state gradient echo (GRE) sequences as the most suitable techniques to visualize each of the cranial nerves.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 20 nerves were investigated on MR images of 12 volunteers each and selected for comparison, respectively, with the FSE sequences with 5-mm and 2-mm section thicknesses and GRE sequences acquired with a 3.0-T scanner and a quadrature head coil.
  • RESULTS: In general, decrease of the slice thickness showed a significant increase in the detection of nerves as well as in the image quality characteristics.
  • Nevertheless, comparing FSE and GRE imaging, the course of brain nerves and brainstem vessels was visualized best with use of the three-dimensional (3D) pulse sequence, although with respect to structural identification and contrast according to the rating scale, observer scores were not significantly improved.
  • The increased resolution enabled immediate identification of all brainstem nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Brain / anatomy & histology. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 19411020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Spin Labels
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73. Smoker WR, Reede DL: Denervation atrophy of motor cranial nerves. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2008 May;18(2):387-411, xi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Denervation atrophy of motor cranial nerves.
  • It is incumbent on the radiologist to be aware of these changes so as not to interpret these muscles as harboring a tumor or being involved by an inflammatory process.
  • Knowledge of cranial nerve anatomy and the muscles they innervate enables identification of denervation patterns that could implicate more than one nerve and directs the search for the causative lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / complications. Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Muscular Atrophy / diagnosis. Muscular Atrophy / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18466838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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74. Yang KH, Na JH, Kong DS, Park K: Combined hyperactive dysfunction syndrome of the cranial nerves. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2009 Oct;46(4):351-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined hyperactive dysfunction syndrome of the cranial nerves.

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  • (PMID = 19893725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-7876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2773393
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Combined hyperactive dysfunction syndrome / Etiology / Hemifacial spasm / Prevalence / Trigeminal neuralgia
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75. Simon E, Mertens P: [Functional anatomy of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal cranial nerves]. Neurochirurgie; 2009 Apr;55(2):132-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Functional anatomy of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal cranial nerves].
  • [Transliterated title] Anatomie fonctionnelle des nerfs glossopharyngien, vague, accessoire et hypoglosse.
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve and the vagus nerve are mixed nerves containing sensory, gustatory, motor and autonomous fibers (parasympathetic).
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve has mainly visceral afferent fibers from the tongue and pharynx, gustatory fibers from the posterior third of the tongue, parasympathetic afferent fibers from carotid sinus and carotid glomus, parasympathetic efferent fibers for the parotid gland and motor fibers for the muscles of the pharynx.
  • The vagus nerve contains mostly visceral afferent fibers from laryngeal, intrathoracic and abdominal organs, parasympathetic efferent fibers for these intrathoracic and abdominal organs and motor fibers to the pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles.
  • The accessory nerve is divided into two branches, different in their origins and their functions: the cranial portion joins the motor fibers of the vagus nerve, to form the recurrent laryngeal nerve, whereas the spinal portion innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the trapezius muscle.
  • Finally, the hypoglossal nerve is the main motor nerve of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Glossopharyngeal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / physiology. Hypoglossal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Hypoglossal Nerve / physiology. Vagus Nerve / anatomy & histology. Vagus Nerve / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19304301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 3
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76. Costa J, Valls-Solé J, Valldeoriola F, Rumià J, Tolosa E: Motor responses of muscles supplied by cranial nerves to subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimuli. Brain; 2007 Jan;130(Pt 1):245-55
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  • [Title] Motor responses of muscles supplied by cranial nerves to subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimuli.
  • sSTN-DBS is able to activate the descending projecting fibres in the corticobulbar tract eliciting bilateral MEPs and silent periods in facial and cranial muscles.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / physiopathology. Motor Activity / physiology. Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology. Parkinson Disease / physiopathology. Subthalamic Nucleus / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17151002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Fujii M, Hokari M, Yokoyama A, Miyashita H, Ishihara A, Fujikawa T: [Dysfunction of multiple cranial nerves in cephalic tetanus--case report]. Brain Nerve; 2009 Aug;61(8):983-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Dysfunction of multiple cranial nerves in cephalic tetanus--case report].
  • Symptoms due to multiple cranial nerve palsies were observed: right inferior oblique muscle weakness, reduced right corneal reflex, right facial palsy, dysphagia, and abnormal tongue movements.
