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1. Ichihara N, Kikuchi N, Sawada T, Kaseda M, Honnma N, Shibata S, Amasaki H, Asari M: Macromorphometric study on ciliary body location in canine eyes. J Vet Med Sci; 2006 Mar;68(3):201-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Macromorphometric study on ciliary body location in canine eyes.
  • This macroscopic study firstly examined the precise locational information of the canine ciliary body, i.e., the ciliary crown and the ciliary ring in the beagle.
  • The safe and effective transscleral laser photocoagulation technique requires the accurate location of the ciliary body.
  • In both sides of the eyeball in 10 beagle dogs, the width of the ciliary ring and the distance from the limbus to the ciliary ring were measured with calipers using a stereomicroscope at the 8 points.
  • The widest portion of ciliary body was found at the dorsal to ventro-temporal area of the lateral canthus (lateral portion of the eyelid; ear side).
  • Use of transscleral photocoagulation at the present narrowest area of ciliary body may carry a high risk of destruction of the optic portion of retina.

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  • (PMID = 16598161.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Chen ZQ, Fang XY: Adenoma of nonpigmented epithelium in ciliary body: literature review and case report. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2007 Sep;8(9):612-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenoma of nonpigmented epithelium in ciliary body: literature review and case report.
  • Adenomas of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE) are often clinically indistinguishable from amelanotic malignant melanomas of the ciliary body or metastatic carcinomas.
  • Identification of this clinic feature is important because it will miss the diagnosis of the adenoma of the NPCE.
  • In this case study, B-scan ultrasonography as well as computerized tomography (CT) has been used to provide help in diagnosing the ciliary body tumor.
  • Because of their anterior location in the ciliary body, partial lamellar sclerouvectomy is an effective method of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Ciliary Body / pathology. Epithelium, Corneal / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17726740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 15
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1963425
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3. Dias da Silva MR, Tiffin N, Mima T, Mikawa T, Hyer J: FGF-mediated induction of ciliary body tissue in the chick eye. Dev Biol; 2007 Apr 1;304(1):272-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FGF-mediated induction of ciliary body tissue in the chick eye.
  • Upon morphogenesis, the simple neuroepithelium of the optic vesicle gives rise to four basic tissues in the vertebrate optic cup: pigmented epithelium, sensory neural retina, secretory ciliary body and muscular iris.
  • The anterior portions (iris and ciliary body) are specified through interactions with lens although the molecular mechanisms of induction have not been deciphered.
  • As lens is a source of FGF, we examined whether this factor was involved in inducing ciliary body.
  • Ciliary body tissue was found in the transitioning zone.
  • The ectopic ciliary body was never in contact with the lens tissue.
  • In order to assess the contribution of the lens on the specification of normal ciliary body, we created optic cups in which the lens had been removed while still pre-lens ectoderm.
  • Ciliary body tissue was identified in the anterior portion of lens-less optic cups.
  • We propose that the ciliary body may be specified at optic vesicle stages, at the same developmental stage when the neural retina and pigmented epithelium are specified and we present a model as to how this could be accomplished through overlapping BMP and FGF signals.

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  • (PMID = 17275804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-1606
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY015429; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY015429-04; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015429
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS20664; NLM/ PMC1863121
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4. Vladyka V, Lis C Ák R, S Imonová G, Pilbauer J, Hejduková I, Novác Ek L: Progress in glaucoma treatment research: a nonrandomized prospective study of 102 patients with advanced refractory glaucoma treated by Leksell gamma knife irradiation. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):214-219

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECT: The authors performed a study to characterize the effects of ciliary body gamma knife surgery (GKS) for advanced glaucoma.

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  • (PMID = 28306455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; ciliary body / gamma knife surgery / glaucoma
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5. Cunha AA, Rodrigues NH, Almeida GA, Picanço BC, Netto JA: [Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2010 Mar-Apr;73(2):193-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanoma de corpo ciliar e coróide: relato de caso.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in the adult.
  • The ocular echography suggested a large tumoral mass as a choroidal melanoma extending to the ciliary body.
  • The confirmation diagnosis was possible through the histopathologic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ciliary Body. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 20549054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-2925
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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6. Davis N, Yoffe C, Raviv S, Antes R, Berger J, Holzmann S, Stoykova A, Overbeek PA, Tamm ER, Ashery-Padan R: Pax6 dosage requirements in iris and ciliary body differentiation. Dev Biol; 2009 Sep 1;333(1):132-42
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  • [Title] Pax6 dosage requirements in iris and ciliary body differentiation.
  • The use of the Tyrp2-Cre line, active in iris and ciliary body (CB) primordium, enabled us to investigate the effect of varying dosages of Pax6 on the development of these ocular sub-organs.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / embryology. Ciliary Body / growth & development. Eye Proteins / biosynthesis. Gene Dosage. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Iris / embryology. Iris / growth & development. Paired Box Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Repressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19563798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-564X
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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7. Laccarino GF, Forte R, Tranfa F, Cennamo G, Rosa N: [Intracorneal invasion of the ciliary body by melanoma]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Feb;29(2):e3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intracorneal invasion of the ciliary body by melanoma].
  • At B-scan and standardized A-scan echography, the mass was shown to be localized to the ciliary body, with characteristics of a malignant melanoma.
  • Therefore, enucleation was performed and light microscopy revealed a pigmented malignant melanoma of the ciliary body with extrascleral growth and infiltration of the anterior third of the corneal stroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Corneal Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16523149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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8. Mei H, Xing Y, Yang A, Wang J, Xu Y, Wang Z, Heiligenhaus A: Astrocytoma of the ciliary body. Ophthalmologica; 2009;223(1):72-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Astrocytoma of the ciliary body.
  • PURPOSE: To report the occurrence of an astrocytoma of the ciliary body.
  • RESULTS: A 29-year-old woman was found to have a left ciliary body tumor.
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy showed that the lesion was located in the superior temporal quadrant of the ciliary body and extended backward for 6 mm from the limbus.
  • The tumor was carefully dissected free and completely removed via episcleral incision.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We describe an astrocytoma of the ciliary body in a patient, which is an extremely rare ocular tumor.
  • Histopathology and immunocytochemical analysis were required to establish the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Ciliary Body. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19033704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0267
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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9. Gallego Y, Mendicute J, Ruiz M, Ruiz I, Ubeda M: [Melanocytoma of the ciliary body]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2005 Feb;80(2):109-12
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  • [Title] [Melanocytoma of the ciliary body].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanocitoma de cuerpo ciliar.
  • On examination, and once complementary tests were performed, a pigmented lesion located on the iris root and ciliary body of her right eye was confirmed.
  • Histology results confirmed the diagnosis of ciliary body melanocytoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Ciliary body melanocytoma is a benign rare lesion with only 40 cases described in the literature.
  • A local resection of this benign lesion should be considered as alternative to enucleation, even though differential diagnosis with malignant melanoma must also be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15750890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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10. Cho HY, Sa HS, Kang SW: Lacrimal gland choristoma of the ciliary body. Jpn J Ophthalmol; 2006 Mar-Apr;50(2):100-2
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  • [Title] Lacrimal gland choristoma of the ciliary body.
  • BACKGROUND: Lacrimal gland choristoma manifesting in the ciliary body is quite rare.
  • We report a case of lacrimal gland choristoma manifesting in the ciliary body, coupled with orbital cellulites, in an infant.
  • During the funduscopic examination, a fleshy mass was incidentally detected at the superotemporal portion of the ciliary body in the right eye.
  • The results of a pathologic examination showed lacrimal gland choristoma of the ciliary body that was accompanied by an epithelia-lined cyst.
  • CONCLUSION: Lacrimal gland choristoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a ciliary body mass in pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Ciliary Body. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microscopy, Acoustic

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  • (PMID = 16604383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5155
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Koletsa T, Karayannopoulou G, Dereklis D, Vasileiadis I, Papadimitriou CS, Hytiroglou P: Mesectodermal leiomyoma of the ciliary body: report of a case and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):125-30

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mesectodermal leiomyoma of the ciliary body: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Mesectodermal leiomyoma of the ciliary body is a rare benign tumor with double (muscular and neural) differentiation.
  • This neoplasm is considered to originate from the ciliary body smooth muscle, a neural crest derivative.
  • The tumor measured 1.2cm in greatest dimension, and consisted of spindle and ovoid cells with abundant fibrillary cytoplasmic processes.
  • A review of the 23 cases thus far reported in the literature shows a striking predilection for women, as well as significant difficulties in differentiating this tumor from malignant melanoma on clinical grounds.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18930601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Heindl LM, Hofmann TN, Knorr HL, Rummelt C, Schrödl F, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Holbach LM, Naumann GO, Kruse FE, Cursiefen C: Intraocular lymphangiogenesis in malignant melanomas of the ciliary body with extraocular extension. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2009 May;50(5):1988-95
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  • [Title] Intraocular lymphangiogenesis in malignant melanomas of the ciliary body with extraocular extension.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze whether lymphatic vessels can invade the normally alymphatic eye (lymphangiogenesis) in patients with malignant melanoma of the ciliary body with extraocular extension and to correlate these findings with metastasis-free survival.
  • METHODS: Ten enucleated globes with the histopathologically and immunohistochemically (S-100, HMB-45, PNL-2, and Melan-A) confirmed diagnosis of malignant melanoma of the ciliary body with extraocular extension were matched with 10 globes with a ciliary body melanoma without extraocular extension regarding tumor size, cell type, melanin content, mitotic count, vascular networks, and patients' age.
  • RESULTS: Intraocular LYVE-1(+) and podoplanin(+) lymphatic vessels were detected in 7 of 10 malignant melanomas of the ciliary body with extraocular extension (two of these developed a regional lymph node metastasis).
  • Lymphatic vessels were found only at the tumor periphery directly adjacent to the sclera within the eye, more often in tumors of the epithelioid type (P = 0.017, Mann-Whitney test).
  • Ciliary body melanomas without extrascleral extension revealed no intraocular LYVE-1(+) and podoplanin(+) lymphatic vessels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant melanomas of the ciliary body with extraocular extension show intraocular lymphatic vessels.
  • This first evidence of lymphangiogenesis into the normally alymphatic eye may explain the increased risk of lymphatic metastasis in ciliary body melanoma with extraocular extension.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Lymphangiogenesis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Endothelium, Lymphatic / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Microscopy, Confocal. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Vesicular Transport Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19151383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins
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13. Furino C, Guerriero S, Boscia F, Ferrari TM, Cardascia N, Sborgia L, Sborgia C: In vivo evidence of hypotrophic ciliary body in ocular ischemic syndrome by ultrasound biomicroscopy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2007 Nov-Dec;38(6):505-7
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  • [Title] In vivo evidence of hypotrophic ciliary body in ocular ischemic syndrome by ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • In ocular ischemic syndrome, the ischemic condition is due to markedly reduced blood flow and increased vascular resistance of retrobulbar circulation, as in the central retina and posterior ciliary arteries.
  • Chronic hypoxia affects even the iris and ciliary body.
  • The hypoperfusion of the ciliary body leads to a relative hypotony, presumably related to decreased aqueous humor production.
  • Histopathologic study has demonstrated ciliary body atrophy on an ischemic basis.
  • The authors used ultrasound biomicroscopy to demonstrate in vivo the hypotrophic condition of the ciliary body in ocular ischemic syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Iris / blood supply. Ischemia / diagnosis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis. Retinal Diseases / diagnosis. Retinal Vessels / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2008 Jan-Feb;39(1):16. Nicola, Cardascia [corrected to Cardascia, Nicola]
  • (PMID = 18050816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Romanowska-Dixon B: [Block resection with scleral flap rotation in ciliary body melanoma]. Klin Oczna; 2005;107(10-12):681-3
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  • [Title] [Block resection with scleral flap rotation in ciliary body melanoma].
  • The aim was to present a case of ciliary body melanoma treated with block resection and scleral flap rotation.
  • 49-year old woman with ciliary body melanoma and extrascleral extension appeared in our clinic.
  • Block resection of ciliary body melanoma and scleral flap rotation was performed and additional ruthenium brachytherapy was applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Sclera / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16619819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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15. Ultrasound biomicroscopy after vitrectomy in eyes with normal intraocular pressure and in eyes with chronic hypotony. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jul-Aug;18(4):614-618

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  • UBM was performed to study the anterior segment, ciliary body (CB), and peripheral retina.

