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1. Falavigna A, Righesso O, Volquind D, Teles AR: Intramuscular myxoma of the cervical paraspinal muscle. Eur Spine J; 2009 Jul;18 Suppl 2:245-9
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  • [Title] Intramuscular myxoma of the cervical paraspinal muscle.
  • Myxoma is a neoplasm of mesenchymal origin composed of undifferentiated stellate cells in a myxoid stroma.
  • This tumor can develop in a variety of locations.
  • Only ten cases of these benign tumors involving the neck muscles were reported in literature.
  • A 64-year-old woman presented with occipital and neck pain over 5 years noted an expansive painful lesion located at posterior cervical region with progressive volume increase in the last 12 months.
  • Tumor total removal was performed through normal muscle margins and the vertebral periosteum was scraped.
  • The tumor was encapsulated, lobulated with a gray-white appearance.
  • The histological examination yielded the diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma.
  • In conclusion, although rare, intramuscular myxoma should be included in differential diagnosis of cervical paraspinal tumors.
  • Despite its benign characteristics, local recurrence was reported after subtotal resection.
  • Tumor total removal should be the goal of surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle, Skeletal. Myxoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19301043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 20
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899565
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2. Chiofalo MG, Longo F, Marone U, Franco R, Petrillo A, Pezzullo L: Cervical vagal schwannoma. A case report. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2009 Feb;29(1):33-5
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  • [Title] Cervical vagal schwannoma. A case report.
  • Schwannoma originating from the cervical vagus nerve is an extremely rare neoplasm.
  • These tumours, in fact, are almost always benign and a conservative surgical approach is emphasized by most of the Authors.
  • A case of a cervical vagal schwannoma, in a 33-year old male with a previous medical history of malignant lymphoma, is described.
  • The clinical features, diagnosis, management and pathological findings of cervical vagal schwannoma are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms. Neurilemmoma. Vagus Nerve Diseases

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  • (PMID = 19609380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-675X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2689565
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Benign tumours / Magnetic Resonance imaging / Schwannoma / Vagus nerve
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3. Rosário PW, Tavares Júnior WC, Biscolla RP, Purisch S, Maciel RM: [Usefulness of neck ultrasonography in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jun;51(4):593-600
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  • [Transliterated title] Emprego da ultra-sonografia cervical no seguimento de pacientes com carcinoma diferenciado de tireóide.
  • Neck ultrasonography (US) is recommended for the assessment of all patients with thyroid carcinoma after initial therapy, since even low-risk patients with undetectable stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) may present cervical metastases.
  • Cervical lymph nodes with a diameter > 5 mm presenting thin calcifications and/or cystic degeneration have almost always a malignant etiology.
  • In the absence of these characteristics, a round shape and the absence of an echogenic hilum are "suspicious" findings, whereas elongated lymph nodes with a visible echogenic hilum are considered benign.
  • Doppler flow analysis helps with the differential diagnosis, usually revealing peripheral or mixed hypervascularization in malignant cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Neck / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17684621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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4. Gong L, Zhang WD, Liu XY, Han XJ, Yao L, Zhu SJ, Lan M, Li YH, Zhang W: Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:25
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  • [Title] Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the uterine cervix is defined as an extremely well differentiated variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with well-formed glands that resemble benign glands but show distinct nuclear anaplasia or evidence of stromal invasion.
  • Thus, MDA is difficult to differentiate from other cervical hyperplastic lesions.
  • Thus, our findings indicate that MDA is a true neoplasm but is not associated with high-risk HPV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of MDA depends mainly on its clinical manifestations, the pathological feature that MDA glands are located deeper than the lower level of normal endocervical glands, and immunostaining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromosomes, Human, X. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Case-Control Studies. Cell Proliferation. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Mosaicism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Genetic. Predictive Value of Tests. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20416098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2877003
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5. Chen YK, Su CT, Chi KH, Cheng RH, Wang SC, Hsu CH: Utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT uptake patterns in Waldeyer's ring for differentiating benign from malignant lesions in lateral pharyngeal recess of nasopharynx. J Nucl Med; 2007 Jan;48(1):8-14

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  • [Title] Utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT uptake patterns in Waldeyer's ring for differentiating benign from malignant lesions in lateral pharyngeal recess of nasopharynx.
  • Focally increased (18)F-FDG uptake in the lateral pharyngeal recess (LPR) of the nasopharynx due to a benign or malignant lesion is not an uncommon finding on PET images.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether, on PET/CT images, (18)F-FDG uptake occurs with characteristic patterns and intensities in various regions of Waldeyer's ring that can improve our ability to differentiate benign from malignant lesions.
  • Increased uptake in the LPR was observed in 80 subjects (4.9%) presenting with benign lesions, including 53 subjects without and 27 subjects with symptoms of upper airway discomfort.
  • RESULTS: Increased (18)F-FDG uptake (SUV, mean +/- SD) was found in the LPR, with a statistically significant (P < 0.001) difference between benign lesions (3.0 +/- 1.16) and malignant lesions (7.03 +/- 3.83).
  • The ratio of LPR uptake to palatine tonsil uptake (N/P ratio) in benign lesions (0.81 +/- 0.37) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than that in malignant lesions (2.30 +/- 1.62).
  • Higher incidences of asymmetric (18)F-FDG LPR uptake, cervical lymph node uptake, and asymmetric wall thickening of the LPR on CT were observed in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • When an SUV of less than 3.9 and an N/P ratio of less than 1.5 were used as cutoff points in subjects showing the combination of symmetric uptake in the LPR and normal or symmetric wall thickening, and detectable lymph node uptake, the area under the curve for benign lesions on PET/CT was 0.932 +/- 0.042 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.98), with a sensitivity of 90.4% and a specificity of 93.8%.
  • CONCLUSION: The intensity and patterns of (18)F-FDG uptake in various regions of Waldeyer's ring along with CT scan findings provide a feasible modality to differentiate benign from malignant nasopharyngeal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Nasopharynx / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Prospective Studies. Subtraction Technique

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  • (PMID = 17204693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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6. Pino Rivero V, Trinidad Ruiz G, Pardo Romero G, González Palomino A, Pantoja Hernández CG, Marqués Rebollo L, Blasco Heulva A: [Cervical giant lipoma. Clinical report of a case and differential diagnosis]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2005;32(4):345-51
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  • [Title] [Cervical giant lipoma. Clinical report of a case and differential diagnosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Lipoma gigante cervical. Presentación clínica de un caso y diagnóstico diferencial.
  • Lipomas represent one of the most common benign tumours in any location.
  • However, the giant variants are relatively uncommon and cause diagnostic problems with other neoplasm benign and malign.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiography. Lipoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16156364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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7. Zhou YA, Huang JH, Wan CY, Zuo ZB: [Surgical treatment and effect observation of cervical intraspinal benign neoplasms]. Zhongguo Gu Shang; 2009 Nov;22(11):856-8
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment and effect observation of cervical intraspinal benign neoplasms].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnosis, surgical procedure and clinical outcome of cervical intraspinal benign neoplasm.
  • Cervical stability in 11 cases was restored after removal of tumors.
  • The average recover ratio of total was (46.7 +/- 2.46)%, cervical stability was (62.37 +/- 3.58)%, the other methods was (41.21 +/- 4.63)%.
  • CONCLUSION: The surgical exairesis for cervical intraspinal benign neoplasm has low post-operative recurrence.
  • The main reason of recurrence is not removed the tumor completely.
  • MRI is regarded the effective method which is helpful in differential diagnosis and surgery guidance.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20084949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-0034
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Gu Shang
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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8. Sahdev A: Cervical tumors. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2010 Oct;31(5):399-413
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Cervical tumors.
  • Imaging the cervix for benign and malignant disease can be achieved using transvaginal ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.
  • The best established role of imaging is in cervical carcinoma where magnetic resonance imaging, CT and increasingly positron emission tomography-CT are the most frequently used imaging modalities.
  • Histopathological diagnosis of cervical disorders cannot be made on the basis of imaging alone but certain imaging features may provide an indication as to the underlying diagnosis.
  • We describe the imaging features of some malignant tumor subtypes in which a preoperative diagnosis may alter management.
  • Benign lesions of the cervix are usually detected incidentally or during investigations for dysfunctional vaginal bleeding.
  • We describe the imaging features of the commonly encountered benign cervical lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / radiography. Cervix Uteri / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis


9. Maung KH, Low C, Knight LC, Cullinane CJ: Multiple cervical bronchogenic cysts. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Feb;120(2):145-7

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  • [Title] Multiple cervical bronchogenic cysts.
  • Bronchogenic cysts are rare, benign, congenital lesions that occur as a result of aberrant development of the tracheobronchial tree during embryogenesis.
  • In a few instances, they appear within the neck mimicking a neoplasm and, depending on their size and site, may also cause acute upper respiratory obstruction.
  • We describe a case of two cervical bronchogenic cysts adjacent to the larynx in a child who presented with a hoarse voice.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis. Laryngeal Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16480550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Ahmed M, Bin Yousef H, Greer W, Faraz H, Al Sobhi S, Al Zahrani A, Raef H, Al Ghamdi A, Al Kadhi Y, Al Dayel F: Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. ANZ J Surg; 2008 Mar;78(3):139-43
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: A clinicopathological analysis and long-term follow up of 32 patients with Hurthle cell neoplasm (HCN) was undertaken to contrast the clinical and histological features between benign versus malignant HCN of thyroid and to examine the effect of treatment on the outcome.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients were classified as malignant HCN (MHCN) and 15 as benign HCN (BHCN).
  • The mean tumour size was 4.43 +/- 0.66 cm for MHCN, and 2.57 +/- 0.32 cm for BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • Multicentric tumour foci were evident in five cases (29%) of MHCN but none among the BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • At neck exploration cervical lymph node dissection was carried out in nine MHCN patients with findings of tumour metastases in 33%.
  • CONCLUSION: Features of MHCN consisted of a large tumour size, unequivocal capsular and vascular invasion, multicentric tumour foci, metastatic lymph node deposits in one-third of patients and presence of distant metastasis in a few.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] ANZ J Surg. 2008 Mar;78(3):115 [18269467.001]
  • (PMID = 18269475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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11. Tsai HT, Tsai YM, Yang SF, Wu KY, Chuang HY, Wu TN, Ho CK, Lin CC, Kuo YS, Wu MT: Lifetime cigarette smoke and second-hand smoke and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm--a community-based case-control study. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Apr;105(1):181-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Lifetime cigarette smoke and second-hand smoke and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm--a community-based case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Both active cigarette smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are known risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN).
  • A total of 171 subjects with either their first case of inflammation (benign epithelial lesion) or > or = CIN1 by biopsy confirmation were assigned to a case group; 513 normal subjects with negative findings by Pap smears or biopsies were assigned to a control group.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Smoking / adverse effects. Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


12. Rezvani M, Shaaban A: Imaging of cervical pathology. Clin Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Mar;52(1):94-111
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Imaging of cervical pathology.
  • A variety of benign and malignant entities affect the uterine cervix.
  • Cross-sectional and functional imaging can improve the accuracy of traditional clinical cervical cancer staging.
  • The imaging appearance of benign cervical pathology is reviewed with ultrasonography as the first-line imaging modality and magnetic resonance imaging for problem solving in difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ultrasonography / methods. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