  • This case suggests that we should consider the possibility of cephalic tetanus when we observe a patient with cranial nerve palsy associated with injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Head Injuries, Closed / complications. Tetanus / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Accidental Falls. Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Debridement. Horner Syndrome / diagnosis. Horner Syndrome / etiology. Horner Syndrome / therapy. Humans. Male. Penicillin G / administration & dosage. Tetanus Antitoxin / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19697889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Nerve
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Tetanus Antitoxin; Q42T66VG0C / Penicillin G
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78. Cho KH, Rodríguez-Vázquez JF, Han EH, Verdugo-López S, Murakami G, Cho BH: Human primitive meninges in and around the mesencephalic flexure and particularly their topographical relation to cranial nerves. Ann Anat; 2010 Sep 20;192(5):322-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human primitive meninges in and around the mesencephalic flexure and particularly their topographical relation to cranial nerves.
  • In the loose tissues of the plica, the first meninx appeared as a narrow membrane along the oculomotor nerve at 7-8 weeks.
  • Notably, the topographical anatomy of the oculomotor, trochlear and trigeminal nerves did not change: the oculomotor nerve ran along the rostral aspect of the membranous meninx, the trigeminal nerve ran along the caudal side of the lateral mesenchymal condensation, and the trochlear nerve remained embedded in the lateral condensation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Meninges / anatomy & histology. Mesencephalon / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dura Mater / anatomy & histology. Dura Mater / embryology. Humans. Oculomotor Nerve / anatomy & histology. Oculomotor Nerve / embryology. Trigeminal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Trigeminal Nerve / embryology. Trochlear Nerve / anatomy & histology. Trochlear Nerve / embryology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20732798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0402
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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79. Hoshino H, Uchida T, Otsuki T, Kawamoto S, Okubo K, Takeichi M, Chisaka O: Cornichon-like protein facilitates secretion of HB-EGF and regulates proper development of cranial nerves. Mol Biol Cell; 2007 Apr;18(4):1143-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cornichon-like protein facilitates secretion of HB-EGF and regulates proper development of cranial nerves.
  • During their migration to the periphery, cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are repulsed by an ErbB4-dependent cue(s) in the mesenchyme adjoining rhombomeres (r) 3 and 5, which are segmented hindbrain neuromeres.
  • When CNIL function was perturbed in chick embryos by forced expression of a truncated form of CNIL, the distribution of NCCs was affected, which resulted in abnormal nerve fiber connections among the cranial sensory ganglia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / embryology. Epidermal Growth Factor / secretion. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17229890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1059-1524
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology of the cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cnih protein, mouse; 0 / Egg Proteins; 0 / HBEGF protein, human; 0 / Hbegf protein, mouse; 0 / Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Erbb4 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1839001
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80. Fan ZM, Han YC, Li JF, Fan Z, Xu L, Wang HB: [Revision surgery of the posterior fossa cranial nerves disease]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 May;44(5):364-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Revision surgery of the posterior fossa cranial nerves disease].
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical manifestations and the revision surgery principles of recurrent diseases of the posterior fossa nerves after primary surgery.
  • METHODS: Between 2000 to 2007, fourteen patients with recurrent diseases of the posterior fossa nerves in Shandong provincial hospital were recruited in this study, all of whom were subjected to revision surgery.
  • In five patients with hemifacial spasm underwent re-exploration, there appeared obvious fibrosis, conglutination, and the formation of new vessels around the facial nerve, with which the result of reoperation for this disorder was unsatisfied.
  • In four glossopharyngeal neuralgia patients, reanastomosis of the glossopharyngeal nerve were found in two patients, adhesion between the glossopharyngeal nerve and the vagus nerve was found in one patient, but occurred in none of the another one.
  • In the revision surgery, the regeneration of nerve fibre and two adjacent branches of vagus nerve fibre were resected, with no occurrence during 2 to 5 years of follow-up.
  • Recurrent glossopharyngeal neuralgia may attribute to the nerve fibers reanastomosis, adhesion or the communicating branches with vagus nerve.
  • With respect to the treatment of the recurrence of trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia after primary surgery, the effectiveness of nerve fibre resection is definite, whereas, the result of revision surgery for hemifacial spasm is poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Trigeminal Neuralgia / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19567042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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81. Polo G, Fischer C: [Intraoperative monitoring of brainstem auditory evoked potentials during microvascular decompression of cranial nerves in cerebellopontine angle]. Neurochirurgie; 2009 Apr;55(2):152-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intraoperative monitoring of brainstem auditory evoked potentials during microvascular decompression of cranial nerves in cerebellopontine angle].