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  • (PMID = 28221647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6016
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Krema H, Simpson ER, Pavlin CJ, Payne D, Vasquez LM, McGowan H: Management of ciliary body melanoma with iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy. Can J Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;44(4):395-400
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  • [Title] Management of ciliary body melanoma with iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Because ciliary body melanoma often defies early diagnosis, and its treatment is controversial, we report our experience with the clinical presentation and management of ciliary body melanoma, treated with iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two patients with ciliary body melanoma treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy.
  • METHODS: Electronic chart review of ciliary body melanoma patients treated at Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.
  • Outcome measures included rates of tumour control, eye preservation, systemic metastases, and brachytherapy-related complications.
  • RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 58 years and median follow-up was 43 months.
  • Ciliary body melanoma was asymptomatic in 55% of patients, whereas floaters or flashes were the main symptom in 33%.
  • Median tumour thickness before brachytherapy was 5.2 mm and after brachytherapy was 3.3 mm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Medium-sized ciliary body melanoma produced no or minimal symptoms on presentation in 88% of the patients.
  • Iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy offered 98% tumour control at 43 months' follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 19606159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-3360
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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17. Romanowska-Dixon B: [Surgical management of ciliary body melanoma]. Klin Oczna; 2005;107(10-12):627-31
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  • [Title] [Surgical management of ciliary body melanoma].
  • The aim was to report my own experiences of the surgical treatment of ciliary body melanoma.
  • Residual tumor in one case was the reason of enucleation.
  • These observations show that transscleral resection with additional brachytherapy is a method of choice in the management of ciliary body melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16619806.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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18. Natiello M, Lewis P, Samuelson D: Comparative anatomy of the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) and selected species. Vet Ophthalmol; 2005 Nov-Dec;8(6):375-85

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  • [Title] Comparative anatomy of the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) and selected species.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the anatomy of the ciliary body in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), paying close attention to its vascularization and to compare to those of its distant relative, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the amphibious hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) and the aquatic short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus).
  • RESULTS: The network of blood vessels in the ciliary processes of the West Indian manatee appear to have an intricate pattern, especially with regard to venous outflow.
  • Those of the elephant are slightly less complex, while those of the hippopotamus and whale have different vascular patterns within the ciliary body.
  • Musculature within the ciliary body is absent within the manatee and pilot whale.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In general, there appears to be a direct relationship between the increased development of vasculature and the loss of musculature within the ciliary bodies of the aquatic and amphibious mammals presently studied.
  • Specifically, the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee has a comparatively unique construction, especially with regard to its vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / anatomy & histology. Ciliary Body / blood supply. Mammals / anatomy & histology. Trichechus manatus / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16359360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Odashiro AN, Fernandes BF, Al-Kandari A, Gregoire FJ, Burnier MN Jr: Report of two cases of ciliary body mesectodermal leiomyoma: unique expression of neural markers. Ophthalmology; 2007 Jan;114(1):157-61

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  • [Title] Report of two cases of ciliary body mesectodermal leiomyoma: unique expression of neural markers.
  • OBJECTIVE: Mesectodermal leiomyoma of the ciliary body is a rare tumor with, to our knowledge, only 15 cases reported in the literature.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For the second time, we were able to demonstrate expression of neural immunohistochemical markers in this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Muscle Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17070579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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20. Vásquez LM, Pavlin CJ, McGowan H, Yücel Y, Simpson ER: Ring melanoma of the ciliary body: clinical and ultrasound biomicroscopic characteristics. Can J Ophthalmol; 2008 Apr;43(2):229-33
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  • [Title] Ring melanoma of the ciliary body: clinical and ultrasound biomicroscopic characteristics.
  • BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ring melanoma is clinically difficult since the mass can remain hidden with standard slit-lamp biomicroscopy.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) as a diagnostic tool for ring melanoma of the ciliary body.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 6 eyes of 6 patients at Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ont., with a diagnosis of ring melanoma of the ciliary body.
  • The tumor extension was measured clinically, gonioscopically, ultrasonographically (by UBM), and pathologically.
  • Ciliary body involvement on slit-lamp examination ranged from 60 to 180 degrees.
  • Ciliary body involvement as assessed by UBM ranged from 180 to 300 degrees.
  • Tumor extension according to pathological examination ranged from 210 to 360 degrees.
  • INTERPRETATION: UBM is an important tool in determining the extent of ciliary body involvement and classifying these lesions.

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  • [ErratumIn] Can J Ophthalmol. 2008 Jun;43(3):378. Yücel, Yeni [added]
  • (PMID = 18347629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-4182
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Odashiro M, Odashiro A, Leite L, Melo M, Odashiro P, Miiji L, Odashiro D, Fernandes P, Burnier M Jr: Melanocytoma of ciliary body and choroids simulating melanoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Feb 15;206(2):130-3
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  • [Title] Melanocytoma of ciliary body and choroids simulating melanoma.
  • Melanocytoma is a rare intraocular tumor.
  • There are some reports in the literature dealing with primary melanocytomas of the choroid and ciliary body.
  • Some clinical features can give a clue as to the correct diagnosis.
  • An ultrasound of the OD showed an elevated tumor on topography of the ciliary body and anterior choroid at the ora serrata level.
  • Melanoma was the main diagnosis considered, and enucleation was indicated due to poor prognosis for visual acuity.
  • Gross and histopathologic examinations of the OD showed a heavily pigmented tumor.
  • The brownish pigment obscured the morphology of the tumor cells that could not be visualized by conventional H&E stain.
  • Bleached slides showed that tumor was composed of melanocytoma cells type I.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Ciliary Body / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19410384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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22. Lee GH, Ahn JK, Park YG: Intravitreal triamcinolone reduces the morphologic changes of ciliary body after pars plana vitrectomy for retinal vascular diseases. Am J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jun;145(6):1037-1044
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  • [Title] Intravitreal triamcinolone reduces the morphologic changes of ciliary body after pars plana vitrectomy for retinal vascular diseases.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the early postoperative changes in ciliary body after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for retinal vascular disease and to determine whether intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) affects postvitrectomy changes of the ciliary body.
  • The main outcome measures were the thickness and area of the ciliary body, the frequency of supraciliary effusions (SEs), angle-opening, and anterior chamber depth (ACD).
  • RESULTS: The thickness and area of the ciliary body significantly increased from day 1 to day 5 postoperatively.
  • The angle-opening and ACD were significantly decreased and dependent upon the findings of ciliary body thickness and SEs.
  • The degree of the morphologic changes of the ciliary body and the frequency of SEs were significantly lower and of shorter duration in the IVTA group compared to the non-IVTA group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PPV for retinal vascular disease induces the morphologic changes of the ciliary body associated with postoperative abnormalities in IOP during the early postoperative period.
  • Administration of IVTA at the end of the PPV effectively reduces or shortens the duration of the postvitrectomy changes of the ciliary body.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / drug effects. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Postoperative Complications. Retinal Diseases / surgery. Triamcinolone Acetonide / administration & dosage. Uveal Diseases / drug therapy. Vitrectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Diabetic Retinopathy / surgery. Female. Humans. Injections. Male. Microscopy, Acoustic. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Retinal Vein Occlusion / surgery. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 18378211.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; F446C597KA / Triamcinolone Acetonide
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23. Napier HR, Kidson SH: Molecular events in early development of the ciliary body: a question of folding. Exp Eye Res; 2007 Apr;84(4):615-25
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  • [Title] Molecular events in early development of the ciliary body: a question of folding.
  • Ciliary body morphogenesis is a complicated, multi-step process requiring coordinated changes in cell shape, flexure of epithelial sheets and dynamic shifts in mitotic rates.
  • This review summarises current models of ciliary body morphogenesis.
  • An update on the role of the lens in ciliary body morphogenesis is presented.
  • In the second part of the review current gene expression data is related to ciliary body morphogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / growth & development. Morphogenesis / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16959249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / 1R03TW001392-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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24. Shields CL, Chong WH, Ehya H, Shields JA: Sequential bilateral solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the ciliary body. Cornea; 2007 Jul;26(6):759-61
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  • [Title] Sequential bilateral solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the ciliary body.
  • PURPOSE: To report bilateral plasmacytoma of the ciliary body in a healthy patient.
  • The tumor was treated with 4000 cGy by using custom-designed plaque radiotherapy.
  • The tumor completely resolved.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Plasmacytoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Brachytherapy. Female. Humans. Microscopy, Acoustic. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17592334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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25. Finger PT, Narayana K, Iacob CE, Samson CM, Latkany P: Giant sarcoid tumor of the iris and ciliary body. Ocul Immunol Inflamm; 2007 Mar-Apr;15(2):121-5
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  • [Title] Giant sarcoid tumor of the iris and ciliary body.
  • PURPOSE: To report the occurrence of a giant iridociliary sarcoid tumor.
  • Tumor biopsies allowed for cytopathologic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis.
  • RESULTS: The 39-year-old black male was found to have a right iris and ciliary body tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We describe a giant iridociliary sarcoid tumor in a patient with no lacrimal gland enlargement, conjunctival nodules, or skin lesions.
  • A biopsy was required to establish the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17558838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3948
  • [Journal-full-title] Ocular immunology and inflammation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Heindl LM, Hofmann TN, Schrödl F, Holbach LM, Kruse FE, Cursiefen C: Intraocular lymphatics in ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension: functional for lymphatic spread? Arch Ophthalmol; 2010 Aug;128(8):1001-8
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  • [Title] Intraocular lymphatics in ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension: functional for lymphatic spread?
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the functional significance of intraocular tumor-associated lymphatic vessels in ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension.
  • METHODS: Twelve consecutive patients enucleated for a malignant melanoma of the ciliary body with extraocular extension and immunohistochemical presence of intraocular LYVE-1-positive and podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels were examined for proliferation status and tumor invasion into tumor-associated lymphatics.
  • Tumor invasion into lymphatic vessels was assessed using Melan-A as the melanoma marker.
  • RESULTS: Intraocular proliferating lymphatic vessels were detected in all 12 ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension.
  • The ratio of proliferating lymphatics was significantly higher in the intraocular vs extraocular tumor compartment (P < .001).
  • Extraocular lymphatic invasion by tumor cells was observed in 5 patients (42%), intraocular lymphatic invasion in 4 (33%), and synchronous intraocular and extraocular lymphatic invasion in 3 (25%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular tumor-associated lymphatic vessels contain proliferating endothelial cells and can be invaded by cancer cells in ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension.
  • Lymphatic invasion by tumor cells seems to be associated with an increased risk of lymphatic spread and mortality in these affected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Lymphangiogenesis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen. Lymphatic Metastasis. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Vesicular Transport Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20697000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins
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27. Guo Q, Hao J, Sun Sb, Xu Sp, Yang Q, Guo Ql, Cui Gd: Oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body: a unique case report and the review of literature. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:579
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body: a unique case report and the review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: To date, there is no report in the international literature of an oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body, nor is there an analysis of the possible origins of this lesion.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report on a 52-year-old man admitted to our hospital with a ciliary body tumor revealed by clinical examination and ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies.
  • Postoperative histopathological staining results included OLIGO-2(+) and GFAP(-), leading to a pathological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body in the right eye (WHO grade II).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Since malignant gliomas derive from transformed neural stem cells, the presence of oligodendroglioma in the ciliary body supports the hypothesis that gliomas can occur wherever neural stem cells exist.
  • Tumors of the ciliary body derived from oligodendrocytes are difficult to diagnose; pathological analyses are essential.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Cites] Neuron. 2000 Feb;25(2):317-29 [10719888.001]
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  • (PMID = 20969790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2972288
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28. Assheton DC, Guerin EP, Sheridan CM, Bishop PN, Hiscott PS: Neoplastic transformation of ciliary body epithelium is associated with loss of opticin expression. Br J Ophthalmol; 2007 Feb;91(2):230-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neoplastic transformation of ciliary body epithelium is associated with loss of opticin expression.
  • It is synthesised and secreted by the ciliary body epithelium (CBE) from the initiation of CBE development in the embryo, and production continues throughout life.
  • AIM: To determine whether a variety of ciliary body tumours synthesise opticin to characterise further its role in ciliary body health and disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Eye Proteins / metabolism. Proteoglycans / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17005546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / OPTC protein, human; 0 / Proteoglycans
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1857628
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29. Natiello M, Samuelson D: Three-dimensional reconstruction of the angioarchitecture of the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Vet Ophthalmol; 2005 Nov-Dec;8(6):367-73
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional reconstruction of the angioarchitecture of the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the angioarchitecture of the ciliary body in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), through the use of three-dimensional reconstruction.
  • RESULTS: The network of blood vessels in the ciliary processes of the West Indian manatee is fed by the major arterial circle that lies mostly near the base of the iris.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The angioarchitecture of the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee is clearly unique when compared to those previously examined in land mammals.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / anatomy & histology. Ciliary Body / blood supply. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / veterinary. Trichechus manatus / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16359359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Saari JM, Nummelin K: Iris atrophy, serous detachment of the ciliary body, and ocular hypotony in chronic phase of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2005 Mar-Apr;15(2):277-83
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  • [Title] Iris atrophy, serous detachment of the ciliary body, and ocular hypotony in chronic phase of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.
  • PURPOSE: To describe iris atrophy, serous detachment of the ciliary body, and ocular hypotony in a patient with chronic phase of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease.
  • RESULTS: Infrared transillumination imaging showed extensive atrophy of the iris stroma and occasional pigment clumps both in the pupillary and ciliary zones of the iris, and detachment of the ciliary body in both eyes.
  • Treatment did not normalize bilateral shallow retinal detachment of the posterior pole, serous detachment of the ciliary body, or severe ocular hypotony.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Severe atrophy of the iris stroma, retinal detachment of the posterior pole, serous detachment of the ciliary body, and ocular hypotony may occur in chronic phase of VKH disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Iris / pathology. Ocular Hypotension / etiology. Uveal Diseases / etiology. Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Atrophy. Chronic Disease. Female. Fluorescein Angiography. Humans. Intraocular Pressure. Lens Implantation, Intraocular. Middle Aged. Phacoemulsification. Pigment Epithelium of Eye / pathology. Retinal Detachment / diagnosis. Retinal Detachment / etiology. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 15812774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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31. Mancini V, Battaglia M, Lucarelli G, Di Lorenzo V, Ditonno P, Bettocchi C, Selvaggi FP: Unusual solitary metastasis of the ciliary body in renal cell carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2008 Apr;15(4):363-5
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  • [Title] Unusual solitary metastasis of the ciliary body in renal cell carcinoma.
  • We describe a rare case of metachronous ciliary RCC metastasis in a 42-year-old man who had undergone left radical nephrectomy for conventional RCC (pT3aN0M0, G2 Fuhrman) 6 years earlier.
  • Solitary metastasis of the left eye presented with inflammatory symptoms, but examination of the fundus and bulbar ultrasound revealed a small mass of the ciliary body.
  • Ocular metastasis of RCC is rare, can appear years after treating the primary tumor and should not be excluded in RCC follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Ciliary Body / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18380830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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32. Hu J, Tang SB, Ma J, Wu JL, Shen HX: [Experimental studies on the existence and distribution characteristics of neural stem cells in adult human ciliary body and retina]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Mar;43(3):222-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Experimental studies on the existence and distribution characteristics of neural stem cells in adult human ciliary body and retina].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence and distribution characteristics of neural stem cells in the eyes of adult human ciliary body and retina.
  • The protein and mRNA expressions of neural progenitor cell-specific antigen nestin in the ciliary body and retina were detected by immunohistochemical staining and reverse RT-PCR assays, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining showed that there were a few nestin-positive cells existed in pigment epithelium layer of ciliary body and inner nuclear layer (INL) of retina. mRNA expression of nestin gene was detected in both the ciliary body and retina of the infant and adult eyes by RT-PCR assays.
  • The expression of nestin in the infant ciliary body was higher than that of the adult eye.
  • CONCLUSION: Cells with the features of neural stem cells are present in the pigment epithelium layer of ciliary body and the inner nuclear layer of retina in adult human eyes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / ultrastructure. Ciliary Body / cytology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Retina / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17605904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0412-4081
  • [Journal-full-title] [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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33. Mohamed MD, Gupta M, Parsons A, Rennie IG: Ultrasound biomicroscopy in the management of melanocytoma of the ciliary body with extrascleral extension. Br J Ophthalmol; 2005 Jan;89(1):14-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound biomicroscopy in the management of melanocytoma of the ciliary body with extrascleral extension.
  • AIM: To demonstrate the ultrasound biomicroscopic features of a ciliary body melanocytoma with extrascleral extension, and a conservative approach in its management.
  • Two cases of ciliary body melanocytoma were suspected at presentation, confirmed histologically by biopsy, and subsequently monitored for change by serial ultrasound biomicroscopic imaging.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Melanocytoma is a rare tumour.
  • However if considered in the differential diagnosis at presentation and confirmed histologically, further management with use of the ultrasound biomicroscope as an accurate mode of imaging is an acceptable technique for preservation of the eye and avoids surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Nevus, Pigmented / ultrasonography. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1967 Jan;77(1):61-6 [6015721.001]
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  • (PMID = 15615738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1772463
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34. Peters S, Heiduschka P, Julien S, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Schraermeyer U: Immunohistochemical localisation of intravitreally injected bevacizumab in the anterior chamber angle, iris and ciliary body of the primate eye. Br J Ophthalmol; 2008 Apr;92(4):541-4
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical localisation of intravitreally injected bevacizumab in the anterior chamber angle, iris and ciliary body of the primate eye.
  • RESULTS: Immunoreactivity for bevacizumab was found in the blood vessels walls of the iris, anterior chamber angle and ciliary body.
  • In the ciliary body, staining was most intense on day 4 and remained prominent until day 14.
  • Immunoreactivity was also present in certain vessel lumens, especially in the ciliary body and the iris on day 4 and 14.
  • CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab penetrates quickly into the iris, anterior chamber angle and ciliary body after intravitreal injection in the primate eye and accumulates particularly in blood-vessel walls.
  • The highest concentration of bevacizumab in these tissues is present on day 1-4, the iris and anterior chamber angle being penetrated slightly earlier than the ciliary body.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anterior Chamber / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Injections. Iris / metabolism. Macaca fascicularis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 18211933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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35. Iwao K, Inatani M, Ogata-Iwao M, Yamaguchi Y, Okinami S, Tanihara H: Heparan sulfate deficiency in periocular mesenchyme causes microphthalmia and ciliary body dysgenesis. Exp Eye Res; 2010 Jan;90(1):81-8
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  • [Title] Heparan sulfate deficiency in periocular mesenchyme causes microphthalmia and ciliary body dysgenesis.
  • Moreover, the mutants showed phenotypic alterations in the neural ectoderm including dysgenesis of the presumptive ciliary body and agenesis of the optic nerve head.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / abnormalities. Eye Abnormalities / embryology. Heparitin Sulfate / deficiency. Mesoderm / embryology. Microphthalmos / embryology