13. López-Morales D, Velázquez-Márquez N, Valenzuela O, Santos-López G, Reyes-Leyva J, Vallejo-Ruiz V: Enhanced sialyltransferases transcription in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Invest Clin; 2009 Mar;50(1):45-53
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  • [Title] Enhanced sialyltransferases transcription in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Altered sialylation observed during oncogenic transformation, tumor metastases and invasion, has been associated with enhanced sialyltransferases (STs) transcription.
  • Increased mRNA expression of STs (ST6Gal I, ST3Gal III) has been detected in invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A study of the sialic acid concentration in local tissue of cervix and in serum showed a slight elevation in benign inflammatory lesions and a moderate elevation in severe neoplasia, but to date, altered expression of STs in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia has not yet been evaluated.
  • This study investigates the changes in mRNA expression of three STs (ST6Gal I, ST3Gal III, and ST3Gal IV) in cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN).
  • Alterations of these STs mRNA expression were examined in 35 cervix specimens classified as normal, CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3, by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, mRNA expression of the three STs was enhanced in CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3 with respect to normal tissue, with a significant difference of p < 0.001 (Mann-Whitney U test) for all the enzymes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / enzymology. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Sialyltransferases / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19418726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0535-5133
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigación clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Venezuela
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.4.99.- / Sialyltransferases; GZP2782OP0 / N-Acetylneuraminic Acid
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14. Park KJ, Soslow RA: Current concepts in cervical pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):729-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current concepts in cervical pathology.
  • CONTEXT: The correct diagnosis and reporting of cervical in situ and invasive carcinoma are essential for the appropriate clinical management of patients with human papillomavirus-associated disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: To review common mistakes made in the diagnosis of cervical dysplasia and invasive carcinoma, describe variants and benign mimics of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and adenocarcinoma in situ, and discuss available ancillary studies that can be useful in making the distinctions as well as to review important factors related to prognosis that should be included in the pathology report.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There are many mimics and variants of cervical squamous and glandular lesions that can be resolved with ancillary studies and careful histologic examination.
  • Prognostically important features, such as tumor size, presence of vascular invasion, and margin status, should always be included in the pathology report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 19415947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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15. Aximu D, Azad A, Ni R, Colgan T, Nanji S: A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):114-9
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  • [Title] A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics.
  • The histopathologic distinction of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and invasive adenocarcinoma (AC) from some benign endocervical lesions can be challenging.
  • ProEx C immunohistochemical staining was performed on sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of 65 cervical tissues including 48 non-neoplastic cervices (normal [n=10], microglandular hyperplasia [n=10], tubal metaplasia [n=11], cervical endometriosis [n=7], reactive endocervix [n=10]) and 17 cervices with glandular malignancy (AIS [n=12] and AC [n=5]).
  • The median and distribution of scores for both prevalence and intensity was compared for AIS versus each of the 5 benign cervical lesions using a Mann-Whitney U test.
  • The median and distribution of prevalence of immunohistochemical staining for AIS was different from all benign mimics, but the intensity of staining for AIS did overlap with some mimics as it was not significantly different from endometriosis, microglandular hyperplasia, and reactive endocervix.
  • ProEx C reagent has potential as an adjunctive testing tool in the histopathologic diagnosis of both AIS and AC, particularly in difficult cases with small biopsies or foci of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Pilot Projects. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic

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  • (PMID = 19188825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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16. Lian X, Zhao J, Hou T, Ma H, Chen Z: Benign intraspinal osteoblastoma stemming from C7 lamina in cervicothoracic junction: a case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2006 Nov 1;31(23):E895-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign intraspinal osteoblastoma stemming from C7 lamina in cervicothoracic junction: a case report.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A case report of a rare benign osteoblastoma successfully treated with total en bloc excision.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A rare case of massive benign osteoblastoma stemming from left side lamina of C7 and extension to spinal canal from C6 to T1 resulting in spinal cord compressed severely is reported.
  • A massive neoplasm located in intraspinal cervicothoracic junction and the spinal cord compressed severely was shown in radiographs, MRI, and CT.
  • The neoplasm was removed totally with instrumentation performed in surgical intervention.
  • Recurrence of the tumor was not seen at the final follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae. Osteoblastoma / diagnosis. Osteoblastoma / surgery. Spinal Canal / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pain / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Thoracic Vertebrae / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17077728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • Mammaglobin (MGB), a secretory protein belonging to the uteroglobin/Clara cell protein family, is a sensitive marker for breast carcinoma, but is also reported to be expressed in the female genital tract and its neoplasms.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • Reduction of MGB staining was seen in transition from benign epithelium to AIS.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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18. Derin AT, Güney K, Turhan M, Erdoğan A, Ağirdir BV: Giant cervical lipoma invading carotid artery: a case report. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2009 Jan-Feb;19(1):28-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant cervical lipoma invading carotid artery: a case report.
  • Lipomas are one of the most frequently encountered benign tumors in any location.
  • In this manuscript we report a case of cervical giant lipoma surrounding and infiltrating the common carotid artery which was treated by grafting carotid artery, and our diagnostic work-up and treatment procedure are discussed in the light of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Artery, Common / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Vessel Prosthesis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19793044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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19. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Mesonephric remnants of the cervix are vestiges of the embryonic mesonephric system which typically regresses during female development.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • PAX2 encodes a transcription factor necessary in the development of the Wolffian duct system, and the protein is expressed in several tumors of mesonephric origin, including renal cell carcinoma, Wilm tumor, and nephrogenic adenoma.
  • We hypothesized that PAX2 may also be expressed in mesonephric lesions of the cervix and may distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • PAX2 was expressed in normal endocervical glands (including tunnel clusters and Nabothian cysts) (86 of 86), lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (5 of 5), tubal/tuboendometrioid metaplasia (8 of 8), and cervical endometriosis (13 of 14).
  • These results suggest that PAX2 immunoreactivity may be useful to (1) distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, (2) to distinguish lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, and (3) to distinguish endocervical tubal metaplasia or cervical endometriosis from endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human
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20. Upile T, Triaridis S, Kirkland P, Goldstraw P, Rhys Evans P: How we do it: the anterior thoraco-cervical approach to tumours of the thoracic inlet. Clin Otolaryngol; 2005 Dec;30(6):561-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] How we do it: the anterior thoraco-cervical approach to tumours of the thoracic inlet.
  • KEYPOINTS: Tumours that arise in the thoracic inlet and superior mediastinum may be benign or malignant and present the surgeon with a difficult problem of access.
  • The anterior thoraco-cervical approach to the root of the neck and superior mediastinum combines the anterior cervical approach with a limited upper median sternotomy.
  • The approach offers excellent exposure and helps to facilitate complete resection of benign and malignant tumours, which would otherwise be deemed inoperable or difficult to resect completely through other standard approaches.
  • In contrast to previously described anterior transcervical thoracic approaches which required resection of part of the clavicle or manubrium as well as thoracotomy with increased morbidity, the anterior thoraco-cervical approach is associated with little morbidity and the postoperative stay is short.
  • [MeSH-major] Neck / surgery. Thoracic Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracotomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Chylothorax / etiology. Dissection. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Mediastinum / surgery. Neck Muscles / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pleural Effusion / etiology. Postoperative Complications. Postoperative Hemorrhage / etiology. Sternum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16402986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-4478
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Moore T, McLain RF: Image-guided surgery in resection of benign cervicothoracic spinal tumors: a report of two cases. Spine J; 2005 Jan-Feb;5(1):109-14

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Image-guided surgery in resection of benign cervicothoracic spinal tumors: a report of two cases.
  • BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Osseous spinal tumors are an uncommon cause of persistent axial pain and muscle spasm, but even benign lesions may grow to cause deformity or neurological signs.
  • Traditional treatment approaches to resection can be debilitating even when the tumor is benign.
  • PURPOSE: Emerging technologies allow surgeons to diagnose and treat osseous neoplasms while minimizing the collateral damage caused by surgical exposure and tumor excision.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Technical considerations are presented through two cases of benign osseous neoplasm occurring in the cervicothoracic spine of competitive athletes, demonstrating the meth-ods used to provide effective treatment while maintaining maximal functional capacity.
  • METHODS: Stereotactic imaging and intraoperative guidance was used as an adjunct to tumor care in these patients.
  • Used in combination with minimally invasive, microsurgical techniques,stereotactic guidance localized and verified excision margins of benign vertebral lesions, minimizing soft tissue trauma and collateral damage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Image guidance can accurately localize and guide excision of benign vertebral lesions while minimizing soft tissue trauma and collateral damage, allowing patients a rapid and complete return to high-demand function.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteoblastoma / surgery. Osteoma, Osteoid / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Humans. Male. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Pain Measurement. Prognosis. Recovery of Function. Risk Assessment. Stereotaxic Techniques. Thoracic Vertebrae. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15739278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-9430
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Sima N, Cai L, Zhu Y, Wang W, Wang S, Ma D: Relationship between the expression of telomerase and human papillomavirus infection in invasive uterine cervical carcinoma. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2007 Aug;27(4):451-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Relationship between the expression of telomerase and human papillomavirus infection in invasive uterine cervical carcinoma.
  • Telomerase activity was examined in invasive cervical carcinoma to assess whether it is activated during cervical malignant transformation and to look for its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • Histologically confirmed invasive cervical carcinomas and benign cervices were assayed for telomerase activity by using a modified telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP).
  • Telomerase activity was detected in 40 of 45 (88.9%) invasive cervical carcinomas and 2 (all chronic cervicitis) of 50 (4%) benign cervical lesions.
  • HPV was detected in 36 (24 HPV-16 and 4 HPV-18 cases) of 45 (80%) invasive cervical carcinomas and 20 (11 HPV-16 and 1 HPV-18 cases) of 50 (40%) benign cervical changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papillomavirus Infections / enzymology. Telomerase / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / enzymology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 17828509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
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23. Schaffer V, Wegener B, Dürr HR: Classical surgical resection of osteoid osteoma of the cervical spine. Acta Chir Belg; 2010 Nov-Dec;110(6):603-6
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  • [Title] Classical surgical resection of osteoid osteoma of the cervical spine.
  • Osteoid osteoma is a benign primary skeletal neoplasm occurring mainly in the cortex of long bones, but also in the spine.
  • We report about a 38 year old female diagnosed with an osteoid osteoma located in the posterior element of the 5th cervical vertebra.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae. Osteoma, Osteoid / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21337841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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24. Kitajima K, Murakami K, Yamasaki E, Domeki Y, Kaji Y, Sugimura K: Performance of FDG-PET/CT for diagnosis of recurrent uterine cervical cancer. Eur Radiol; 2008 Oct;18(10):2040-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Performance of FDG-PET/CT for diagnosis of recurrent uterine cervical cancer.
  • The purpose is to evaluate the accuracy of integrated FDG-PET/CT, compared with PET alone, for diagnosis of suspected recurrence of uterine cervical cancer.
  • Fifty-two women who had undergone treatment for histopathologically proven cervical cancer received PET/CT with suspected recurrence.
  • A final diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology, radiological imaging, and clinical follow-up for over 1 year.
  • PET/CT resolved the false-positive PET results due to hypermetabolic activity of benign/inflammatory lesions and physiological variants, and was able to detect lung metastasis, local recurrence, peritoneal dissemination, para-aortic lymph node metastasis, and pelvic lymph node metastasis missed by PET alone.
  • FDG-PET/CT is a useful complementary modality for providing good anatomic and functional localization of sites of recurrence during follow-up of patients with cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Image Enhancement / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18425518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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25. Roijer E, de Bruijn HW, Dahlén U, ten Hoor K, Lundin M, Nilsson K, Soderstrom K, Nilsson O: Squamous cell carcinoma antigen isoforms in serum from cervical cancer patients. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(3):142-52
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma antigen isoforms in serum from cervical cancer patients.
  • SCCA isoforms were determined before therapy and in follow-up samples from patients with cervical cancer and in serum samples from healthy females.
  • Serum samples from patients with benign skin diseases (psoriasis and eczema) were also selected based on elevated SCCA levels.
  • The dominating serological form of SCCA was free SCCA2 both in healthy controls and in patients with cervical cancer.
  • Both SCCA1 and SCCA2 were elevated in serum from cervical cancer patients and followed the clinical course of the disease during therapy monitoring.
  • SCCA2 did not show improved tumor specificity as compared to SCCA1.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Serpins / blood. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


