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1. Schneider AB, Ron E, Lubin J, Stovall M, Shore-Freedman E, Tolentino J, Collins BJ: Acoustic neuromas following childhood radiation treatment for benign conditions of the head and neck. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Feb;10(1):73-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acoustic neuromas following childhood radiation treatment for benign conditions of the head and neck.
  • Childhood radiation exposure has been associated with an increased risk for developing several neoplasms, particularly benign and malignant thyroid tumors, but little is known about the risk of developing acoustic neuromas.
  • Forty-three patients developed benign acoustic neuromas, forty of them surgically resected, far in excess of what might be expected from data derived from brain tumor registries.
  • Our study provides support for an association between acoustic neuromas and childhood radiation exposure.
  • Although acoustic neuromas are usually benign and often asymptomatic, many cause significant morbidity.
  • Following childhood radiation exposure, they appear after a long latency and continue to occur many decades afterward.

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  • (PMID = 18079359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21518; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CP / N01-CP-85604; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CP / N01-CP-95614; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600840
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2. Vladimirova V, Mikeska T, Waha A, Soerensen N, Xu J, Reynolds PC, Pietsch T: Aberrant methylation and reduced expression of LHX9 in malignant gliomas of childhood. Neoplasia; 2009 Jul;11(7):700-11
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  • [Title] Aberrant methylation and reduced expression of LHX9 in malignant gliomas of childhood.
  • High-grade gliomas (HGGs) of childhood represent approximately 7% of pediatric brain tumors.
  • In the current study, to identify aberrantly methylated genes that may be involved in the tumorigenesis of pediatric HGGs, we performed a microarray-based differential methylation hybridization approach and found frequent hypermethylation of the LHX9 (human Lim-homebox 9) gene encoding a transcription factor involved in brain development.
  • Bisulfite genomic sequencing and combined bisulfite restriction analysis showed that HGGs were frequently methylated at two CpG-rich LHX9 regions in comparison to benign, nondiffuse pilocytic astrocytomas and normal brain tissues.
  • The LHX9 hypermethylation was associated with reduced messenger RNA expression in pediatric HGG samples and corresponding cell lines.
  • This epigenetic modification was reversible by pharmacological inhibition (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine), and reexpression of LHX9 transcript was induced in pediatric glioma cell lines.
  • Our results demonstrate that the LHX9 gene is frequently silenced in pediatric malignant astrocytomas by hypermethylation and that this epigenetic alteration is involved in glioma cell migration and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Apoptosis / genetics. Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Movement / genetics. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. LIM-Homeodomain Proteins. Microarray Analysis. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 19568415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / LHX9 protein, human; 0 / LIM-Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2697356
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3. Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Viaño J, Velázquez-Fragua R, Carceller-Benito F, Gutiérrez-Molina M, Morales-Bastos C: [Cerebral hemisphere tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1 during childhood]. Rev Neurol; 2010 Apr 16;50(8):453-7
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  • [Title] [Cerebral hemisphere tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1 during childhood].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six patients (three males and three females) of 600 cases of a series with NF1 showed features of cerebral hemispheres tumor (seizures, headache and hemiparesis).
  • Six patients had seven tumors (it was because one of them had one tumor in every frontal lobe, both with the same image characteristics), but they did not were removed and they were not studied histologically.
  • The histological study was made to the other five patients and showed that the histological nature corresponded to pilocytic astrocytoma in one patient, neuroepitelial dysembryoplastic tumor in one, polymorphe xanthoastrocytoma in one, neuroectodermic hamartoma in one, and inflammatory chronic non-granulomatose lesion in one.
  • The tumors commonly are histologically benign, and they can be found in peripheral or deep region of the cerebral hemispheres.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology


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4. Waltereit R, Welzl H, Dichgans J, Lipp HP, Schmidt WJ, Weller M: Enhanced episodic-like memory and kindling epilepsy in a rat model of tuberous sclerosis. J Neurochem; 2006 Jan;96(2):407-13
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  • TSC starts in early childhood and is characterized by cerebral hamartomas (benign tumours), severe epilepsy and cognitive deficits such as mental retardation and autism.
  • [MeSH-major] Epilepsy / etiology. Kindling, Neurologic. Memory, Short-Term. Mutation. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics. Tuberous Sclerosis / psychology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Epilepsy Curr. 2006 Nov-Dec;6(6):210-2 [17260062.001]
  • (PMID = 16300636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
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5. Sadetzki S, Chetrit A, Freedman L, Stovall M, Modan B, Novikov I: Long-term follow-up for brain tumor development after childhood exposure to ionizing radiation for tinea capitis. Radiat Res; 2005 Apr;163(4):424-32
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up for brain tumor development after childhood exposure to ionizing radiation for tinea capitis.
  • Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for brain tumors, yet quantitative information on the long-term risk of different types of brain tumors is sparse.
  • Our aims were to assess the risk of radiation-induced malignant brain tumors and benign meningiomas after childhood exposure and to investigate the role of potential modifiers of that risk.
  • The mean estimated radiation dose to the brain was 1.5 Gy.
  • Survival analysis using Poisson regression was performed to estimate the excess relative and absolute risks (ERR, EAR) for brain tumors.
  • After a median follow-up of 40 years, an ERR/Gy of 4.63 and 1.98 (95% CI = 2.43-9.12 and 0.73-4.69) and an EAR/Gy per 10(4) PY of 0.48 and 0.31 (95% CI = 0.28-0.73 and 0.12-0.53) were observed for benign meningiomas and malignant brain tumors, respectively.
  • The estimated ERR/Gy for malignant brain tumors decreased with increasing age at irradiation from 3.56 to 0.47 (P = 0.037), while no trend with age was seen for benign meningiomas.
  • The ERR for both types of tumor remains elevated at 30-plus years after exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / radiation effects. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Radiotherapy / statistics & numerical data. Risk Assessment / methods. Tinea Capitis / epidemiology. Tinea Capitis / radiotherapy


6. Michalowski MB, de Fraipont F, Michelland S, Entz-Werle N, Grill J, Pasquier B, Favrot MC, Plantaz D: Methylation of RASSF1A and TRAIL pathway-related genes is frequent in childhood intracranial ependymomas and benign choroid plexus papilloma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Apr 1;166(1):74-81
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  • [Title] Methylation of RASSF1A and TRAIL pathway-related genes is frequent in childhood intracranial ependymomas and benign choroid plexus papilloma.
  • Ependymomas (EP) represent the third most frequent type of central nervous system (CNS) tumor of childhood, after astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • RASSF1A was the most frequently methylated gene in both benign tumors (66%) and EP (56%).
  • No other gene was methylated in the benign tumors, whereas FHIT was methylated in 22%, RARB in 14.8%, BLU in 13.6%, p16INK4a in 11.1%, TNFRSF10C in 9.5%, and DAPK in 7.4% of ependymomas.
  • Although we did not observe a statistical relationship between methylation and clinical outcome, the methylation pattern does not appear to be randomly distributed in ependymoma and may represent a mechanism of tumor development and evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Ependymoma / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


7. Callu D, Viguier D, Laroussinie F, Puget S, Boddaert N, Kieffer V, Piana H, Escolano S, Renier D, Sainte-Rose C, Grill J, Dellatolas G: Cognitive and academic outcome after benign or malignant cerebellar tumor in children. Cogn Behav Neurol; 2009 Dec;22(4):270-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cognitive and academic outcome after benign or malignant cerebellar tumor in children.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of malignancy and location of the cerebellar tumor on motor, cognitive, and psychologic outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Although many studies focus on long-term outcome after cerebellar tumor treatment in childhood, the impact of its precise location remains unclear.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children, aged from 6 to 13 years, with a cerebellar malignant tumor (MT; MT group, n=20) or a cerebellar benign tumor (BT; BT group, n=19) were examined at least 6 months after the end of treatment using the international cooperative ataxia rating scale, the Purdue pegboard for manual skill assessment and the age-adapted Weschler scale.
  • Structural changes in brain anatomy were evaluated and parents and teachers answered 2 independent questionnaires.
  • RESULTS: Parents and teachers reported high rate of learning and academic difficulties, but without any difference with respect to the type of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Achievement. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cognition. Glioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19996881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-3641
  • [Journal-full-title] Cognitive and behavioral neurology : official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cogn Behav Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Mehta N, Bhagwati S, Parulekar G: Meningiomas in children: A study of 18 cases. J Pediatr Neurosci; 2009 Jul;4(2):61-5