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  • (PMID = 19782070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0007
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Smad Proteins; 9050-30-0 / Heparitin Sulfate; EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.224 / exostosin-1; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 2.8.2.8 / heparitin sulfotransferase; EC 5.1.3.- / Carbohydrate Epimerases; EC 5.1.3.17 / heparosan N-sulfate D-glucuronosyl 5-epimerase
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36. Romanowska-Dixon B: [Visual acuity after surgical management of ciliary body melanoma]. Klin Oczna; 2005;107(10-12):632-4
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  • [Title] [Visual acuity after surgical management of ciliary body melanoma].
  • The aim was to evaluate the visual acuity after transcleral resection of ciliary body melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 16619807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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37. Výborný P, Hejsek L, Sicáková S, Pasta J: [Changes of the thickness of the ciliary body after the latanoprost 0.005 % application]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol; 2007 Nov;63(6):415, 418-21
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  • [Title] [Changes of the thickness of the ciliary body after the latanoprost 0.005 % application].
  • In a randomized prospective open study the authors followed up the influence of latanoprost 0.005 % on the changes of the ciliary body thickness by means of ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • The thickness of the ciliary body was measured in the distance of 1,500 microm (T1), 2,000 microm (T2), and 2,500 microm (T3) from the scleral spur.
  • Our results are in the congruity with one of hypotheses of the latanoprost acting - compacting of the interstitium and following opening of the porosities among the muscles fibers bundles of the ciliary body cause the increase of the intraocular fluid outflow and marked decrease of the intraocular pressure.
  • To explain the mechanisms affecting the ciliary body in detail, more studies are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18062165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceská a slovenská oftalmologie : casopis Ceské oftalmologické spolecnosti a Slovenské oftalmologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Slov Oftalmol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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38. Xu H, Sta Iglesia DD, Kielczewski JL, Valenta DF, Pease ME, Zack DJ, Quigley HA: Characteristics of progenitor cells derived from adult ciliary body in mouse, rat, and human eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2007 Apr;48(4):1674-82
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  • [Title] Characteristics of progenitor cells derived from adult ciliary body in mouse, rat, and human eyes.
  • PURPOSE: To isolate and characterize progenitor cells derived from adult mammalian ciliary body.
  • METHODS: The authors isolated progenitor cells from the ciliary body of adult mice, rats, and human cadaver eyes and determined quantitative growth characteristics of groups of progenitor cells called neurosphere (NS) cells, including individual cell diameter, NS diameter, percentage of NS-forming cells, and cell number per eye in mouse, rat, and human eyes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Progenitor cells from adult mammalian ciliary body have significant, but limited, proliferation potential and express markers characteristic of other progenitor cells and seen during early retinal development.
  • The ciliary body could be a source of cells for transplantation in experimental rodent eyes and for autotransplantation in human eyes.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / cytology. Stem Cells / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17389499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY 001765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Thy-1; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nes protein, rat; 0 / Nestin; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / VSX2 protein, human; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / Vsx2 protein, mouse
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39. Singh CN, Grieco VS, Kalina RE: Metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the ciliary body in familial atypical mole-melanoma (fam-m) syndrome. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2009;3(2):150-1

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the ciliary body in familial atypical mole-melanoma (fam-m) syndrome.
  • PURPOSE: To report a case of metastatic melanoma to the ciliary body in familial atypical mole-melanoma syndrome.
  • PATIENTS: A 46-year-old woman presented with a ciliary body melanoma and tumor seeding of the anterior chamber structures.

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  • (PMID = 25391060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Yücel YH, Johnston MG, Ly T, Patel M, Drake B, Gümüş E, Fraenkl SA, Moore S, Tobbia D, Armstrong D, Horvath E, Gupta N: Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway. Exp Eye Res; 2009 Nov;89(5):810-9
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  • [Title] Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway.
  • Drainage of aqueous fluid from the eye occurs through established routes that include conventional outflow via the trabecular meshwork, and an unconventional or uveoscleral outflow pathway involving the ciliary body.
  • Lymphatic channels were identified in the human ciliary body using immunofluorescence with D2-40 antibody for podoplanin, and LYVE-1 antibody.
  • In keeping with the criteria for lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva used as positive control, D2-40 and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic channels in the ciliary body had a distinct lumen, were negative for blood vessel endothelial cell marker CD34, and were surrounded by either discontinuous or no collagen IV-positive basement membrane.
  • Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the presence D2-40-immunoreactivity in lymphatic endothelium in the human ciliary body.
  • Fluorescent nanospheres injected into the anterior chamber of the sheep eye were detected in LYVE-1-positive channels of the ciliary body 15, 30, and 45 min following injection.
  • These findings collectively indicate the presence of distinct lymphatic channels in the human ciliary body, and that fluid and solutes flow at least partially through this system.