26. Selch MT, Lin K, Agazaryan N, Tenn S, Gorgulho A, DeMarco JJ, DeSalles AA: Initial clinical experience with image-guided linear accelerator-based spinal radiosurgery for treatment of benign nerve sheath tumors. Surg Neurol; 2009 Dec;72(6):668-74; discussion 674-5
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  • [Title] Initial clinical experience with image-guided linear accelerator-based spinal radiosurgery for treatment of benign nerve sheath tumors.
  • Tumor location was cervical 11, lumbar 10, and thoracic 4.
  • Tumor size varied from 0.9 to 4.1 cm (median, 2.1 cm).
  • Tumor size remained stable in 18 cases, and 7 (28%) demonstrated more than 2 mm reduction in tumor size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results of this limited experience indicate linear accelerator-based spinal radiosurgery is feasible for treatment of benign nerve sheath tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / surgery. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Spinal Nerves / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / surgery. Neurofibromatosis 2 / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 2 / surgery. Neurologic Examination. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19608232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3339
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Lemaire A, Nikolic I, Petersen T, Haney JC, Toloza EM, Harpole DH Jr, D'Amico TA, Burfeind WR: Nine-year single center experience with cervical mediastinoscopy: complications and false negative rate. Ann Thorac Surg; 2006 Oct;82(4):1185-9; discussion 1189-90
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  • [Title] Nine-year single center experience with cervical mediastinoscopy: complications and false negative rate.
  • Pathology included lung cancer (n = 1,459), metastatic disease (n = 78), lymphoma (n = 51), and other benign disease (n = 557).
  • Thirty-two (57%) of the false negatives were due to metastatic disease in lymph nodes not normally biopsied during cervical mediastinoscopy (levels 5, 6, 8, or 9).
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinoscopy. Postoperative Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16996905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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28. Junming M, Cheng Y, Dong C, Jianru X, Xinghai Y, Quan H, Wei Z, Mesong Y, Dapeng F, Wen Y, Bin N, Lianshun J, Huimin L: Giant cell tumor of the cervical spine: a series of 22 cases and outcomes. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2008 Feb 1;33(3):280-8
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the cervical spine: a series of 22 cases and outcomes.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A consecutive series of 22 giant cell tumor (GCTs) of the cervical spine which underwent surgical treatment was observed from 1990-2003.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the clinical patterns and follow-up data of (GCT) of bone arising in the cervical spine which underwent surgical treatment.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: GCTs of bone are common, aggressive, or low-grade malignant tumors that occur infrequently in the spine above the sacrum, and their presence in the cervical vertebrae is even more exceptional.
  • Though surgical resection of GCT arising in the cervical spine is commonly regarded as a recommended treatment method, it is still a challenge to achieve satisfactory results, especially for the late or recurrent cases, and there are few large series of cases reported with long-term follow-up of this tumor that are found in special segments in the literature.
  • METHODS: All clinical and follow-up data of 22 cases of GCT arising in cervical spine which received surgical treatment in our spine center from January 1990-December 2003 were collected.
  • One special lesion located in the posterior element of C7 received "en bloc" resection.
  • For reconstructing the stability of the cervical spine, we used autologous ilium for pure bone graft, or titanium plate and titanium mesh for anterior instrumented fusion or anterior and posterior combined instrumented fusion.
  • RESULTS: One patient with C1-C2 GCT (vertebral body and posterior element involvement) who received subtotal resection of the tumor showed aggravation of neurologic deficit and died shortly after the surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: GCT of the cervical spine easily onsets between 20 and 40 years of age.
  • As a kind of benign but local aggressive or low potential malignancy tumor, we should take an aggressive attitude to excise the tumor as much as possible while reserving the neural function as a precondition.
  • Unlike in the thoracic and lumbar spine, a strictly "en bloc" resection is often not a feasible option because of the involvement of critical neurovascular structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diskectomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Spinal Fusion. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


29. Mack MG, Rieger J, Baghi M, Bisdas S, Vogl TJ: Cervical lymph nodes. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jun;66(3):493-500
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  • [Title] Cervical lymph nodes.
  • A spherical lymph node larger than 10mm is an indicator for a malignant node, whereas an oval shape and/or a fatty hilus are more benign signs.
  • This is causing a signal decrease on T2-weighted MR images in benign lymph nodes after administration of USPIO's, whereas malignant lymph nodes do not show a significant signal decrease.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Dextrans. Ferrosoferric Oxide. Humans. Iron. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetite Nanoparticles. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Oxides. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18337039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Magnetite Nanoparticles; 0 / Oxides; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; G6N3J05W84 / ferumoxides; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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30. Pahisa J, Martínez-Román S, Martínez-Zamora MA, Torné A, Caparrós X, Sanjuán A, Lejárcegui JA: Laparoscopic ovarian transposition in patients with early cervical cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 May-Jun;18(3):584-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic ovarian transposition in patients with early cervical cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and morbidity of laparoscopic ovarian transposition on the preservation of hormonal function in patients younger than 45 years operated for early cervical cancer.
  • This prospective study included 28 FIGO stage IB1 cervical cancer patients, 45 years old or younger, maintaining menstrual cycles, who were considered suitable for conservation of the ovaries.
  • Two patients developed benign ovarian cysts, requiring oophorectomy, but no other long-term adverse effects of the transposition were identified.
  • According to our results, laparoscopic ovarian transposition is a safe and effective procedure for the preservation of ovarian function in young patients with early cervical cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Laparoscopy / methods. Ovary / surgery. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care / methods. Probability. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


31. Sakurai H, Suzuki Y, Nonaka T, Ishikawa H, Shioya M, Kiyohara H, Katoh H, Nakayama Y, Hasegawa M, Nakano T: FDG-PET in the detection of recurrence of uterine cervical carcinoma following radiation therapy--tumor volume and FDG uptake value. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Mar;100(3):601-7
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  • [Title] FDG-PET in the detection of recurrence of uterine cervical carcinoma following radiation therapy--tumor volume and FDG uptake value.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the use of positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in follow-up study after radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma.
  • Rationale for FDG-PET was the presence of symptoms in 6 patients, abnormal serum tumor marker values in 13, abnormal lesions on other diagnostic imaging modalities in 19, and patient request in 2.
  • Maximum tumor diameter and tumor volume in the corresponding disease were estimated by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Three false-positive cases were a localized pneumonitis, a benign pubic bone fracture, and a fibrosis after interstitial brachytherapy.
  • Regarding tumor volume measurement, good correlation between maxSUV on FDG-PET and tumor volume was obtained (lung metastases, P = 0.03; extrapelvic nodes, P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: FDG-PET is a useful tool for the detection of extrapelvic lesions during the follow-up period after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.
  • This study suggests that FDG uptake is associated with tumor volume, and FDG-PET has limitations in the detection of lesions less than 1 cm3 or microscopic disease.
  • Careful diagnostic agreement between PET and CT/MRI for positive but benign lesions, such as inflammation and bone fracture, remains important.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16257440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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32. Kalyanasundaram K, Ganesan R, Perunovic B, McCluggage WG: Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;18(2):138-43
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  • [Title] Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis.
  • Endometrial carcinomas, particularly of endometrioid type, can invade the myometrium or cervix without eliciting a stromal desmoplastic or inflammatory response and have been referred to as diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas.
  • The neoplasms consisted of 12 endometrioid carcinomas, 1 mixed endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma, and 1 serous carcinoma.
  • Seven cases exhibited cervical stromal involvement and in 2 there was involvement of both ovaries in a similar pattern.
  • Several of the cases were seen in consultation and the pattern of infiltration raised a number of differential diagnoses, both benign and malignant, depending on the site of tumor involvement, including adenomyosis, adenomyoma, primary endocervical glandular lesions, cervical mesonephric remnants, endometriosis or tuboendometrioid metaplasia, and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Stromal Cells / pathology


33. Ferris RL, Xi L, Raja S, Hunt JL, Wang J, Gooding WE, Kelly L, Ching J, Luketich JD, Godfrey TE: Molecular staging of cervical lymph nodes in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 15;65(6):2147-56
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  • [Title] Molecular staging of cervical lymph nodes in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • Clinical staging of cervical lymph nodes from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) has only 50% accuracy compared with definitive pathologic assessment.
  • We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) to screen 40 potential markers for their ability to detect SCCHN metastases to cervical lymph nodes.
  • Seven markers were identified with good characteristics for identifying metastatic disease, and these were validated using a set of 26 primary tumors, 19 histologically positive lymph nodes, and 21 benign nodes from patients without cancer.
  • Four markers discriminated between positive and benign nodes with accuracy >97% but only one marker, pemphigus vulgaris antigen (PVA), discriminated with 100% accuracy in both the observed data and a statistical bootstrap analysis.
  • The automated analysis with PVA provided perfect discrimination between histologically positive and benign lymph nodes and correctly identified two lymph nodes with micrometastatic tumor deposits.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15781625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90665-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Agur W, Hassan M, Laban M, Morsi H, Abou-Senna I: The relationship between bcl-2 oncogene expression and clinicopathological criteria in various stages of cervical neoplasia in Egyptian women. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(5):536-8
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  • [Title] The relationship between bcl-2 oncogene expression and clinicopathological criteria in various stages of cervical neoplasia in Egyptian women.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the degree of bcl-2 expression in the various stages of cervical neoplasia in a sample population of Egyptian women and relate the findings to clinicopathological criteria of invasive cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: Bcl-2 protein expression was assessed by immuno-histochemistry in 40 patients with cervical neoplasia (intraepithelial and invasive) in comparison to 20 patients with benign changes.
  • Patients with invasive disease were followed up 2 years later and the outcome was correlated to the bcl-2 status at the time of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Bcl-2 expression increased from 20% in normal cervical tissue to 42.9% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II then dropped to 33% in invasive disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Bcl-2 expression is reduced along the spectrum from benign towards invasive disease of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Egypt. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 21061795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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35. Shi J, Liu H, Wilkerson M, Huang Y, Meschter S, Dupree W, Schuerch C, Lin F: Evaluation of p16INK4a, minichromosome maintenance protein 2, DNA topoisomerase IIalpha, ProEX C, and p16INK4a/ProEX C in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. Hum Pathol; 2007 Sep;38(9):1335-44
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Evaluation of p16INK4a, minichromosome maintenance protein 2, DNA topoisomerase IIalpha, ProEX C, and p16INK4a/ProEX C in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • We immunohistochemically evaluated the diagnostic value of p16, MCM2, TOP IIA, ProE(X) C, and a cocktail of p16 and ProE(X) C in 62 cervical biopsy specimens, including 14 cases of benign squamous mucosa (group 1), 34 cases of LSILs (group 2), and 14 cases of HSILs (group 3).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2009 Jun;40(6):904-5; author reply 905-6 [19442790.001]
  • (PMID = 17512033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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36. Bocciolini C, Dall'olio D, Cavazza S, Laudadio P: Schwannoma of cervical sympathetic chain: assessment and management. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):191-4
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  • [Title] Schwannoma of cervical sympathetic chain: assessment and management.
  • Schwannoma arising from the cervical sympathetic chain is an uncommon benign nerve tumour.
  • This tumour most often presents as an asymptomatic solitary neck mass, with slow-growing and rare malignant degeneration.
  • Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult and investigations are not usually helpful.
  • Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and confirmation is often obtained by means of surgical pathology.
  • Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with recurrence being rare.
  • The mass was excised through a transverse left cervical skin incision.
  • The pathologic and radiological evaluations, treatment and postoperative complications of this neoplasm are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglia, Sympathetic / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • [Cites] Am Surg. 2000 Jan;66(1):52-5 [10651348.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2000 Jan;109(1):48-51 [10651412.001]
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  • (PMID = 16450776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639869
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37. Lowe MP, Chamberlain DH, Kamelle SA, Johnson PR, Tillmanns TD: A multi-institutional experience with robotic-assisted radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 May;113(2):191-4
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  • [Title] A multi-institutional experience with robotic-assisted radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to report a multi-institutional experience with robotic-assisted radical hysterectomy to treat patients with early stage cervical cancer with respect to perioperative outcomes.
  • METHODS: A multi-institutional robotic surgical consortium consisting of five board-certified gynecologist oncologist in distinct geographical regions of the United States was created to evaluate the utility of robotics for gynecologic surgery (benign and malignant).
  • Between April 2003 and August 2008, a total of 835 patients underwent robotic surgery for benign gynecologic disorders and/or gynecologic malignancies by a surgeon in the consortium.
  • This database was queried for all patients who underwent a robotic-assisted type II or III radical hysterectomy for Stage IA1 (+vsi)-IB2 cervical carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: From a database of 835 patients who underwent robotic surgery by a gynecologic oncologist, a total of 42 patients who underwent a robotic-assisted type II (n=10) or type III (n=32) radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer were identified.
  • There was a single patient with Stage IA1 cervical cancer with vascular space invasion who underwent a type II radical hysterectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Robotics. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19249082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. George B, Archilli M, Cornelius JF: Bone tumors at the cranio-cervical junction. Surgical management and results from a series of 41 cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Jul;148(7):741-9; discussion 749
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  • [Title] Bone tumors at the cranio-cervical junction. Surgical management and results from a series of 41 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Bone tumors located at the cranio-cervical junction (CCJ)are rare.
  • METHODS: Forty-one patients presenting a bone tumor (26 benign and 15 malignant tumors), excluding chordomas, located at the CCJ (including lower third of the clivus, C1 and C2) were observed over 20 years from 1981 to 2001.
  • Vertebral angiography was rarely performed (N=9) and mostly when the diagnosis was doubtful.
  • In some cases the diagnosis was clear but in others, imaging studies showed destructive lesions suggesting a malignancy, which sometimes required a biopsy (N=4).
  • No recurrence in the group of benign tumors was seen during an average follow-up of 6 years (from 2 to 11 years).
  • Confusion between benign and malignant tumor or pseudo tumors must be avoided, sometimes requiring a biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Axis, Cervical Vertebra / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Cervical Atlas / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Occipital Bone / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cerebral Angiography. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Pain / etiology. Neck Pain / physiopathology. Neck Pain / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Fusion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vertebral Artery / anatomy & histology. Vertebral Artery / pathology. Vertebral Artery / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16708168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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39. Honig A, Weidler C, Häusler S, Krockenberger M, Buchholz S, Köster F, Segerer SE, Dietl J, Engel JB: Overexpression of polycomb protein BMI-1 in human specimens of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer. Anticancer Res; 2010 May;30(5):1559-64
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  • [Title] Overexpression of polycomb protein BMI-1 in human specimens of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer.
  • The current study investigated the expression of BMI-I in human specimens of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer.
  • BMI-I expression in human specimens of breast, endometrial and cervical cancer was evaluated by IHC and then compared with the respective benign tissues.
  • RESULTS: BMI-I was significantly (p<0.05) overexpressed in human breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer specimens as compared to benign controls.
  • In human breast cancer samples, BMI-I expression was most pronounced in the invasion front of the tumour.
  • CONCLUSION: The current study showed for the first time that the BMI-I protein is significantly overexpressed in ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer and may thus be a potential target for novel antitumor therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Repressor Proteins / biosynthesis. Repressor Proteins / physiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phenotype. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1