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  • BACKGROUND: Intracranial meningiomas are rare tumors in children accounting for 0.4-4.6% of all primary brain tumors in the age group of 0-18 years.
  • Total tumor excision was achieved in all cases.
  • Children with complete resection and a typical benign histology have a good prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 21887184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1817-1745
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3162790
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Meningioma / childhood meningioma / neurofibromatosis / pediatric neoplasms
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9. Agaoglu FY, Ayan I, Dizdar Y, Kebudi R, Gorgun O, Darendeliler E: Ependymal tumors in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):298-303
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  • [Title] Ependymal tumors in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymal tumors are classified as ependymoma (benign or low grade) versus anaplastic ependymoma (malignant or high grade).
  • Ependymomas represent 5-10% of intracranial neoplasm in children.
  • In this study, demographic data and the treatment results of pediatric patients with ependymal tumors, treated in a single institute, is reported.
  • Total tumor resection was performed in 20 patients (50%), subtotal in 18 patients (45%), and biopsy only in 2 patients (5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of complete responders were patients who had total tumor removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15770637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Shellhaas RA, Smith SE, O'Tool E, Licht DJ, Ichord RN: Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort. Pediatrics; 2006 Aug;118(2):704-9
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  • [Title] Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to describe patients with stroke mimics and to determine if clinical features predict benign diagnoses.
  • Cases in which stroke was ruled out (stroke mimics) were reviewed for clinical features and diagnostic test results and were classified "benign" if there was no structural brain lesion and there was an expectation of complete recovery.
  • Eleven patients had "benign" diagnoses (3 migraine, 3 psychogenic diagnoses, 3 musculoskeletal abnormalities, 1 delirium, and 1 episodic vital sign changes).
  • Nineteen patients had "not-benign" diagnoses (3 reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, 3 neonatal seizures, 2 vascular anomalies, 2 inflammatory disease, 2 intracranial infection, 2 epilepsy, 2 metabolic stroke, 1 tumor, 1 drug toxicity, and 1 idiopathic intracranial hypertension).
  • Except for the presence of seizures, there were no significant differences in presentation or risk factors between benign and not-benign cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Many disorders mimic childhood stroke.
  • History and clinical presentation often do not distinguish the one third of patients with benign disorders from the two thirds with more serious problems, necessitating timely comprehensive investigations, especially brain MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Epilepsy / diagnosis. Mental Disorders / diagnosis. Migraine Disorders / diagnosis. Stroke / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Consciousness Disorders / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Headache / etiology. Hemiplegia / etiology. Humans. Intracranial Hypertension / complications. Intracranial Hypertension / diagnosis. Male. Muscle Weakness / etiology. Prospective Studies. Seizures / etiology. Sensation Disorders / etiology