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  • [CommentIn] Can J Ophthalmol. 2010 Apr;45(2):115-7 [20379292.001]
  • (PMID = 19729007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0007
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type IV; 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins
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41. Gyetvai T, Kolozsvári L: [Ultrasound biomicroscopy examination of tumors of the iris and ciliary body]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(1):43-6
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  • [Title] [Ultrasound biomicroscopy examination of tumors of the iris and ciliary body].
  • [Transliterated title] Az iris és a corpus ciliare térfoglaló folyamatainak ultrahangbiomikroszkópos vizsgálata.
  • In the last six years 30 patients with iris and ciliary body tumour were found in our laboratory.
  • In the case of tumour progression the UBM has an important role in planning and timing of surgery or radiotherapy, which can have a favourable effect on the outcome of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Microscopy / methods. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15902333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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42. Braun JS: Ecto-5'-nucleotidase-positive cells in the choroid and ciliary body of the rat eye. Anat Rec (Hoboken); 2010 Mar;293(3):379-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ecto-5'-nucleotidase-positive cells in the choroid and ciliary body of the rat eye.
  • The aim of this report was to find out if adenosine can be produced locally in the choroid and ciliary body.
  • This report provides evidence that 5'-NT is expressed in the choroid and in the ciliary body (and its processes) of the rat eye, predominantly in endothelial cells.
  • These locations of 5'-NT indicate strategically important production sites of adenosine regulating choroid and ciliary body functions (e.g., blood flow, aqueous fluid production, and immune response).
  • [MeSH-major] 5'-Nucleotidase / metabolism. Choroid / enzymology. Ciliary Body / enzymology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20091887.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-8494
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Rec (Hoboken)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.5 / 5'-Nucleotidase; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine
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43. Torres VL, Allemann N, Erwenne CM: Ultrasound biomicroscopy features of iris and ciliary body melanomas before and after brachytherapy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2005 Mar-Apr;36(2):129-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound biomicroscopy features of iris and ciliary body melanomas before and after brachytherapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) features of iris and ciliary body melanomas before and after brachytherapy.
  • RESULTS: Before brachytherapy, UBM examination showed a solid mass in the iris, ciliary body, or both in all four cases and allowed its characterization, sizing, and positioning.
  • Two cases had a pigmented scleral lesion corresponding to the tumor location, but UBM did not detect any scleral infiltration at those sites.
  • Complications related to brachytherapy were demonstrated, including cataract, peripheral anterior synechiae at tumor location, and secondary scleral thinning.
  • CONCLUSION: UBM played an important role as a complementary diagnostic method for anterior uveal melanomas, particularly ciliary body melanomas, but also allowed therapeutic planning (brachytherapy or surgery) and follow-up after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Iris Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15792314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Schultz KE, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Bailey MD: Accommodative fluctuations, lens tension, and ciliary body thickness in children. Optom Vis Sci; 2009 Jun;86(6):677-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accommodative fluctuations, lens tension, and ciliary body thickness in children.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship among microfluctuations in accommodation, resting tension on the crystalline lens, ciliary body thickness, and refractive error in children.
  • Ciliary body thickness was measured 2 mm posterior to the scleral spur from images obtained with a Zeiss Visante optical coherence tomography (OCT).
  • Greater power in the log of the high-frequency component of accommodative microfluctuations was associated with thinner ciliary bodies (p = 0.03) and lower ages (p = 0.0004).
  • CONCLUSIONS: High-frequency microfluctuations of accommodation appear to be suppressed with thicker ciliary bodies.
  • These variations in accommodation need to be observed in a longitudinal study to better assess the functional significance of their relationship to ciliary body size and refractive error.

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  • (PMID = 19417700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9235
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optom Vis Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-05; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-01A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / T35 EY007151-09; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY007151-07; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY007151-13; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / T35 EY007151-13; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-01A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / T35 EY007151-10; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY007151-10; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY007151-09; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-05; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-01; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / T35 EY007151-12; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-05; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY007151-08; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / T35 EY007151-08; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / T35 EY007151; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY007151-12; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY007151-11A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / T35 EY007151-11A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / T35 EY007151-07; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS219150; NLM/ PMC2922967
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45. Lee CS, Kim DK, Lee SC: A case of ciliary body melanocytoma presenting as a painful iris mass. Korean J Ophthalmol; 2010 Feb;24(1):44-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of ciliary body melanocytoma presenting as a painful iris mass.
  • We report a case of ciliary body melanocytoma in a Korean patient, which presented as an intermittently painful pigmented iris mass and was successfully managed by iridocyclectomy.
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy showed a 1.5x1.3-mm ciliary-body mass with extension into the iris root.
  • Iridocyclectomy with scleral resection under a lamellar scleral flap was performed, and the histopathologic features of the resected tissue were consistent with melanocytoma of the ciliary body.
  • During one year of follow-up, no signs of tumor recurrence were seen, and the patient reported resolution of the intermittent ocular pain in the involved eye.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Iris / pathology. Iris / physiopathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Pain / physiopathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20157414.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-9382
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2817824
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ciliary body / Iridocyclectomy / Melanoma / Uveal neoplasms
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46. Calera MR, Wang Z, Sanchez-Olea R, Paul DL, Civan MM, Goodenough DA: Depression of intraocular pressure following inactivation of connexin43 in the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary body. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2009 May;50(5):2185-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Depression of intraocular pressure following inactivation of connexin43 in the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary body.
  • It was proposed that gap junctions between pigmented and nonpigmented epithelia of the ciliary body are critical for the production of the aqueous humor.
  • RESULTS: In Pax6alpha-cre/Cx43(flox/flox) mice, Cx43 was partially inactivated in the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary body and iris.
  • However, gap junctions between the ciliary epithelial layers were decreased but not eliminated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cx43 expression in the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary body contributes to the formation of gap junctions with the cells of the pigmented epithelium.
  • These gap junctions play a critical role in maintaining the physical integrity of the ciliary body epithelium.

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  • (PMID = 19168903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM037751-23; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY002430; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY013624; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY002430-32; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY002430-32; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM037751-23; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY14127; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY014127; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM37751; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY13624; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM037751; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY02430
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexin 43; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases; EC 3.2.1.23 / beta-Galactosidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS195550; NLM/ PMC2865142
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47. Napier HR, Kidson SH: Proliferation and cell shape changes during ciliary body morphogenesis in the mouse. Dev Dyn; 2005 May;233(1):213-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proliferation and cell shape changes during ciliary body morphogenesis in the mouse.
  • Very little is known about the structure and development of the ciliary processes in the mouse eye.
  • Our scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies reveal that, unlike other mammals, the ciliary processes form an irregular pattern, crossing over and interweaving rather than lying parallel to one another.
  • Histological and SEM studies from embryonic day (E) 14.5 to postnatal day (P) 7 reveal that the first morphological sign of the ciliary zone is an annular bulge; this is then gradually molded to form discrete ciliary processes.
  • The striking similarity between the developing capillary network and the adult ciliary folds suggests that the patterning template for the ciliary processes could be the underlying capillary network.
  • Cell proliferation measurements and cell height assessments indicated that one of the first events occurring during the morphogenesis of ciliary processes is a proliferative surge around P0 in the outer ciliary epithelium.
  • After a slight delay, the inner ciliary epithelium responds by proliferating and extending inward toward the lens.
  • Final shaping of the ciliary processes is achieved through cell height reductions in the inner ciliary epithelium.
  • Thus, in the mouse, the temporal correlation between mitotic and cell height changes during ciliary body morphogenesis suggests that these processes play an integral role in the shaping of ciliary processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Ciliary Body / embryology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15759268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8388
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Dyn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / 1R03TW001392-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Wei WB, Yang WL, Hu SM, Li B: Local excision of ciliary body tumors: a long-term prospective cohort study in China. Chin Med J (Engl); 2008 Nov 5;121(21):2152-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Local excision of ciliary body tumors: a long-term prospective cohort study in China.
  • BACKGROUND: Ciliary body tumors are usually difficult to diagnose and treat in early stages.
  • Local excision of ciliary body tumors has become effective with the development of the modern vitrectomy, but long-term outcomes are still not clear.
  • Therefore, we reported the outcome of locally excised ciliary body tumors after long-term follow-up.
  • METHODS: Twenty-two patients (22 eyes), who had been diagnosed with ciliary body tumors in Beijing Tongren Hospital from January 1996 to June 2001, were enrolled in this prospective cohort study.
  • Localized lamellar sclera-ciliary excisions were performed.
  • Nine cases (40.91%) were given confirmed diagnosis of malignant melanoma, four (18.18%) of melanocytoma, six (27.27%) of nonpigmented ciliary epithelial adenoma, two (9.09%) of neurofibroma, and one (4.55%) of neurinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: For some ciliary body tumors, especially in the early stages, local excision is an effective and safe method to save the vision and the eyeball.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19080176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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49. Matsubara A, Nakazawa T, Husain D, Iliaki E, Connolly E, Michaud NA, Gragoudas ES, Miller JW: Investigating the effect of ciliary body photodynamic therapy in a glaucoma mouse model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Jun;47(6):2498-507
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  • [Title] Investigating the effect of ciliary body photodynamic therapy in a glaucoma mouse model.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the morphologic and functional effects of verteporfin ciliary body photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a murine glaucoma model and normal mouse eyes.
  • Transscleral irradiation of the ciliary body was performed with light at a wavelength of 689 nm delivered through an optical fiber, with irradiance of 1800 mW/cm2 and fluence of 100 J/cm2.
  • RESULTS: In all groups, almost all ciliary body blood vessels in the treated area were thrombosed 1 day after PDT.
  • In DBA/2J mice, ciliary epithelium and stroma were severely damaged 1 day after PDT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ciliary body PDT resulted in morphologic changes in the ciliary body, significant reduction of IOP, and prevention of ganglion cell loss in a mouse glaucoma model.
  • These results suggest that ciliary body PDT is a more selective cyclodestructive technique with potential clinical application in the treatment of glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Glaucoma / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16723462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY014104
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / vascular endothelial growth factor A, mouse; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
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50. Al-Jamal RT, Toivonen P, Kivelä T: Nucleolar size in choroidal and ciliary body melanomas and corresponding hepatic metastases. Acta Ophthalmol; 2010 Jun;88(4):458-62
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  • [Title] Nucleolar size in choroidal and ciliary body melanomas and corresponding hepatic metastases.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional histopathological analysis of 37 metastases (13 surgical or needle biopsies, 24 autopsies) and corresponding primary choroidal and ciliary body melanomas was conducted, using statistical tests appropriate for paired data.
  • Hepatic metastases, especially in autopsy specimens rather than surgical biopsies, tended to have a smaller MLN (median 3.6 mum) than the corresponding primary tumour (median difference, 0.55 mum; p = 0.066).
  • Overall survival after diagnosis of metastasis was comparable whether hepatic metastases had a large or small MLN (p = 0.95), whereas a high MVD tended to be associated with shorter survival (p = 0.096) among the 13 patients with known survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that MLN is not a useful marker for assessing prognosis after diagnosis of hepatic metastasis from uveal melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 19549104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-3768
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ophthalmologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Nesher R, Mechoulam H, Zamir E, Pe'er J: [Association between iris color and ciliary body pigmentation: possible implications for cyclophotoablation treatment]. Harefuah; 2008 Feb;147(2):131-3, 182
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  • [Title] [Association between iris color and ciliary body pigmentation: possible implications for cyclophotoablation treatment].
  • BACKGROUND: Cyclophotoablation for glaucoma treatment is dependent on the amount of laser energy absorbed by the ciliary body and related to the degree of its pigmentation.
  • Iris color may be assessed by observing the eye, but it is unknown whether it correlates with ciliary body pigmentation.
  • AIM: We evaluated whether ciliary pigmentation correlates with iris color.
  • METHODS: The pigmented epithelium of the ciliary processes of 31 enucleated eyes was qualitatively scored for six histological parameters and correlated with iris color.
  • CONCLUSION: Iris color correlates with ciliary pigmentation and may serve as one of the factors determining laser power needed for cyclophotoablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / physiology. Corneal Surgery, Laser. Eye Color / physiology. Iris / physiology. Laser Therapy. Pigment Epithelium of Eye / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18357669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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52. Kymionis GD, Diakonis VF, Charisis S, Pallikaris AI, Bouzoukis DI, Yoo SH, Naoumidi I, Tsilimbaris MK: Effects of topical mitomycin C on the ciliary body and intraocular pressure after PRK: an experimental study. J Refract Surg; 2008 Jun;24(6):633-8
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  • [Title] Effects of topical mitomycin C on the ciliary body and intraocular pressure after PRK: an experimental study.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the application of mitomycin C (MMC) after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on the ciliary body and intraocular pressure (IOP) in an experimental model.
  • Histological evaluation of the ciliary body was performed in a masked fashion by light and transmission electron microscopy.
  • RESULTS: Histological examination of the morphology of the ciliary body structures revealed no differences between the two groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant application of MMC after PRK does not appear to induce alterations on the ciliary body or changes in IOP measurements.
  • [MeSH-major] Alkylating Agents / toxicity. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Mitomycin / toxicity. Photorefractive Keratectomy