  • [Transliterated title] Monitorage peropératoire des potentiels évoqués auditifs précoces dans la chirurgie de décompression microchirurgicale des nerfs crâniens de l'angle pontocérébelleux.
  • Critical complications arising during MVD surgery are the stretching of the VIII nerve - the main cause of hearing loss - labyrinthine artery manipulation, direct trauma with instruments, or a nearby coagulation, and at end of the surgery neocompression of the cochlear nerve by the prosthesis positioned between the conflicting vessel(s) and the VIIth-VIIIth nerve complex.
  • BAEP monitoring during VIIth-VIIIth complex surgery, particularly in MVD of facial nerves for HFS is very useful during the learning period.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellopontine Angle / surgery. Cerebral Revascularization / methods. Cranial Nerves / surgery. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem / physiology. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 19298982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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82. Begum T, Ikeda A, Matsuhashi M, Mikuni N, Miyamoto S, Hashimoto N, Nagamine T, Fukuyama H, Shibasaki H: Ipsilateral facial sensory and motor responses to basal fronto-temporal cortical stimulation: evidence suggesting direct activation of cranial nerves. Epilepsy Res; 2006 Oct;71(2-3):216-22
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  • [Title] Ipsilateral facial sensory and motor responses to basal fronto-temporal cortical stimulation: evidence suggesting direct activation of cranial nerves.
  • Out of 30 patients who have been evaluated with chronically implanted subdural electrodes for medically intractable partial seizure or brain tumor involving the basal frontal or temporal cortex, 4 patients (age ranging 24-57 years) showed sensory and motor responses in the ipsilateral face to high frequency electrical cortical stimulation of the inferior fronto-temporal cortex.
  • With electrical stimulation of the basal fronto-temporal cortex, the ipsilateral facial twitch might occur through either the direct activation of the facial nerve by the current spread in the middle cranial fossa or through the mechanism similar to blink reflex.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Epilepsies, Partial / physiopathology. Evoked Potentials, Motor / physiology. Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory / physiology. Frontal Lobe / physiopathology. Temporal Lobe / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16876985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-1211
  • [Journal-full-title] Epilepsy research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epilepsy Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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83. Blonde GD, Garcea M, Spector AC: The relative effects of transection of the gustatory branches of the seventh and ninth cranial nerves on NaCl taste detection in rats. Behav Neurosci; 2006 Jun;120(3):580-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relative effects of transection of the gustatory branches of the seventh and ninth cranial nerves on NaCl taste detection in rats.
  • Chorda tympani nerve (CT) transection in rats severely impairs NaCl taste detection.
  • These rats can detect higher concentrations of NaCl, however, suggesting that remaining oral nerves maintain some salt sensibility.
  • Rats were tested in a gustometer with a 2-response operant taste-detection task before and after sham surgery (n = 5), combined transection of the CT and the greater superficial petrosal nerves (GSP; 7x, n = 6), or transection of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL; 9x, n = 4).
  • These results suggest that the GSP contributes to NaCl sensitivity in rats and also demonstrate that the GL and perhaps the superior laryngeal and lingual nerve proper can maintain some NaCl detectability at high concentrations.
  • These findings confirm the primacy of the 7th nerve relative to the 9th nerve in sensibility of NaCl in the rat model.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorda Tympani Nerve / injuries. Glossopharyngeal Nerve Injuries. Sodium Chloride. Taste / physiology. Taste Threshold / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Behavior, Animal / physiology. Conditioning, Operant / physiology. Discrimination Learning / physiology. Drinking Behavior / physiology. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / physiopathology. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Reinforcement Schedule. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 16768610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-0084
  • [Journal-full-title] Behavioral neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Behav. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01-DC01628
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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84. Jiao YH, Zhao KX, Wang ZC, Qian XH, Wu X, Man FY, Lu W, She HC: Magnetic resonance imaging of the extraocular muscles and corresponding cranial nerves in patients with special forms of strabismus. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Dec 20;122(24):2998-3002
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of the extraocular muscles and corresponding cranial nerves in patients with special forms of strabismus.