40. Wang CP, Lee CY, Lou PJ, Yen RF, Hsiao JK, Ko JY: Role of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in assessing the impalpable cervical node with increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography scanning: preliminary communication. J Laryngol Otol; 2008 Dec;122(12):1349-53

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in assessing the impalpable cervical node with increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography scanning: preliminary communication.
  • OBJECTIVES: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography can detect cervical metastases before they are palpable.
  • This paper reports the use of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration to determine the nature of impalpable cervical nodes that are positive on positron emission tomography scanning.
  • METHODS: Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed in 10 cancer patients with suspicious cervical nodes revealed by positron emission tomography scan.
  • Cytological examination revealed a benign or reactive lesion in two patients, who at the time of writing were alive and well, 19 and 36 months after examination.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration is a minimally invasive procedure which enables cytological examination of suspicious cervical lymph nodes detected by positron emission tomography scanning, allowing further treatment to be planned.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Interventional. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18549513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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41. Yi KW, Song SH, Kim KA, Jung WY, Lee JK, Hur JY: Giant endocervical polyp mimicking cervical malignancy: primary excision and hysteroscopic resection. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2009 Jul-Aug;16(4):498-500
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  • [Title] Giant endocervical polyp mimicking cervical malignancy: primary excision and hysteroscopic resection.
  • Giant cervical polyps are characterized by an unusually large size and appear clinically as malignant.
  • Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 12.6 x 8-cm solid tumor with internal papillary growth within the entire vaginal cavity.
  • The tumor base was suspected to have originated from the endocervix by a connecting stalk.
  • Primary excision of the tumor was performed via the vagina, and the remnant tissue was completely removed at hysteroscopic resection.
  • The final histopathologic findings confirmed a benign giant cervical polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Polyps / pathology. Uterine Cervical Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Female. Humans. Hysteroscopy. Serpins / blood

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  • (PMID = 19573830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Serpins; 0 / squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen
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42. Sanati S, Huettner P, Ylagan LR: Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):79-87
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ProExC in dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • ProExC had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 89%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, for distinguishing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion from squamous metaplasia, and 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ from reactive benign endocervix.
  • ProExC is a valuable marker for distinguishing dysplastic squamous and endocervical lesions of the cervix from squamous metaplasia in histologic sections.
  • ProExC may eventually be used in conjunction with morphologic and human papillomavirus evaluation for better classification of indeterminate cervical lesions in Papanicolaou smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19952938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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43. Ungureanu C, Teleman S, Socolov D, Anton G, Mihailovici MS: [Evaluation of p16INK4a and Ki-67 proteins expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and their correlation with HPV-HR infection]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2010 Jul-Sep;114(3):823-8
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of p16INK4a and Ki-67 proteins expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and their correlation with HPV-HR infection].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of p16INK4A and Ki-67 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and to correlate the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with these two biomarkers.
  • RESULTS: 7 of our cases were benign (11.66%); 18 cases presented CIN1 (30%), 14 cases CIN2 (23.33%), 16 cases CIN3 (26.66%) and 5 cases invasive squamous cell carcinoma (8.33%).
  • Therefore, in the diagnosis of CIN and high-risk HPV infection, p16INK4A can be a useful biomarker.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 21243810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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44. Bhosale P, Peungjesada S, Devine C, Balachandran A, Iyer R: Role of magnetic resonance imaging as an adjunct to clinical staging in cervical carcinoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2010 Nov-Dec;34(6):855-64
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of magnetic resonance imaging as an adjunct to clinical staging in cervical carcinoma.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging depicts the morphological details of the female pelvis and is useful for evaluating both benign and malignant cervical masses.
  • Clinical assessment of the extent of cervical cancer is crucial in determining the optimal treatment strategy, but clinical staging by itself has limitations.
  • The prognosis of cervical cancer is determined not only by stage, but also by nodal status, tumor volume, and depth of invasion, none of which are included in the FIGO guidelines.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging has been described as the most accurate, noninvasive imaging modality in staging cervical carcinoma.
  • This review outlines the magnetic resonance features of normal cervix, primary disease (by stage), and recurrent disease and discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in staging and clinical decision making.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 21084900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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45. Hammes LS, Tekmal RR, Naud P, Edelweiss MI, Kirma N, Valente PT, Syrjänen KJ, Cunha-Filho JS: Up-regulation of VEGF, c-fms and COX-2 expression correlates with severity of cervical cancer precursor (CIN) lesions and invasive disease. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;110(3):445-51
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Up-regulation of VEGF, c-fms and COX-2 expression correlates with severity of cervical cancer precursor (CIN) lesions and invasive disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proto-oncogene macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (c-fms) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cervical carcinogenesis and to analyze the correlation of VEGF with c-fms and COX-2 expression.
  • METHODS: In this study, 26 cases of benign cervix, 28 low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; CIN 1), 30 high-grade CIN (CIN 2/3) and 28 squamous cervical carcinomas (SCC) were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and analysis was performed separately for epithelium and stroma.
  • RESULTS: Positive epithelial expressions in normal cervix, low-grade CIN, high-grade CIN and SCC were, respectively: VEGF - 11.5%, 39.3%, 53.3% and 75% (P<0.001); c-fms - 0%, 10.7%, 40% and 67.9% (P<0.001); COX-2 - 7.7%, 39.3%, 80% and 100% (P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our findings, these factors may participate in the development and progression of CIN lesions, with possible interaction of c-fms and COX-2 on VEGF expression, and may be potential molecular targets for studies of cervical cancer prevention and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18565574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA54174
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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46. Cuschieri K, Wentzensen N: Human papillomavirus mRNA and p16 detection as biomarkers for the improved diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Oct;17(10):2536-45
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus mRNA and p16 detection as biomarkers for the improved diagnosis of cervical neoplasia.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the genital tract is very common and normally follows a benign clinical course; however, in an unfortunate minority of infected individuals, it can cause disease that sometimes leads to cancer.
  • It is accepted that HPV DNA testing has a role in the management of cervical disease both in a prevaccination and postvaccination era; however, to improve the specificity of this approach, there is a requirement to develop and validate tools/assays that can identify women at risk for progressive disease.
  • Currently, there is promising data indicating that HPV mRNA and p16 might play an important role in future cervical cancer screening scenarios.
  • METHODS: PubMed and OVID were interrogated with search terms "HPV RNA;" "HPV mRNA;" "HPV transcript-detection, testing, and methods;" "p16" AND "cervical cancer;" "p16" AND "CIN;" "p16" AND "histology"; "p16" AND "cytology;" "p16;" and "screening. "
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Mass Screening / methods. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / virology

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  • (PMID = 18842994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CP010124-14
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Number-of-references] 89
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS212843; NLM/ PMC2900792
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47. Jun JK, Choi KS, Jung KW, Lee HY, Gapstur SM, Park EC, Yoo KY: Effectiveness of an organized cervical cancer screening program in Korea: results from a cohort study. Int J Cancer; 2009 Jan 1;124(1):188-93
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  • [Title] Effectiveness of an organized cervical cancer screening program in Korea: results from a cohort study.
  • Although the value of cervical cancer screening is widely acknowledged, the effectiveness of an organized cervical cancer screening program in Korea has never been evaluated.
  • We investigated the associations of the frequency of cervical cancer screening with cervical cancer incidence using data from a large prospective cohort study.
  • In this analysis, 253,472 women without a hysterectomy or previous cancer diagnosis were included.
  • Using the Korean Central Cancer Registry, 248 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 346 cases of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix were identified.
  • Subjects screened 2 or more times showed a 71% (corrected reduction 60%) and a 66% (corrected reduction 53%) reduced risk of invasive cervical cancer and CIS of the cervix, respectively, as compared with unscreened subjects [relative risk (RR) = 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.20-0.45; RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, respectively].
  • Women with a normal or benign pap smear had a statistically significantly lower risk of invasive cervical cancer and CIS of cervix compared with those never screened.
  • In age-stratified analyses, there was a significant reduction in cervical cancer incidence among women aged 30 and over who were screened 2 or more times compared with women never screened.
  • The results of this prospective cohort study show that regular screening of cervical cancer reduces invasive cervical cancer incidence and CIS of the cervix among Korean women.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Body Mass Index. Cohort Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Korea. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papanicolaou Test. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 18785204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Smith KB, Amdur RJ, Yeung AR, Morris CG, Kirwan J, Morgan LS: Postoperative radiotherapy for cervix cancer incidentally discovered after a simple hysterectomy for either benign conditions or noninvasive pathology. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun;33(3):229-32
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Postoperative radiotherapy for cervix cancer incidentally discovered after a simple hysterectomy for either benign conditions or noninvasive pathology.
  • OBJECTIVE: Report the long-term outcome of patients who received postoperative radiotherapy for incidentally discovered cervix cancer following simple hysterectomy.
  • METHODS: We recorded tumor status, treatment complications, and survival of 25 patients treated at our institution from 1961 to 2004 with postoperative RT for invasive cervix cancer discovered following simple hysterectomy (median follow-up, 17 years).
  • All patients had stage IA2-II squamous cell carcinoma (76%) or adenocarcinoma (24%) of the cervix.
  • No patient died of cervix cancer.
  • The actuarial rate of tumor control and relapse-free survival at 5, 10, and 20 years was 96%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This series demonstrates the price we pay for adding comprehensive radiotherapy to simple hysterectomy for early-stage cervix cancer.
  • (1) Avoid postoperative radiotherapy by aggressively screening patients for invasive disease before performing simple hysterectomy. (2) Raise the threshold for delivering pelvic radiotherapy following simple hysterectomy with an incidental diagnosis of invasive cervix cancer.
  • We recommend vaginal brachytherapy alone in patients with negative postoperative imaging, negative surgical margins, and <10 mm tumor invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Hysterectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Enteritis / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemangiosarcoma / etiology. Humans. Incidental Findings. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Diseases / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19806037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Conesa-Zamora P, Doménech-Peris A, Orantes-Casado FJ, Ortiz-Reina S, Sahuquillo-Frías L, Acosta-Ortega J, García-Solano J, Pérez-Guillermo M: Effect of human papillomavirus on cell cycle-related proteins p16, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, p53, and ProEx C in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma: a tissue microarray study. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Sep;132(3):378-90
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  • [Title] Effect of human papillomavirus on cell cycle-related proteins p16, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, p53, and ProEx C in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma: a tissue microarray study.
  • In-depth study of cell cycle proteins and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping can provide useful information about the malignant potential of precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma (CC).
  • Immunostaining of cell cycle-related proteins (p16, cyclin D1, Ki-67, p53, and ProEx C) was evaluated using tissue microarrays, and HPV genotypes were identified in 144 cervical tissue specimens encompassing normal or benign epithelial lesions, low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL, respectively), and CC.
  • Immunohistochemical assessment of cell cycle proteins may help to distinguish normal and benign conditions of the cervix from precursor lesions of CC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle / physiology. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Tissue Array Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19687314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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50. Chien CR, Ting LL, Hsieh CY, Lai MS: Post-radiation Pap smear for Chinese patients with cervical cancer: a ten-year follow-up. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(6):619-22
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Post-radiation Pap smear for Chinese patients with cervical cancer: a ten-year follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: To study the performance of routine follow-up Pap smears after curative radiotherapy (RT) for Chinese cervical cancer (CC) patients.
  • Most of the Pap smear results were within normal limits (65.8%) or benign (reactive changes or atrophy with inflammation) (25.2%).
  • Follow-up of the 21 atypical cells/LSIL smears among seven patients revealed five NED with normal/benign smears, one NED with HSIL and one OR with HSIL.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears