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  • (PMID = 18581791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1081-597X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J. : 1995)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Refract Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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53. Angiero F, Torti S, Crippa R, Stefani M: Oral metastasis of ciliary body melanoma. A case report. Minerva Stomatol; 2006 Jun;55(6):401-7
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  • [Title] Oral metastasis of ciliary body melanoma. A case report.
  • They are chiefly localized in the tonsil, tongue and lip, regardless of the primary site of the neoplasm.
  • Medical history revealed that 6 years previously, in 1998, she underwent enucleation of the right eye due to the presence of a melanoma of the ciliary body.
  • The labial neoplasm was removed and at histological examination it was found to be a spindle cell melanoma with numerous melanophages containing granules of melanin.
  • Thus, the presence of melanic neoplasia at an unusual site together with the medical history of melanoma at the ciliary body, removed 6 years previously, indicated a diagnosis of labial metastasis of melanoma of the ciliary body and the patient was therefore transferred to the Oncology Unit for appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Melanoma / secondary. Mouth Neoplasms / secondary. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16971885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4970
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva stomatologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Stomatol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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54. Ohno-Jinno A, Isogai Z, Yoneda M, Kasai K, Miyaishi O, Inoue Y, Kataoka T, Zhao JS, Li H, Takeyama M, Keene DR, Sakai LY, Kimata K, Iwaki M, Zako M: Versican and fibrillin-1 form a major hyaluronan-binding complex in the ciliary body. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2008 Jul;49(7):2870-7
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  • [Title] Versican and fibrillin-1 form a major hyaluronan-binding complex in the ciliary body.
  • PURPOSE: In this study, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy techniques were used to examine whether versican, which is known to bind fibrillin-1, interacts with fibrillin-1 in the ciliary body and vitreous, and whether the versican in this complex binds to hyaluronan.
  • Isolation of versican bound to fibrillin-1-containing microfibrils from ciliary bodies was performed by extraction studies.
  • Versican, principally V0 and V1, was found to be securely bound to fibrillin-1-containing microfibrils, forming a major hyaluronan-binding structure in the ciliary nonpigmented epithelium.
  • In addition, Western blot analysis revealed two cleaved complexes, the carboxyl-terminal end of versican bound to fibrillin microfibrils and the amino terminal end of versican bound to hyaluronan in the vitreous body.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fibrillin-1, versican, and hyaluronan form a unique complex in the ciliary nonpigmented epithelium, and two cleavage products of this complex were shown to exist in the vitreous body.
  • This newly clarified fibrillin-versican-hyaluronan (FiVerHy) complex and its cleavage products may be indispensable for the physiological properties important to the ciliary body and vitreous.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / metabolism. Hyaluronic Acid / metabolism. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Versicans / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Blotting, Western. Centrifugation, Density Gradient. Chickens. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Immunohistochemistry. Microfibrils / metabolism. Microfibrils / ultrastructure. Microscopy, Electron. Peptide Fragments / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Distribution. Vitreous Body / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18390636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / fibrillin; 126968-45-4 / Versicans; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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55. Cajaiba MM, Chojniak MM, Cunha IW: Unusual primary ocular neoplasm in a child: leiomyosarcoma of the ciliary body. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2008 Nov-Dec;11(6):479-81
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  • [Title] Unusual primary ocular neoplasm in a child: leiomyosarcoma of the ciliary body.
  • We report here the case of a 7-year-old girl who underwent enucleation of the right eye with clinical suspicion of choroid melanoma as a result of a ciliary body mass that extended to the posterior chamber.
  • Histologically, the neoplasm featured spindle cell morphology, atypia, and mitoses.
  • The tumor expressed smooth muscle alpha actin, pan-actin HHF-35, and desmin, whereas immunohistochemistry for melanocytic markers, such as S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45, was negative.
  • Based on these features, the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma of the ciliary body was firmly established.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Child. Choroid / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17990912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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56. Newkirk KM, Haines DK, Calvarese ST, Esson DW, Chandler HL: Distribution and amount of pigment within the ciliary body and iris of dogs with blue and brown irides. Vet Ophthalmol; 2010 Mar;13(2):76-80
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  • [Title] Distribution and amount of pigment within the ciliary body and iris of dogs with blue and brown irides.
  • High magnification (x400) digital images were taken of the dorsal and ventral ciliary processes (CP) of 13 eyes with blue irides and 13 eyes with brown irides.
  • Low magnification (x20) images were taken of the dorsal and ventral portions of the ciliary body (CB) of 14 eyes with blue irides and 14 eyes with brown irides.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / metabolism. Dogs / physiology. Iris / metabolism. Pigments, Biological / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20447024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5224
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pigments, Biological
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57. Croft MA, Glasser A, Heatley G, McDonald J, Ebbert T, Dahl DB, Nadkarni NV, Kaufman PL: Accommodative ciliary body and lens function in rhesus monkeys, I: normal lens, zonule and ciliary process configuration in the iridectomized eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Mar;47(3):1076-86
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  • [Title] Accommodative ciliary body and lens function in rhesus monkeys, I: normal lens, zonule and ciliary process configuration in the iridectomized eye.
  • PURPOSE: The underlying causes of presbyopia, and the functional relationship between the ciliary muscle and lens during aging are unclear.
  • METHODS: Centripetal ciliary body and lens equator movements were measured during accommodation in 28 eyes of 21 rhesus monkeys (ages, 5.7-26 years) by goniovideography.
  • Narrowing of the angle between the anterior aspect of the ciliary body and the inner aspect of the cornea was used as a surrogate indicator of forward ciliary body movement during accommodation.
  • RESULTS: Average centripetal ciliary body movement in older eyes (age > or =17 years, n = 16) was approximately 20% (0.09 mm) less than in young eyes (age, 6-10 years, n = 6), but not enough to explain the 60% (0.21 mm) loss in centripetal lens movement nor the 76% (10.2 D) loss in accommodative amplitude.
  • Average forward ciliary body movement was 67% (49 degrees ) less in older (n = 11) versus young (n = 6) eyes.
  • Maximum accommodative amplitude correlated significantly with the amplitude of centripetal lens movement (0.02 +/- 0.003 mm/D; n = 28; P < 0.001) and with forward ciliary body movement (3.34 +/- 0.54 deg/D; n = 21; P = 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Decreased lens movement with age could be in part secondary to extralenticular age-related changes, such as loss of ciliary body forward movement.
  • Ciliary body centripetal movement may not be the limiting component in accommodation in the older eye.

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  • (PMID = 16505044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY010213; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY014651-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY014651-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY014651
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Vajaranant TS, Mafee MF, Kapur R, Rapoport M, Edward DP: Medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body and optic nerve: clinicopathologic, CT, and MR imaging features. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2005 Feb;15(1):69-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body and optic nerve: clinicopathologic, CT, and MR imaging features.
  • The definitive diagnosis of medulloepitheliomas of the ciliary body and optic nerve is made by histopathologic examination.
  • Familiarity with rare tumors aids clinicians in accurately diagnosing this rare neoplasm.
  • CT and MR imaging findings can be helpful, especially if the mass is confined in an area of the ciliary body without involvement of the retina.
  • Clinical diagnosis of medulloepitheliomas of the optic nerve and central nervous system (CNS) is more challenging.
  • The diagnosis is often made by histopathologic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15927861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY01792
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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59. Coca-Prados M, Escribano J: New perspectives in aqueous humor secretion and in glaucoma: the ciliary body as a multifunctional neuroendocrine gland. Prog Retin Eye Res; 2007 May;26(3):239-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New perspectives in aqueous humor secretion and in glaucoma: the ciliary body as a multifunctional neuroendocrine gland.
  • The discovery in the human ocular ciliary body of glaucoma-associated genes (i.e., MYOC, CYP1B1), neuroendocrine processing enzymes, neuroendocrine peptides, steroid-converting enzymes, glutamate transporters, glutamate-metabolizing enzymes, and anti-angiogenic factors requires a reevaluation of its function on aqueous humor secretion, intraocular pressure and its role in glaucoma.
  • The ciliary body should be considered as a multifunctional and interactive tissue.
  • The intrinsic hypotensive and/or hypertensive biological activities of many of the endocrine peptides released by the ciliary epithelium are best explained within the context of a neuroendocrine system, linking the inflow and the outflow of aqueous humor.
  • In the proposed endocrine system, regulatory peptides secreted by the ciliary epithelium may subserve multiple functions in the following: inflow and outflow pathways of aqueous humor, ciliary blood flow, the immune privilege status of the anterior segment and the diurnal circadian rhythms of aqueous humor secretion and intraocular pressure.
  • These previously unsuspected and challenging functions of the ciliary epithelium should be considered when assessing the multifactorial events which lead to the pathophysiology of glaucoma affecting the outflow pathways of aqueous humor.
  • This review highlights published, and ongoing studies on authors' labs supporting neuroendocrine, steroidogenic and glutamatergic features of the ciliary epithelium and the endocrine communication between the inflow and outflow pathways of aqueous humor.
  • We also discuss how glaucoma-associated genes expressed in the ciliary body and their mutant proteins could influence intraocular pressure, contributing to the development of glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aqueous Humor / secretion. Ciliary Body / secretion. Glaucoma / metabolism. Intraocular Pressure / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17321191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-9462
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in retinal and eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Retin Eye Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY00785; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY04873
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / trabecular meshwork-induced glucocorticoid response protein; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases; EC 1.14.14.1 / CYP1B1 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1
  • [Number-of-references] 185
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60. Kujala E, Kivelä T: Tumor, node, metastasis classification of malignant ciliary body and choroidal melanoma evaluation of the 6th edition and future directions. Ophthalmology; 2005 Jun;112(6):1135-44
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  • [Title] Tumor, node, metastasis classification of malignant ciliary body and choroidal melanoma evaluation of the 6th edition and future directions.
  • PURPOSE: The tumor, node, metastasis classification of malignant uveal melanoma has been revised.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred eighty-nine consecutive patients who had a ciliary body and choroidal melanoma treated in the district of the Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, between 1962 and 1981.
  • METHODS: Tumor dimensions, ciliary body involvement, and extraocular extension were evaluated from histopathologic sections and pathology reports.
  • Areas for development include taking into account ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension in more detail and combining into each stage tumor categories with similar rather than different prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / classification. Ciliary Body / pathology. Melanoma / classification. Uveal Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Cause of Death. Cross-Sectional Studies. Forecasting. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15885792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Moe MC, Kolberg RS, Sandberg C, Vik-Mo E, Olstorn H, Varghese M, Langmoen IA, Nicolaissen B: A comparison of epithelial and neural properties in progenitor cells derived from the adult human ciliary body and brain. Exp Eye Res; 2009 Jan;88(1):30-8
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  • [Title] A comparison of epithelial and neural properties in progenitor cells derived from the adult human ciliary body and brain.
  • Cells isolated from the ciliary body (CB) of the adult human eye possess properties of retinal stem/progenitor cells and can be propagated as spheres in culture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / cytology. Cerebral Ventricles / cytology. Ciliary Body / cytology

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  • (PMID = 18955049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0007
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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62. Reilly MA, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: Dynamic multi-arm radial lens stretcher: a robotic analog of the ciliary body. Exp Eye Res; 2008 Jan;86(1):157-64

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  • [Title] Dynamic multi-arm radial lens stretcher: a robotic analog of the ciliary body.
  • The lens stretcher acts as a robotic analog of the ciliary body.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / physiology. Lens, Crystalline / physiology. Models, Anatomic. Robotics / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 18068804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY 02687
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Zhou M, Xu G, Bojanowski CM, Song Y, Chen R, Sun X, Wang W, Chan CC: Differential diagnosis of anterior chamber cysts with ultrasound biomicroscopy: ciliary body medulloepithelioma. Acta Ophthalmol Scand; 2006 Feb;84(1):137-9
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of anterior chamber cysts with ultrasound biomicroscopy: ciliary body medulloepithelioma.
  • RESULTS: Pathology demonstrated an medulloepithelioma with a few mitotic figures and nuclear pleomorphisms within the ciliary body.
  • CONCLUSION: Intraocular medulloepithelioma is a rare embryonic benign or malignant neoplasm typically diagnosed in the first decade of life as a ciliary body mass.
  • Ciliary body medulloepithelioma is characterized by echogenic mass heterogeneity and an irregular surface containing multiple cystic cavities.