  • BACKGROUND: With the technical advances, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now sensitive enough to detect subtle structural abnormalities of ocular motor nerves arising from the brainstem and orbits of living subjects.
  • Imaging of the ocular motor nerves in the brainstem was performed in 0.8 mm thickness image planes using the three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) sequence.
  • Nerves to extraocular muscles (EOMs), EOMs and their associated connective tissues were imaged with T1 weighting in tri-planar scans by dual-phased coils within 2.0 mm thick planes.
  • RESULTS: Patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles exhibited hypoplasia of the oculomotor (CN3), abducens (CN6), trochlear (CN4) nerves, and the EOMs; hypoplasia of CN6 in the brainstem and an extra branch of the inferior division of CN3 to the lateral rectus were the most common but not the only presentation of Duane's retraction syndrome.
  • Hypoplasia of CN6, facial (CN7) and hypoglossal (CN12) nerves were revealed in patients with Möbius syndrome.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI can reveal subtle structures of the ocular motor nerves and their corresponding EOMs.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology. Strabismus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20137490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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85. Morana G, Biancheri R, Dirocco M, Filocamo M, Marazzi MG, Pessagno A, Rossi A: Enhancing cranial nerves and cauda equina: an emerging magnetic resonance imaging pattern in metachromatic leukodystrophy and krabbe disease. Neuropediatrics; 2009 Dec;40(6):291-4
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  • [Title] Enhancing cranial nerves and cauda equina: an emerging magnetic resonance imaging pattern in metachromatic leukodystrophy and krabbe disease.
  • We report on three cases of infantile Krabbe disease and one case of infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy showing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of diffuse and coexistent cranial nerve and cauda equina nerve roots enhancement.
  • Such findings may be simultaneous, or even precede, typical white matter abnormalities and, in the appropriate clinical context, may facilitate an earlier diagnosis.
  • There is a rational for the use of contrast agents and craniospinal MR imaging during the first imaging of children with a history of psychomotor regression and clinical evidence of peripheral nerve involvement to exclude differential diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina / physiopathology. Cranial Nerves / physiopathology. Leukodystrophy, Globoid Cell / pathology. Leukodystrophy, Metachromatic / pathology


86. Kakizawa Y, Hongo K, Rhoton AL Jr: Construction of a three-dimensional interactive model of the skull base and cranial nerves. Neurosurgery; 2007 May;60(5):901-10; discussion 901-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Construction of a three-dimensional interactive model of the skull base and cranial nerves.
  • METHODS: The 3-D model was constructed using commercially available software (Maya 6.0 Unlimited; Alias Systems Corp., Delaware, MD), a personal computer, four cranial specimens, and six dry bones.
  • [MeSH-major] Computer Simulation. Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Models, Anatomic. Skull Base / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 17460526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Ryan S, Blyth P, Duggan N, Wild M, Al-Ali S: Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen. Anat Sci Int; 2007 Mar;82(1):1-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen.
  • The accessory nerve is traditionally described as having both spinal and cranial roots, with the spinal root originating from the upper cervical segments of the spinal cord and the cranial root originating from the dorsolateral surface of the medulla oblongata.
  • The spinal rootlets and cranial rootlets converge either before entering the jugular foramen or within it.
  • In a recent report, this conventional view has been challenged by finding no cranial contribution to the accessory nerve.
  • The present study was undertaken to re-examine the accessory and vagus nerves within the cranium and jugular foramen, with particular emphasis on the components of the accessory nerve.
  • These nerves were traced from their rootlets attaching to the spinal cord and the medulla and then through the jugular foramen.
  • A surgical dissecting microscope was used to trace the roots of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), vagus nerve (CN X) and accessory nerve (CN XI) before they entered the jugular foramen and during their travel through it.
  • The present study demonstrates that the accessory nerve exists in two forms within the cranial cavity.
  • However, in one of 12 cases, a small but distinct connection was seen between the vagus and the spinal accessory nerves within the jugular foramen.
  • [MeSH-major] Accessory Nerve / anatomy & histology. Vagus Nerve / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 17370444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-6959
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomical science international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Sci Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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88. Hofling AA, Kim JH, Fantz CR, Sands MS, Song SK: Diffusion tensor imaging detects axonal injury and demyelination in the spinal cord and cranial nerves of a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy. NMR Biomed; 2009 Dec;22(10):1100-6
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  • [Title] Diffusion tensor imaging detects axonal injury and demyelination in the spinal cord and cranial nerves of a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy.