11. Ruge JR, Liu J: Use of 5-aminolevulinic acid for visualization and resection of a benign pediatric brain tumor. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Nov;4(5):484-6
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  • [Title] Use of 5-aminolevulinic acid for visualization and resection of a benign pediatric brain tumor.
  • Intraoperatively, the residual tumor fluoresced, allowing for better visualization.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 19877785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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12. Ellert-Miklaszewska A, Grajkowska W, Gabrusiewicz K, Kaminska B, Konarska L: Distinctive pattern of cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) expression in adult and pediatric brain tumors. Brain Res; 2007 Mar 16;1137(1):161-9
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  • [Title] Distinctive pattern of cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) expression in adult and pediatric brain tumors.
  • The efficacy of cannabinoids against high-grade glioma in animal models, mediated by two specific receptors, CB1 and CB2, raised promises for targeted treatment of the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumors.
  • Unlike the abundantly expressed CB1, the CB2 receptor shows a restricted distribution in normal brain.
  • Although brain tumors constitute the second most common malignancy in children and the prevalence of histological types of brain tumors vary significantly between the adult and pediatric populations, cannabinoid receptor expression in pediatric tumors remains unknown.
  • In the present study, we compared the expression of the CB2 receptor in paraffin-embedded sections from primary brain tumors of adult and pediatric patients.
  • Most glioblastomas expressed very high levels of CB2 receptors and the expression correlated with tumor grade.
  • Interestingly, some benign pediatric astrocytic tumors, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), which may occasionally cause mortality owing to progressive growth, also displayed high CB2 immunoreactivity.
  • In contrast, all examined cases of embryonal tumors (medulloblastoma and S-PNET), the most frequently diagnosed malignant brain tumors in childhood, showed no or trace CB2 immunoreactivity.
  • Our results suggest that the CB2 receptor expression depends primarily on the histopathological origin of the brain tumor cells and differentiation state, reflecting the tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17239827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2
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13. Borgwardt L, Højgaard L, Carstensen H, Laursen H, Nowak M, Thomsen C, Schmiegelow K: Increased fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in childhood CNS tumors is correlated with malignancy grade: a study with FDG positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging coregistration and image fusion. J Clin Oncol; 2005 May 1;23(13):3030-7
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  • [Title] Increased fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in childhood CNS tumors is correlated with malignancy grade: a study with FDG positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging coregistration and image fusion.
  • The FDG uptake in tumors was semiquantitatively calculated by a region-of-interest-based tumor hotspot/brain index.
  • Digitally performed PET/MRI coregistration increased information on tumor characterization in 90% of cases.
  • CONCLUSION FDG PET of the brain with MRI coregistration can be used to obtain a more specific diagnosis with respect to malignancy grading.
  • Improved PET/MRI imaging of the benign hypermetabolic tumors is needed to optimize clinical use.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 15860860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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14. Balatsouras DG, Kaberos A, Assimakopoulos D, Katotomichelakis M, Economou NC, Korres SG: Etiology of vertigo in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Mar;71(3):487-94
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  • RESULTS: Viral infections, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood and migraine were the most common causes of vertigo accounting for approximately 65% of our patients.
  • Otitis media, head trauma, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Meniere's disease and brain tumor were less common causes of vertigo.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Otitis Media / complications. Vertigo / etiology. Vertigo / physiopathology. Virus Diseases / complications


15. Lu-Emerson C, Plotkin SR: The Neurofibromatoses. Part 1: NF1. Rev Neurol Dis; 2009;6(2):E47-53
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  • The hallmark lesion of NF1 is the neurofibroma, a benign tumor derived from the nerve sheath and composed of a mixture of proliferating Schwann cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, and pericytes.
  • Café au lait macules are typically the initial clinical manifestation of NF1 and tend to increase in size and number throughout childhood and puberty.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Brain / physiopathology. Cafe-au-Lait Spots / genetics. Cafe-au-Lait Spots / pathology. Cafe-au-Lait Spots / physiopathology. Eye / pathology. Eye / physiopathology. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Humans. Neurofibromatoses / genetics. Neurofibromatoses / pathology. Neurofibromatoses / physiopathology. Peripheral Nervous System / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19587630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1949-4378
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in neurological diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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16. Cho WS, Kim SK, Park SH, Cho BK: Intracranial kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: proposal of a new malignant variant. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Feb;3(2):147-50
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  • Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare vascular tumor of infancy and early childhood that occurs mainly in soft tissue and the retroperitoneum.
  • The pathological characteristics of a KHE are fascicles of spindleshaped endothelial cells and slitlike vascular channels with irregular tumor margins.
  • In spite of benign features such as rare mitoses and a low MIB-1 labeling index, a KHE is categorized as an intermediate malignancy because of local invasiveness into adjacent lymph nodes or organs.
  • Resection is the treatment of choice for this type of tumor and adjuvant medical therapy is prepared for the tumor remnants and the associated Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • The biological behavior of the tumor, including its pathological traits and clinical course, was malignant in nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangioendothelioma / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology


17. Balaji R, Ramachandran K: Imaging of desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: a spectroscopic viewpoint. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Apr;25(4):497-501
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  • PURPOSE: Desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) are rare benign intracranial neoplasms of early childhood with involvement of superficial cerebral cortex and leptomeninges.
  • The purpose of the study was to determine the alterations in metabolite ratios occurring in the neoplasm and combine with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features to narrow down the diagnosis.
  • Single-voxel short TE (1)H MR spectroscopy was used to study the changes in metabolite ratios in the tumor.
  • RESULTS: Comparison of metabolite ratios between normal brain tissue and tumor-affected region showed lower N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (Cr; 1.58 vs.1.28), higher choline to Cr (0.82 vs.2.03), and no significant change in myo-inositol to Cr (0.42 vs.0.39).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aspartic Acid / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Brain / physiopathology. Child. Choline / metabolism. Creatine / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Inositol / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male