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  • [Cites] Br J Ophthalmol. 1999 Mar;83(3):334-8 [10365043.001]
  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 1996 Dec;103(12):1998-2006 [9003333.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Neurol. 1996 Apr;39(4):481-9 [8619526.001]
  • [Cites] J Ultrasound Med. 2005 Feb;24(2):247-50 [15661960.001]
  • (PMID = 16445454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1395-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ophthalmol Scand
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 EY000222-22
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS54981; NLM/ PMC2441603
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64. Cerase A, De Francesco S, Citterio A, Hadjistilianou T, Malandrini A, Mastrangelo D, Toti P, Venturi C: Growth of congenital malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body: a case study. J Neurooncol; 2010 Feb;96(3):443-8
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  • [Title] Growth of congenital malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body: a case study.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the growth pattern of congenital malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body by reporting clinical and imaging findings with pathological correlation.
  • An 11-month-old little girl presented with a whitish-pink iris mass in the right eye resulting from a small ciliary body mass consistent with medulloepithelioma at both clinical and computed tomography (CT) findings.
  • The eye was then enucleated, and histology confirmed the diagnosis.
  • This uncommon case displays the natural history of congenital malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body.
  • While the tumour might have been successfully treated by local excision at diagnosis, the delay in surgical treatment led to tumour overgrowth with consequent need for enucleation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ciliary Body / pathology. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive

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  • (PMID = 19669095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Heindl LM, Hofmann TN, Adler W, Knorr HL, Holbach LM, Naumann GO, Kruse FE, Cursiefen C: Intraocular tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis a novel prognostic factor for ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension? Ophthalmology; 2010 Feb;117(2):334-42
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  • [Title] Intraocular tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis a novel prognostic factor for ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension?
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate whether intraocular tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis contributes to prognosis of ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension and to study its association with other tumor characteristics.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Twenty consecutive patients enucleated for a malignant melanoma of the ciliary body with extraocular extension.
  • Baseline tumor characteristics included intra- and extraocular tumor size, 2009 tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification, route of extraocular spread, tumor cell type, mitotic rate, Ki-67 proliferation-index, microvascular patterns and density, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages, and expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of intraocular LYVE-1(+)/podoplanin(+) lymphatic vessels and association with intraocular tumor characteristics and metastasis-free survival.
  • RESULTS: Intraocular LYVE-1(+) and podoplanin(+) lymphatic vessels could be detected in 12 (60%) of 20 ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension.
  • Presence of intraocular LYVE-1(+)/podoplanin(+) lymphatic vessels was significantly associated with larger intra- (P = 0.002) and extraocular tumor size (P<0.001), higher TNM categories (P = 0.004), epithelioid cellularity (P = 0.016), higher mitotic rate (P = 0.003), higher Ki-67 proliferation-index (P = 0.049), microvascular networks (P = 0.005), higher microvascular density (P = 0.003), more tumor-infiltrating macrophages (P = 0.002), higher expression of HLA class I (P = 0.046), and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (P = 0.033), but not significantly with route of extraocular spread (P = 0.803), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.069).
  • By multivariate Cox regression, tumor size (hazard ratio, 14.40; P = 0.002), and presence of intraocular lymphatic vessels (hazard ratio, 8.09; P = 0.04) were strong prognostic predictors of mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular peritumoral lymphangiogenesis seems to be associated with an increased mortality risk in patients with ciliary body melanomas and extraocular extension.
  • This association may be primarily because of an association of intraocular lymphangiogenesis with greater tumor size and increased malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Lymphangiogenesis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vesicular Transport Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19892405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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66. Mandal MN, Vasireddy V, Reddy GB, Wang X, Moroi SE, Pattnaik BR, Hughes BA, Heckenlively JR, Hitchcock PF, Jablonski MM, Ayyagari R: CTRP5 is a membrane-associated and secretory protein in the RPE and ciliary body and the S163R mutation of CTRP5 impairs its secretion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Dec;47(12):5505-13
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  • [Title] CTRP5 is a membrane-associated and secretory protein in the RPE and ciliary body and the S163R mutation of CTRP5 impairs its secretion.
  • PURPOSE: In a prior study, a S163R mutation in the complement-1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 5 (CTRP5/ C1QTNF5) was reported to be associated with early-onset long anterior zonules (LAZ) and late-onset retinal degeneration (L-ORD).
  • The ocular tissues involved in the phenotype are the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the posterior segment and ciliary epithelium (CE) and lens in the anterior segment.
  • RESULTS: A significant level of Ctrp5 expression was detected in the adult mouse in the ciliary body (CB) and RPE, and expression started at a very early stage of embryogenesis.
  • In the ciliary body, CTRP5 was localized to the apical aspects of the CE, the region between the bilayered ciliary epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Pigment Epithelium of Eye / metabolism. Point Mutation

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  • (PMID = 17122142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY07003; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY07060; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY13198; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30EY13080
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTRP5 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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67. Al-Salam S, Algawi K, Alashari M: Malignant non-teratoid medulloepithelioma of ciliary body with retinoblastic differentiation: a case report and review of literature. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):551-6
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  • [Title] Malignant non-teratoid medulloepithelioma of ciliary body with retinoblastic differentiation: a case report and review of literature.
  • The tumor mass involved a disorganized anterior segment and extended through the medial cornea and sclera.
  • A preliminary diagnosis of retinoblastoma with extraocular extension was made.
  • Histological examination showed that the lesion, which occupied the posterior chamber, involved the ciliary body, extending into the iris, sclera and cornea, projecting beyond the cornea anteriorly and extending to the retina posteriorly.
  • The tumor cells were diffusely immunoreactive to vimentin, neuron specific enolase and CD 138.
  • All tumor cells showed no immunoreactivity to cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, desmin, GFAP, and chromogranin.
  • Nuclear staining for P53 was seen in 80% of tumor cells.
  • The tumor was described as malignant intraocular non-teratoid medulloepithelioma with retinoblastic differentiation arising from the ciliary body.
  • Tumor satellites were seen in the adjacent periocular soft tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Differentiation. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Glaucoma / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Retinoblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18410270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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68. Zammataro A, Saletti R, Civiale C, Muccilli V, Cunsolo V, Foti S: Simultaneous quantification of carteolol and dorzolamide in rabbit aqueous humor and ciliary body by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci; 2010 Mar 15;878(9-10):807-14
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  • [Title] Simultaneous quantification of carteolol and dorzolamide in rabbit aqueous humor and ciliary body by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.
  • A rapid, sensitive and selective method for the simultaneous quantification of carteolol and dorzolamide in rabbit aqueous humor (AH) and ciliary body (CB) has been developed and validated using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with isocratic elution coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS).
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / analysis. Aqueous Humor / chemistry. Carteolol / analysis. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Ciliary Body / chemistry. Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization / methods. Sulfonamides / analysis. Thiophenes / analysis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20153987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-376X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Thiophenes; 8NF31401XG / Carteolol; 9JDX055TW1 / dorzolamide
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69. Sari A, Onol M, Ozdek S, Ozogul C, Hasanreisoglu B: Effect of mitomycin C on ciliary body and intraocular pressure with various application depths: an experimental study. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2005 Apr;33(2):169-75
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  • [Title] Effect of mitomycin C on ciliary body and intraocular pressure with various application depths: an experimental study.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of mitomycin C (MMC) on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ciliary body via transmission electron microscopy when applied under conjunctiva or different depths of sclera, without performing any filtering surgery.
  • Eyes were enucleated on the 30th day following measurement of IOP and the ciliary body regions were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Subscleral application of MMC seems to provide greater IOP decrease than subconjunctival application, possibly caused by a more significant ciliary body toxicity.
  • This may be the beginning of a non-penetrating, easy to perform and safe method to decrease IOP in glaucoma patients, which the authors call 'toxic ciliary ablation surgery'.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Mitomycin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15807826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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70. Kohno R, Ikeda Y, Yonemitsu Y, Hisatomi T, Yamaguchi M, Miyazaki M, Takeshita H, Ishibashi T, Sueishi K: Sphere formation of ocular epithelial cells in the ciliary body is a reprogramming system for neural differentiation. Brain Res; 2006 Jun 6;1093(1):54-70
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  • [Title] Sphere formation of ocular epithelial cells in the ciliary body is a reprogramming system for neural differentiation.
  • Retinal stem/progenitor properties were also isolated from the ciliary body (CB) of the eye where, as in the CNS, such stem/progenitors also form spheres and have been considered to expand only via expansion by their proliferation even from the single-cell level (called spheres of pigment cells from the ciliary margin: PCM-spheres).
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Ciliary Body / cytology. Neurons / cytology. Stem Cells / cytology

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  • (PMID = 16697356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 38966-21-1 / Aphidicolin
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71. MacNeil A, Pearson RA, MacLaren RE, Smith AJ, Sowden JC, Ali RR: Comparative analysis of progenitor cells isolated from the iris, pars plana, and ciliary body of the adult porcine eye. Stem Cells; 2007 Oct;25(10):2430-8
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of progenitor cells isolated from the iris, pars plana, and ciliary body of the adult porcine eye.
  • Stem or progenitor cells that give rise to neurons and glia have been identified in several regions of the brain, including the embryonic retina and the ciliary epithelium of the adult eye, raising the possibility of autologous transplantation.
  • These results suggest that a population of cells derived from the adult iris, pars plana, and ciliary body of a large mammalian species, the pig, has progenitor properties and neurogenic potential, thereby providing novel sources of donor cells for transplantation studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / cytology. Ciliary Body / cytology. Iris / cytology. Sus scrofa / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 17600111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4918
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ G0300341; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ G0601588
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Laminin; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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72. Inagaki M, Irie K, Ishizaki H, Tanaka-Okamoto M, Morimoto K, Inoue E, Ohtsuka T, Miyoshi J, Takai Y: Roles of cell-adhesion molecules nectin 1 and nectin 3 in ciliary body development. Development; 2005 Apr;132(7):1525-37
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  • [Title] Roles of cell-adhesion molecules nectin 1 and nectin 3 in ciliary body development.
  • Both nectin 1-/- and nectin 3-/- mice showed a virtually identical ocular phenotype, microphthalmia, accompanied by a separation of the apex-apex contact between the pigment and non-pigment cell layers of the ciliary epithelia.
  • Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that nectin 1 and nectin 3, but not nectin 2, localized at the apex-apex junctions between the pigment and non-pigment cell layers of the ciliary epithelia.
  • These results indicate that the heterophilic trans-interaction between nectin 1 and nectin 3 plays a sentinel role in establishing the apex-apex adhesion between the pigment and non-pigment cell layers of the ciliary epithelia that is essential for the morphogenesis of the ciliary body.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology. Ciliary Body / embryology