  • Globoid cell leukodystrophy is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme galactosylceramidase.
  • Compared to age-matched, normal littermates, DTI of optic nerve and trigeminal nerve in end-stage Twitcher mice displayed a statistically significant increase in lambda perpendicular and decrease in lambda parallel, consistent with previously characterized demyelination and axonal damage in these regions.
  • Fractional anisotropy, a nonspecific but sensitive indicator of white matter disease, was significantly reduced in the optic nerve, trigeminal nerve, and throughout the spinal cord white matter of Twitcher mice, relative to normal controls.

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  • (PMID = 19650072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1492
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01-HD055461; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054194-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054194; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS054194-04; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD055461; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01-NS054194
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS217324; NLM/ PMC2910583
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89. Kakizawa Y, Seguchi T, Kodama K, Ogiwara T, Sasaki T, Goto T, Hongo K: Anatomical study of the trigeminal and facial cranial nerves with the aid of 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg; 2008 Mar;108(3):483-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anatomical study of the trigeminal and facial cranial nerves with the aid of 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging.
  • OBJECT: Neuroimages often reveal that the trigeminal or facial nerve comes in contact with vessels but does not produce symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) or hemifacial spasm (HFS).
  • The authors conducted this study to determine how often the trigeminal and facial nerves came in contact with vessels in individuals not suffering from TN or HFS.
  • They also investigated the correlation between aging and the anatomical measurements of the trigeminal and facial nerves.
  • METHODS: Between November 2005 and August 2006, 220 nerves in 110 individuals (60 women and 50 men; mean age 55.1 years, range 19-85 years) who had undergone brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for other reasons were studied.
  • RESULTS: The mean (+/- standard deviation) length of the trigeminal nerve was 9.66 +/- 1.71 mm, the mean distance between the bilateral trigeminal nerves was 31.97 +/- 1.82 mm, and the mean angle between the trigeminal nerve and the midline was 9.71 +/- 5.83 degrees .
  • The trigeminal nerve was significantly longer in older patients.
  • Of 220 trigeminal nerves, 108 (49.0%; 51 women and 57 men) came in contact with vasculature.
  • There was 1 contact point in 99 nerves (45%) and 2 contact points in 9 nerves (4.1%).
  • Contact without deviation of the nerve was seen in 91 individuals (43 women and 48 men), and mild deviation was noted in 17 individuals (8 women and 9 men).
  • The mean length of the facial nerve was 29.78 +/- 2.31 mm, the mean distance between the bilateral facial nerves was 28.65 +/- 2.22 mm, the angle between the nerve and midline was 69.68 +/- 5.84 degrees , and the vertical ratio at the porus acusticus was 0.467 +/- 0.169.
  • Of all facial nerves, 173 (78.6%; 101 in women and 72 in men) came in contact with some vasculature.
  • There was no severe deviation of the facial nerve in this series.
  • The proximal length of the facial nerve, interval, angle, and ratio against the age were significantly shorter or smaller in the older individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Nerve / anatomy & histology. Trigeminal Nerve / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 18312095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Fischbach F, Müller M, Bruhn H: Magnetic resonance imaging of the cranial nerves in the posterior fossa: a comparative study of t2-weighted spin-echo sequences at 1.5 and 3.0 tesla. Acta Radiol; 2008 Apr;49(3):358-63
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GADOPENTETATE DIMEGLUMINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of the cranial nerves in the posterior fossa: a comparative study of t2-weighted spin-echo sequences at 1.5 and 3.0 tesla.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the depiction of fine anatomic detail in the posterior fossa, focusing on brain nerves, on T2-weighted imaging, and to define the potential advantage of imaging at 3.0T versus 1.5T.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 10 brainstem nerve pairs of 12 volunteers were identified on T2-weighted MR images of 2- and 5-mm section thickness acquired at 1.5T and 3.0T.
  • Direct comparison revealed a significant increase for evaluated image quality criteria and the number of nerves detected.
  • CONCLUSION: The comparison revealed a clear advantage in favor of T2-weighted MRI at 3.0T vs. 1.5T in depicting the roots and course of brain nerves in the posterior fossa.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / anatomy & histology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18365827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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91. Keane JR: Bilateral involvement of a single cranial nerve: analysis of 578 cases. Neurology; 2005 Sep 27;65(6):950-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral involvement of a single cranial nerve: analysis of 578 cases.