18. Fulkerson DH, Luerssen TG, Hattab EM, Kim DL, Smith JL: Long-term follow-up of solitary intracerebral juvenile xanthogranuloma. Case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(6):480-5
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  • Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign, non-Langerhans-cell histiocytic infiltrate that typically presents as a solitary cutaneous lesion in childhood.
  • A solitary, intraparenchymal tumor without skin manifestations is a rare event, with only 3 prior cases reported in the literature.
  • Considering the rarity of this tumor, it is unclear whether patients need adjuvant therapy after excision of a solitary intraparenchymal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Brain Diseases / surgery. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / diagnosis. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / surgery


19. Qaddoumi I, Sultan I, Broniscer A: Pediatric low-grade gliomas and the need for new options for therapy: Why and how? Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Jan;8(1):4-10
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  • [Title] Pediatric low-grade gliomas and the need for new options for therapy: Why and how?
  • Pediatric low-grade gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system in children, accounting for almost 50% of all childhood brain tumors.
  • This is mostly due to a lack of understanding of tumor biology at the molecular level.
  • Pediatric low-grade gliomas are not benign, and most incompletely resected tumors will progress and negatively affect quality of life.
  • Such progress in pilocytic astrocytoma needs to be consolidated and expanded to other histologic varieties of pediatric low-grade gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 19164945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; None / None / / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 97
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161402; NLM/ PMC2810626
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20. Mahesha V, Goyal R, Vaiphei K, Nada R, Gupta AK: Primary chondrosarcoma of ethmoid bone in a 6-year-old child. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Jun;10(3):154-6
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  • Chondrosarcoma (CS) is a distinctly uncommon tumor in young patients and tends to be located in the extremities.
  • Cartilaginous tumors in young patients are benign tumors.
  • We report a case of a childhood CS in a 6-year-old boy who presented with right-sided proptosis.
  • This case highlights the rarity of this tumor with regard to age of presentation and site of origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Ethmoid Bone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Child. Chondroblastoma / diagnosis. Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16730310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Albers AC, Gutmann DH: Gliomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. Expert Rev Neurother; 2009 Apr;9(4):535-9
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  • In addition, individuals with NF1 are prone to the development of both benign and malignant tumors.
  • The most common CNS tumor in children and adults with NF1 is the glioma.
  • In childhood, gliomas are primarily located in the optic pathway, and less frequently in the hypothalamus and brainstem.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Glioma / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications


22. Frei-Jones M, McKinstry RC, Perry A, Leonard JR, Park TS, Rubin JB: Use of thalidomide to diminish growth velocity in a life-threatening congenital intracranial hemangioma. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2008 Aug;2(2):125-9
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  • Infantile or capillary hemangioma is the most common vascular tumor of childhood.
  • Although the lesions are considered benign, 10% of affected children develop life-threatening complications (mortality rate 20-80% in this subgroup).
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / congenital. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hemangioma, Capillary / congenital. Hemangioma, Capillary / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K30 RR022251; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / TL1 RR024995; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024992; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024992; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024992-01; United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000448
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101679; NLM/ PMC2737696
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23. Berger A, Sadeh M, Tzur G, Shuper IA, Kornreich L, Inbar D, Cohen IJ, Michowiz S, Yaniv I, Constantini S, Vakil E: Motor and non-motor sequence learning in children and adolescents with cerebellar damage. J Int Neuropsychol Soc; 2005 Jul;11(4):482-7
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Our sample consisted of 8 children and adolescents who had undergone surgical removal of a benign posterior fossa tumor (PFT) during childhood.
  • The children were tested not earlier than 2.5 years after surgery (M = 5.9 years), enabling brain plasticity and recovery of functions.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cerebellar Disorders.
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  • (PMID = 16209429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-6177
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Int Neuropsychol Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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