51. Oberg TN, Kipp BR, Vrana JA, Bartholet MK, Fales CJ, Garcia R, McDonald AN, Rosas BL, Henry MR, Clayton AC: Comparison of p16INK4a and ProEx C immunostaining on cervical ThinPrep cytology and biopsy specimens. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Aug;38(8):564-72
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Comparison of p16INK4a and ProEx C immunostaining on cervical ThinPrep cytology and biopsy specimens.
  • ProEx C and p16(INK4a) staining of cytology/histology specimens have recently been explored to help distinguish high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) from benign mimics.
  • Residual cervical ThinPrep cytology specimens and tissue blocks (N = 64) from 63 patients were stained with p16 and ProEx C.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / immunology. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / immunology. DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology. Papanicolaou Test. Staining and Labeling / methods. Vaginal Smears / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19937941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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52. Dangore-Khasbage S, Degwekar SS, Bhowate RR, Banode PJ, Bhake A, Choudhary MS, Lohe VK: Utility of color Doppler ultrasound in evaluating the status of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancer. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2009 Aug;108(2):255-63
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  • [Title] Utility of color Doppler ultrasound in evaluating the status of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the utility of color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy in oral cancer patients.
  • STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 70 cervical lymph nodes in 30 known primary oral cancer patients were evaluated with CDUS during a period of 8 months.
  • The intranodal perfusion sites and vascular resistance were the key CDUS features used to differentiate between reactive and metastatic cervical lymph nodes.
  • The results of preoperative clinical palpation of cervical lymph nodes and CDUS evaluation were compared with histopathologic outcome.
  • RESULTS: Clinical evaluation suspected 61 cervical lymph nodes to be malignant.
  • According to the CDUS, out of 70 nodes, 49 lymph nodes showed features of benign lymphadenopathy and 21 lymph nodes showed features of malignant lymphadenopathy, whereas histopathologic evaluations were in favor of reactive for 57 (81.42%) and for malignant lymphadenopathy in 13 (18.57%).
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / ultrasonography. Male. Neck. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prospective Studies. Regional Blood Flow. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19272807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Liao SY, Rodgers WH, Kauderer J, Bonfiglio TA, Walker JL, Darcy KM, Carter R, Hatae M, Levine L, Spirtos NM, Stanbridge EJ: Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States. Int J Cancer; 2009 Nov 15;125(10):2434-40
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  • [Title] Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States.
  • High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is strongly linked to cervical neoplasia, but its role in detecting glandular lesions (GLs) is unclear.
  • In the cervix, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is expressed in cervical neoplasia, but rarely in the benign cervix.
  • The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC).
  • Of 403 patients, 111 (28%) were positive for significant cervical lesions (SCLs) including CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma.
  • The combination of CA-IX with H-HPV testing does not improve the diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC diagnosis over that of H-HPV testing alone.

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  • (PMID = 19670419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027469-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 11479; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517; None / None / / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469-29
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS137629; NLM/ PMC2779726
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54. Cremer ML, Alonzo TA, Alspach AE, Shulman IA, Cernosek S, Tsai S, Kalichanda N, Felix JC: Diagnostic reproducibility of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and atrophy in menopausal women on hematoxylin and eosin, Ki-67, and p16 stained slides. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2010 Apr;14(2):108-12
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  • [Title] Diagnostic reproducibility of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and atrophy in menopausal women on hematoxylin and eosin, Ki-67, and p16 stained slides.
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN 3) in menopausal women on routinely stained hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides and compare it to slides processed for p16 and Ki-67.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Confirmed cases of CIN 3 and benign atrophic changes were reviewed independently by 4 pathologists.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Routine histopathologic diagnosis of CIN 3 in menopausal women is highly accurate and reproducible.
  • Both H&E and Ki-67 are useful immunohistochemical stains in helping differentiate atrophy from high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions in postmenopausal cervical biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Atrophy / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Pathology / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Histocytochemistry / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Menopause. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20354418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human
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55. Attene F, Scognamillo F, Xidas A, Serventi F, Trignano M: [The role of cervical mediastinoscopy and video assisted thoracoscopy in the diagnosis and staging of thoraco-mediastinal neoplastic diseases]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Jan-Feb;80(1):17-24
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  • [Title] [The role of cervical mediastinoscopy and video assisted thoracoscopy in the diagnosis and staging of thoraco-mediastinal neoplastic diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Ruolo della mediastinoscopia e della video toracoscopia per la diagnosi e la stadiazione delle patologie neoplastiche toraco-mediastiniche.
  • INTRODUCTION: In this work we evaluate the role of mediastinoscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopy in the diagnosis and staging of coin lesion of the lung and of mediastinal masses.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 patients, 55 males and 17 females, affected by lung coin lesion without any previous histological diagnosis have been admitted to our Institution from 1997 to 2007.
  • In just one case mediastinoscopy failed and video assisted thoracoscopy was performed, which permitted to obtain diagnosis.
  • Video assisted thoracoscopy was able to lead to diagnosis in 98.1% of cases, as we observed only one failure.
  • In this single case we converted the thoracoscopic approach to open, but although the conversion it was not possible to make diagnosis.
  • DISCUSSION: In these ten years, thanks to adequate indication for mediastinoscopy and video assisted thoracoscopy, the use of thoracotomy for diagnosis and staging of pulmonary neoplastic diseases has been reduced: thus we avoided 80% of unnecessary thoracotomies in patients affected by not resectable lung cancer, metastases (treated by atypical thoracoscopic resection) or benign diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinoscopy. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lung Diseases / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19537118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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56. Gombos Z, Xu X, Chu CS, Zhang PJ, Acs G: Peritumoral lymphatic vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor C expression in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 1;11(23):8364-71
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Peritumoral lymphatic vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor C expression in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • PURPOSE: Lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis plays a major role in the spread of cervical cancer; however, little is known about the mechanisms whereby tumor cells enter the lymphatic system.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the intra- and peritumoral lymphatic vessel density (LVD) using D2-40 immunohistochemistry in 111 cervical squamous cell carcinomas and correlated them with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression, clinicopathologic tumor features, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Compared with benign cervix, intratumoral and peritumoral LVD was significantly increased (P < 0.0001).
  • High peritumoral, but not intratumoral, LVD showed significant correlation with high tumor stage, lymphatic invasion, and nodal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a potential role for VEGF-C in tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis represented by high peritumoral LVD, which may be one of the mechanisms leading to lymphatic invasion and metastatic spread.
  • High peritumoral LVD may be an independent prognostic factor in early-stage cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphangiogenesis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16322297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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57. Harzallah L, Zouari L, Ben Chérifa L, Harzallah F, Sriha B, Bakir D, Kraiem Ch: [Adrenal gland hemangioma: a case report]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Dec;67(6):624-7
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  • Hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor composed of angioblastic cells.
  • We report a case of adrenal gland hemangioma diagnosed in a 55-year-old woman who presented a cervical neoplasm.
  • The non-specific imaging features, the tumor size and the clinical context led to mandatory surgical resection.
  • The pathological examination established the diagnosis of adrenal gland hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Hemangioma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17194976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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58. Ben Hmid R, Mourali M, Zghal D, Mahjoub S, Naceur C, Sbai N, Zouari F: [Usefulness of colposcopy in inflammatory cervico-vaginal smears: apropos of 140 cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jun;85(6):500-4
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Transliterated title] Apport de la colposcopie dans les frottis cervico-vaginaux inflammatoires: a propos de 140 cas.
  • BACKGROUND: The cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer of the woman in Tunisia.
  • AIM: The purpose of our study is to proove that an inflammatory cervical smear should be considered as a positive test and must lead to other investigations.
  • METHODS: It is a prospective study over 140 cases of inflammatory cervical smears (without atypical cells) diagnosed during a year period from june 2001 to june 2002.
  • It showed benign lesions such as: ectropion in 22.85%, colpitis in 14.28%, cervical polypus in 5%, normal transformation zone in 8.57%, but also suspicious lesions such as : atypical transformations grade I (ATGI) in 25.71% and atypical transformations grade II (ATGII) in 13.57%.
  • It makes a minutious study of the cervix and diminishes the rate of false negative made by the cervical smear.
  • [MeSH-major] Colposcopy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Polyps / pathology. Prospective Studies. Sexual Behavior. Uterine Cervical Diseases / pathology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervicitis / pathology. Vaginitis / pathology


59. Thompson LD, Karamurzin Y, Wu ML, Kim JH: Solitary fibrous tumor of the larynx. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Jun;2(2):67-74
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the larynx.
  • BACKGROUND: True mesenchymal, non-cartilaginous neoplasms of the larynx are rare.
  • Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a localized neoplasm characterized by proliferation of thin-walled vessels and collagen-producing cells and is considered within the "hemangiopericytoma-solitary fibrous tumor" spectrum.
  • There were no cervical deformities on physical exam.
  • A cellular, spindle cell neoplasm was arranged in loose fascicles, associated with heavy collagen fiber deposition.
  • These findings confirmed a diagnosis of extraplural solitary fibrous tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The characteristic histologic pattern of solitary fibrous tumor can be noted in extrapulmonary locations.
  • Development in the larynx is uncommon, but the tumor presents as a polypoid mass with characteristic histologic and immunophenotypic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Jul;133(1):163-5 [16025074.001]
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  • (PMID = 20614325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807554
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Benign neoplasm / CD34 / Fibroma / Hemangiopericytoma / Immunohistochemistry / Larynx / Mesenchymal tumor / Prognosis / Solitary fibrous tumor / Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma / Surgery / True vocal cord / bcl-2
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60. Kim HS, Han BK, Shin JH, Ko EY, Sung CO, Oh YL, Song SY: Papillary thyroid carcinoma of a diffuse sclerosing variant: ultrasonographic monitoring from a normal thyroid gland to mass formation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Sep-Oct;11(5):579-82
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

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  • A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases.
  • This case showed benign features on initial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 20808705.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2930170
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Diffuse sclerosing variant / Papillary thyroid carcinoma / Ultrasonography
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61. Biswas D, Saha S, Bera SP: Relative distribution of the tumours of ear, nose and throat in the paediatric patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 May;71(5):801-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Patients 15 years of age or under who presented with a tumour of the otolaryngological region to the department of Otolaryngology were included in this study.
  • Lymphoma of the cervical lymph nodes was not included in this study.
  • RESULTS: Forty-three patients of above age group with a neoplasm of the otolaryngological region were managed in our department, the incidence was 0.5%.
  • The ratio of benign to malignant lesion was 7.6:1.
  • Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma was the commonest tumour (11 cases, 26%) and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was the commonest malignant tumour (3 cases, 7%).
  • The commonest site of neoplasm was the nose and paranasal sinuses (13 cases, 30%).
  • CONCLUSION: A tumour in the otolaryngological site in the paediatric population is rare, the incidence being 1 in 200 new cases in the age group of 15 years or under, 12% of the tumours were malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / epidemiology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17368816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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62. Sarda AK, Kapur MM: Thyroid surgery in an area of iodine deficiency. Head Neck; 2005 May;27(5):383-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IODINE, ELEMENTAL .