  • The author reviewed 34 years of personal experience with inpatients in a large municipal hospital to analyze the seats and causes of involvement of single pairs of cranial nerves.
  • Among 578 cases, the sixth (n = 234) and second (211) nerves predominated, followed by the fourth (48), seventh (30), third (27), and eighth (18) cranial nerves.
  • Trauma (99), infection (94), tumor (92), increased intracranial pressure (85), vascular disease (74), and demyelination (66) were common causes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / pathology. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Functional Laterality. Mononeuropathies / etiology. Mononeuropathies / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebrovascular Disorders / complications. Cerebrovascular Disorders / pathology. Demyelinating Diseases / complications. Demyelinating Diseases / pathology. Humans. Intracranial Hypertension / complications. Intracranial Hypertension / pathology. Meningitis / complications. Meningitis / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Skull Base / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Wounds and Injuries / complications. Wounds and Injuries / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Neurology. 2006 Apr 25;66(8):1284; author reply 1284 [16636260.001]
  • (PMID = 16186545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Gundín G, Monedero G, Teba JM, Pérez Esteban L, Sanz R: [Varicella-zoster infection with isolated cochleovestibular affectation (without facial palsy)]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2006 Apr;57(4):189-92
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  • The lower cranial nerves sometimes are affected by this neuritis.
  • A case is reported of a man without immune-system impairment who had a cranial mononeuritis with unilateral involment of the VIII and VII cranial nerves after infection with varicella-zoster without herpetic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cochlea / virology. Facial Paralysis / diagnosis. Herpes Zoster / virology. Herpesvirus 3, Human / isolation & purification. Vestibule, Labyrinth / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Audiometry, Pure-Tone / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Hearing Loss / virology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16686230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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93. Antal EA, Løberg EM, Dietrichs E, Maehlen J: Neuropathological findings in 9 cases of listeria monocytogenes brain stem encephalitis. Brain Pathol; 2005 Jul;15(3):187-91
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  • In the brain stem, the inflammatory infiltrates were located predominantly within nuclei and tracts of cranial nerves innervating the oropharynx.
  • These findings support the hypothesis that the food-borne bacterium Listeria monocytogenes invades the brain stem along cranial nerves.

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  • (PMID = 16196384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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94. Peterson KL, Fenn J: Treatment of dysphagia and dysphonia following skull base surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2005 Aug;38(4):809-17, xi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This article provides an overview of considerations in the evaluation and treatment of lower cranial nerve deficits, specifically in cranial nerves IX, X, and XII, in the context of skull base tumors and their treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Deglutition Disorders / surgery. Skull Base / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Voice Disorders / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Arytenoid Cartilage / surgery. Deglutition. Endoscopy. Glossopharyngeal Nerve / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Vagus Nerve / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16005732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6665
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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95. Hodaie M, Quan J, Chen DQ: In vivo visualization of cranial nerve pathways in humans using diffusion-based tractography. Neurosurgery; 2010 Apr;66(4):788-95; discussion 795-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vivo visualization of cranial nerve pathways in humans using diffusion-based tractography.
  • OBJECTIVE: Diffusion-based tractography has emerged as a powerful technique for 3-dimensional tract reconstruction and imaging of white matter fibers; however, tractography of the cranial nerves has not been well studied.
  • In particular, the feasibility of tractography of the individual cranial nerves has not been previously assessed.
  • Tractography of the cranial nerves was performed using 3D Slicer software.
  • RESULTS: Detailed tractography of the cranial nerves was obtained, although not all cranial nerves were imaged with similar anatomic fidelity.
  • Some tracts were imaged in great detail (cranial nerves II, III, and V).
  • Tractography of the optic apparatus allowed tracing from the optic nerve to the occipital lobe, including Meyer's loop.
  • Tractography of cranial nerve III shows the course of the fibers through the midbrain.
  • Lower cranial nerves (cranial nerves IX, XI, and XII) could not be imaged well.