73. Sugita S, Futagami Y, Smith SB, Naggar H, Mochizuki M: Retinal and ciliary body pigment epithelium suppress activation of T lymphocytes via transforming growth factor beta. Exp Eye Res; 2006 Dec;83(6):1459-71
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  • [Title] Retinal and ciliary body pigment epithelium suppress activation of T lymphocytes via transforming growth factor beta.
  • We have now examined whether other ocular PE cells, e.g., retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) and ciliary body pigment epithelia (CBPE), have a similar suppressive property by a similar process.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / immunology. Pigment Epithelium of Eye / immunology. Retina / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16996057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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74. Taban M, Sears JE, Singh AD: Ciliary body naevus. Eye (Lond); 2007 Dec;21(12):1528-30
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  • [Title] Ciliary body naevus.
  • PURPOSE: To describe clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and histopathologic characteristics of benign melanocytic tumors of the ciliary body.
  • METHODS: Six patients with a pigmented ciliary body tumour underwent complete ophthalmic examination and UBM, with histopathologic examination carried out on three cases.
  • Iridocyclectomy was performed because of documented growth in three cases, and all three cases proved to be ciliary body spindle-cell naevus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: On clinical basis and with available ancillary studies, ciliary body naevi cannot be reliably differentiated from ciliary body melanocytoma and ciliary body melanoma.
  • Even with clinically documented growth, the lesions may prove to be ciliary body naevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Microscopy, Acoustic. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17041573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Sahin A, Kiratli H, Tezel GG, Soylemezoglu F, Bilgic S: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor a, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and extravascular matrix patterns in iris and ciliary body melanomas. Ophthalmic Res; 2007;39(1):40-4
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor a, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and extravascular matrix patterns in iris and ciliary body melanomas.
  • PURPOSE: It was the aim of this study to assess the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and extravascular matrix patterns (EMPs) in iris and ciliary body melanomas and their correlations with histopathologic parameters.
  • METHODS: The study was conducted on 3 iris and 15 ciliary body melanomas.
  • Cell type, tumor localization, degree of pigmentation, necrosis, mitotic index, lymphocytic infiltration and sclera invasion were analyzed using light microscopy.
  • Tumor cell type, tumor size, mitotic rate, degree of pigmentation and EMPs were not correlated with metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that VEGF-A and MMP-9 were positive in the majority of iris and ciliary body melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / metabolism. Iris Neoplasms / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / biosynthesis. Melanoma / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17164576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-3747
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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76. Al-Jamal RT, Kivelä T: KI-67 immunopositivity in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma with respect to nucleolar diameter and other prognostic factors. Curr Eye Res; 2006 Jan;31(1):57-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] KI-67 immunopositivity in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma with respect to nucleolar diameter and other prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: Population-based, retrospective cohort study of 167 choroidal and ciliary body melanomas enucleated from 1972 to 1981.
  • RESULTS: The median number of Ki-67 immunopositive cells was 8 per tumor cross-section (range, 0-272) corresponding to a median of 0.30 cells/mm2.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleolus / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16421020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-3683
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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77. Akcaer M, Milman T, Finger PT: Imaging of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus metastatic to the ciliary body. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2008 May-Jun;39(3):246-9
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  • [Title] Imaging of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus metastatic to the ciliary body.
  • Ophthalmic examination with high frequency ultrasonography revealed a ciliary body tumor with iris extension.
  • A Finger iridectomy technique ciliary body tumor biopsy revealed metastatic endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Ciliary Body. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Microscopy, Acoustic. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18556953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Agrawal P, Martin KR: Ciliary body position variability in glaucoma patients assessed by scleral transillumination. Eye (Lond); 2008 Dec;22(12):1499-503
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ciliary body position variability in glaucoma patients assessed by scleral transillumination.
  • AIM: To quantify ciliary body position variability in glaucoma patients in order to determine if scleral transillumination should be used routinely to guide contact probe placement during cyclodestructive procedures.
  • A fibre optic light source was used to identify ciliary body position by transscleral transillumination.
  • The distance between the ciliary body and corneoscleral limbus was measured in the superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal quadrants of both eyes using surgical callipers.
  • RESULTS: The anterior boundary of the ciliary body was located 1.5-5 mm posterior to the corneoscleral limbus.
  • The ciliary body was located significantly more posteriorly in the superior and inferior quadrants compared to the nasal and temporal quadrants. (P<0.001).
  • Ciliary body position was significantly correlated with the mean sphere of the refractive error in phakic patients (r(2)=0.052; P=0.047).
  • The ciliary body tended to be located most posteriorly in myopic eyes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The distance between the corneoscleral limbus and the ciliary body as identified by transillumination varies significantly in different quadrants of the eye.
  • Ciliary body transillumination on patients undergoing cyclodestructive procedures may have implications for optimal probe placement and therapeutic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Glaucoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18356924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5454
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Kiratli H, Ustünel S, Balci S, Söylemezoğlu F: Ipsilateral ciliary body schwannoma and ciliary body melanoma in a child. J AAPOS; 2010 Apr;14(2):175-7
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  • [Title] Ipsilateral ciliary body schwannoma and ciliary body melanoma in a child.
  • Histopathology revealed a ciliary body schwannoma filling the anterior chamber and a small, incidental noncontiguous ciliary body melanoma.
  • Vision loss, pupil distortion, and relentless growth despite complete cyst deflation following aspiration were clues for the tumor-induced nature of the visible cyst.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20451861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Ayres B, Brasil OM, Klejnberg C, Moura LR, Fernandes BF, Burnier MN Jr: Ciliary body medulloepithelioma: clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopic and histopathologic correlation. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Sep-Oct;34(7):695-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ciliary body medulloepithelioma: clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopic and histopathologic correlation.
  • A ciliary body mass at the superior-temporal quadrant could be seen at slit-lamp examination.
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a lesion with lobulated surface, arising at the ciliary body, composed of compact and cystic areas.
  • An iridocyclectomy was performed but the tumour recurred after a few months.
  • The knowledge of echographic characteristics can significantly assist in the diagnosis of medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / ultrasonography. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16970765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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81. Bertazolli-Filho R, Coca-Prados M, Haddad A, Laicine EM: Molecular analysis of neurolysin expression in the rat and bovine ciliary body. Curr Eye Res; 2007 Sep;32(9):751-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular analysis of neurolysin expression in the rat and bovine ciliary body.
  • PURPOSE: This paper deals with the capability of the ciliary epithelium to express neurolysin, involved in the inactivation of numerous neuropeptides.
  • METHODS: Total RNAs from ciliary body (CB) were processed for RT-PCR, and the amplification products were sequenced.
  • RESULTS: The RT-PCR detected the presence of neurolysin mRNA in the ciliary body.
  • The immunoreactivity to neurolysin was observed in ciliary epithelium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the ciliary epithelium expresses neurolysin.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / metabolism. Metalloendopeptidases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17882707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-3683
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.16 / neurolysin
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82. Oliveira C, Tello C, Liebmann JM, Ritch R: Ciliary body thickness increases with increasing axial myopia. Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Aug;140(2):324-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ciliary body thickness increases with increasing axial myopia.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between ciliary body thickness and refractive error.
  • Ciliary body thickness (CBT) was measured by two masked observers on radial-section images of the temporal corneoscleral limbus, acquired with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) at 2 and 3 mm posterior to the scleral spur (CBT2 and CBT3, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Myopia / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Weights and Measures. Female. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Acoustic. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16086961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Gao B, Huber RD, Wenzel A, Vavricka SR, Ismair MG, Remé C, Meier PJ: Localization of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the rat and human ciliary body epithelium. Exp Eye Res; 2005 Jan;80(1):61-72
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  • [Title] Localization of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the rat and human ciliary body epithelium.
  • PURPOSE: To identify and localize the expression of multispecific organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps/OATPs) in the ciliary body epithelium and to investigate their possible involvement in the transport of the antiglaucoma agent unoprostone.
  • METHODS: Oatps/OATPs were detected by immunoblot analysis and by immunofluorescence microscopy in homogenized and fixed rat and human ciliary body samples using specific polyclonal antibodies.
  • RESULTS: Immunoblots of ciliary body extracts were positive for rat Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 and for human OATP1A2, OATP1C1, OATP2B1, OATP3A1 and OATP4A1.
  • Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy localized Oatp1a4 and Oatp1b2 as well as all immunoblot positive human OATPs at the basolateral plasma membrane of the non-pigmented rat and human ciliary body epithelium, respectively.
  • However, for human OATPs additional regional differences in expression were found with OATP1A2 and OATP1C1 being expressed only in the pars plana of human ciliary body epithelium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Several multispecific organic anion transporting polypeptides are expressed at the basolateral plasma membrane of the non-pigmented, and to a lesser extent also of the pigmented, epithelium in rat and human ciliary body.
  • These Oatps/OATPs can account for the previously suggested 'liver-like' transport functions of mammalian ciliary body epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / metabolism. Dinoprost / analogs & derivatives. Organic Anion Transporters / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15652527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Organic Anion Transport Polypeptide C; 0 / Organic Anion Transport Protein 1; 0 / Organic Anion Transporters; 0 / Peptides; 0 / SLCO3A1 protein, human; 0 / SLCO4A1 protein, human; 69553-75-9 / isopropyl unoprostone; B7IN85G1HY / Dinoprost
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84. Abdouh M, Bernier G: In vivo reactivation of a quiescent cell population located in the ocular ciliary body of adult mammals. Exp Eye Res; 2006 Jul;83(1):153-64
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  • [Title] In vivo reactivation of a quiescent cell population located in the ocular ciliary body of adult mammals.
  • Rare quiescent cells with stem cell characteristics have been isolated from the ocular ciliary body (CB) of adult mammals.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / cytology. Eye Proteins / analysis. Growth Substances / physiology. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16563378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nes protein, rat; 0 / Nestin; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vsx2 protein, mouse; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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85. Lord-Grignon J, Abdouh M, Bernier G: Identification of genes expressed in retinal progenitor/stem cell colonies isolated from the ocular ciliary body of adult mice. Gene Expr Patterns; 2006 Oct;6(8):992-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of genes expressed in retinal progenitor/stem cell colonies isolated from the ocular ciliary body of adult mice.
  • Rare pigmented cells showing retinal stem cell characteristics have been identified in the ocular ciliary body (CB) of adult mammals.
  • Hmga2 was expressed in the ventricular zone of the telencephalon, the developing retinal ciliary margin and lens.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / cytology. Eye Proteins / genetics. Eye Proteins / metabolism. Retina / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16765103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-133X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene expression patterns : GEP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene Expr. Patterns
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Mitf protein, mouse; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Palmd protein, mouse; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Rx protein, mouse; 0 / Sine oculis homeobox homolog 3 protein; 0 / Six6 protein, mouse; 0 / Trans-Activators
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86. Wang H, Lau BW, Yau SY, Li SY, Leung N, Wang NL, Tang SW, Lee TM, So KF: Roles of paroxetine and corticosterone on adult mammalian ciliary body cell proliferation. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 May 20;123(10):1305-10
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  • [Title] Roles of paroxetine and corticosterone on adult mammalian ciliary body cell proliferation.
  • Despite this, there is a small population of nestin-positive cells in the ciliary epithelium which retains neurogenic potential.
  • The present study aimed at investigating the effect of two drugs, corticosterone and paroxetine, on the cell proliferation of the ciliary body.
  • Cell proliferation in the ciliary body was quantified using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Corticosterone treatment suppressed while paroxetine treatment increased the cell proliferation of the ciliary body.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results illustrate that proliferation of retinal progenitor cells situated in ciliary body are subjected to regulation by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and corticosteroid, which is similar to our previous findings in neurogenic regions in central nervous system (CNS).
  • Paroxetine treatment could reverse the suppressive effect of corticosterone on ciliary body cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / cytology. Ciliary Body / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Corticosterone / pharmacology. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Paroxetine / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 20529586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 41VRH5220H / Paroxetine; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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87. Goto H, Mori H, Shirato S, Usui M: Ciliary body schwannoma successfully treated by local resection. Jpn J Ophthalmol; 2006 Nov-Dec;50(6):543-6
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  • [Title] Ciliary body schwannoma successfully treated by local resection.
  • BACKGROUND: Schwannoma arising from the ciliary body is a rare intraocular neoplasm, and most cases previously reported were diagnosed histopathologically after eyeball enucleation because of a diagnosis of ciliary body melanoma.
  • CASE: A case of ciliary body schwannoma was dissected locally.
  • OBSERVATIONS: A 19-year-old woman was referred to us with a diagnosis of iris cyst.
  • Local resection of the tumor was performed because of deteriorated visual acuity caused by displacement of the lens.
  • In histopathological analysis, the encapsulated tumor showed a proliferation of the spindle cells with no atypia, and in immunohistochemical analysis, tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein; these findings were compatible with schwannoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a ciliary body tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / surgery. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17180530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5155
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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88. Akeo K, Funayama T, Ogawa A, Hamada N, Akeo Y, Kobayashi Y: Effects of gamma irradiation on BCL2 and TPR53BP2 expression in the porcine ciliary body. Exp Anim; 2006 Jul;55(4):375-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of gamma irradiation on BCL2 and TPR53BP2 expression in the porcine ciliary body.
  • BACKGROUND: When dissection of porcine eyes from a living body results in the cessation of aqueous humor production and blood flow, programmed cell death regulated by TPR53BP2 and BCL2 genes may occur in the pigmented epithelium (PE) and non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) of the ciliary body.
  • We investigated whether gamma irradiation influenced BCL2 or TPR53BP2 genes as well as the morphology of the porcine ciliary body.
  • RESULTS: Following dissection, an imbalance in homeostasis began with positive BCL2 and TPR53BP2 expression in the edematous ciliary processes, and resulted in atrophy of the NPE.
  • Decreased TPR53BP2 expression occurred after 8 h of incubation, and thereby suppressed apoptosis in the NPE; hence, the structure of the ciliary body that was incubated for 8 h after gamma irradiation was well preserved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Irradiation renders the ciliary body in enucleated porcine eyes less vulnerable to apoptosis, and thereby exerts a profound preservative effect.