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  • The indications for surgery were hyperthyroidism or cytologically diagnosed malignancy and large size, pressure symptoms, cosmesis, suspicious cytologic findings for malignancy, and clinical suspicion of malignancy in clinically benign euthyroid goiters.
  • RESULTS: Histologically, 83 of 703 solitary thyroid nodules, 36 of 329 clinically benign euthyroid multinodular goiters, and four of 181 Graves' disease were cancers.
  • The different histologic types exhibited an aggressive clinical behavior, with advanced lesions with cervical lymph node involvement and distant metastases frequently seen at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Catchment Area (Health). Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Iodine / deficiency. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. India / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects. Thyroidectomy / methods. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15772954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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63. Badr RE, Walts AE, Chung F, Bose S: BD ProEx C: a sensitive and specific marker of HPV-associated squamous lesions of the cervix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jun;32(6):899-906
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] BD ProEx C: a sensitive and specific marker of HPV-associated squamous lesions of the cervix.
  • BD ProEx C (ProEx C) is a recently developed immunocytochemical assay that targets the expression of topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein-2, 2 genes shown to be overexpressed in cervical cancers.
  • Recent studies validated this reagent in liquid-based cytology specimens and suggested its usefulness as an adjunct in the diagnosis of challenging cases.
  • This study aims to assess ProEx C expression patterns in benign, atypical, and dysplastic lesions of the cervix and to compare these patterns with p16 and Ki67 expression and with the presence of human papilloma virus DNA as determined by in situ hybridization.
  • ProEx C positivity was limited to the basal layers of the epithelium in 75% of benign cervices.
  • In 92% of high-grade dysplasias [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and III] strong positive staining for ProEx C involved the lower and upper halves of the epithelium.
  • To summarize, ProEx C is a reliable marker for high-grade CIN that can be applied to tissue sections to confirm the diagnosis of high-grade CIN and to triage cases of atypical squamous metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / virology

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  • (PMID = 18425044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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64. Triginelli SA, Silva-Filho AL, Traiman P, Silva FM, Chaves-Dias MC, Oliveira GC, Cunha-Melo JR: Telomerase activity in the vaginal margins of radical hysterectomy in patients with carcinoma of the cervix: correlation with histology and human papillomavirus. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1283-8
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Telomerase activity in the vaginal margins of radical hysterectomy in patients with carcinoma of the cervix: correlation with histology and human papillomavirus.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate the telomerase activity both in the tumor and in the vaginal margins of radical hysterectomy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix.
  • Thirty-three patients with SCC of the cervix (study group) and 13 patients with uterine myoma (control group) were prospectively studied.
  • Tissue samples were taken from the tumor or cervix, anterior vaginal margin (AVM), and posterior vaginal margin (PVM).
  • The telomerase activity was significantly higher in the tumor than in the benign cervix (P < 0.001).
  • There was no difference in telomerase activity in the AVM and PVM in patients with cervical carcinoma compared to the control group.
  • Telomerase activity is a marker of histologic malignancy in patients with SCC of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / enzymology. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Telomerase / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Vagina / enzymology. Vaginal Neoplasms / enzymology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods


65. Fletcher AH, Wilkinson EJ, Knapik JA: Oncogenic human papillomavirus testing in an adolescent population with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2009 Jan;13(1):28-32
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • OBJECTIVE: The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology 2006 consensus guidelines state that oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is unacceptable for patients 20 years and younger with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US).
  • Of the remaining 258, 127 (49%) were negative(-) for HPV, whereas 131 (51%) were HPV positive(+).In the HPV(-) population (n=127), 3 (2%) patients were referred for colposcopy and had benign findings.
  • Of these 48, 25 had benign colposcopic findings, 12 had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1), and 11 had CIN 2/3.
  • Colposcopy with subsequent histological diagnosis, available on 48 patients, demonstrated 11 (23%) of the HPV(+) group to have CIN 2/3.
  • The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines recommend observation (via repeat colposcopy and cytology) for adolescents with CIN 2 and treatment (via excision or ablation) for CIN 3.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Colposcopy. Female. Humans. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19098603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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66. Zardo LM, Thuler LC, Zeferino LC, Horta NM, Fonseca Rde C: Performance of the cytologic examination for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ: cytologic-histologic correlation in 60 cases. Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):558-64
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Performance of the cytologic examination for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ: cytologic-histologic correlation in 60 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of cytologic examinations for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) through the correlation between the cytologic and histologic findings.
  • STUDY DESIGN: This study included 60 patients followed at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute from November 1998 to December 2007, with the cytopathologic diagnosis of AIS.
  • In 21.7% (13/60) of the patients, the histologic examination revealed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 and in 5.0% (3/60) squamous invasive carcinoma; in the remaining 5.0% (3/60) the diagnosis pointed to other neoplasms, and 1.7% (1/60) showed exclusively benign squamous cell lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Although cytomorphologic criteria for diagnosis of AIS have been published, there was significant difficulty in interpreting glandular lesions.
  • As knowledge of this diagnosis increases, better performance is expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brazil. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19798884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Scott ME, Ma Y, Kuzmich L, Moscicki AB: Diminished IFN-gamma and IL-10 and elevated Foxp3 mRNA expression in the cervix are associated with CIN 2 or 3. Int J Cancer; 2009 Mar 15;124(6):1379-83
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Diminished IFN-gamma and IL-10 and elevated Foxp3 mRNA expression in the cervix are associated with CIN 2 or 3.
  • Cervical mucosal expression of cytokines involved in mediating cellular immunity is believed to influence the persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a necessary prerequisite for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
  • Using quantitative RT-PCR, we measured, in cross-sectional design, the cervical mRNA expression of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-12, as well as the Treg transcription factor Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), in a cohort of young women representing CIN 1, 2, and 3, as well as benign histology.
  • Higher levels of IFN-gamma and IL-10 were significantly (p <or= 0.05) associated with decreased odds of having high-grade cervical disease (CIN 2 or 3) in multivariate logistic regression models.
  • In a multivariate model including cervical infection with HPV16 and/or another high-risk HPV type, Foxp3 remained higher in the CIN 2/3 group, but the difference was notably less significant (p = 0.05).
  • These findings support a model in which diminished cellular immunity in the cervical mucosa and mucosal enrichment of Treg cells both contribute to the development of high-grade lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19089920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087905; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA051323-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087905-05S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2 R01 CA87905; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA051323-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA051323; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA051323-19; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA051323-19; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087905-05S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2 R37 CA051323; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2 R01 CA51323; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA051323
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS98768; NLM/ PMC2696072
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68. Hilfrich R, Hariri J: Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Apr;30(2):78-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker.
  • Fifty sections were derived from a benign group, 91 from low-grade (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN 1]) lesions and 50 from high-grade (CIN 2 and 3) lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18561743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / HPV L1 protein, Human papillomavirus; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / P16 protein, human
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69. Happle C, Wetzke M, Hermann EJ, Krauss JK, Hartmann H, Lücke T: ['Cases against KiSS': a diagnostic algorithm for children with torticollis]. Klin Padiatr; 2009 Dec;221(7):430-5
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  • He assumed a functional abnormality of the suboccipital-high cervical spine, resulting in positional preference of the infant;s head.
  • Patients are advised to undergo manual therapy, with pressure applied locally in order to readjust the cervical spine.
  • In both cases, symptoms caused by the tumour were interpreted as "KiSS-syndrome", and appropriate diagnostics and therapy were delayed for months.
  • Whereas most cases are benign, there is a long list of serious differential diagnoses for torticollis in infants.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cervical Vertebrae. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Spinal Diseases / diagnosis. Torticollis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnostic Errors. Gait Disorders, Neurologic / etiology. Humans. Infant. Male. Microsurgery. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neurologic Examination. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Reoperation. Syndrome

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 20013566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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70. Dolezelova H, Slampa P, Ondrova B, Gombosova J, Sovadinova S, Novotny T, Bolcak K, Ruzickova J, Hynkova L, Forbelska M: The impact of PET with 18FDG in radiotherapy treatment planning and in the prediction in patients with cervix carcinoma: results of pilot study. Neoplasma; 2008;55(5):437-41
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  • [Title] The impact of PET with 18FDG in radiotherapy treatment planning and in the prediction in patients with cervix carcinoma: results of pilot study.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) is used to distinguish between benign and malign tumors, to diagnose relapse or post-therapeutic changes.
  • Results of this pilot study show the role of PET with 8-F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) for staging of cervical carcinoma and in the radiotherapeutic planning.
  • Between March 2005 and May 2007, 51 patients with cervical carcinoma were treated with combination of external beam radiotherapy and HDR brachytherapy, with or without concomitant cisplatin.
  • The results of this study confirmed the important role of PET in diagnosis and treatment of cervical carcinoma and in determination of target volumes in radiotherapy.
  • PET was found to be a standard staging examination of cervical carcinoma in Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brachytherapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Care Planning. Pilot Projects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18665755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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71. Barbanera A, Nina P, Serchi E, Ascanio F: Aggressive recurrence of intra-extradural cervico-thoracic meningothelial meningioma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007 Jan;149(1):83-6; discussion 86
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  • Following subtotal removal, the tumour was histologically classified as meningothelial meningioma and no radiotherapy was recommended.
  • The neuroradiological workup demonstrated that the lesion was stable one year after the operation but, a few months later a tumour recurrence with huge bone destruction was detected.
  • The tumour was totally resected and a circumferential stabilization was performed.
  • The authors discuss the extremely malignant behaviour of a tumour classified as benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Vertebrae. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • (PMID = 17171297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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72. Zarei F, Iranpour P: Pneumatocyst, mimicking a sclerotic bony lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. Spine J; 2010 Apr;10(4):e17-9
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  • BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Intravertebral pneumatocyst is an uncommon benign lesion, not related to conditions, such as osteomyelitis and postsurgical state, with only a few cases reported in the literature.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to report a case of cervical pneumatocyst resembling a sclerotic lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and review of literature.
  • RESULTS: Cervical spine MRI revealed a low signal bony lesion on T1 and T2 images.
  • Considering the signal characteristics, initial diagnosis of sclerosis was made.
  • Reviewing the cervical X-ray, a round faint lytic lesion was detected.
  • Correlation with cervical computed tomography scan showed the lesion being of air density, compatible with the diagnosis of pneumatocyst.
  • CONCLUSION: Intraosseous pneumatocyst of cervical spine is a benign finding, which needs no specific treatment; however, it must be included in the differential diagnosis of lucent vertebral lesions seen on conventional radiography and should be differentiated from bony neoplasm and osteomyelitis by its characteristic imaging findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neck Pain / pathology. Spinal Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gases. Humans. Middle Aged. Paresthesia / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20362243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gases
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73. Loh JK, Lin CK, Hwang YF, Hwang SL, Kwan AL, Howng SL: Primary spinal tumors in children. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Apr;12(3):246-8