  • CONCLUSION: Tractography of the cranial nerves is feasible, although technical improvements are necessary to improve the tract reconstruction of the lower cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerves / pathology. Diffusion Tensor Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods

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  • [ErratumIn] Neurosurgery. 2011 Jun;68(6):E1780
  • (PMID = 20305498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Bartalena T, Leoni C, Trossello MP, Rinaldi MF, Cianfoni A, Caprara G, Sverzellati N, De Filippo M, Padovani R: Hourglass cystic schwannoma of the trochlear nerve. Acta Biomed; 2010 Sep;81(2):147-50
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  • [Title] Hourglass cystic schwannoma of the trochlear nerve.
  • Cranial nerves' schwannomas most commonly arise from the vestibular nerve.
  • Involvement of other cranial nerves, in absence of neurofibromatosis, is extremely rare.
  • A case of a pathology proven trochlear nerve schwannoma, with internal cystic components, in a patient with isolated right superior oblique muscle palsy, is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Trochlear Nerve / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21305881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-4203
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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97. Battaglia F, Martini L, Tannier C: [Collet-Sicard syndrome after carotid artery dissection]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2009 Jun-Jul;165(6-7):588-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome de Collet-Sicard après dissection carotidienne.
  • Collet-Sicard syndrome is a rare condition, defined as unilateral palsy of the last four cranial nerves.
  • Collet-Sicard syndrome is most often caused by skull tumors, carotid artery dissections or head and neck trauma.
  • We report the case of a 57-year-old man who presented palsy of the left lower cranial nerves IX-XII linked to carotid artery dissection after trivial neck injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachial Plexus Neuritis / etiology. Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection / complications. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19038409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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98. Mohan S, Ahmed SI, Alao OA, Schliep TC: A case of AIDS associated cryptococcal meningitis with multiple cranial nerve neuropathies. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2006 Sep;108(6):610-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of AIDS associated cryptococcal meningitis with multiple cranial nerve neuropathies.
  • Cranial nerve neuropathies are well-known complications that occur due to increased intracranial pressure and inflammation of cranial nerves in such patients but have not been previously reported to involve more than four cranial nerves simultaneously.
  • Our patient had involvement of five cranial nerves resulting in the complete loss of vision and hearing as well palsies of the third, sixth and seventh cranial nerves.
  • At the time of discharge the patient had complete recovery of the functions of third, sixth and seventh cranial nerves bilaterally and partial recovery of hearing and vision.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Cranial Nerve Diseases / microbiology. Meningitis, Cryptococcal / complications

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  • (PMID = 16487652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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99. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez G, Marinas Alejo A, Bautista Espinal J, Sebastián R, Marti Massó JF: [Misleading presentation of rhombencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes]. Neurologia; 2005 Dec;20(10):694-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Romboencefalitis por Listeria de presentación equívoca.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 76 years old male presenting with an acute symmetrical palsy of fifth, seventh, ninth-tenth cranial nerves, ophthalmoparesia and miosis, without evident signs of long tract lesion, mimicking a peripheral nervous system or neuromuscular junction disease.
  • The results of the blood cultures and the magnetic resonance imaging gave the diagnosis of rhombencephalitis due to Listeria.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rhombencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes may present as a symmetric palsy of cranial nerves, therefore it can mimic a cranial nerves multineuritis syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 16317592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-4853
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurología (Barcelona, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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100. Papanagiotou P, Grunwald IQ, Politi M, Struffert T, Ahlhelm F, Reith W: [Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle]. Radiologe; 2006 Mar;46(3):216-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Vaskuläre Erkrankungen des Kleinhirnbrückenwinkels.
  • Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle are rare compared to tumors in this area.
  • Irritation of the trigeminal, facial, or vestibulocochlear nerve may cause trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vertigo, or tinnitus accordingly.
  • Vessel loops in the cerebellopontine cisterns may cause compression at the root entry or exit zone of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, a phenomenon which is called "vascular loop syndrome."
  • Megadolichobasilar artery and aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system can also lead to dislocation and compression of the cranial nerves and brain stem.
  • Microvascular decompression is an effective surgical procedure in the management of compression syndromes of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellum / abnormalities. Cerebellum / blood supply. Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis. Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / therapy. Nerve Compression Syndromes / diagnosis. Nerve Compression Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Hemifacial Spasm / diagnosis. Hemifacial Spasm / etiology. Hemifacial Spasm / therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Trigeminal Neuralgia / diagnosis. Trigeminal Neuralgia / etiology. Trigeminal Neuralgia / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16432753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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