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  • (PMID = 16880685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-1357
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental animals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Anim.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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89. Kiratli H, Bilgiç S, Söylemezoglu F: [Ciliary body leiomyomas. Three case reports]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2005 Dec;28(10):1105-9

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  • [Title] [Ciliary body leiomyomas. Three case reports].
  • We present our experience with three patients, two of whom were women, 16, 28 and 44 years of age, presenting with leiomyomas of the ciliary body.
  • Although there are no specific clinical or imaging signs for intraocular leiomyoma, this tumor should be suspected when pigmented ciliary body tumors are encountered, especially in young female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16395205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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90. Gray ME, Corrêa ZM, Augsburger JJ, Barrett W: Ciliary body melanoma with limited nodular extrascleral extension and diffuse iris-angle infiltration treated by whole anterior segment plaque radiotherapy. Int Ophthalmol; 2007 Aug;27(4):273-6
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  • [Title] Ciliary body melanoma with limited nodular extrascleral extension and diffuse iris-angle infiltration treated by whole anterior segment plaque radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary uveal malignant melanoma of the ciliary body associated with nodular extrascleral extension, diffuse iris-angle infiltration, and secondary glaucoma is usually treated by prompt enucleation.
  • We report a patient with ciliary body melanoma associated with nodular extrascleral extension and diffuse infiltration of the iris and angle treated conservatively because the fellow eye was blind.
  • METHODS: The clinical features and surgical management of a melanoma of the ciliary body with extrascleral extension and diffuse infiltration of the iris and angle are presented.
  • The tumor was treated with focal I-125 plaque radiotherapy followed by supplemental whole anterior segment I-125 plaque radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Whole anterior segment plaque radiotherapy for ciliary body melanoma with diffuse iris-angle infiltration provided palliative local tumor control without significant local complications through available follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Ciliary Body / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Scleral Diseases / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / etiology. Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / surgery. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Trabeculectomy

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  • (PMID = 17468833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5701
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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91. Kawana K, Okamoto F, Hiraoka T, Oshika T: Ciliary body edema after scleral buckling surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Ophthalmology; 2006 Jan;113(1):36-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ciliary body edema after scleral buckling surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
  • It is supposed that compression by the local scleral buckling induces ciliary body edema and angle narrowing.
  • This study aimed to evaluate quantitatively the time course of changes in ciliary body thickness and AC depth (ACD) before and after the scleral buckling procedure using ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • METHODS: Ciliary body thickness and ACD were measured before and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the procedure.
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy was used to evaluate ACD and ciliary body thickness.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time course of changes in ciliary body thickness and ACD.
  • RESULTS: The surgery caused significant increases in ciliary body thickness at 3, 7, and 14 days postoperatively (P<0.0001, Bonferroni multiple comparison).
  • Ciliary body edema reached its peak 3 days after surgery, followed by a gradual decrease thereafter.
  • Ciliary body thickness in the encircling group was statistically greater than in the segmental buckling group at 3 and 7 days postoperatively (P<0.001, Student's t test).
  • The ciliary body was significantly thicker in the direction of buckling than on the opposite side 3 days after surgery (P = 0.0079).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even without apparent choroidal detachment and a shallow AC, subclinical ciliary edema existed in all directions of all eyes for at least 1 month after the scleral buckling procedure.
  • The ciliary body in the direction of scleral buckling showed greater edema than the other areas.
  • Eyes treated with the encircling band showed greater ciliary edema than those treated with segmental buckling alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Edema / etiology. Postoperative Complications. Retinal Detachment / surgery. Scleral Buckling / adverse effects. Uveal Diseases / etiology


92. Tay E, Cree IA, Hungerford J, Franks W: Recurrence of treated ciliary body melanoma following trabeculectomy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2009 Jul;37(5):503-5
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  • [Title] Recurrence of treated ciliary body melanoma following trabeculectomy.
  • A 69-year-old man was treated for a right ciliary body melanoma with plaque radiotherapy.
  • The tumour remained unchanged on yearly ultrasound B scans but intraocular pressures became uncontrolled despite maximal medical therapy.
  • Trabeculectomy surgery may increase the risk of extrascleral extension of ciliary body melanoma even after apparently successful plaque radiotherapy and long-term local tumour control.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / radiation effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Trabeculectomy. Uveal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Eye Enucleation. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Glaucoma / etiology. Glaucoma / surgery. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Trabecular Meshwork / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19624348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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93. Cetinkaya A, Akman A, Take G, Bilezikci B, Akova YA: Ciliary body toxicity of subconjunctival suramin compared with mitomycin-C in the rabbit eye: determining the toxic concentration. Ophthalmic Res; 2009;41(2):91-7
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  • [Title] Ciliary body toxicity of subconjunctival suramin compared with mitomycin-C in the rabbit eye: determining the toxic concentration.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the safety of suramin compared with mitomycin-C (MMC) as an adjunctive agent in trabeculectomy by determining its ciliary body toxicity at predetermined effective dosages in rabbit eyes.
  • The injection-exposed ciliary body specimens were processed to be investigated under the light microscope and transmission electron microscope.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Suramin 200 mg/ml and MMC 0.2 mg/ml seem to be comparatively nontoxic to the ciliary body of the rabbit eye.
  • [MeSH-major] Alkylating Agents / toxicity. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Mitomycin / toxicity. Suramin / toxicity. Trypanocidal Agents / toxicity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19122470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0259
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Trypanocidal Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 6032D45BEM / Suramin
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94. Oh DJ, Martin JL, Williams AJ, Peck RE, Pokorny C, Russell P, Birk DE, Rhee DJ: Analysis of expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in human ciliary body after latanoprost. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Mar;47(3):953-63
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  • [Title] Analysis of expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in human ciliary body after latanoprost.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the effect of latanoprost on the expression of human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in the ciliary body.
  • METHODS: Total RNA was isolated, and qualitative RT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA of MMPs and TIMPs in human ciliary body tissue and explant cultures of ciliary body smooth muscle (CBSM) cells.
  • RESULTS: The mRNA of MMP-1, -2, -3, -11, -12, -14, -15, -16, -17, -19, and -24 as well as TIMP-1 to -4 were found in ciliary body tissue and CBSM cells.
  • These coordinated changes could be expected to mediate the latanoprost-induced alteration of ECM in the ciliary body.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Matrix Metalloproteinases / genetics. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / pharmacology. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16505029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY 13997
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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95. Khan AO, Al-Assiri A: Lens coloboma associated with a ciliary body cyst. Ophthalmic Genet; 2007 Dec;28(4):208-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lens coloboma associated with a ciliary body cyst.
  • The purpose of this report is to describe the association of lens coloboma with an adjacent cyst in the ciliary body and to suggest that ciliary body cysts may be an under-recognized cause of congenital lens coloboma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Coloboma / complications. Cysts / complications

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  • (PMID = 18161620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6810
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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96. Crowston JG, Medeiros FA, Mosaed S, Weinreb RN: Argon laser iridoplasty in the treatment of plateau-like iris configuration as result of numerous ciliary body cysts. Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Feb;139(2):381-3
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  • [Title] Argon laser iridoplasty in the treatment of plateau-like iris configuration as result of numerous ciliary body cysts.
  • PURPOSE: To report the use of argon laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of plateau-like iris configuration as a result of iris and ciliary body cysts.
  • METHODS: A 43-year-old male with plateau iris syndrome was demonstrated by high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), to have numerous iris and ciliary body cysts.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Ciliary Body / pathology. Humans. Intraocular Pressure. Male. Syndrome. Uveal Diseases / complications. Uveal Diseases / surgery. Uveal Diseases / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15734017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Bertazolli-Filho R, Laicine EM, Haddad A, Rodrigues ML: Molecular and biochemical analysis of ceruloplasmin expression in rabbit and rat ciliary body. Curr Eye Res; 2006 Feb;31(2):155-61

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  • [Title] Molecular and biochemical analysis of ceruloplasmin expression in rabbit and rat ciliary body.
  • PURPOSE: To verify the capability of rabbit and rat ciliary body to synthesize and secrete ceruloplasmin.
  • METHODS: Isolated ciliary body (CB) was cultured in the presence of [35S]-methionine, and the incubation medium was processed for immunoprecipitation.
  • Both layers of rabbit and rat ciliary epithelium (CE) exhibited ceruloplasmin reactivity after immunohistochemical processing.
  • [MeSH-major] Ceruloplasmin / genetics. Ceruloplasmin / metabolism. Ciliary Body / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-3683
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transferrin; EC 1.16.3.1 / Ceruloplasmin
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98. Hong S, Kim CY, Lee JH, Seong GJ: Immunohistochemical localization of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins in human ciliary body. Tissue Cell; 2007 Oct;39(5):365-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical localization of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins in human ciliary body.
  • To evaluate whether 2-Cys PRDX family plays a role in human ciliary body, the expression of PRDX I, II and III on normal human ciliary body was investigated.
  • Three normal human ciliary body tissues obtained from three donor eyeballs were examined by an immunohistochemistry using light microscopy and fluorescent microscopy with antibodies directed against the PRDX I, II and III.
  • In the normal human ciliary body, PRDX I, II and III were immunolocalized to the non-pigmented epithelial cells and ciliary muscle fibers.
  • It suggests that 2-Cys PRDXs may have physiological functions to protect cells in human ciliary body.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / cytology. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Peroxiredoxins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17707450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-8166
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue & cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.11.1.15 / PRDX1 protein, human; EC 1.11.1.15 / PRDX2 protein, human; EC 1.11.1.15 / PRDX3 protein, human; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxin III; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxins
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99. Bailey MD, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO: Ciliary body thickness and refractive error in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2008 Oct;49(10):4353-60
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  • [Title] Ciliary body thickness and refractive error in children.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether ciliary body thickness (CBT) is related to refractive error in school-age children.
  • A Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the between-visit repeatability of the ciliary body measurements.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thicker ciliary body measurements were associated with myopia and a longer axial length.
  • Future studies should determine whether this relationship is also present in animal models of myopia and determine the temporal relationship between thickening of the ciliary muscle and the onset of myopia.

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  • (PMID = 18566470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-05; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-01A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-01A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12-EY015447; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-05S1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-04; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-05; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-01; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-05; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24-EY014792; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-04; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-05S1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY015447-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K12 EY015447-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY014792-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mydriatics
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS249644; NLM/ PMC2994597
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100. Weisbrod DJ, Pavlin CJ, Xu W, Simpson ER: Long-term follow-up of 42 patients with small ciliary body tumors with ultrasound biomicroscopy. Am J Ophthalmol; 2010 Apr;149(4):616-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term follow-up of 42 patients with small ciliary body tumors with ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • PURPOSE: To establish the growth behavior of small ciliary body tumors in a relatively large cohort of patients over an extended period.
  • METHODS: Ciliary body tumors less than 4 mm in size within the penetration power of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) were included.
  • Tumor height was assessed by ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • Tumor growth was defined as an increase in height of at least 20% from baseline, as measured on 2 consecutive UBM readings.
  • Median initial tumor height was 2.05 mm (range, 1.11 to 3.80 mm).
  • The 5- and 10-year accumulative tumor growth rates were 12% and 29%, respectively.
  • In the first 3 years after diagnosis, the growth rate of ciliary body lesions with an initial tumor thickness less than or equal to 2 mm was 0.054 mm per year (P = 0.0001); thereafter, tumor size appeared to stabilize.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most small tumors of the ciliary body show little growth over an extended period and can be managed conservatively without invasive diagnostic interventions.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Microscopy, Acoustic. Nevus, Pigmented / ultrasonography. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20346778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1891
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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