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  • Two tumors were located primarily in the cervical cord (1 meningioma, 1 neurofibroma), five were predominantly thoracic (1 lymphoma, 1 meningioma, 1 astrocytoma, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 osteoblastoma), one lumbar (ependymoma), and one sacral (Ewing's sarcoma).
  • Five children with benign tumors improved postoperatively.
  • Radical surgery should be considered in benign primary spinal cord tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Back Pain / etiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laminectomy. Male. Muscle Weakness / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15851074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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74. Bernier MO, Moisan C, Mansour G, Aurengo A, Ménégaux F, Leenhardt L: Usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of loco-regional recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Apr;31(3):288-93
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  • [Title] Usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of loco-regional recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Recurrences were proved at histology in 35 cases and by cervical radioiodine uptake on post-therapeutic WBS (whole body scan) in nine cases.
  • RESULTS: Among the 44 recurrences, FNAC results were malignant, benign and unsatisfactory in 33, two and nine cases, respectively.
  • For the diagnosis of malignancy, FNAC sensitivity was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 87%.
  • In the 35 cases where divergent results between diagnostic WBS (37-111MBq (131)I) and Tg level were observed, FNAC assessed the final status in 22 cases (malignant and benign in 17 and five cases, respectively).
  • Of the 12 non-functioning and non-secreting lesions, FNAC diagnosed malignancy in four of the five malignant cases and ruled out malignancy in all seven benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15780565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Arpino L, Gragnaniello C, Nina P, Franco A: Limited approach to a thoracic spine osteoblastoma. J Neurosurg Sci; 2008 Dec;52(4):123-5; discussion 125
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  • Osteoblastoma (OB) is a rare primary benign bone tumor.
  • The peak incidence of this neoplasm is in the first two decades of life.
  • It is important to differentiate OB from osteoid osteoma, a very similar bone tumor.
  • OB is rare benign bone neoplasm that generally affect the posterior elements of the spine.
  • When the lesion is placed in the cervical and thoracic spine the goal is to decompress spinal cord and reach the stability of the spine.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Osteoblastoma / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18981987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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76. Ponce-Camacho MA, Diaz de Leon-Medina R, Miranda-Maldonado I, Garza-Guajardo R, Hernandez-Salazar J, Barboza-Quintana O: A 5-year-old girl with a congenital ganglioneuroma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy: a case report. Cytojournal; 2008;5:5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Ganglioneuroma is a rare, benign, neuroblastic tumor arising mainly from the central or peripheral autonomic nervous system, especially the sympathetic system.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-year-old girl presented with a mass in the cervical region since birth.
  • Laboratory routine tests were within normal limits, ultrasonography demonstrated a solid and well-circumscribed lesion in the soft tissues of the cervical region.
  • A diagnosis of ganglioneuroma was suggested.
  • Core biopsy and surgical resection confirmed this diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Congenital ganglioneuroma of the cervical region is an uncommon soft tissue benign neoplasm of neuroblastic origin, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of head and neck pediatric soft tissue tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18373875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2359765
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77. Wang X, Kumar D, Seidman JD: Uterine lipoleiomyomas: a clinicopathologic study of 50 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):239-42
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  • [Title] Uterine lipoleiomyomas: a clinicopathologic study of 50 cases.
  • Lipoleiomyoma is an uncommon uterine neoplasm and, although presumed to be benign, has been inadequately studied.
  • Confirming the benign nature of this tumor is important because it can closely resemble well-differentiated liposarcoma.
  • We evaluated 50 consecutive lipoleiomyomas diagnosed at the Washington Hospital Center from 1998 to 2004; 2.1% of patients who had uterine leiomyomas during this period had a lipoleiomyoma.
  • The mean and median tumor size was 4.6 and 2.1 cm, respectively.
  • Forty-three (83%) tumors were located in the uterine corpus, and 7 (13%) were in the cervix.
  • One broad ligament tumor and one retroperitoneal tumor were also studied.
  • There were no recurrences or fatalities related to tumor.
  • Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus seems to have an uneventful clinical course and can now be confidently regarded as benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


78. Gallardo A, Prat J: Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;33(2):278-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mullerian adenosarcomas are rare mixed tumors of low malignant potential that occur mainly in the uterus and also in extrauterine locations.
  • Thirty-seven tumors were of the uterine corpus, 11 of the cervix, 4 of the ovary, and 1 each of the fallopian tube, vagina, and Douglas peritoneum.
  • Of 30 tumors of the uterine corpus, 17 were stage IA, 11 stage IB, 1 stage IC, and 1 stage IIIC.
  • Four cervical tumors were stage IB.
  • The tumor of the fallopian tube was stage IC, and the tumors of the vagina and recto-uterine pouch were confined to their site of origin.
  • Most uterine tumors were polypoid masses ranging from 1 to 20 cm (mean: 6.5 cm).
  • Fourteen of 30 uterine tumors (47%) had myometrial invasion that was minimal in 5, involved one-third of the myometrial thickness in 7, and more than 50% in 2.
  • Of 4 cervical tumors, 2 were endocervical polyps, 1 invaded one-third of the cervical wall, and the other invaded its full thickness.
  • Six developed metastases and 5 of them died of tumor.
  • Four had adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth; however, the other 2 patients had typical low-grade adenosarcomas of the uterine corpus and cervix, respectively, exhibiting only mild nuclear atypia of the stromal component and </=2 mitotic figures/10 high power fields.
  • The finding of such cases, which raises the controversy of whether or not adenofibroma exists as a tumor entity, prompted us to make a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of 23 typical adenosarcomas, 8 adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth, and 29 benign and malignant related lesions, including 7 clinically benign adenofibromas.
  • Adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth showed strong immunoreaction for Ki-67 and p53 and loss of CD10 and progesterone receptors immunostaining; in contrast, the immunoreaction for these tumor markers in typical adenosarcomas without sarcomatous overgrowth was similar to that of adenofibromas associated with favorable outcome and other benign lesions such as endometrial polyps and endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Adenosarcoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18941402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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79. Kim TY, Hong SJ, Kim JM, Kim WG, Gong G, Ryu JS, Kim WB, Yun SC, Shong YK: Prognostic parameters for recurrence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:296
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recurrence was observed in 8 of 166 patients (0.5%) treated with total or near-total thyroidectomy; gender (P = 0.02) and presence of lateral cervical node metastases at initial surgery (P = 0.01) were associated with recurrence.
  • Multivariate Cox-regression analysis showed that gender and cervical lymph node metastasis were significant variables CONCLUSION: PTMC showed very diverse disease extent and could not be regarded as indolent, relatively benign disease based on the primary tumor size.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Thyroglobulin. Thyrotropin

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  • (PMID = 18851763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2576338
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80. Giovannini M, Hookey LC, Bories E, Pesenti C, Monges G, Delpero JR: Endoscopic ultrasound elastography: the first step towards virtual biopsy? Preliminary results in 49 patients. Endoscopy; 2006 Apr;38(4):344-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sonoelastography, a technique that allows the elasticity of tissue to be assessed during ultrasound examination, provides the ultrasonographer with important additional information that can be used for diagnosis.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of endoscopic ultrasound elastography to differentiate between benign and malignant pancreatic masses and lymph nodes.
  • The mean diameter of the lymph nodes was 19.7 +/- 8.6 mm, and they were found in the cervical area (n = 3), mediastinum (n = 17), celiac arterial trunk region (n = 5), and aortocaval region (n = 6).
  • RESULTS: The sonoelastography images of pancreatic masses were interpreted as benign in four cases and malignant in 20.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of sonoelastography in the diagnosis of malignant lesions were 100% and 67%, respectively.
  • The sonoelastography images of the lymph nodes were interpreted as showing malignancy in 22 cases, benign conditions in seven, and indeterminate status in two.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS elastography is potentially capable of further defining the tissue characteristics of benign and malignant lesions but specifity has to be improved.
  • It can be used to guide biopsy sampling for diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Endoscopy. 2006 Apr;38(4):416-7 [16680645.001]
  • [CommentIn] Endoscopy. 2007 Apr;39(4):375; author reply 375 [17427082.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Endoscopy. 2007 Mar;39(3):257
  • (PMID = 16680632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Giordano G, Lombardi M, Brigati F, Mancini C, Silini EM: Clinicopathologic features of 2 new cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Sep;29(5):459-67
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features of 2 new cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.
  • Uterine neoplasms showing an exclusive sex cord-like differentiation or focal low-grade sarcoma differentiation, designated as uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs), are rare, with only 48 cases described earlier in international literature.
  • Generally, this entity is characterized by benign behavior.
  • In these examples, the pathologic diagnosis of UTROSCT was made incidentally after the clinical diagnosis of a leiomyoma and endometrial polyp.
  • On examination of small biopsies, the diagnosis was facilitated by specific immunohistochemical analysis using markers for the sex cord component.
  • In the other case, the neoplasm seemed to be the consequence of tamoxifen treatment for breast carcinoma.
  • After diagnosis, in this second case, the woman underwent hysterectomy that showed a residue of the tumor and cervical metastasis from the earlier breast carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of UTROSCT and the role of immunohistochemistry in confirming a diagnosis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20736772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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82. Whittaker CS, Coady A, Culver L, Rustin G, Padwick M, Padhani AR: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of female pelvic tumors: a pictorial review. Radiographics; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):759-74; discussion 774-8

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  • Diffusion-weighted MR imaging studies of female pelvic tumors have shown reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values within cervical and endometrial tumors.
  • In addition, this unique noninvasive modality has demonstrated the capacity to help discriminate between benign and malignant uterine lesions and to help assess the extent of peritoneal spread from gynecologic malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19448114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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83. Bhandarkar ND, Sims HS, David O: ProEx C stain analysis in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2010 Feb;119(2):99-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the presence and pattern of ProEx C stain, a marker for the proliferative capacity of cells, in laryngeal tissues, including benign, malignant, and recurrent respiratory papilloma (RRP) specimens, and compared it to hematoxylin and eosin staining for the presence of dysplasia.
  • RESULTS: A total of 26 specimens (9 benign, 7 malignant, 10 RRP) representing 21 patients were stained.
  • ProEx C stained positive in the nuclei of laryngeal tissue, consistent with its localization in cervical cytology specimens.
  • Seven of 9 benign and 7 of 10 RRP specimens stained positive.
  • The benign specimens were mostly polyps.
  • In benign and RRP specimens, the basal layer typically stained positive.
  • Other areas of epithelium stained weakly in benign specimens and variably in RRP specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Papilloma / chemistry. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Isoenzymes. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20336920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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84. Aggarwal G, Satsangi B, Shukla S, Lahoti BK, Mathur RK, Maheshwari A: Rare asymptomatic presentations of schwannomas in early adolescence: three cases with review of literature. Int J Surg; 2010;8(3):203-6

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  • INTRODUCTION: Schwannoma also known as Neurilemoma is a benign neoplasm of the Schwann Cells of the neural sheath.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report three rare, asymptomatic presentations of schwannomas at adolescent age, in the back, pancreas and in the cervical region with a review of the available literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Back. Child. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20167297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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85. Kang TW, Shin JH, Han BK, Ko EY, Kang SS, Hahn SY, Kim JS, Oh YL: Preoperative ultrasound-guided tattooing localization of recurrences after thyroidectomy: safety and effectiveness. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Jun;16(6):1655-9
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  • We assessed the safety and effectiveness of ultrasound-guided tattooing (US-tattoo) with a charcoal suspension for localizing nonpalpable cervical recurrences after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Among 83 lesions, 72 recurrences and 11 benign lesions were confirmed by final pathology.
  • The most common site of tattooing was cervical lymph nodes at level IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19319605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Suspensions; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal
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86. Aust W, Bloching M, Holzhausen HJ, Kösling S, Knipping S: [Tuberculosis of the parotid gland]. HNO; 2008 Apr;56(4):425-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Tuberkulose in der Glandula parotidea.
  • The different tumours of the parotid gland can be divided in benign or malignant tumours, regional inflammations and enlarged lymph nodes.
  • We report on a 26-year-old male from Uganda with a slowly growing tumour of the right parotid gland for several months.
  • The CT scan showed a poorly defined intraparotideal tumour.
  • Ultrasonography revealed multiple enlarged cervical lymph nodes.
  • Suspecting a neoplasm of the parotid gland we decided to perform a superficial parotidectomy for histological examination.
  • It must be considered as a differential diagnosis of parotid enlargements.
  • [MeSH-major] Mycobacterium tuberculosis / isolation & purification. Parotid Diseases / diagnosis. Parotid Diseases / microbiology. Tuberculosis / diagnosis. Tuberculosis / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] HNO. 2002 Apr;50(4):332-8 [12063691.001]
  • [Cites] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2006 Jun;107(3):152-5 [16804481.001]
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  • (PMID = 17380314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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87. Fleming NA, Hopkins L, de Nanassy J, Senterman M, Black AY: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e45-51
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  • [Title] Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.
  • Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually found in postmenopausal women.
  • It is a biphasic tumor, composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant stromal component.
  • To date, this neoplasm has been reported in only 16 adolescent girls.
  • At the level of the cervix, there were 3 polypoid gelatinous structures arising from the endocervix and extruding past the exocervix.
  • Hysteroscopic inspection of the uterine cavity did not find any abnormalities.
  • Pathology confirmed a diagnosis of müllerian adenosarcoma originating from the endocervix.
  • Uterine curettings were negative for malignancy.
  • After a thorough evaluation of the available literature, review with the Regional Tumor Board and extensive discussions with the family, a decision was made to perform a radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, upper vaginectomy and preservation of ovaries.
  • CONCLUSION: Müllerian adenosarcoma of the endocervix is a very rare pediatric tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor in this age group, optimal therapy is uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


88. Schmidt M, Dietlein M, Schröder U, Schicha H: False-positive uptake of I-131 in a laryngocele mimicking thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Nov;31(11):716-7
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  • Neither thyroid remnant tissue nor enlarged cervical lymph nodes could be demonstrated either on CT or on MRI.
  • Further examination of the patient in the ear, nose and throat department confirmed the finding of a laryngocele and biopsies demonstrated benign tissue.
  • The patient declined definitive operative revision of the laryngocele and is in good health 8 years after the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Laryngeal Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17053394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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89. Seidman JD, Kumar D, Cosin JA, Winter WE 3rd, Cargill C, Boice CR: Carcinomas of the female genital tract occurring after pelvic irradiation: a report of 15 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):293-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ten were irradiated for cervical cancer, one for endometrial carcinoma, one for vulvar carcinoma, one for colon cancer and 2 for benign conditions.
  • The "postradiation" malignancies included 2 ovarian carcinomas, 5 vaginal carcinomas (3 invasive, 2 in situ), 4 endometrial carcinomas, one cervical carcinoma, one vulvar carcinoma, one distal urethral carcinoma, and one pelvic carcinoma of unclear primary site.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Pelvis / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16810069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Booth SJ, Pickles MD, Turnbull LW: In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of gynaecological tumours at 3.0 Tesla. BJOG; 2009 Jan;116(2):300-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vivo proton MRS could be performed at the higher magnetic field strength of 3 T to characterise the spectra of a variety of benign and malignant gynaecological lesions.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-seven women underwent MRS, 57 of whom had newly diagnosed neoplasms.
  • Overall, choline was present in 13 of the 14 ovarian cancers, 8 of the 11 cervical tumours and all 4 of the uterine cancers.
  • There was no statistical significant difference between choline levels in various lesion types (P=0.735) or between benign and malignant disease (P=0.550).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Choline / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / chemistry. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lipids / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19076962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJOG
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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91. Setzer M, Vatter H, Marquardt G, Seifert V, Vrionis FD: Management of spinal meningiomas: surgical results and a review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(4):E14
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  • The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed three significant predictor variables for recurrence: invasion of the arachnoid/pia (p < 0.05; hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-3.6), Simpson resection grade (p < 0.012, HR 6.8, 95% CI 1.5-3.0), and histological tumor grade (Grade I; p < 0.001, HR 0.001-0.17).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of the excellent outcome of surgery for benign spinal meningiomas and the association between duration of symptoms and neurological compromise with a poor functional outcome, early operation is the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cervical Vertebrae. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Recovery of Function. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17961038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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92. Musani MA, Sohail Z, Zafar S, Malik S: Morphological pattern of parotid gland tumours. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2008 May;18(5):274-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All patients were surgically managed and their tumour specimen was sent for histopathology.
  • Classification of individual tumour was based on 1991 World Health Organization Classification.
  • RESULTS: Out of 204 cases, 152 (74.5%) were benign and 52 (25.5%) were malignant.
  • Benign tumours were more common in females whereas malignant tumours were common in males.
  • The mean age of patients was 34 years and 42 years for benign and malignant tumours respectively.
  • Pleomorphic adenoma was most common benign tumor (83.5%), followed by Warthins tumour.
  • The most common malignant tumour was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (60%), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • Superficial lobe of parotid gland was the commonest site, 120 benign and all 52 malignant tumours arising from it while 32 benign tumours originated from deep lobe.
  • Parotid swelling for years was main feature of benign tumours, whereas malignant tumours presented with pain, fixation to skin or underlying structure, cervical lymphadenopathy and facial palsy.
  • CONCLUSION: Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was most common malignant tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity / trends. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Pakistan / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18541080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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93. Pietarinen-Runtti P, Apajalahti S, Robinson S, Passador-Santos F, Leivo I, Mäkitie AA: Cystic neck lesions: clinical, radiological and differential diagnostic considerations. Acta Otolaryngol; 2010 Feb;130(2):300-4
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  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic disease should always be considered as a potential differential diagnosis in the adult patient with a cystic neck lesion.
  • This study aimed to investigate the incidence of unsuspected carcinoma in routinely excised cervical cysts at a tertiary care teaching hospital and to determine the characteristics of benign BCC and cystic malignancy in preoperative imaging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 196 consecutive adult patients operated on with the initial diagnosis of benign lateral cervical cyst were identified and the hospital charts and imaging studies were reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Branchioma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19593684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2251
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Kumasaka T, Seyama K, Mitani K, Souma S, Kashiwagi S, Hebisawa A, Sato T, Kubo H, Gomi K, Shibuya K, Fukuchi Y, Suda K: Lymphangiogenesis-mediated shedding of LAM cell clusters as a mechanism for dissemination in lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Oct;29(10):1356-66
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  • Recent studies indicate that LAM cells can migrate or metastasize to form new lesions in multiple organs, although they show a morphologically benign appearance.
  • We identified LAM lesion in the diaphragm (2 of 5 autopy cases and one surgical specimen), thoracic duct (5 of 5), and lymph nodes (retroperitoneal (5 of 5), mediastinal (4 of 5), left venous angle (5 of 5) with total positive rate of 68% to 88% at each region of the lymph node, but less frequent or none at remote lymph nodes located away from the axial lymph trunk (cervical [1 of 5] and axillary [0 of 5]).
  • [MeSH-major] Endothelial Cells / pathology. Lymphangiogenesis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16160479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Brown L: Pathology of uterine malignancies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Aug;20(6):433-47
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Pathology of uterine malignancies.
  • This overview covers epithelial, stromal and mesenchymal malignancies of the body of the uterus, excluding the cervix.
  • The distinction of type I and type II endometrial adenocarcinoma with the morphological variants of this tumour is discussed and some molecular aspects are explored.
  • Some types of mixed epithelial and stromal neoplasm are described and contrasted with carcinosarcoma.
  • The concept of stromal sarcoma and high-grade uterine sarcoma is described and an outline of malignant smooth muscle tumours of the uterus includes a description of smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential and worrying benign smooth muscle lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18499412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 233
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96. Missaoui N, Hmissa S, Sankaranarayanan R, Deodhar K, Nene B, Budukh A, Malvi S, Chinoy R, Kelkar R, Kane S, Chauhan M, Kothai A, Kahate S, Fontanière B, Frappart L: [p16INK4A overexpression is a useful marker for uterine cervix lesions]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris); 2010 Jul-Aug;68(4):409-14
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] [p16INK4A overexpression is a useful marker for uterine cervix lesions].
  • [Transliterated title] La surexpression de p16 INK4A est un marqueur utile des lésions du col utérin.
  • The histological criteria of uterine cervix lesions are well known.
  • Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of p16INK4A overexpression as a surrogate biomarker of precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • A retrospective study was carried out by the International Center for Research on Cancer, Lyon, on 79 uterine cervix lesions.
  • Specimens included 4 normal tissue samples, 24 benign lesions, 9 low-grade precancerous lesions (CIN1), 40 high-grade precancerous lesions (CIN2-3) and 2 squamous cell carcinomas.
  • No p16INK4A expression was detected in normal tissues and benign lesions of the uterine cervix. p16INK4A immunolabeling was weak in CIN1 cases (77.8%).
  • In conclusion, p16INK4A overexpression should be regarded as a surrogate biomarker of precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. p16INK4A overexpression is useful in reducing the variability during evaluation of suspicious biopsies of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Uterine Cervical Diseases / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p16. Genetic Markers. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


97. Halloush RA, Akpolat I, Jim Zhai Q, Schwartz MR, Mody DR: Comparison of ProEx C with p16INK4a and Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining of cell blocks prepared from residual liquid-based cervicovaginal material: a pilot study. Cancer; 2008 Dec 25;114(6):474-80
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  • The aim of this study was to evaluate a new marker, ProEx C, on cell blocks and its ability to distinguish dysplastic/malignant lesions from morphologically abnormal but benign cells.
  • On the basis of the cell block diagnosis, 29 cases were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 27 had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 16 had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and 3 had squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19016301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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98. Boriani S, Bandiera S, Donthineni R, Amendola L, Cappuccio M, De Iure F, Gasbarrini A: Morbidity of en bloc resections in the spine. Eur Spine J; 2010 Feb;19(2):231-41
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  • [Title] Morbidity of en bloc resections in the spine.
  • This is particularly true of en bloc resections, the most technically demanding procedures.
  • A retrospective review of prospective data from a large series of en bloc resections may help to identify risk factors, and therefore to reduce the rate of complications and to improve outcome.
  • A retrospective study of 1,035 patients affected by spine tumors-treated from 1990 to 2007 by the same team-identified 134 patients (53.0% males, age 44 +/- 18 years) who had undergone en bloc resection for primary tumors (90) and bone metastases (44).
  • The study was set up to correlate diagnosis, staging and treatment with the outcome.
  • Oncological and functional results were recorded for all patients at periodic, diagnosis-related controls, until death or the latest follow-up examination (from 0 to 211 months, median 47 months, 25th-75th percentile 22-85 months).
  • Of the 35 patients with a recurrent or contaminated tumor, 16 (45.7%) suffered at least one complication; by contrast, complications arose in 31 (31.3%) of the 99 patients who had had no previous treatment and who underwent the whole of their treatment in the same center (P = 0.125).
  • Re-operations were mostly due to tumor recurrences, but also to hardware failures, wound dehiscence, hematomas and aortic dissection.
  • En bloc resection is able to improve the prognosis of aggressive benign and low-grade malignant tumors in the spine; however, complications are not rare and possibly fatal.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / mortality. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Spine / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aortic Rupture / mortality. Equipment Failure. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Reoperation / mortality. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Wound Dehiscence / mortality. Surgical Wound Infection / mortality. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19690899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899819
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99. Sheng SL, Huang G, Yu B, Qin WX: Clinical significance and prognostic value of serum Dickkopf-1 concentrations in patients with lung cancer. Clin Chem; 2009 Sep;55(9):1656-64
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  • By use of this method, we investigated the serum concentrations of DKK1 in 592 patients with malignancies, 72 patients with benign lung disease, and 120 healthy controls.
  • RESULTS: Serum DKK1 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer than in patients with other malignant tumors or benign lung diseases and healthy controls.
  • Serum concentrations of DKK1 were decreased significantly in groups of patients with gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical adenocarcinoma compared with healthy controls.
  • DKK1 concentrations increased with stage, tumor class, and presence of lymph node and distant metastases, regardless of histology and patient age and sex.
  • Increasing concentrations of DKK1were significantly associated with tumor progression and decreased survival in patients with lung cancer. .
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fluoroimmunoassay / methods. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / blood. Lung Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calibration. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19628661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
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100. Solli P, Spaggiari L: Indications and developments of video-assisted thoracic surgery in the treatment of lung cancer. Oncologist; 2007 Oct;12(10):1205-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The VATS approach is presently used in many intrathoracic disorders, but while well established in benign chest disease, its role continues to evolve regarding the management of lung cancer.
  • It is currently considered for the evaluation and treatment of suspected (or known) pleural effusion and in the diagnosis of indeterminate pulmonary nodules, and it has a complementary role to standard cervical mediastinoscopy in the invasive staging of mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Care Planning. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17962614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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